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Encyclopedia > Crustacean
Crustacea
Fossil range: Cambrian to recent
Abludomelita obtusata, an amphipod
Abludomelita obtusata, an amphipod
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Subphylum: Crustacea
Brünnich, 1772
Classes & Subclasses

Branchiopoda Crustacean is a thrash metal band from the Netherlands. ... For other uses, see Cambrian (disambiguation). ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1200x900, 222 KB) . Photo by . ... Families about 200 partial list Alpheidae Ampeliscidae Amphilochidae Ampithoidae Anisogammaridae Aoridae Artesiidae Bogideillidae Bosminidae Caprellidae Corophiidae Crangonyctidae Eusiridae Gammaridae Hadziidae Haustoriidae Iphimediidae Ischyroceridae Leucothoidae Liljeborgiidae Lysianassidae Melitidae Phoxocephalidae Sebidae Talitridae Amphipoda (amphipods) include about 4600 different species of small, shrimp_like crustaceans. ... For other uses, see Scientific classification (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Animal (disambiguation). ... Subphyla and Classes Subphylum Trilobitomorpha Trilobita - trilobites (extinct) Subphylum Chelicerata Arachnida - spiders,scorpions, etc. ... Morten Thrane Brunnich. ... A class is the rank in the scientific classification of organisms in biology below Phylum and above Order. ... In biology, a subclass is one level below a class. ... Subclasses and Orders Subclass Sarsostraca Order Anostraca (fairy shrimp) Subclass Phyllopoda Order Notostraca (tadpole shrimp) Superorder Diplostraca Order Cladocera (water fleas) Order Conchostraca (clam shrimps) Suborder Laevicaudata Suborder Spinicaudata Suborder Cyclestherida Branchiopoda is a group of primitive and primarily fresh water crustaceans, mostly resembling shrimp. ...

Phyllopoda
Sarsostraca

Remipedia
Cephalocarida
Maxillopoda Binomial name (LeConte, 1846) Synonyms Apus longicaudatus LeConte, 1846 Triops longicaudatus (commonly called longtail tadpole shrimp, American tadpole shrimp or rice tadpole shrimp) is a freshwater crustacean of the order Notostraca, resembling a miniature horseshoe crab. ... Families Artemiidae Grochowski, 1896 Branchinectidae Daday, 1910 Branchipodidae Simon, 1886 Chirocephalidae Daday, 1910 Polyartemiidae Simon, 1886 Streptocephalidae Daday, 1910 Thamnocephalidae Simon, 1886 Fairy shrimp (Anostraca) are branchiopods that include brine shrimp. ... Orders Enantiopoda (extinct) Nectiopoda Remipedia is a class of blind crustaceans found in deep caves connected to salt water, in Australia and the Caribbean Sea. ... Genera Chiltonella Hampsonellus Hutchinsoniella Lightiella Sandersiella Cephalocarida is a class inside the subphylum Crustacea that comprises only about 9 shrimp-like benthic species. ... Sub-classes Thecostraca Tantulocarida Branchiura Pentastomida Mystacocarida Copepoda Maxillopoda is a class of crustaceans, characterised by a reduction of the abdomen and its appendages. ...

Thecostraca
Tantulocarida
Branchiura
Pentastomida
Mystacocarida
Copepoda

Ostracoda Infraclasses Facetotecta Ascothoracida Cirripedia Thecostraca are a group of marine invertebrates containing about 1,320 described species. ... Tantulocarida is a small subclass of the class Maxillopoda (ostracods, copepods, barnacles) that consists of about 1200 species. ... Branchiura is a group of parasitic crustaceans of uncertain position within the Maxillopoda. ... Orders Cephalobaenida Porocephalida The Pentastomida or Pentastoma are a group of parasitic invertebrates commonly known as tongue worms due to the resemblance of some species to a vertebrate tongue. ... Mystacocarida are interstitial Crustaceans, part of the Meiobenthos. ... Orders Calanoida Cyclopoida Gelyelloida Harpacticoida Misophrioida Monstrilloida Mormonilloida Platycopioida Poecilostomatoida Siphonostomatoida Copepods are small, aquatic animals living in the sea and nearly every freshwater habitat, a form of plankton, specifically zooplankton, some copepods are parasitic. ... Orders Archaeocopida (extinct) Leperditicopida (extinct) Palaeocopida (extinct) Podocopida Platycopida Myodocopida Introduction Ostracoda is a class of the Crustacea, sometimes known as the seed shrimp because of their appearance. ...

Myodocopa
Podocopa

Malacostraca Orders MyodocopidaHalocyprida Traditionally, the Myodocopa and Podocopa have been classified as subclasses within the class Ostracoda, although there is some question about how closely related the two groups actually are. ... Families See text The Podocopa are a subclass of ostracods. ... // Subclasses Eumalacostraca Hoplocarida Phyllocarida See text for orders. ...

