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Encyclopedia > Cryptogram
For the plants which reproduce by using spores, see Cryptogam.
For the album by Deerhunter, see Cryptograms (album).
For the David Mamet play, see The Cryptogram.

A cryptogram is a short piece of text encrypted with a simple substitution cipher in which each letter is replaced by a different letter. To solve the puzzle, one must recover the original lettering. Though once used in more serious applications, they are now mainly printed for entertainment in newspapers and magazines. Image File history File links Broom_icon. ... Cladonia sp. ... Cryptograms is the sophomore album from Deerhunter, released through Kranky on January 29, 2007. ... The Cryptogram is a 1995 play by American playwright David Mamet. ... This article is about algorithms for encryption and decryption. ... In cryptography, a substitution cipher is a method of encryption by which units of plaintext are substituted with ciphertext according to a regular system; the units may be single letters (the most common), pairs of letters, triplets of letters, mixtures of the above, and so forth. ...

## Contents

Cryptograms were not originally created for entertainment purposes, but in the Spartan military in fifth century B.C. This code consisted of a staff around which a strip of paper was wrapped without overlapping. A message was written on the paper, which was then unwrapped and sent on its way. The message could only be correctly decoded with the right diameter of stick. Julius Caesar invented the first substitution cypher, one which still bears his name. Gaius Julius Caesar [1] (Latin pronunciation ; English pronunciation ; July 12 or July 13, 100 BC â€“ March 15, 44 BC), often simply referred to as Julius Caesar, was a Roman military and political leader and one of the most influential men in world history. ...

The first use of the cryptogram for entertainment purposes occurred during the Middle Ages by monks who had spare time for intellectual games. A manuscript found at Bamberg states that Irish visitors to the court of Merfyn Frych ap Gwriad (died 844), king of Gwynedd in Wales were given a cryptogram which could only be solved by transposing the letters from Latin into Greek. Around the thirteenth century, the English monk Roger Bacon wrote a book in which he listed seven cipher methods, and stated that "a man is crazy who writes a secret in any other way than one which will conceal it from the vulgar." During the Renaissance, cryptograms were used to political ends. (Reference needed) Bamberg is a town in Bavaria, Germany. ... Merfyn Frych ap Gwriad (died 844) was a King of Gwynedd. ... Gwynedd was one of the kingdoms or principalities of medieval Wales. ... This article is about the country. ... Statue of Roger Bacon in the Oxford University Museum Roger Bacon (c. ...

## Solving a cryptogram

This is usually done by frequency analysis and by recognizing letter patterns in words, such as one letter words, which, in English, can only be "i" or "a" (and sometimes "o"). Double letters, apostrophes, and the fact that no letter can substitute for itself in the cypher also offer clues to the solution. Occasionally cryptogram puzzle makers will start the solver off with a few letters. The Cryptogram is also the name of the periodic publication of the American Cryptogram Association (ACA), which contains a large number of cryptographic puzzles. In mathematics, physics and signal processing, frequency analysis is a method to decompose a function, wave, or signal into its frequency components so that it is possible to have the frequency spectrum. ... ACA logo The American Cryptogram Association is an American non-profit organization devoted to the hobby of cryptography, with an emphasis on types of codes, ciphers, and cryptograms that can be solved either with pencil and paper, or with computers, but not computer-only systems. ...

## Alternative meanings

Bruce Schneier Bruce Schneier (born January 15, 1963) is an American cryptographer, computer security specialist, and writer. ... Computer security is the current computer science collaboration of the week! Please help improve it to featured article standard. ... Electronic mailing lists are a special usage of e-mail that allows for widespread distribution of information to many Internet users. ... A website (or Web site) is a collection of web pages, images, videos and other digital assets and hosted on a particular domain or subdomain on the World Wide Web. ... ACA logo The American Cryptogram Association is an American non-profit organization devoted to the hobby of cryptography, with an emphasis on types of codes, ciphers, and cryptograms that can be solved either with pencil and paper, or with computers, but not computer-only systems. ...

Classical cryptography
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Ciphers: ADFGVX | Affine | Alberti | Atbash | Autokey | Bifid | Book | Caesar | Four-square | Hill | Keyword | Nihilist | Permutation | Pigpen | Playfair | Polyalphabetic | Polybius | Rail Fence | Reihenschieber | Reservehandverfahren | ROT13 | Running key | Scytale | Smithy code | Solitaire | Straddling checkerboard | Substitution | Tap Code | Transposition | Trifid | Two-square | VIC cipher | Vigenère
Cryptanalysis: Frequency analysis | Index of coincidence
Misc: Cryptogram | Bacon | Polybius square | Scytale | Straddling checkerboard | Tabula recta
Cryptography
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History of cryptography | Cryptanalysis | Cryptography portal | Topics in cryptography
Symmetric-key algorithm | Block cipher | Stream cipher | Public-key cryptography | Cryptographic hash function | Message authentication code | Random numbers

Results from FactBites:

 Cryptogram Corner (227 words) The Enigma Device-2 daily cryptograms in a JAVA app. The Contest Center-A couple of moderately difficult cryptograms. Cryptogram Challenge at the Contest Center-Includes some of the more advanced forms of cryptograms.
 Cryptograms - Play Online or Print Your Own for Free! (1185 words) A cryptogram is a block of text which has been rendered unreadable through the use of what is called a "substitution cypher". Cryptograms have been used as a means of protecting sensitive information for thousands of years, though today computers and more advanced cryptographical methods have made simple substitution cyphers much less practical. There are a lot of other websites out there which offer cryptograms, but I wanted to offer a new type of online cryptogram software which could be played exactly as you would play it on paper.
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