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Encyclopedia > Crusades
The Siege of Antioch, from a medieval miniature painting, during the First Crusade.
The Siege of Antioch, from a medieval miniature painting, during the First Crusade.

The Crusades were a series of military conflicts of a religious character waged by much of Christian Europe against external and internal threats. Crusades were fought against Muslims, pagan Slavs, Russian and Greek Orthodox Christians, Mongols, Cathars, Hussites, and political enemies of the popes.[1] Crusaders took vows and were granted an indulgence for past sins.[1] Look up crusade in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Image File history File links SiegeofAntioch. ... Image File history File links SiegeofAntioch. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Antakya. ... Combatants Christendom, Catholicism West European Christians, Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia Seljuks, Arabs and other Muslims The First Crusade was launched in 1095 by Pope Urban II with the dual goals of liberating the sacred city of Jerusalem and the Holy Land from Muslims and freeing the Eastern Christians from Muslim... Combatants Christendom, Catholicism West European Christians, Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia Seljuks, Arabs and other Muslims The First Crusade was launched in 1095 by Pope Urban II with the dual goals of liberating the sacred city of Jerusalem and the Holy Land from Muslims and freeing the Eastern Christians from Muslim... // The Crusade of 1101 was a minor crusade of three separate movements, organized in 1100 and 1101 in the successful aftermath of the First Crusade. ... The fall of Edessa, seen here on the right of this map (c. ... The Northern Crusades, or Baltic Crusades, were undertaken by Western Europeans against the still heathen people of North Eastern Europe around the Baltic Sea. ... The Third Crusade (1189–1192), also known as the Kings Crusade, was an attempt by European leaders to reconquer the Holy Land from Saladin. ... Combatants Livonian Order Denmark Sweden Livonians, Curonians, Latgalians, Estonians Commanders Albert of Riga Anders Sunesen Caupo of Turaida † Theoderich von Treyden Volquin Wenno William of Modena Lembitu of Lehola † Vyachko † The Livonian Crusade refers to the German and Danish conquest and colonization of medieval Livonia, the territory constituting modern Latvia... The Crusade of 1197 (also known as the Crusade of Henry VI or the German Crusade of 1197) was an abortive crusade launched by the Holy Roman Emperor Henry VI in response to the failure of Frederick I Barbarossas crusade in 1190. ... The Entry of the Crusaders into Constantinople (Eugène Delacroix, 1840). ... The Albigensian Crusade or Cathar Crusade (1209 - 1229) was a 20-year military campaign initiated by the Roman Catholic Church to eliminate the heresy of the Cathars of Languedoc. ... The Childrens Crusade is the name given to a variety of fictional and factual events in 1212 that combine some or all of these elements: visions by a French and/or German boy, an intention to peacefully convert Muslims to Christianity, bands of children marching to Italy, and children... Frisian crusaders confront the Tower of Damietta, Egypt. ...  Baltic tribes and Prussian clans ca. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Seventh Crusade was a crusade led by Louis IX of France from 1248 to 1254. ... The Shepherds Crusade is two separate events from the 13th and 14th century. ... The Eighth Crusade was a crusade launched by Louis IX of France, (who was by now in his mid-fifties) in 1270. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The Aragonese Crusade or Crusade of Aragón was declared by Pope Martin IV against the king of Aragón, Peter III the Great, in 1284 and 1285. ... The Alexandrian Crusade of October 1365[1] was a seaborne[2] Crusade on Alexandria led by Peter I of Cyprus. ... // Combatants Ottoman Empire Kingdom of Hungary, Holy Roman Empire, France, Wallachia, Poland, England, Kingdom of Scotland, Old Swiss Confederacy, Republic of Venice, Republic of Genoa, Knights of St. ... The Teutonic knights in Pskov in 1240. ... Crusades First – Peoples – German – 1101 – Second – Third – Fourth – Albigensian – Childrens – Fifth – Sixth – Seventh – Shepherds – Eighth – Ninth – Aragonese – Alexandrian – Nicopolis – Northern – Hussite – Varna – Otranto Hussite Wars Nekmer - Sudomĕř – Vítkov – Vyšehrad – Nebovidy - Německý Brod – Hořice – Ústí nad Labem – Tachov – Lipany – Grotniki The Hussite Wars, also called... The Crusade of Varna was a string of events in 1443-1444 between the Kingdom of Hungary, the Serbian Despotate, and the Ottoman Empire. ... Combatants Ottoman Empire Kingdom of Naples Kingdom of Aragon Kingdom of Hungary Commanders Gedik Ahmed Pasha Francesco Largo † Alphonso II of Naples Strength Between 18,000 and 100,000 men. ... For other uses of the term, see Holy War. ... For other uses, see Christian (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... Pagan may refer to: A believer in Paganism or Neopaganism Bagan, a city in Myanmar also known as Pagan Pagan (album), the 6th album by Celtic metal band Cruachan Pagan Island, of the Northern Mariana Islands Pagan Lorn, a metal band from Luxembourg, Europe (1994-1998) Pagans Mind, is... The Slavic peoples are the most numerous ethnic and linguistic body of peoples in Europe. ... Orthodox icon of Pentecost. ... For other uses, see Mongols (disambiguation). ... Cathars being expelled from Carcassonne in 1209. ... The Hussites comprised an early Protestant Christian movement, followers of Jan Hus. ... For other uses, see Pope (disambiguation). ... A vow (Lat. ... Look up Indulgence in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


The Crusades originally had the goal of recapturing Jerusalem and the Holy Land from Muslim rule and were originally launched in response to a call from the Eastern Orthodox Byzantine Empire for help against the expansion of the Muslim Seljuk Turks into Anatolia. The term is also used to describe contemporaneous and subsequent campaigns conducted through to the 16th century in territories outside the Levant[2] usually against pagans, heretics, and peoples under the ban of excommunication[3] for a mixture of religious, economic, and political reasons.[4] Rivalries among both Christian and Muslim powers led also to alliances between religious factions against their opponents, such as the Christian alliance with the Sultanate of Rum during the Fifth Crusade. For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Holy Land (disambiguation). ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... Eastern Orthodoxy (also called Greek Orthodoxy and Russian Orthodoxy) is a Christian tradition which represents the majority of Eastern Christianity. ... Byzantine redirects here. ... The Seljuk coat of arms was a double headed eagle The Seljuk Turks (also Seldjuk, Seldjuq, Seljuq; in modern Turkish Selçuklular; in Persian سلجوقيان SaljÅ«qiyān; in Arabic سلجوق SaljÅ«q, or السلاجقة al-Salājiqa) were a major branch of the Oghuz Turks and a dynasty that ruled parts of... This article is about two nested areas of Turkey, a plateau region within a peninsula. ... The Levant Levant or in Arabic الشام, Ash-Shām is an imprecise geographical term historically referring to a large area in the Middle East south of the Taurus Mountains, bounded by the Mediterranean Sea on the west, and by the northern Arabian Desert and Upper Mesopotamia to the east. ... Pagan may refer to: A believer in Paganism or Neopaganism Bagan, a city in Myanmar also known as Pagan Pagan (album), the 6th album by Celtic metal band Cruachan Pagan Island, of the Northern Mariana Islands Pagan Lorn, a metal band from Luxembourg, Europe (1994-1998) Pagans Mind, is... For other uses, see Heresy (disambiguation). ... Excommunication is a religious censure used to deprive or suspend membership in a religious community. ... The Sultanate of Rûm was a Seljuk sultanate in Anatolia from 1077 to 1307. ... Frisian crusaders confront the Tower of Damietta, Egypt. ...