Phyllocarida
Hoplocarida
Eumalacostraca
The nauplius larva of a dendrobranchiate
Porcellio scaber, the common rough woodlouse, a terrestrial crustacean
Pollicipes polymerus, the gooseneck barnacle
Pollicipes polymerus, the gooseneck barnacle
Glyphea pseudastacus, a fossil glypheoid
Glyphea pseudastacus, a fossil glypheoid

The crustaceans (Crustacea) are a large group of arthropods, comprising approximately 52,000 described species [1], and are usually treated as a subphylum [2]. They include various familiar animals, such as lobsters, crabs, shrimp, crayfish and barnacles. The majority are aquatic, living in either fresh water or marine environments, but a few groups have adapted to terrestrial life, such as terrestrial crabs, terrestrial hermit crabs and woodlice. The majority are motile, moving about independently, although a few taxa are parasitic and live attached to their hosts (including sea lice, fish lice, whale lice, tongue worms, and Cymothoa exigua, all of which may be referred to as "crustacean lice"), and adult barnacles live a sessile life — they are attached head-first to the substrate and cannot move independently. Families Nebaliidae Nebaliopsidae Paranebaliidae Leptostraca is an order in the crustacean class Malacostraca whose best-known example is Nebalia. ... Families Superfamily Bathysquillidoidea Family Bathysquillidae Family Indosquillidae Superfamily Erythrosquilloidea Family Erythrosquillidae Superfamily Gonodactyloidea Family Alainosquillidae Family Eurysquillidae Family Gonodactylidae Family Hemisquillidae Family Odontodactylidae Family Protosquillidae Family Pseudosquillidae Family Takuidae Superfamily Lysiosquilloidea Family Coronididae Family Heterosquillidae Family Lysiosquillidae Family Nannosquillidae Family Tetrasquillidae Superfamily Squilloidea Family Harpiosquillidae Family Squillidae Superfamily uncertain Family... Superorders Syncarida Peracarida Eucarida †Pancarida See text for orders. ... Image File history File links A Nauplius of penaeid shrimp. ... Image File history File links A Nauplius of penaeid shrimp. ... Superfamilies Panaeoidea Aristeidae Benthesicymidae Penaeidae Sicyoniidae Solenoceridae Sergestoidea Luciferidae Sergestidae Prawns are edible, shrimp-like crustaceans, belonging to the sub-order Dendrobranchiata. ... Image File history File links Porcellio_scaber. ... Image File history File links Porcellio_scaber. ... Porcellio scaber, otherwise known as the Common Rough Woodlouse, is a species of woodlouse that exhibits turn alternation. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (3026x1627, 1001 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Gooseneck barnacle ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (3026x1627, 1001 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Gooseneck barnacle ... Binomial name Pollicipes polymerus Sowerby, 1833 The Gooseneck barnacle (Pollicipes polymerus) is a species of filter-feeding crustacean that lives attached to hard surfaces of rocks and flotsam in the ocean intertidal zone. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1314x532, 89 KB)Diagram of Glyphea pseudastacus, a fossil glypheoid lobster from the Jurassic of Bavaria. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1314x532, 89 KB)Diagram of Glyphea pseudastacus, a fossil glypheoid lobster from the Jurassic of Bavaria. ... Families and Genera Glypheidae Glyphea Neoglyphea Mecochiridae Mecochirus Meyeria Pseudoglyphea Pemphicidae Pemphix The Glypheoidea (containing the glypheoid lobsters), is a group of lobster-like decapod crustaceans which forms an important part of fossil faunas, such as the Solnhofen limestone. ... Subphyla and Classes Subphylum Trilobitomorpha Trilobita - trilobites (extinct) Subphylum Chelicerata Arachnida - spiders,scorpions, etc. ... For other uses, see Species (disambiguation). ... In biology, a subphylum is a taxonomic rank intermediate between phylum and superclass. ... Subfamilies and Genera Neophoberinae Acanthacaris Thymopinae Nephropsis Nephropides Thymops Thymopsis Nephropinae Homarus Nephrops Homarinus Metanephrops Eunephrops Thymopides Clawed lobsters comprise a family (Nephropidae, sometimes also Homaridae) of large marine crustaceans. ... Superfamilies Dromiacea Homolodromioidea Dromioidea Homoloidea Eubrachyura Raninoidea Cyclodorippoidea Dorippoidea Calappoidea Leucosioidea Majoidea Hymenosomatoidea Parthenopoidea Retroplumoidea Cancroidea Portunoidea Bythograeoidea Xanthoidea Bellioidea Potamoidea Pseudothelphusoidea Gecarcinucoidea Cryptochiroidea Pinnotheroidea * Ocypodoidea * Grapsoidea * An asterisk (*) marks the crabs included in the clade Thoracotremata. ... Superfamilies Alpheoidea Atyoidea Bresilioidea Campylonotoidea Crangonoidea Galatheacaridoidea Nematocarcinoidea Oplophoroidea Palaemonoidea Pandaloidea Pasiphaeoidea Procaridoidea Processoidea Psalidopodoidea Stylodactyloidea True shrimp are swimming, decapod crustaceans classified in the infraorder Caridea, found widely around the world in both fresh and salt water. ... Families Astacoidea   Astacidae   Cambaridae Parastacoidea   Parastacidae Crayfish, often referred to as crawfish or crawdad, are freshwater crustaceans resembling small lobsters, to which they are closely related. ... For other uses, see Barnacle (disambiguation). ... For the village on the Isle of Wight, see Freshwater, Isle of Wight. ... Marine is an umbrella term for things relating to the ocean, as with marine biology, marine geology, and as a term for a navy, etc. ... For other uses, see Adaptation (disambiguation). ... Superfamilies Dromiacea Homolodromioidea Dromioidea Homoloidea Eubrachyura Raninoidea Cyclodorippoidea Dorippoidea Calappoidea Leucosioidea Majoidea Hymenosomatoidea Parthenopoidea Retroplumoidea Cancroidea Portunoidea Bythograeoidea Xanthoidea Bellioidea Potamoidea Pseudothelphusoidea Gecarcinucoidea Cryptochiroidea Pinnotheroidea * Ocypodoidea * Grapsoidea * An asterisk (*) marks the crabs included in the clade Thoracotremata. ... Species C. brevimanus C. cavipes C. clypeatus C. compressus C. perlatus C. purpureus C. rugosus C. variabilis C. violascens The genus Coenobita contains the thirteen species of terrestrial hermit crabs. ... Infraorders and Families Infraorder Tylomorpha Tylidae Infraorder Ligiamorpha Superfamily Trichoniscoidea Buddelundiellidae Trichoniscidae Superfamily Styloniscoidea Schoebliidae Styloniscidae Titaniidae Tunanoniscidae Superfamily Oniscoidea Bathytropidae Berytoniscidae Detonidae Halophilosciidae Olibrinidae Oniscidae Philosciidae Platyarthridae Pudeoniscidae Rhyscotidae Scyphacidae Speleoniscidae Sphaeroniscidae Stenoniscidae Tendosphaeridae Superfamily Armadilloidea Actaeciidae Armadillidae Armadillidiidae Atlantidiidae Balloniscidae Cylisticidae Eubelidae Periscyphicidae Porcellionidae Trachelipodidae incertae sedis (Ligiamorpha... Motility is a biological term which refers to the ability to move spontaneously and independently. ... A parasite is an organism that spends a significant portion of its life in or on the living tissue of a host organism and which causes harm to the host without immediately killing it. ... Sea louse is the designation of ectoparasitic copepods Lepeoptheirus salmonis and Caligus elongatus both parasitic on salmonids ... Branchiura is a group of parasitic crustaceans of uncertain position within the Maxillopoda. ... Genera Cyamus Isocyamus Platycyamus Syncyamus Whale lice are parasitic crustaceans in the family Cyamidae. ... Orders Cephalobaenida Porocephalida The Pentastomida or Pentastoma are a group of parasitic invertebrates commonly known as tongue worms due to the resemblance of some species to a vertebrate tongue. ... Image:Http://www. ... Look up sessile in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


