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Encyclopedia > Crystal
Quartz crystal. The individual grains of this polycrystalline mineral sample are clearly visible.
Quartz crystal. The individual grains of this polycrystalline mineral sample are clearly visible.
Insulin crystals
Insulin crystals
Gallium, a metal that easily forms large single crystals
Gallium, a metal that easily forms large single crystals
A large monocrystal of potassium dihydrogen phosphate grown from solution by Saint-Gobain for the megajoule laser of CEA.
A large monocrystal of potassium dihydrogen phosphate grown from solution by Saint-Gobain for the megajoule laser of CEA.

In chemistry, mineralogy, and materials science, a crystal is a solid in which the constituent atoms, molecules, or ions are packed in a regularly ordered, repeating pattern extending in all three spatial dimensions. Look up Crystal in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Quartz (disambiguation). ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2272x1704, 1017 KB) Summary Bismuth crystal. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2272x1704, 1017 KB) Summary Bismuth crystal. ... General Name, Symbol, Number bismuth, Bi, 83 Chemical series poor metals Group, Period, Block 15, 6, p Appearance lustrous pink Standard atomic weight 208. ... Synthetic bismuth crystal A hopper crystal is a form of crystal, defined by its hoppered shape. ... Commons:Image:Insulincrystals. ... Commons:Image:Insulincrystals. ... Not to be confused with inulin. ... Crystals of 99. ... Crystals of 99. ... Not to be confused with Galium. ... Download high resolution version (2232x1700, 1446 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (2232x1700, 1446 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... A huge KDP crystal grown at LLNL to be cut into slices and used on the National Ignition Facility. ... St. ... Laser Mégajoule (LMJ) is an experimental inertial confinement fusion (ICF) device being built in France by the French nuclear science directorate, CEA. Laser Mégajoule plans to deliver about 1. ... The Commissariat à lÉnergie Atomique or CEA, the Atomic Energy Commisson, in English, is a French public establishment of an industrial and commercial character whose mission is to develop all applications of atomic energy, both civilian and military. ... For other uses, see Chemistry (disambiguation). ... Mineralogy is an earth science that involves the chemistry, crystal structure, and physical (including optical) properties of minerals. ... The Materials Science Tetrahedron, which often also includes Characterization at the center Materials science or Materials Engineering is an interdisciplinary field involving the properties of matter and its applications to various areas of science and engineering. ... This box:      For other uses, see Solid (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Atom (disambiguation). ... 3D (left and center) and 2D (right) representations of the terpenoid molecule atisane. ... This article is about the electrically charged particle. ...


The word crystal is a loan from the ancient Greek word κρύσταλλος (krustallos), which had the same meaning, but according to the ancient understanding of crystal. At root it means anything congealed by freezing, such as ice.[1] The word once referred particularly to quartz, or "rock crystal". Beginning of Homers Odyssey The Ancient Greek language is the historical stage of the Greek language[1] as it existed during the Archaic (9th–6th centuries BC) and Classical (5th–4th centuries BC) periods in Ancient Greece. ... This article is about water ice. ... For other uses, see Quartz (disambiguation). ...


Most metals encountered in everyday life are polycrystals. Crystals are often symmetrically intergrown to form crystal twins. A photo of electrical steel (coating removed) showing polycrystalline structure A polycrystal is a material that is made of many smaller and randomly oriented crystallites. ... It has been suggested that twin boundary be merged into this article or section. ...

Contents

Crystal structure

The process of forming a crystalline structure from a fluid or from materials dissolved in the fluid is often referred to as crystallization. In the ancient example referenced by the root meaning of the word crystal, water being cooled undergoes a phase change from liquid to solid beginning with small ice crystals that grow until they fuse, forming a polycrystalline structure. The physical properties of the ice depend on the size and arrangement of the individual crystals, or grains, and the same may be said of metals solidifying from a molten state. Frost crystallization on a shrub. ...