The Crusades had far-reaching political, economic, and social impacts, some of which have lasted into contemporary times. Because of internal conflicts among Christian kingdoms and political powers, some of the crusade expeditions were diverted from their original aim, such as the Fourth Crusade, which resulted in the sack of Christian Constantinople and the partition of the Byzantine Empire between Venice and the Crusaders. The Sixth Crusade was the first crusade to set sail without the official blessing of the Pope,[5] establishing the precedent that rulers other than the Pope could initiate a crusade.[citation needed] The Entry of the Crusaders into Constantinople (Eugène Delacroix, 1840). ... This article is about the city before the Fall of Constantinople (1453). ... Borders of the Republic of Venice in 1796 Capital Venice Language(s) Venetian, Latin, Italian Religion Roman Catholic Government Republic Doge  - 1789–97 Ludovico Manin History  - Established 697  - Treaty of Zara June 27, 1358  - Treaty of Leoben April 17, 1797 * Traditionally, the establishment of the Republic is dated to 697. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...

Contents

Historical context

It is necessary to look for the origin of a crusading ideal in the struggle between Christians and Muslims in Spain and consider how the idea of a holy war emerged from this background.
Norman F. Cantor

Norman F. Cantor (born in Winnipeg, Canada in 1930, died in Miami, Florida, United States on September 18, 2004) was a historian who specialized in the medieval period. ...

Middle Eastern situation

The Muslim presence in the Holy Land began with the initial Arab conquest of Palestine in the 7th century. Western Europeans were less concerned with the loss of far-away Jerusalem than, in the ensuing decades and centuries, the invasions by Muslims and other hostile non-Christians, such as the Vikings, Slavs and Magyars.[citation needed] However, the Muslim armies' successes put increasing pressure on the Eastern Orthodox Byzantine Empire. Age of the Caliphs  Expansion under the Prophet Muhammad, 622-632  Expansion during the Patriarchal Caliphate, 632-661  Expansion during the Umayyad Caliphate, 661-750 The initial Muslim conquests (632–732), also referred to as the Islamic conquests or Arab conquests,[1] began after the death of the Islamic prophet... A 2003 satellite image of the region. ... Invasion is a military action consisting of troops entering a foreign land (a nation or territory, or part of that), often resulting in the invading power occupying the area, whether briefly or for a long period. ... The name Viking is a loan from the native Scandinavian term for the Norse seafaring warriors who raided the coasts of Scandinavia, Europe and the British Isles from the late 8th century to the 11th century, the period of European history referred to as the Viking Age. ... The Slavic peoples are the most numerous ethnic and linguistic body of peoples in Europe. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Eastern Orthodoxy (also called Greek Orthodoxy and Russian Orthodoxy) is a Christian tradition which represents the majority of Eastern Christianity. ...


Another factor that contributed to the change in Western attitudes towards the East came in the year 1009, when the Fatimid Caliph al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah ordered the Church of the Holy Sepulchre destroyed. In 1039 his successor permitted the Byzantine Empire to rebuild it.[6] Pilgrimages were allowed to the Holy Lands before and after the Sepulchre was rebuilt, but for a time pilgrims were captured and some of the clergy were killed. The Muslim conquerors eventually realized that the wealth of Jerusalem came from the pilgrims; with this realization the persecution of pilgrims stopped.[7] However, the damage was already done, and the violence of the Seljuk Turks became part of the concern that spread the passion for the Crusades.[8] The Fatimid Empire or Fatimid Caliphate ruled North Africa from A.D. 909 to 1171. ... Tāriqu l-Ḥakīm, called bi Amr al-Lāh (Arabic الحاكم بأمر الله Ruler by Gods Command), was the sixth Fatimid Caliph in Egypt, ruling from 996 to 1021. ... This article is about the church building in Jerusalem. ...


Western European situation

The origins of the Crusades lie in developments in Western Europe earlier in the Middle Ages, as well as the deteriorating situation of the Byzantine Empire in the east caused by a new wave of Turkish Muslim attacks. The breakdown of the Carolingian Empire in the late 9th century, combined with the relative stabilization of local European borders after the Christianization of the Vikings, Slavs, and Magyars, had produced a large class of armed warriors whose energies were misplaced fighting one another and terrorizing the local populace. The Church tried to stem this violence with the Peace and Truce of God movements, which was somewhat successful, but trained warriors always sought an outlet for their skills, and opportunities for territorial expansion were becoming less attractive for large segments of the nobility. One exception was the Reconquista in Spain and Portugal, which at times occupied Iberian knights and some mercenaries from elsewhere in Europe in the fight against the Islamic Moors, who had successfully overrun most of the Iberian Peninsula over the preceding two centuries. A current understanding of Western Europe. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... Byzantine redirects here. ... Map of Carolingian Empire The term Carolingian Empire is sometimes used to refer to the realm of the Franks under the dynasty of the Carolingians. ... The name Viking is a loan from the native Scandinavian term for the Norse seafaring warriors who raided the coasts of Scandinavia, Europe and the British Isles from the late 8th century to the 11th century, the period of European history referred to as the Viking Age. ... The Slavic peoples are the most numerous ethnic and linguistic body of peoples in Europe. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Peace and Truce of God was a medieval European movement of the Roman Catholic Church which applied spiritual sanctions in order to control and stop the violence of feudal society. ... For other senses of this word, see Reconquista (disambiguation). ... A statue of an armoured knight of the Middle Ages For the chess piece, see knight (chess). ... Mercenary (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see moor. ... The Iberian Peninsula, or Iberia, is located in the extreme southwest of Europe, and includes modern day Spain, Portugal, Andorra and Gibraltar. ...