The scientific study of crustaceans is known as carcinology. Other names for carcinology are malacostracology, crustaceology and crustalogy, and a scientist who works in carcinology is a carcinologist, crustaceologist or crustalogist. This article is about the profession. ... A carcinologist is a scientist who studies carcinology (the science of crustaceans). ...

Contents

Structure of crustaceans

Crustaceans have three distinct body parts: head, thorax, and abdomen (or pleon), although the head and thorax may fuse to form a cephalothorax. The head bears two pairs of antennae, one pair of compound eyes and three pairs of mouthparts. The thorax and pleon bear a number of lateral appendages, including the gills, and the tail ends with a telson. Smaller crustaceans respire through their body surface by diffusion [3], and larger crustaceans respire with gills or, as shown by Birgus latro, with abdominal lungs [4]. Both systems (diffusion and gills) were being used by various crustaceans as early as the Middle Cambrian [5]. Cephalon, Inc. ... Diagram of a tsetse fly, showing the head, thorax and abdomen The thorax is a division of an animals body that lies between the head and the abdomen. ... For the human abdomen, see human abdomen. ... The cephalothorax is an anatomical term used of arachnid and malacostracan arthropods for the first major body section. ... Insects display a wide variety of antennal shapes. ... Compound eye of a dragonfly Compound eye of Antarctic krill as imaged by an electron microscope A compound eye is a visual organ found in certain arthropods such as insects and crustaceans. ... The mouthparts of arthropods have evolved into a number of forms, each adapted to a different style of feeding. ... An appendage is, in general, an external body part that projects from the body, or a natural prolongation or projection from a part of any organism. ... For other uses, see Gill (disambiguation). ... The telson is the last division of the body of a crustacean. ... In animal physiology, respiration is the transport of oxygen from the ambient air to the tissue cells and the transport of carbon dioxide in the opposite direction. ... diffusion (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Gill (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Birgus latro Linnaeus, 1767 The Coconut crab (Birgus latro) is the largest terrestrial arthropod, known for its ability to crack coconuts with its strong pincers in order to eat the contents. ... The Middle Cambrian is an geological epoch that is part of the Cambrian Era. ...