Which crystal structure the fluid will form depends on the chemistry of the fluid, the conditions under which it is being solidified, and also on the ambient pressure. While the cooling process usually results in the generation of a crystalline material, under certain conditions, the fluid may be frozen in a noncrystalline state. In most cases, this involves cooling the fluid so rapidly that atoms cannot travel to their lattice sites before they lose mobility. A noncrystalline material, which has no long-range order, is called an amorphous, vitreous, or glassy material. It is also often referred to as an amorphous solid, although there are distinct differences between solids and glasses: most notably, the process of forming a glass does not release the latent heat of fusion. For this thermodynamic reason, many scientists consider glassy materials to be viscous liquids rather than solids, although this is a controversial topic. Enargite crystals In mineralogy and crystallography, a crystal structure is a unique arrangement of atoms in a crystal. ... This box:      A fluid is defined as a substance that continually deforms (flows) under an applied shear stress regardless of how small the applied stress. ... For other uses, see Chemistry (disambiguation). ... Room temperature, in laboratory reports, is taken to be roughly 21–23 degrees Celsius (68–72 degrees Fahrenheit), or 294–296 kelvins. ... // Traditionally, a generation has been defined as “the average interval of time between the birth of parents and the birth of their offspring. ... This box:      A fluid is defined as a substance that continually deforms (flows) under an applied shear stress regardless of how small the applied stress. ... Properties For alternative meanings see atom (disambiguation). ... In geometry and crystallography, a Bravais lattice, named after Auguste Bravais, is an infinite set of points generated by a set of discrete translation operations. ... In physics, long-range order characterizes physical systems in which remote portions of the same sample exhibit correlated behavior. ... An amorphous solid is a solid in which there is no long-range order of the positions of the atoms. ... Vitreous refers to a material in an amorphous, glassy state (in contrast to a crystalline state). ... This article is about the material. ... An amorphous solid is a solid in which there is no long-range order of the positions of the atoms. ... The latent heat of fusion of a substance is the amount of energy per unit mass required to turn a specified amount of the substance in its solid phase at its melting point to a liquid at the same temperature. ... For other uses, see Viscosity (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Liquid (disambiguation). ... This box:      For other uses, see Solid (disambiguation). ... For the Wikipedia policy regarding controversial issues in articles, see Wikipedia:Guidelines for controversial articles. ...

For more details on this topic, see glass.

Crystalline structures occur in all classes of materials, with all types of chemical bonds. Almost all metal exists in a polycrystalline state; amorphous or single-crystal metals must be produced synthetically, often with great difficulty. Ionically bonded crystals can form upon solidification of salts, either from a molten fluid or when it condenses from a solution. Covalently bonded crystals are also very common, notable examples being diamond, silica, and graphite. Polymer materials generally will form crystalline regions, but the lengths of the molecules usually prevent complete crystallization. Weak Van der Waals forces can also play a role in a crystal structure; for example, this type of bonding loosely holds together the hexagonal-patterned sheets in graphite. This article is about the material. ... A chemical bond is the physical process responsible for the attractive interactions between atoms and molecules, and that which confers stability to diatomic and polyatomic chemical compounds. ... Metallic bonds are found in metals like copper. ... Sodium and chlorine bonding ionically to form sodium chloride. ... This article is about common table salt. ... Physics In physics, melting is the process of heating a solid substance to a point (called melting point) where it turns liquid. ... Covalent bonding is a form of chemical bonding characterized by the sharing of one or more pairs of electrons between atoms, in order to produce a mutual attraction, which holds the resultant molecule together. ... This article is about the mineral. ... The chemical compound silicon dioxide, also known as silica, is the oxide of silicon, chemical formula SiO2. ... For other uses, see Graphite (disambiguation). ... A polymer (from Greek: πολυ, polu, many; and μέρος, meros, part) is a substance composed of molecules with large molecular mass composed of repeating structural units, or monomers, connected by covalent chemical bonds. ... For other uses of this word, see Length (disambiguation). ... 3D (left and center) and 2D (right) representations of the terpenoid molecule atisane. ... In chemistry, the term van der Waals force originally referred to all forms of intermolecular forces; however, in modern usage it tends to refer to intermolecular forces that deal with forces due to the polarization of molecules. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A regular hexagon A hexagon (also known as sexagon) is a polygon with six edges and six vertices. ... For other uses, see Graphite (disambiguation). ...


Most crystalline materials have a variety of crystallographic defects. The types and structures of these defects can have a profound effect on the properties of the materials. Crystalline solids have a very regular atomic structure: that is, the local positions of atoms with respect to each other are repeated at the atomic scale. ...


Other meanings and characteristics

Ice crystals
Ice crystals

Since the initial discovery of crystal-like individual arrays of atoms that are not regularly repeated, made in 1982 by Dan Shechtman, the acceptance of the concept and the word quasicrystal have led the International Union of Crystallography to redefine the term crystal to mean "any solid having an essentially discrete diffraction diagram", thereby shifting the essential attribute of crystallinity from position space to Fourier space. Within the family of crystals one distinguishes between traditional crystals, which are periodic, or repeating, at the atomic scale, and aperiodic crystals which are not. This broader definition adopted in 1996 reflects the current understanding that microscopic periodicity is a sufficient but not a necessary condition for crystals., This article is about water ice. ... Dan Shechtman is the Philip Tobias Professor of Materials Science at the Israel Institute of Technology. ... Quasicrystals are aperiodic structures which produce diffraction. ... The International Union of Crystallography (IUCr) is a member of the International Council for Science (ICSU) and exists to serve the world community of crystallographers. ... Around 300 BC, the Greek mathematician Euclid laid down the rules of what has now come to be called Euclidean geometry, which is the study of the relationships between angles and distances in space. ... Frequency domain is a term used to describe the analysis of mathematical functions with respect to frequency. ...