In 1063, Pope Alexander II had given his blessing to Iberian Christians in their wars against the Muslims, granting both a papal standard (the vexillum sancti Petri) and an indulgence to those who were killed in battle. Pleas from the Byzantine Emperors, now threatened by the Seljuks, thus fell on ready ears. These occurred in 1074, from Emperor Michael VII to Pope Gregory VII and in 1095, from Emperor Alexios I Komnenos to Pope Urban II. One source identifies Michael VII in Chinese records as a ruler of Byzantium (Fulin) who sent an envoy to Song Dynasty China in 1081.[9][10] A Chinese scholar suggests that this and further Byzantine envoys in 1091 were pleas for China to aid in the fight against the Turks.[11] Alexander II (died April 21, 1073), born Anselmo da Baggio , Pope from 1061 to 1073, was a native of Milan. ... Look up Indulgence in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Seljuk Turks (Turkish: Selçuk; Arabic: سلجوق Saljūq, السلاجقة al-Salājiqa; Persian: سلجوقيان Saljūqiyān; also Seldjuk, Seldjuq, Seljuq) were a major branch of the Oghuz Turks and a dynasty that occupied parts of Central Asia and the Middle East from the 11th to 14th centuries. ... Michael VII Ducas or Parapinakes, was the eldest son of Constantine X Ducas and Eudocia Macrembolitissa. ... Pope Gregory VII (c. ... Emperor Alexios I Komnenos Alexios I Komnenos or Alexius I Comnenus (Greek: ; Latin: ; 1048 – August 15, 1118), Byzantine emperor (1081–1118), was the son of John Komnenos and Anna Dalassena and the nephew of Isaac I Komnenos (emperor 1057–1059). ... Pope Urban II (1042 – July 29, 1099), born Otho of Lagery (alternatively: Otto or Odo), was a Pope from 1088 to July 29, 1099. ... Northern Song in 1111 AD Capital Bianjing (汴京) (960–1127) Linan (臨安) (1127–1276) Language(s) Chinese Religion Buddhism, Taoism, Confucianism Government Monarchy Emperor  - 960–976 Emperor Taizu  - 1126–1127 Emperor Qinzong  - 1127–1162 Emperor Gaozong  - 1278–1279 Emperor Bing History  - Zhao Kuangyin taking over the throne of the Later Zhou...

Map of the Iberian Peninsula at the time of the Almoravid arrival in the 11th century- Christian Kingdoms included Aragón, Castile, Leon, Navarre, and Portugal
Map of the Iberian Peninsula at the time of the Almoravid arrival in the 11th century- Christian Kingdoms included Aragón, Castile, Leon, Navarre, and Portugal

The Crusades were, in part, an outlet for an intense religious piety which rose up in the late 11th century among the lay public. A crusader would, after pronouncing a solemn vow, receive a cross from the hands of the pope or his legates, and was thenceforth considered a "soldier of the Church". This was partly because of the Investiture Controversy, which had started around 1075 and was still on-going during the First Crusade. As both sides of the Investiture Controversy tried to marshal public opinion in their favor, people became personally engaged in a dramatic religious controversy. The result was an awakening of intense Christian piety and public interest in religious affairs. This was further strengthened by religious propaganda, advocating Just War in order to retake the Holy Land—which included Jerusalem (where the death, resurrection and ascension into heaven of Jesus took place according to Christian theology) and Antioch (the first Christian city)—from the Muslims. Further, the remission of sin was a driving factor. This provided any God-fearing men who had committed sins with an irresistible way out of eternal damnation in hell. It was a hotly debated issue throughout the Crusades as what exactly "remission of sin" meant. Most believed that by retaking Jerusalem they would go straight to heaven after death. However, much controversy surrounds exactly what was promised by the popes of the time. One theory was that one had to die fighting for Jerusalem for the remission to apply, which would hew more closely to what Pope Urban II said in his speeches. This meant that if the crusaders were successful, and retook Jerusalem, the survivors would not be given remission. Another theory was that if one reached Jerusalem, one would be relieved of the sins one had committed before the Crusade. Therefore one could still be sentenced to hell for sins committed afterwards. Image File history File links Almoravid_map_reconquest_loc. ... Image File history File links Almoravid_map_reconquest_loc. ... A papal Legate, from the Decretals of Boniface VIII (1294 to 1303). ... The Investiture Controversy, also known as the lay investiture controversy, was the most significant conflict between secular and religious powers in medieval Europe. ... Just War theory is a doctrine of military ethics studied by moral theologians, ethicists and international policy makers which holds that a conflict can and ought to meet the criteria of philosophical, religious or political justice, provided it follows certain conditions. ... Entombment of Christ by Pieter Lastman The death of Jesus is an event described by the New Testament, as occurring after the Passion of Jesus, as a result of his crucifixion. ... The resurrection of Jesus is an event in the New Testament in which God raised him from the dead[1] after his death by crucifixion. ... Also refers to the process of gaining Enlightenment and several meditation techniques. ... For other uses, see Heaven (disambiguation). ... This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Antakya. ...


All of these factors were manifested in the overwhelming popular support for the First Crusade and the religious vitality of the 12th century.


Immediate cause

Pope Urban II at the Council of Clermont, where he preached an impassioned sermon to take back the Holy Land.
Pope Urban II at the Council of Clermont, where he preached an impassioned sermon to take back the Holy Land.

The immediate cause of the First Crusade was Alexius I's appeal to Pope Urban II for mercenaries to help him resist Muslim advances into territory of the Byzantine Empire. In 1071, at the Battle of Manzikert, the Byzantine Empire was defeated, which led to the loss of all of Asia Minor (modern Turkey) save the coastlands. Although attempts at reconciliation after the East-West Schism between the Catholic Western Church and the Eastern Orthodox Church had failed, Alexius I hoped for a positive response from Urban II and got it, although it turned out to be more expansive[clarify] and less helpful than he had expected. Pope Urban II at the Council of Clermont, painting from c. ... Pope Urban II at the Council of Clermont, painting from c. ... Urban II, né Otho of Lagery (or Otto or Odo) (1042 - July 29, 1099), pope from 1088 to July 29, 1099, was born into nobility in France at Lagery (near Châtillon-sur-Marne) and was church educated. ... Pope Urban II at the Council of Clermont, given a late Gothic setting in this illumination from the Livre des Passages dOutre-mer, of c 1490 (Bibliothèque National) The Council of Clermont was a mixed synod of ecclesiastics and laymen of the Catholic Church, which was held in... Emperor Alexios I Komnenos Alexios I Komnenos or Alexius I Comnenus (Greek: ; Latin: ; 1048 – August 15, 1118), Byzantine emperor (1081–1118), was the son of John Komnenos and Anna Dalassena and the nephew of Isaac I Komnenos (emperor 1057–1059). ... Pope Urban II (1042 – July 29, 1099), born Otho of Lagery (alternatively: Otto or Odo), was a Pope from 1088 to July 29, 1099. ... Combatants Byzantine Empire Great Seljuk Sultanate Commanders Romanus IV #, Nikephoros Bryennios, Theodore Alyates, Andronikos Doukas Alp Arslan Strength ~ 20,000 [1] (40,000 initial) ~ 20,000 [2] - 70,000[1] Casualties ~ 8,000 [3] Unknown The Battle of Manzikert, or Malazgirt was fought between the Byzantine Empire and Seljuk Turkic... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      For the... Orthodox icon of Pentecost. ...