In common with other arthropods, crustaceans have a stiff exoskeleton which must be shed to allow the animal to grow (ecdysis or moulting). Various parts of the exoskeleton may be fused together; this is particularly noticeable in the carapace, the thick dorsal shield seen on many crustaceans. Crustacean appendages are typically biramous, meaning they are divided into two parts; this includes the second pair of antennae, but not the first, which is uniramous. There is some doubt whether this is a derived state, as had been traditionally assumed, or whether it may be a primitive state, with the branching of the limbs being lost in all extant arthoropod groups except the crustaceans. One piece of evidence supporting the latter view is the biramous nature of trilobite limbs [6]. Subphyla and Classes Subphylum Trilobitomorpha Trilobita - trilobites (extinct) Subphylum Chelicerata Arachnida - spiders,scorpions, etc. ... An exoskeleton is an external anatomical feature that supports and protects an animals body, in contrast to the internal endoskeleton of, for example, a human. ... Ecdysis is the molting of the cuticula in arthropods and related groups (Ecdysozoa). ... The term carapace refers to a dorsal section of an exoskeleton or shell, in a number of animal groups. ... An appendage is, in general, an external body part that projects from the body, or a natural prolongation or projection from a part of any organism. ... Biramous is a term used for branched arthropod appendages. ... The limb of an arthropod is said to be uniramous when it has only one branch. ... Orders Agnostida Nectaspida Redlichiida Corynexochida Lichida Phacopida Subclass: Librostoma Proetida Asaphida Harpetida Ptychopariida For the robot vacuum cleaner, see Electrolux Trilobite. ...


Despite their diversity of form, crustaceans are united by the special larval form known as the nauplius. A larval insect A larva (Latin; plural larvae) is a juvenile form of animal with indirect development, undergoing metamorphosis (for example, insects or amphibians). ... The nauplius larva of a prawn A nauplius is the larva of many kinds of crustaceans. ...


Although a few are hermaphroditic, most crustaceans have separate sexes, which are distinguished by appendages on the abdomen called swimmerets or, more technically, pleopods. The first (and sometimes the second) pair of pleopods are specialised in the male for sperm transfer. Many terrestrial crustaceans (such as the Christmas Island red crab) mate seasonally and return to the sea to release the eggs. Others, such as woodlice lay their eggs on land, albeit in damp conditions. In many decapods, the eggs are retained by the females until they hatch into free-swimming larvae. The 1st-century BC sculpture The Reclining Hermaphrodite, in the Museo Nazionale Romano, Palazzo Massimo Alle Terme in Rome A hermaphrodite is an organism that possesses both male and female sex organs during its life. ... Antennules Pereiopods Carapace Pleopods Uropods Telson The body of a decapod crustacean is made up of nineteen body segments grouped into two main body parts, the cephalothorax and the abdomen. ... Binomial name Gecarcoidea natalis Pocock, 1888 The Christmas Island red crab (Gecarcoidea natalis) is a species of terrestrial crab endemic to both the Christmas Island and the Cocos (Keeling) Islands in the Indian Ocean. ... Infraorders and Families Infraorder Tylomorpha Tylidae Infraorder Ligiamorpha Superfamily Trichoniscoidea Buddelundiellidae Trichoniscidae Superfamily Styloniscoidea Schoebliidae Styloniscidae Titaniidae Tunanoniscidae Superfamily Oniscoidea Bathytropidae Berytoniscidae Detonidae Halophilosciidae Olibrinidae Oniscidae Philosciidae Platyarthridae Pudeoniscidae Rhyscotidae Scyphacidae Speleoniscidae Sphaeroniscidae Stenoniscidae Tendosphaeridae Superfamily Armadilloidea Actaeciidae Armadillidae Armadillidiidae Atlantidiidae Balloniscidae Cylisticidae Eubelidae Periscyphicidae Porcellionidae Trachelipodidae incertae sedis (Ligiamorpha... Suborders Dendrobranchiata Pleocyemata See text for superfamilies. ...


Taxonomy

Although the classification of crustaceans has been quite variable, the system used by Martin and Davis [1] is the most authoritative, and largely supersedes earlier works.


Six classes of crustaceans are generally recognised:

The exact relationships of the Crustacea to other taxa are not yet entirely clear. Under the Pancrustacea hypothesis [7], Crustacea and Hexapoda (insects and allies) are sister groups. Studies using DNA sequences tend to show a paraphyletic Crustacea, with the insects (but not necessarily other hexapods) nested within that clade. Subclasses and Orders Subclass Sarsostraca Order Anostraca (fairy shrimp) Subclass Phyllopoda Order Notostraca (tadpole shrimp) Superorder Diplostraca Order Cladocera (water fleas) Order Conchostraca (clam shrimps) Suborder Laevicaudata Suborder Spinicaudata Suborder Cyclestherida Branchiopoda is a group of primitive and primarily fresh water crustaceans, mostly resembling shrimp. ... Species Artemia franciscana Artemia gracilis Artemia monica Artemia parartemia Artemia parthenogenetica Artemia persimilis Artemia salina Artemia sinica Artemia tunesiana Artemia urmiana Brine shrimp (Artemia) are a primitive type of aquatic crustacean. ... Species Lepidurus bilobatus Lepidurus couesii Lepidurus packardi Lepidurus lemmoni Lepidurus arcticus Triops longicaudatus Triops australiensis Triops granarius Triops cancriformis The order Notostraca (colloquially referred to as notostracans, called Triops, tadpole shrimp or shield shrimp) are small crustaceans in the class Branchiopoda. ... Orders Enantiopoda (extinct) Nectiopoda Remipedia is a class of blind crustaceans found in deep caves connected to salt water, in Australia and the Caribbean Sea. ... Genera Chiltonella Hampsonellus Hutchinsoniella Lightiella Sandersiella Cephalocarida is a class inside the subphylum Crustacea that comprises only about 9 shrimp-like benthic species. ... Sub-classes Thecostraca Tantulocarida Branchiura Pentastomida Mystacocarida Copepoda Maxillopoda is a class of crustaceans, characterised by a reduction of the abdomen and its appendages. ... For other uses, see Barnacle (disambiguation). ... Orders Calanoida Cyclopoida Gelyelloida Harpacticoida Misophrioida Monstrilloida Mormonilloida Platycopioida Poecilostomatoida Siphonostomatoida Copepods are a group of small crustaceans found in the sea and nearly every freshwater habitat. ... Mystacocarida are interstitial Crustaceans, part of the Meiobenthos. ... Branchiura is a group of parasitic crustaceans of uncertain position within the Maxillopoda. ... Orders Archaeocopida (extinct) Leperditicopida (extinct) Palaeocopida (extinct) Podocopida Platycopida Myodocopida Introduction Ostracoda is a class of the Crustacea, sometimes known as the seed shrimp because of their appearance. ... // Subclasses Eumalacostraca Hoplocarida Phyllocarida See text for orders. ... Superfamilies Dromiacea Homolodromioidea Dromioidea Homoloidea Eubrachyura Raninoidea Cyclodorippoidea Dorippoidea Calappoidea Leucosioidea Majoidea Hymenosomatoidea Parthenopoidea Retroplumoidea Cancroidea Portunoidea Bythograeoidea Xanthoidea Bellioidea Potamoidea Pseudothelphusoidea Gecarcinucoidea Cryptochiroidea Pinnotheroidea * Ocypodoidea * Grapsoidea * An asterisk (*) marks the crabs included in the clade Thoracotremata. ... Subfamilies and Genera Neophoberinae Acanthacaris Thymopinae Nephropsis Nephropides Thymops Thymopsis Nephropinae Homarus Nephrops Homarinus Metanephrops Eunephrops Thymopides Clawed lobsters comprise a family (Nephropidae, sometimes also Homaridae) of large marine crustaceans. ... Superfamilies Alpheoidea Atyoidea Bresilioidea Campylonotoidea Crangonoidea Galatheacaridoidea Nematocarcinoidea Oplophoroidea Palaemonoidea Pandaloidea Pasiphaeoidea Procaridoidea Processoidea Psalidopodoidea Stylodactyloidea True shrimp are swimming, decapod crustaceans classified in the infraorder Caridea, found widely around the world in both fresh and salt water. ... Families Euphausiidae Euphausia Dana, 1852 Meganyctiphanes Holt and W. M. Tattersall, 1905 Nematobrachion Calman, 1905 Nematoscelis G. O. Sars, 1883 Nyctiphanes G. O. Sars, 1883 Pseudeuphausia Hansen, 1910 Stylocheiron G. O. Sars, 1883 Tessarabrachion Hansen, 1911 Thysanoessa Brandt, 1851 Thysanopoda Latreille, 1831 Bentheuphausiidae Bentheuphausia amblyops Krill are shrimp-like marine... Infraorders and Families Infraorder Tylomorpha Tylidae Infraorder Ligiamorpha Superfamily Trichoniscoidea Buddelundiellidae Trichoniscidae Superfamily Styloniscoidea Schoebliidae Styloniscidae Titaniidae Tunanoniscidae Superfamily Oniscoidea Bathytropidae Berytoniscidae Detonidae Halophilosciidae Olibrinidae Oniscidae Philosciidae Platyarthridae Pudeoniscidae Rhyscotidae Scyphacidae Speleoniscidae Sphaeroniscidae Stenoniscidae Tendosphaeridae Superfamily Armadilloidea Actaeciidae Armadillidae Armadillidiidae Atlantidiidae Balloniscidae Cylisticidae Eubelidae Periscyphicidae Porcellionidae Trachelipodidae incertae sedis (Ligiamorpha... Subphyla Crustacea Hexapoda Pancrustacea is a proposed taxon, comprising all crustaceans and hexapods [1]. This grouping is contrary to the Atelocerata hypothesis, in which Myriapoda and Hexapoda are sister taxa, and Crustacea are only more distantly related. ... Classes & Orders Class Insecta (insects) Class Entognatha The subphylum Hexapoda (from the Greek for six legs) constitutes the largest (in terms of number of species) grouping of arthropods and includes the insects as well as three much smaller groups of wingless arthropods: Collembola, Protura, and Diplura. ... Orders Subclass Apterygota Archaeognatha (bristletails) Thysanura (silverfish) Subclass Pterygota Infraclass Paleoptera (Probably paraphyletic) Ephemeroptera (mayflies) Odonata (dragonflies and damselflies) Infraclass Neoptera Superorder Exopterygota Grylloblattodea (ice-crawlers) Mantophasmatodea (gladiators) Plecoptera (stoneflies) Embioptera (webspinners) Zoraptera (angel insects) Dermaptera (earwigs) Orthoptera (grasshoppers, etc) Phasmatodea (stick insects) Blattodea (cockroaches) Isoptera (termites) Mantodea (mantids) Psocoptera... This cladogram shows the relationship among various insect groups. ... part of a DNA sequence A DNA sequence (sometimes genetic sequence) is a succession of letters representing the primary structure of a real or hypothetical DNA molecule or strand, The possible letters are A, C, G, and T, representing the four nucleotide subunits of a DNA strand (adenine, cytosine, guanine... Paraphyletic - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Orders Subclass Apterygota Archaeognatha (bristletails) Thysanura (silverfish) Subclass Pterygota Infraclass Paleoptera (Probably paraphyletic) Ephemeroptera (mayflies) Odonata (dragonflies and damselflies) Infraclass Neoptera Superorder Exopterygota Grylloblattodea (ice-crawlers) Mantophasmatodea (gladiators) Plecoptera (stoneflies) Embioptera (webspinners) Zoraptera (angel insects) Dermaptera (earwigs) Orthoptera (grasshoppers, etc) Phasmatodea (stick insects) Blattodea (cockroaches) Isoptera (termites) Mantodea (mantids) Psocoptera... A clade is a term belonging to the discipline of cladistics. ...