While the term "crystal" has a precise meaning within materials science and solid-state physics, colloquially "crystal" refers to solid objects that exhibit well-defined and often pleasing geometric shapes. In this sense of the word, many types of crystals are found in nature. The shape of these crystals is dependent on the types of molecular bonds between the atoms to determine the structure, as well as on the conditions under which they formed. Snowflakes, diamonds, and common salt are common examples of crystals. The Materials Science Tetrahedron, which often also includes Characterization at the center Materials science or Materials Engineering is an interdisciplinary field involving the properties of matter and its applications to various areas of science and engineering. ... Solid-state physics, the largest branch of condensed matter physics, is the study of rigid matter, or solids. ... For other uses, see Snow (disambiguation). ... This article is about the mineral. ... This article is about common table salt. ...


Some crystalline materials may exhibit special electrical properties such as the ferroelectric effect or the piezoelectric effect. Additionally, light passing through a crystal is often refracted or bent in different directions, producing an array of colors; crystal optics is the study of these effects. In periodic dielectric structures a range of unique optical properties can be expected as seen in photonic crystals. In physics, the ferroelectric effect is an electrical phenomenon whereby certain ionic crystals may exhibit a spontaneous dipole moment. ... Piezoelectricity is the ability of some materials (notably crystals and certain ceramics) to generate an electric potential[1] in response to applied mechanical stress. ... For other uses, see Light (disambiguation). ... For the property of metals, see refraction (metallurgy). ... For the microarray in genetics, see SNP array. ... Color is an important part of the visual arts. ... Crystal optics is the branch of optics that describes the behaviour of light in anisotropic media, that is, media (such as crystals) in which light behaves differently depending on which direction the light is propagating. ... A dielectric is a nonconducting substance, i. ... The opal in this bracelet contains a natural periodic microstructure responsible for its iridescent color. ...


Crystallography is the scientific study of crystals and crystal formation. Crystallography (from the Greek words crystallon = cold drop / frozen drop, with its meaning extending to all solids with some degree of transparency, and graphein = write) is the experimental science of determining the arrangement of atoms in solids. ...