When the First Crusade was preached in 1095, the Christian princes of northern Iberia had been fighting their way out of the mountains of Galicia and Asturias, the Basque Country and Navarre, with increasing success, for about a hundred years. The fall of Moorish Toledo to the Kingdom of León in 1085 was a major victory, but the turning points of the Reconquista still lay in the future. The disunity of Muslim emirs was an essential factor. Galicia (Spain) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Anthem: Asturias, patria querida Capital Oviedo Official language(s) Spanish; Asturian has special status Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 10th  10,604 km²  2. ... Location of the Basque Country The Basque Country divided in seven provinces Capital Pamplona Official languages Basque, French, Spanish Demonym Basque Currency Euro The Basque-speaking areas This article is about the overall Basque domain. ... “Navarra” redirects here. ... For other uses, see Toledo (disambiguation). ... Coat of arms Kingdom of León, 1030 Capital León Language(s) Mainly Latin and Astur-Leonese. ... For other senses of this word, see Reconquista (disambiguation). ...


While the Reconquista was the most prominent example of European reactions against Muslim conquests, it is not the only such example. The Norman adventurer Robert Guiscard had conquered the "toe of Italy," Calabria, in 1057 and was holding what had traditionally been Byzantine territory against the Muslims of Sicily. The maritime states of Pisa, Genoa and Catalonia were all actively fighting Islamic strongholds in Majorca and Sardinia, freeing the coasts of Italy and Catalonia from Muslim raids. Much earlier, the Christian homelands of Syria, Lebanon, Palestine, Egypt, and so on had been conquered by Muslim armies. This long history of losing territories to a religious enemy created a powerful motive to respond to Byzantine Emperor Alexius I's call for holy war to defend Christendom, and to recapture the lost lands starting with Jerusalem. For other senses of this word, see Reconquista (disambiguation). ... Norman conquests in red. ... Robert Guiscard (i. ... Sicily ( in Italian and Sicilian) is an autonomous region of Italy and the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, with an area of 25,708 km² (9,926 sq. ... Leaning Tower of Pisa. ... For other uses, see Genoa (disambiguation). ... This article is about the Spanish autonomous community. ... Majorca (Spanish and Catalan: Mallorca) is the largest island of Spain. ... For the place in the United States, see Sardinia, Ohio. ...


The papacy of Pope Gregory VII had struggled with reservations about the doctrinal validity of a holy war and the shedding of blood for the Lord and had, with difficulty, resolved the question in favour of justified violence. More importantly to the Pope, the Christians who made pilgrimages to the Holy Land were being persecuted. Saint Augustine of Hippo, Gregory's intellectual model, had justified the use of force in the service of Christ in The City of God, and a Christian "just war" might enhance the wider standing of an aggressively ambitious leader of Europe, as Gregory saw himself. The northerners would be cemented to Rome, and their troublesome knights could see the only kind of action that suited them. Previous attempts by the church to stem such violence, such as the concept of the "Peace of God", were not as successful as hoped. To the south of Rome, Normans were showing how such energies might be unleashed against both Arabs (in Sicily) and Byzantines (on the mainland). A Latin hegemony in the Levant would provide leverage in resolving the Papacy's claims of supremacy over the Patriarch of Constantinople, which had resulted in the Great Schism of 1054, a rift that might yet be resolved through the force of Frankish arms. Pope Gregory VII (c. ... Augustinus redirects here. ... The City of God, opening text, created c. ... Just War theory is a doctrine of military ethics studied by moral theologians, ethicists and international policy makers which holds that a conflict can and ought to meet the criteria of philosophical, religious or political justice, provided it follows certain conditions. ... For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ... The Levant The Levant (IPA: ) is an imprecise geographical term historically referring to a large area in the Middle East south of the Taurus Mountains, bounded by the Mediterranean Sea on the west, and by the northern Arabian Desert and Upper Mesopotamia to the east. ... The Patriarch of Constantinople is the Ecumenical Patriarch, ranking as the first among equals in the Eastern Orthodox communion. ... The term Great Schism may refer to: The East-West Schism, in 1054 between Western Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox Christianity. ...


In the Byzantine homelands, the Eastern Emperor's weakness was revealed by the disastrous defeat at the Battle of Manzikert in 1071, which reduced the Empire's Asian territory to a region in western Anatolia and around Constantinople. A sure sign of Byzantine desperation was the appeal of Alexius I Comnenus to his enemy, the Pope, for aid. But Gregory was occupied with the Investiture Controversy and could not call on the German emperor, so a crusade never took shape. Combatants Byzantine Empire Great Seljuk Sultanate Commanders Romanus IV #, Nikephoros Bryennios, Theodore Alyates, Andronikos Doukas Alp Arslan Strength ~ 20,000 [1] (40,000 initial) ~ 20,000 [2] - 70,000[1] Casualties ~ 8,000 [3] Unknown The Battle of Manzikert, or Malazgirt was fought between the Byzantine Empire and Seljuk Turkic... The Investiture Controversy, also known as the lay investiture controversy, was the most significant conflict between secular and religious powers in medieval Europe. ...


For Gregory's more moderate successor, Pope Urban II, a crusade would serve to reunite Christendom, bolster the Papacy, and perhaps bring the East under his control. The disaffected Germans and the Normans were not to be counted on, but the heart and backbone of a crusade could be found in Urban's own homeland among the northern French.


After the First Crusade

On a popular level, the first crusades unleashed a wave of impassioned, personally felt pious Christian fury that was expressed in the massacres of Jews that accompanied the movement of the Crusader mobs through Europe, as well as the violent treatment of "schismatic" Orthodox Christians of the east. During many of the attacks on Jews, local Bishops and Christians made attempts to protect Jews from the mobs that were passing through. Jews were often offered sanctuary in churches and other Christian buildings. The word schism (IPA: or ), from the Greek σχισμα, schisma (from σχιζω, schizo, to split), means a division or a split, usually in an organization. ...


In the 13th century, Crusades never expressed such a popular fever, and after Acre fell for the last time in 1291 and the Occitan Cathars were exterminated during the Albigensian Crusade, the crusading ideal became devalued by Papal justifications of political and territorial aggressions within Catholic Europe. For other uses, see Akko (disambiguation). ... A version of the flag frequently used by Occitan activists. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Catharism. ... The Albigensian Crusade or Cathar Crusade (1209 - 1229) was a 20-year military campaign initiated by the Roman Catholic Church to eliminate the heresy of the Cathars of Languedoc. ...


The last crusading order of knights to hold territory were the Knights Hospitaller. After the final fall of Acre, they took control of the island of Rhodes, and in the sixteenth century, were driven to Malta, before being finally unseated by Napoleon Bonaparte in 1798. The Knights Hospitaller (also known as the , Sovereign Order of Saint John of Jerusalem of Rhodes and of Malta, Knights of Malta, Knights of Rhodes, and Chevaliers of Malta; French: Ordre des Hospitaliers) is a Christian organization that began as an Amalfitan hospital founded in Jerusalem in 1080 to provide... This article is about the Greek island of Rhodes. ... Napoléon I, Emperor of the French (born Napoleone di Buonaparte, changed his name to Napoléon Bonaparte)[1] (15 August 1769; Ajaccio, Corsica – 5 May 1821; Saint Helena) was a general during the French Revolution, the ruler of France as First Consul (Premier Consul) of the French Republic from...