Fossil record

Those crustaceans that have hard exoskeletons reinforced with calcium carbonate, such as crabs and lobsters, tend to preserve well as fossils, but many crustaceans have only thin exoskeletons. Most of the fossils known are from coral reef or shallow sea-floor environments, but many crustaceans live in open seas, on deep sea-floors or in burrows. Crustaceans tend, therefore, to be rarer in the fossil record than trilobites. Some crustaceans are reasonably common in Cretaceous and Caenozoic rocks, but barnacles have a particularly poor fossil record, with very few specimens from before the Mesozoic era. An exoskeleton is an external anatomical feature that supports and protects an animals body, in contrast to the internal endoskeleton of, for example, a human. ... Calcium carbonate is a chemical compound, with the chemical formula CaCO3. ... Superfamilies Dromiacea Homolodromioidea Dromioidea Homoloidea Eubrachyura Raninoidea Cyclodorippoidea Dorippoidea Calappoidea Leucosioidea Majoidea Hymenosomatoidea Parthenopoidea Retroplumoidea Cancroidea Portunoidea Bythograeoidea Xanthoidea Bellioidea Potamoidea Pseudothelphusoidea Gecarcinucoidea Cryptochiroidea Pinnotheroidea * Ocypodoidea * Grapsoidea * An asterisk (*) marks the crabs included in the clade Thoracotremata. ... Subfamilies and Genera Neophoberinae Acanthacaris Thymopinae Nephropsis Nephropides Thymops Thymopsis Nephropinae Homarus Nephrops Homarinus Metanephrops Eunephrops Thymopides Clawed lobsters comprise a family (Nephropidae, sometimes also Homaridae) of large marine crustaceans. ... Some of the biodiversity of a coral reef, in this case the Great Barrier Reef, Australia. ... A burrow is a hole or tunnel dug into the ground by an animal to create a space suitable for habitation, temporary refuge, or as a byproduct of locomotion. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Fossil. ... Orders Agnostida Nectaspida Redlichiida Corynexochida Lichida Phacopida Subclass: Librostoma Proetida Asaphida Harpetida Ptychopariida For the robot vacuum cleaner, see Electrolux Trilobite. ... // The Cretaceous Period is one of the major divisions of the geologic timescale, reaching from the end of the Jurassic Period (i. ... The Cenozoic or Cainozoic era (sometimes Caenozoic Era) is the most recent of the four classic geological eras. ... The Mesozoic Era is one of three geologic eras of the Phanerozoic eon. ...