Crystalline rocks

Fossil shell with calcite crystals
Fossil shell with calcite crystals

Inorganic matter, if free to take that physical state in which it is most stable, always tends to crystallize. Crystalline rock masses have consolidated from aqueous solution or from molten magma. The vast majority of igneous rocks belong to this group and the degree of crystallization depends primarily on the conditions under which they solidified. Such rocks as granite, which have cooled very slowly and under great pressures, have completely crystallized, but many lavas were poured out at the surface and cooled very rapidly; in this latter group a small amount of amorphous or glassy matter is frequent. Other crystalline rocks, the evaporites such as rock salt, gypsum and some limestones have been deposited from aqueous solution, mostly owing to evaporation in arid climates. Still another group, the metamorphic rocks which includes the marbles, mica-schists and quartzites; are recrystallized, that is to say, they were at first fragmental rocks, like limestone, shale and sandstone and have never been in a molten condition nor entirely in solution. The high temperature and pressure conditions of metamorphism have acted on them erasing their original structures, and inducing recrystallization in the solid state.[2] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 582 pixelsFull resolution (2500 × 1818 pixel, file size: 2. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 582 pixelsFull resolution (2500 × 1818 pixel, file size: 2. ... For other uses, see Fossil (disambiguation). ... Various seashells Danielle A shell is the hard, rigid outer covering, or integument, allanimals. ... Doubly refracting Calcite from Iceberg claim, Dixon, New Mexico. ... Inorganic chemistry is the branch of chemistry concerned with the properties and reactions of inorganic compounds. ... This article is about matter in physics and chemistry. ... In the physical sciences, a phase is a set of states of a macroscopic physical system that have relatively uniform chemical composition and physical properties (i. ... Leland Stanfords horse stable, still in use Horse kept in stable A stable is a building in which livestock, usually horses, are kept. ... This article is about the geological substance. ... Consolidation is the act of merging many things into one. ... Drinking water This article focuses on water as we experience it every day. ... Making a saline water solution by dissolving table salt (NaCl) in water This article is about chemical solutions. ... Magma is molten rock located beneath the surface of the Earth (or any other terrestrial planet), and which often collects in a magma chamber. ... Igneous rocks are formed when molten rock (magma) cools and solidifies, with or without crystallization, either below the surface as intrusive (plutonic) rocks or on the surface as extrusive (volcanic) rocks. ... For other uses, see granite (disambiguation). ... Lava is molten rock that a volcano expels during an eruption. ... An amorphous solid is a solid in which there is no long-range order of the positions of the atoms. ... This article is about the material. ... A sample of evaporite material Evaporites (IPA: ) are water-soluble, mineral sediments that result from the evaporation of bodies of surficial water. ... Sodium chloride, also known as common salt, table salt, or halite, is a chemical compound with formula NaCl. ... For other uses, see Gypsum (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Limestone (disambiguation). ... Vaporization redirects here. ... In general terms, the climate of a locale or region is said to be arid when it is characterized by a severe lack of available water, to the extent of hindering or even preventing the growth and development of plant and animal life. ... Metamorphic rock is the result of the transformation of a pre-existing rock type, the protolith, in a process called metamorphism, which means change in form, derived from the Greek words meta, change, and morphe, form. The protolith is subjected to extreme heat (>150 degrees Celsius) and pressure causing profound... For other uses, see Marble (disambiguation). ... Schist The schists form a group of medium-grade metamorphic rocks, chiefly notable for the preponderance of lamellar minerals such as micas, chlorite, talc, hornblende, graphite, and others. ... Quartzite Quartzite (from German Quarzit[1]) is a hard, metamorphic rock which was originally sandstone. ... For other uses, see Limestone (disambiguation). ... Shale Shale is a fine-grained sedimentary rock whose original constituents were clays or muds. ... This article is about the geological formation. ... Physics In physics, melting is the process of heating a solid substance to a point (called melting point) where it turns liquid. ... Metamorphism can be defined as the solid state recrystallisation of pre-existing rocks due to changes in heat and/or pressure and/or introduction of fluids i. ...


See also

In crystallography, atomic packing factor or packing fraction is the fraction of volume in a crystal structure that is occupied by atoms. ... Biomineralisation is the process by which living organisms produce minerals, often to harden or stiffen existing tissues. ... In mineralogy, shape and size give rise to descriptive terms applied to the typical appearance, or habit of crystals. ... A crystal system is a category of space groups, which characterize symmetry of structures in three dimensions with translational symmetry in three directions, having a discrete class of point groups. ... A crystallite is a domain of solid-state matter that has the same structure as a single crystal. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Lead crystal beads Lead crystal, (also called crystal), is lead glass that has been hand or machine cut with facets. ... Schlieren texture of Liquid Crystal nematic phase Liquid crystals are substances that exhibit a phase of matter that has properties between those of a conventional liquid, and those of a solid crystal. ... Metallic crystal structure is that of metal atoms surrounded by a sea of valence electrons. ... Quasicrystals are aperiodic structures which produce diffraction. ... A seed crystal is a small piece of single crystal material from which a large crystal of, usually, the same material is to be grown. ... A single crystal is a crystalline solid in which the crystal lattice of the entire sample is continuous and unbroken to the edges of the sample. ... Polymorphism in materials science is the ability of a solid material to exist in more than one form or crystal structure. ...

References

  1. ^ "kreus-", The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language: Fourth Edition: Appendix I: Indo-European Roots, 2000 .
  2. ^ This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition article "Petrology", a publication now in the public domain.

Encyclopædia Britannica, the eleventh edition The Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition (1910–1911) is perhaps the most famous edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ...

External links

  • Howard, J. Michael; Darcy Howard (Illustrator) (1998). Introduction to Crystallography and Mineral Crystal Systems (html). Bob's Rock Shop. Retrieved on 2008-04-20.
  • Various authors (2007). Teaching Pamphlets (html). Commission on Crystallographic Teaching. Retrieved on 2008-04-20.
  • Various authors (2004). Crystal Lattice Structures:Index by Space Group (html). U.S. Naval Research Laboratory, Center for Computational Materials Science. Retrieved on 2008-04-20.
  • Krassmann, Thomas (2005-2008). The Giant Crystal Project (html). Krassmann. Retrieved on 2008-04-20.
2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 110th day of the year (111th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 110th day of the year (111th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 110th day of the year (111th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 110th day of the year (111th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

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In chemistry and mineralogy, a crystal is a solid in which the constituent atoms, molecules, or ions are packed in a regularly ordered, repeating pattern extending in all three spatial dimensions.
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