List of crusades

A traditional numbering scheme for the Crusades totals nine during the 11th to 13th centuries, as well as other smaller sorties that were mostly contemporaneous and are unnumbered. There were frequent "minor" Crusades throughout this period, not only in Palestine but also in the Iberian Peninsula and central Europe, against Muslims and also Christian heretics and personal enemies of the Papacy or other powerful monarchs. Such "crusades" continued into the 16th century until the Renaissance and Reformation, when the political and religious climate of Europe was significantly different from that of the Middle Ages.


Crusades after the fourth were not led by Rome but by political leaders for their own reasons.[12]


First Crusade 1095-1099

Main article: First Crusade
For the first decade, the Crusaders pursed a policy of terror against Muslims and Jews that included mass executions, the throwing of severed heads over besieged cities walls, exhibition and mutilation of naked cadavers, and even cannibalism, as was recorded after the Siege of Maarat.
For the first decade, the Crusaders pursed a policy of terror against Muslims and Jews that included mass executions, the throwing of severed heads over besieged cities walls, exhibition and mutilation of naked cadavers, and even cannibalism, as was recorded after the Siege of Maarat.

In March 1095 at the Council of Piacenza, ambassadors sent by Byzantine Emperor Alexius I called for help with defending his empire against the Seljuk Turks. Later that year, at the Council of Clermont, Pope Urban II called upon all Christians to join a war against the Turks, promising those who died in the endeavor would receive immediate remission of their sins.[13] Sigurd I of Norway was the first European king who went on a crusade and crusader armies managed to defeat two substantial Turkish forces at Dorylaeum and at Antioch. Combatants Christendom, Catholicism West European Christians, Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia Seljuks, Arabs and other Muslims The First Crusade was launched in 1095 by Pope Urban II with the dual goals of liberating the sacred city of Jerusalem and the Holy Land from Muslims and freeing the Eastern Christians from Muslim... Cannibal redirects here. ... The Council of Piacenza was a mixed synod of ecclesiastics and laymen of the Roman Catholic Church, which took place from March 1 to March 5, 1095, at Piacenza. ... This is a list of the Emperors of the late Eastern Roman Empire, called Byzantine by modern historians. ... Emperor Alexios I Komnenos Alexios I Komnenos or Alexius I Comnenus (Greek: ; Latin: ; 1048 – August 15, 1118), Byzantine emperor (1081–1118), was the son of John Komnenos and Anna Dalassena and the nephew of Isaac I Komnenos (emperor 1057–1059). ... The Seljuk coat of arms was a double headed eagle The Seljuk Turks (also Seldjuk, Seldjuq, Seljuq; in modern Turkish Selçuklular; in Persian سلجوقيان Saljūqiyān; in Arabic سلجوق Saljūq, or السلاجقة al-Salājiqa) were a major branch of the Oghuz Turks and a dynasty that ruled parts of... Pope Urban II at the Council of Clermont, given a late Gothic setting in this illumination from the Livre des Passages dOutre-mer, of c 1490 (Bibliothèque National) The Council of Clermont was a mixed synod of ecclesiastics and laymen of the Catholic Church, which was held in... Pope Urban II (1042 – July 29, 1099), born Otho of Lagery (alternatively: Otto or Odo), was a Pope from 1088 to July 29, 1099. ... Sigurd I Magnusson (1089?-1130), nicknamed Sigurd Jorsalfare (Old Norse Sigurðr Jórsalafari, translation: Sigurd the Crusader, literal translation: Sigurd, the one who went to Jerusalem) was king of Norway 1103-1130. ... The Battle of Dorylaeum took place during the First Crusade on July 1, 1097, between the crusaders and the Seljuk Turks, near Dorylaeum in Anatolia. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Antakya. ...


The Siege of Antioch took place shortly before the siege on Jerusalem during the first Crusade. Antioch fell to the Franks in May 1098 but not before a lengthy siege. The ruler of Antioch was not sure how the Christians living within his city would react and he forced them to live outside the city during the siege, though he promised to protect their wives and children from harm. The siege only came to end when the city was betrayed and the Franks entered through the water-gate of the town causing the leader to flee. Once inside the city, as was standard military practice at the time,[14] the Franks massacred the civilians.[15] The crusaders finally marched to the walls of Jerusalem with only a fraction of their original forces. Combatants Crusaders Seljuk Turks Commanders Raymond of Toulouse Godfrey of Bouillon Bohemund of Taranto Yaghi-Siyan Kerbogha Strength 25,000[1] 75,000[2] Casualties Unknown Unknown For other uses please see Siege of Antioch (disambiguation) The Siege of Antioch took place during the First Crusade in 1097 and 1098. ...


Siege of Jerusalem

The Jews and Muslims fought together to defend Jerusalem against the invading Franks. They were unsuccessful though and on 15 July 1099 the crusaders entered the city.[16] Again, they proceded to massacre the remaining Jewish and Muslim civilians and pillaged or destroyed mosques and the city itself.[17] The "isolation, alienation and fear"[1] felt by the Franks so far from home helps to explain the atrocities they committed, including the cannibalism which was recorded after the Siege of Maarat in 1098.[18] As a result of the First Crusade, several small Crusader states were created, notably the Kingdom of Jerusalem. Combatants Crusaders Fatimids Commanders Raymond of Toulouse Godfrey of Bouillon Iftikhar ad-Dawla Strength 1,500 knights 12,000 infantry 1,000 garrison Casualties Unknown At least 40,000 military and civilian dead The Siege of Jerusalem took place from June 7 to July 15, 1099 during the First Crusade. ... is the 196th day of the year (197th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1099 also refers to a United States tax form used for, among other purposes, reporting payments made to independent Contractors. ... The Near East in 1135, with the Crusader states in green hues. ... The kingdom of Jerusalem and the other Crusader states (in shades of green) in the context of the Near East in 1135. ...


The Crusaders also tried to gain control of the city of Tyre, but were defeated by the Muslims. The people of Tyre asked Zahir al-Din Atabek, the leader of Damascus, for help defending their city from the Franks with the promise to surrender Tyre to him. When the Franks were defeated the people of Tyre did not surrender the city, but Zahir al-Din simply said “What I have done I have done only for the sake of God and the Muslims, nor out of desire for wealth and kingdom.”[19] Tyre may refer to: Tire, the outer part of a wheel. ... For other uses, see Damascus (disambiguation). ...