The Late Jurassic lithographic limestone of Solnhofen, Bavaria, which are famous as the home of Archaeopteryx, are relatively rich in decapod crustaceans, such as Eryon (an eryonoid), Aeger (a prawn) or Pseudastacus (a lobster). The "lobster bed" of the Greensand formation from the Cretaceous period which occurs at Atherfield on the Isle of Wight contains many well preserved examples of the small glypheoid lobster Mecochirus magna. Crabs have been found at a number of sites, such as the Cretaceous Gault clay and the Eocene London clay. Upper Jurassic (also known as Malm) was an epoch of the Jurassic geologic period. ... A brittle star fossil from Solnhofen limestone. ... Solnhofen is a town in the district of Weißenburg-Gunzenhausen in the region of Franconia in the Land of Bavaria in Germany. ... For other uses, see Bavaria (disambiguation). ... Species A. lithographica Meyer, 1861 (type) Synonyms See below Archaeopteryx (from Ancient Greek archaios meaning ancient and pteryx meaning feather or wing; pronounced Ar-kay-op-ter-iks ) is the earliest and most primitive known bird to date. ... Suborders Dendrobranchiata Pleocyemata See text for superfamilies. ... Genera and Species Cardus Galil, 2000 (Thomson, 1873) Homeryon Galil, 2000 Galil, 2000 (Rathbun, 1906) Pentacheles Bate, 1878 Alcock, 1894 Bate, 1878 Bate, 1878 (Rathbun, 1906) A. Milne Edwards, 1880 Polycheles Heller, 1862 Galil, 2000 (Bate, 1878) Bate, 1878 Alcock, 1878 Galil, 2000 (Bate, 1878) Galil, 2000 Ahyong and Brown... Superfamilies Penaeoidea Aristeidae Benthesicymidae Penaeidae Sicyoniidae Solenoceridae Sergestoidea Luciferidae Sergestidae Prawns are shrimp-like crustaceans, belonging to the sub-order Dendrobranchiata [1]. Prawns are distinguished from the superficially similar shrimp by the gill structure which is branching in prawns (hence the name, dendro=tree; branchia=gill), but is lamellar in... Subfamilies and Genera Neophoberinae Acanthacaris Thymopinae Nephropsis Nephropides Thymops Thymopsis Nephropinae Homarus Nephrops Homarinus Metanephrops Eunephrops Thymopides Clawed lobsters comprise a family (Nephropidae, sometimes also Homaridae) of large marine crustaceans. ... Greensand is an olive-green coloured sandstone rock which found in narrow bands, particularly associated with bands of chalk and clay in northern and western Europe. ... // The Cretaceous Period is one of the major divisions of the geologic timescale, reaching from the end of the Jurassic Period (i. ... Little Atherfield is a village on the Isle of Wight, off the south coast of England. ... For other uses, see Isle of Wight (disambiguation). ... Families and Genera Glypheidae Glyphea Neoglyphea Mecochiridae Mecochirus Meyeria Pseudoglyphea Pemphicidae Pemphix The Glypheoidea (containing the glypheoid lobsters), is a group of lobster-like decapod crustaceans which forms an important part of fossil faunas, such as the Solnhofen limestone. ... The Gault Clay is a formation of stiff blue clay deposited in a calm, fairly deep water marine environment during the Lower Cretaceous Period (Upper and Middle Albian). ... hfajhfiudshfas == == == --24. ... The London Clay is a marine deposit which is well known for the fossils it contains. ...


Consumption

Crustacean output in 2005
Crustacean output in 2005

Many crustaceans are consumed by humans, and nearly 10,000,000 tons were produced in 2005 [8]. The vast majority of this output is of decapod crustaceans: crabs, lobsters, shrimp and prawns. Over 70% by weight of all crustaceans caught for consumption are shrimp and prawns, and over 80% is produced in Asia, with China alone producing nearly half the world's total. Non-decapod crustaceans are not widely consumed, with only 130,000 tons of krill being caught, despite krill having one of the greatest biomasses on the planet. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 351 pixelsFull resolution (1425 × 625 pixel, file size: 58 KB, MIME type: image/png)This bubble map shows the global distribution of crustacean output in 2005 as a percentage of the top producer (China - 3,975,870 tonnes). ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 351 pixelsFull resolution (1425 × 625 pixel, file size: 58 KB, MIME type: image/png)This bubble map shows the global distribution of crustacean output in 2005 as a percentage of the top producer (China - 3,975,870 tonnes). ... Look up ton in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Suborders Dendrobranchiata Pleocyemata See text for superfamilies. ... Superfamilies Dromiacea Homolodromioidea Dromioidea Homoloidea Eubrachyura Raninoidea Cyclodorippoidea Dorippoidea Calappoidea Leucosioidea Majoidea Hymenosomatoidea Parthenopoidea Retroplumoidea Cancroidea Portunoidea Bythograeoidea Xanthoidea Bellioidea Potamoidea Pseudothelphusoidea Gecarcinucoidea Cryptochiroidea Pinnotheroidea * Ocypodoidea * Grapsoidea * An asterisk (*) marks the crabs included in the clade Thoracotremata. ... Subfamilies and Genera Neophoberinae Acanthacaris Thymopinae Nephropsis Nephropides Thymops Thymopsis Nephropinae Homarus Nephrops Homarinus Metanephrops Eunephrops Thymopides Clawed lobsters comprise a family (Nephropidae, sometimes also Homaridae) of large marine crustaceans. ... Superfamilies Alpheoidea Atyoidea Bresilioidea Campylonotoidea Crangonoidea Galatheacaridoidea Nematocarcinoidea Oplophoroidea Palaemonoidea Pandaloidea Pasiphaeoidea Procaridoidea Processoidea Psalidopodoidea Stylodactyloidea True shrimp are swimming, decapod crustaceans classified in the infraorder Caridea, found widely around the world in both fresh and salt water. ... Superfamilies Penaeoidea Aristeidae Benthesicymidae Penaeidae Sicyoniidae Solenoceridae Sergestoidea Luciferidae Sergestidae Prawns are shrimp-like crustaceans, belonging to the sub-order Dendrobranchiata [1]. Prawns are distinguished from the superficially similar shrimp by the gill structure which is branching in prawns (hence the name, dendro=tree; branchia=gill), but is lamellar in... Families Euphausiidae Euphausia Dana, 1852 Meganyctiphanes Holt and W. M. Tattersall, 1905 Nematobrachion Calman, 1905 Nematoscelis G. O. Sars, 1883 Nyctiphanes G. O. Sars, 1883 Pseudeuphausia Hansen, 1910 Stylocheiron G. O. Sars, 1883 Tessarabrachion Hansen, 1911 Thysanoessa Brandt, 1851 Thysanopoda Latreille, 1831 Bentheuphausiidae Bentheuphausia amblyops Krill are shrimp-like marine... See biomass (ecology) for the use of the term in ecology, where it refers to the cumulation of living matter Switchgrass, a tough plant used in the biofuel industry in the United States Rice chaff. ...