After gaining control of Jerusalem the Crusaders created four Crusader states: the kingdom of Jerusalem, the County of Edessa, the Principality of Antioch and the County of Tripoli.[20] Initially, Muslims did very little about the Crusader states due to internal conflicts.[21] Eventually, the Muslims began to reunite under the leadership of Imad al-Din Zangi. He began by re-taking Edessa in 1144. It was the first city to fall to the Crusaders, and became the first to be recaptured by the Muslims. This led the Pope to call for a second Crusade. The kingdom of Jerusalem and the other Crusader states (in shades of green) in the context of the Near East in 1135. ... The County of Edessa was one of the Crusader states in the 12th century, based around a city with an ancient history and an early tradition of Christianity (see Edessa). ... The Principality of Antioch in the context of the other states of the Near East in 1135 AD. The Principality of Antioch, including parts of modern-day Turkey and Syria, was one of the crusader states created during the First Crusade. ... Armenian Cilicia and Crusader States The County of Tripoli was the last of the four major Crusader states in the Levant to be created. ...


Crusade of 1101

Main article: Crusade of 1101

Following this crusade there was a second, less successful wave of crusaders. This is known as the Crusade of 1101 and may be considered an adjunct of the First Crusade. // The Crusade of 1101 was a minor crusade of three separate movements, organized in 1100 and 1101 in the successful aftermath of the First Crusade. ...


Second Crusade 1147–1149

The status of Europe in 1142
The status of Europe in 1142
Main article: Second Crusade

After a period of relative peace in which Christians and Muslims co-existed in the Holy Land, Muslims conquered the town of Edessa. A new crusade was called for by various preachers, most notably by Bernard of Clairvaux. French and South German armies, under the Kings Louis VII and Conrad III respectively, marched to Jerusalem in 1147 but failed to win any major victories, launching a failed pre-emptive siege of Damascus, an independent city that would soon fall into the hands of Nur ad-Din, the main enemy of the Crusaders.[22] On the other side of the Mediterranean, however, the Second Crusade met with great success as a group of Northern European Crusaders stopped in Portugal, allied with the Portuguese, and retook Lisbon from the Muslims in 1147.[22] In the Holy Land by 1150, both the kings of France and Germany had returned to their countries without any result. St. Bernard of Clairvaux, who in his preachings had encouraged the Second Crusade, was upset with the amount of misdirected violence and slaughter of the Jewish population of the Rhineland.[3] North Germans and Danes attacked the Wends during the 1147 Wendish Crusade, which was unsuccessful as well. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1327x959, 324 KB) Europe in 1142 File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Crusades ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1327x959, 324 KB) Europe in 1142 File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Crusades ... The fall of Edessa, seen here on the right of this map (c. ... The County of Edessa was one of the Crusader states in the 12th century, based around a city with an ancient history and an early tradition of Christianity (see Edessa). ... Saint Bernard of Clairvaux (1090–August 21, 1153) was a French abbot and the primary builder of the reforming Cistercian monastic order. ... Louis VII the Younger (French: Louis VII le Jeune) (1120 – September 18, 1180) was King of France from 1137 to 1180. ... King Conrad III (Cunradus rex) in a 13th-century miniature. ... al-Malik al-Adil Nur ad-Din Abu al-Qasim Mahmud Ibn Imad ad-Din Zangi (1118 – May 15, 1174), also known as Nur ed-Din, Nur al-Din, etc. ... Vend redirects here. ... The Northern Crusades, or Baltic Crusades, were undertaken by Western Europeans against the still heathen people of North Eastern Europe around the Baltic Sea. ...


Third Crusade 1187–1192

Main article: Third Crusade

In 1187, Saladin, Sultan of Egypt, recaptured Jerusalem, following the Battle of Hattin. After taking Jerusalem back from the Christians the Muslims spared civilians and for the most part left churches and shrines untouched to be able to collect ransom money from the Franks.[citation needed] Saladin is remembered respectfully in both European and Islamic sources as a man who "always stuck to his promise and was loyal."[23] The reports of Saladin's victories shocked Europe. Pope Gregory VIII called for a crusade, which was led by several of Europe's most important leaders: Philip II of France, Richard I of England (aka Richard the Lionheart), and Frederick I, Holy Roman Emperor. Frederick drowned in Cilicia in 1190, leaving an unstable alliance between the English and the French. Before his arrival in the Holy Land Richard captured the island of Cyprus from the Byzantines in 1191.[22] Cyprus would serve as a Crusader base for centuries to come, and would remain in Western European hands until the Ottoman Empire conquered the island from Venice in 1571.[22] After reaching port, Richard the Lionheart promised to leave noncombatants unharmed if the city of Acre surrendered. The brutality of an outnumbered army in a hostile land could be seen again when the city surrendered and Richard proceeded to massacre everyone, despite his earlier promise.[24] From the Frankish point of view, an oath made to a non-Christian was no oath at all. Philip left, in 1191, after the Crusaders had recaptured Acre from the Muslims. The Crusader army headed south along the coast of the Mediterranean Sea. They defeated the Muslims near Arsuf, recaptured the port city of Jaffa, and were in sight of Jerusalem.[22] However, Richard did not believe he would be able to hold Jerusalem once it was captured, as the majority of Crusaders would then return to Europe, and the crusade ended without the taking of Jerusalem.[22] Richard left the following year after negotiating a treaty with Saladin. The treaty allowed unarmed Christian pilgrims to make pilgrimages to the Holy Land (Jerusalem), while it remained under Muslim control. The Third Crusade (1189–1192), also known as the Kings Crusade, was an attempt by European leaders to reconquer the Holy Land from Saladin. ... Saladin, properly known as Salah al-Dīn Yusuf ibn Ayyub (Arabic: , Kurdish: ) (c. ... For other uses, see Pope (disambiguation). ... Pope Gregory VIII (ca. ... Philip II Augustus (French: Philippe Auguste) (21 August 1165 – 14 July 1223) was the King of France from 1180 until his death. ... Richard I (8 September 1157 – 6 April 1199) was King of England and ruler of the Angevin Empire from 6 July 1189 until his death. ... Frederick Barbarossa in a 13th century chronicle. ... The Kingdom of Cilician Armenia, 1199-1375. ... An acre is the name of a unit of area in a number of different systems, including Imperial units and United States customary units. ... Mediterranean redirects here. ... Arsuf (also known as Arsur or Apollonia) was a Crusader city and fortress located in what is now Israel, about 15 kilometres north of Tel Aviv. ...


On Richard's way home, his ship was wrecked and he ended up in Austria, where his enemy, Duke Leopold, captured him. The Duke delivered Richard to the Emperor Henry VI, who held the King for ransom. By 1197, Henry felt ready for a crusade, but he died in the same year of malaria. Richard I died during fighting in Europe and never returned to the Holy Land. The Third Crusade is sometimes referred to as the Kings' Crusade. Leopold V (1157 – December 31, 1194), the Virtuous, was a Babenberg duke of Austria from 1177 to 1194 and Styria from 1192 to 1194. ... Henry VI (November 1165 – 28 September 1197) was King of Germany from 1190 to 1197, Holy Roman Emperor from 1191 to 1197 and King of Sicily from 1194 to 1197. ... Malaria is a vector-borne infectious disease caused by protozoan parasites. ...


Fourth Crusade 1202–1204

Main article: Fourth Crusade

The Fourth Crusade was initiated in 1202 by Pope Innocent III, with the intention of invading the Holy Land through Egypt. Because the Crusaders lacked the funds to pay for the fleet and provisions that they had contracted from the Venetians, Doge Enrico Dandolo enlisted the crusaders to restore the Christian city of Zara (Zadar) to obedience. Because they subsequently lacked provisions and time on their vessel lease, the leaders decided to go to Constantinople, where they attempted to place a Byzantine exile on the throne. After a series of misunderstandings and outbreaks of violence, the Crusaders sacked the city in 1204, ending in the establishment of the Eastern Latin Empire throughout the Greek Byzantine Empire. This is often seen as the final breaking point of the Great Schism between the Eastern Orthodox Church and (Western) Roman Catholic Church. The Entry of the Crusaders into Constantinople (Eugène Delacroix, 1840). ... Pope Innocent III (c. ... For other uses, see Venice (disambiguation). ... Grand Procession of the Doge, 16th century For about a thousand years, the chief magistrate and leader of the Most Serene Republic of Venice was styled the Doge, a rare but not unique Italian title derived from the Latin Dux, as the major Italian parallel Duce and the English Duke. ... Dandolo Preaching the Crusade, by Gustav Dore Tomb of Enrico Dandolo Enrico Dandolo (1107?-1205) was the Doge (1192-1205) of Venice during the Fourth Crusade. ... For other uses, see Zadar (disambiguation). ... This article is about the city before the Fall of Constantinople (1453). ... Arms of the Latin Empire of Constantinople The Latin Empire with its vassals and the Greek successor states after the partition of the Byzantine Empire, c. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      For the... Orthodox icon of Pentecost. ... Catholic Church redirects here. ...


Albigensian Crusade

Main article: Albigensian Crusade

The Albigensian Crusade was launched in 1209 to eliminate the heretical Cathars of Occitania (the south of modern-day France). It was a decade-long struggle that had as much to do with the concerns of northern France to extend its control southwards than it did with heresy. In the end, both the Cathars and the independence of southern France were exterminated. The Albigensian Crusade or Cathar Crusade (1209 - 1229) was a 20-year military campaign initiated by the Roman Catholic Church to eliminate the heresy of the Cathars of Languedoc. ... Cathars being expelled from Carcassone in 1209. ... For other uses, see Heresy (disambiguation). ... Cathars being expelled from Carcassonne in 1209. ... A version of the flag frequently used by Occitan activists. ...


Children's Crusade

Christian states in the Levant.
Christian states in the Levant.
Main article: Children's Crusade

The Children's Crusade is a series of possibly fictitious or misinterpreted events of 1212. The story is that an outburst of the old popular enthusiasm led a gathering of children in France and Germany, which Pope Innocent III interpreted as a reproof from heaven to their unworthy elders. The leader of the French army, Stephen, led 30,000 children. The leader of the German army, Nicholas, led 7,000 children. None of the children actually reached the Holy Land: those who did not return home or settle along the route to Jerusalem either died from shipwreck or hunger, or were sold into slavery in Egypt or North Africa. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 433 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (498 × 689 pixel, file size: 185 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Faithful reproductions of two-dimensional original works cannot attract copyright in the U.S. according to the rule in Bridgeman Art Library v. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 433 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (498 × 689 pixel, file size: 185 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Faithful reproductions of two-dimensional original works cannot attract copyright in the U.S. according to the rule in Bridgeman Art Library v. ... The Childrens Crusade is the name given to a variety of fictional and factual events in 1212 that combine some or all of these elements: visions by a French and/or German boy, an intention to peacefully convert Muslims to Christianity, bands of children marching to Italy, and children... Events The first Great Fire of London burns most of the city to the ground Battle of Navas de Tolosa Childrens crusade Crusaders push the Muslims out of northern Spain In Japan, Kamo no Chōmei writes the Hōjōki, one of the great works of classical Japanese... Pope Innocent III (c. ... For other uses, see Shipwreck (disambiguation). ... This article is about extreme malnutrition. ... Slave redirects here. ...  Northern Africa (UN subregion)  geographic, including above North Africa or Northern Africa is the northernmost region of the African continent, separated by the Sahara from Sub-Saharan Africa. ...


Fifth Crusade 1217–1221

Main article: Fifth Crusade

By processions, prayers, and preaching, the Church attempted to set another crusade afoot, and the Fourth Council of the Lateran (1215) formulated a plan for the recovery of the Holy Land. In the first phase, a crusading force from Austria and Hungary joined the forces of the king of Jerusalem and the prince of Antioch to take back Jerusalem. In the second phase, crusader forces achieved a remarkable feat in the capture of Damietta in Egypt in 1219, but under the urgent insistence of the papal legate, Pelagius, they then launched a foolhardy attack on Cairo in July of 1221. The crusaders were turned back after their dwindling supplies led to a forced retreat. A nighttime attack by the ruler of Egypt, the powerful Sultan Al-Kamil, resulted in a great number of crusader losses and eventually in the surrender of the army. Al-Kamil agreed to an eight-year peace agreement with Europe. Frisian crusaders confront the Tower of Damietta, Egypt. ... The Fourth Council of the Lateran was summoned by Pope Innocent III with his Bull of April 19, 1213. ... The Principality of Antioch in the context of the other states of the Near East in 1135 AD. The Principality of Antioch, including parts of modern-day Turkey and Syria, was one of the crusader states created during the First Crusade. ... Damietta is a port in Dumyat, Egypt on the Mediterranean Sea at the Nile delta, about 200 kilometres north of Cairo. ... A papal Legate, from the Decretals of Boniface VIII (1294 to 1303). ... Pelagio Galvani[1] (d. ... For other uses, see Cairo (disambiguation). ... Frederick II (left) meets al-Kamil (right) al-Kamil Muhammad al-Malik (الكامل محمّد الملك ) (died 1238) was an Ayyubid sultan of Egypt, praised for defeating two crusades but also vilified for returning Jerusalem to the Christians. ...