Animal Welfare

Cognitive ethological research have shown that crustacean animals are also of humanly social behavior in that their aggreesive actions can be initiated by a chemical, similar to human male hormone, amine serotonin, strongly indicating their neuro response capabilities [9], [10]. The fusion of cognitive science and classical ethology into cognitive ethology emphasizes observing animals under more-or-less natural conditions, with the objective of understanding the evolution, adaptation (function), causation, and development of the species-specific behavioral repertoire - (Tinbergen 1963). ... Serotonin (pronounced ) (5-hydroxytryptamine, or 5-HT) is a monoamine neurotransmitter synthesized in serotonergic neurons in the central nervous system (CNS) and enterochromaffin cells in the gastrointestinal tract of animals including humans. ...


References

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Crustacea
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  1. ^ a b J. W. Martin & G. E. Davis (2001). An Updated Classification of the Recent Crustacea. Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County, 132 pp. 
  2. ^ Crustacea (TSN 83677). Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Accessed on 1 May 2006.
  3. ^ R. F. Pirow, F. Wollinger & R. J. Paul (1999). The sites of respiratory gas exchange in the planktonic crustacean Daphnia magna: An in vivo study employing blood haemoglobin as an internal oxygen probe. Journal of Experimental Zoology 202 (22): 3089–3099. 
  4. ^ C. A. Farrelly & P. Greenaway (2005). The morphology and vasculature of the respiratory organs of terrestrial hermit crabs (Coenobita and Birgus): gills, branchiostegal lungs and abdominal lungs. Arthropod Structure and Development 34 (1): 63–87. doi:10.1016/j.asd.2004.11.002. 
  5. ^ Vannier, J., M. Williams & D. J. Siveter (1997). The Cambrian origin of the circulatory system of crustaceans. Lethaia 30 (3): 169–184. 
  6. ^ N. C. Hughes (2003). Trilobite tagmosis and body patterning from morphological and developmental perspectives. Integrative and Comparative Biology 43 (1): 185–206. 
  7. ^ J. Zrzavý & P. Štys (1997). The basic body plan of arthropods: insights from evolutionary morphology and developmental biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 10: 353-367. doi:10.1046/j.1420-9101.1997.10030353.x. 
  8. ^ FIGIS: Global Production Statistics 1950–2005. Food and Agriculture Organization. Retrieved on 2007-06-18.
  9. ^ Huber, Robert et al. (1997). "Serotonin and aggressive motivation in crustaceans: Altering the decision to retreat". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 94: 5939 - 5942. Retrieved on 12 November 2007. 
  10. ^ Hemsworth, Robert et al. (2007). "Crustacean Social Behavioral Changes in Response to Isolation". Biological Bulletin 213: 187 - 195. Retrieved on 12 November 2007. 

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikispecies-logo. ... Wikispecies is a wiki-based online project supported by the Wikimedia Foundation that aims to create a comprehensive free content catalogue of all species (including animalia, plantae, fungi, bacteria, archaea, and protista). ... The Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County opened in Exposition Park in 1913 as the Museum of History, Science, and Art. ... The Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) is a partnership designed to provide consistent and reliable information on the taxonomy of biological species. ... is the 121st day of the year (122nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Integrative and Comparative Biology is the scientific journal for the American Society of Zoologists and Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that leads international efforts to defeat hunger. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 169th day of the year (170th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 316th day of the year (317th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 316th day of the year (317th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ...

General references

Frederick Robert Schram (born August 11, 1943 in Chicago, Illinois) is an American palaeontologist and carcinologist. ... Oxford University Press (OUP) is a highly-respected publishing house and a department of the University of Oxford in England. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Crustacean - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (953 words)
Crustaceans are of three distinct parts: head, thorax, and abdomen (or pleon), although the head and thorax may fuse to form a cephalothorax.
Crustacean appendages are typically biramous, meaning they are divided into two parts; this includes the second pair of antennae, but not the first, which is uniramous.
Crustaceans tend, therefore, to be rarer in the fossil record than trilobites.
crustacean. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001-05 (528 words)
All crustaceans have bilaterally symmetrical bodies covered with a chitinous exoskeleton, which may be thick and calcareous (as in the crayfish) or delicate and transparent (as in water fleas).
In the majority of larger crustaceans the head and thorax are fused into a cephalothorax, which is protected by a large shieldlike area of the exoskeleton called the carapace.
Crustaceans constitute the subphylum Crustacea of the phylum Arthropoda.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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