Sixth Crusade 1228–1229

Main article: Sixth Crusade

Emperor Frederick II had repeatedly vowed a crusade but failed to live up to his words, for which he was excommunicated by Pope Gregory IX in 1228. He nonetheless set sail from Brindisi, landed in Palestine, and through diplomacy he achieved unexpected success: Jerusalem, Nazareth, and Bethlehem were delivered to the crusaders for a period of ten years. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Frederick II (left) meets al-Kamil (right) Frederick II (December 26, 1194 - (December 13, 1250), Holy Roman Emperor of the Hohenstaufen dynasty, was pretender to the title of King of the Romans from 1212, unopposed holder of that monarchy from 1215, and Holy Roman Emperor from 1220 until his death... Excommunication is a religious censure used to deprive or suspend membership in a religious community. ... Pope Gregory IX, born Ugolino dei Conti, was pope from 1227 to August 22, 1241. ... Brindisi is an ancient city in the Italian region of Puglia, the capital of the province of Brindisi. ... Hebrew (Natzrat or Natzeret) Arabic الناصرة (an-Nāṣira) Government City District North Population 64,800[1] Metropolitan Area: 185,000 (2006) Jurisdiction 14 200 dunams (14. ... Arabic بيت لحم Name Meaning House of Lambs Government City (from 1995) Also Spelled Beit Lahm (officially) Bayt Lahm (unofficially) Governorate Bethlehem Population 29,930 (2006) Jurisdiction 29,799 dunams (29. ...

In 1229 after failing to conquer Egypt, Frederick II of the Holy Roman Empire, made a peace treaty with Al-Kamil, the ruler of Egypt. This treaty allowed Christians to rule over most of Jerusalem, while the Muslims were given control of the Dome of the Rock and the Al-Aksa mosque. The peace brought about by this treaty lasted for about ten years. [25]Many of the Muslims though were not happy with Al-Kamil for giving up control of Jerusalem and in 1244 the Muslims regained control of the city.[26] Image File history File links Crusade_damietta. ... Louis IX (25 April 1215 – 25 August 1270), commonly Saint Louis, was King of France from 1226 to his death. ... Damietta is a port in Dumyat, Egypt on the Mediterranean Sea at the Nile delta, about 200 kilometres north of Cairo. ... See: Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor (1194-1250, king 1211/12-1250, emperor since 1220) Frederick II of Austria (?-1246, duke of Austria 1230-1246) Frederick II of Sicily (1272-1337) - who called himself Frederick III - see the article for details. ... This article is about the medieval empire. ... Frederick II (left) meets al-Kamil (right) al-Kamil Muhammad al-Malik (الكامل محمّد الملك ) (died 1238) was an Ayyubid sultan of Egypt, praised for defeating two crusades but also vilified for returning Jerusalem to the Christians. ... The Dome of the Rock in the center of the Temple Mount, or Mount Moriah The Dome of the Rock (Arabic: مسجد قبة الصخرة, translit. ...


Seventh Crusade 1248–1254

Main article: Seventh Crusade

The papal interests represented by the Templars brought on a conflict with Egypt in 1243, and in the following year a Khwarezmian force summoned by the latter stormed Jerusalem. The crusaders were drawn into battle at La Forbie in Gaza. The crusader army and its Bedouin mercenaries were outnumbered by Baibars' force of Khwarezmian tribesmen and were completely defeated within forty-eight hours. This battle is considered by many historians to have been the death knell to the Kingdom of Outremer. Although this provoked no widespread outrage in Europe as the fall of Jerusalem in 1187 had done, Louis IX of France organized a crusade against Egypt from 1248 to 1254, leaving from the newly constructed port of Aigues-Mortes in southern France. It was a failure, and Louis spent much of the crusade living at the court of the crusader kingdom in Acre. In the midst of this crusade was the first Shepherds' Crusade in 1251. The Seventh Crusade was a crusade led by Louis IX of France from 1248 to 1254. ... For other uses, see Knights Templar (disambiguation). ... Khwarezmid Empire Template:History of Greater Turkey The Khwarezmian Empire, more commonly known as the empire of the Khwarezm Shahs[1] (Persian: , Khwārezmšhāḥīān, Kings of Khwarezmia) was a Turkoman[2][3][4] Sunni Muslim dynasty of Turkic mamluk[5] origin which ruled Central Asia and Iran, first... // Prelude The Battle of La Forbie, also known as the Battle of Harbiyah, was fought October 17–October 18, 1244 between the allied armies (drawn from the Kingdom of Jerusalem and the crusading orders, the territory of Homs, and the Ayyubid-ruled Trans-Jordan) and the Egyptian army of Sultan... Not to be confused with the Spanish name Garza or the Egyptian town of Giza. ... al-Malik al-Zahir Rukn al-Din Baibars al-Bunduqdari (also spelled Baybars) (Arabic: ) was a Mamluk Sultan of Egypt and Syria. ... Khwarezmid Empire Template:History of Greater Turkey The Khwarezmian Empire, more commonly known as the empire of the Khwarezm Shahs[1] (Persian: , Khwārezmšhāḥīān, Kings of Khwarezmia) was a Turkoman[2][3][4] Sunni Muslim dynasty of Turkic mamluk[5] origin which ruled Central Asia and Iran, first... Outremer, French for overseas, was the general name given the Crusader states established after the First Crusade; County of Edessa, Principality of Antioch, County of Tripoli and especially the Kingdom of Jerusalem. ... Louis IX (25 April 1215 – 25 August 1270), commonly Saint Louis, was King of France from 1226 to his death. ... Ramparts of the Town of Aigues-Mortes, one of the Municipalities of Languedoc. ... The Shepherds Crusade is two separate events from the 13th and 14th century. ...


Eighth Crusade 1270

Main article: Eighth Crusade

The eighth Crusade was organized by Louis IX in 1270, again sailing from Aigues-Mortes, initially to come to the aid of the remnants of the crusader states in Syria. However, the crusade was diverted to Tunis, where Louis spent only two months before dying. For his efforts, Louis was later canonised (the city of St. Louis, Missouri, USA is named for him). The Eighth Crusade is sometimes counted as the Seventh, if the Fifth and Sixth Crusades are counted as a single crusade. The Ninth Crusade is sometimes also counted as part of the Eighth. The Eighth Crusade was a crusade launched by Louis IX of France, (who was by now in his mid-fifties) in 1270. ... Louis IX (25 April 1215 – 25 August 1270), commonly Saint Louis, was King of France from 1226 to his death. ... Nickname: Location in the state of Missouri Coordinates: , Country State County Independent City Government  - Mayor Francis G. Slay (D) Area  - City  66. ...


Ninth Crusade 1271–1272

Main article: Ninth Crusade

The future Edward I of England undertook another expedition in 1271, after having accompanied Louis on the Eighth Crusade. He accomplished very little in Syria and retired the following year after a truce. This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Edward I (17 June 1239 – 7 July 1307), popularly known as Longshanks[1], also as Edward the Lawgiver or the English Justinian because of his legal reforms, and as Hammer of the Scots,[2] achieved fame as the monarch who conquered Wales and tried to do the same to Scotland. ...


In their later years, faced with the threat of the Egyptian Mamluks, the Crusaders' hopes rested with a Franco-Mongol alliance. The Ilkhanate's Mongols were thought to be sympathetic to Christianity, and the Frankish princes were most effective in gathering their help, engineering their invasions of the Middle East on several occasions.[citation needed] Although the Mongols successfully attacked as far south as Damascus on these campaigns, the ability to effectively coordinate with Crusades from the west was repeatedly frustrated most notably at the Battle of Ain Jalut in 1260. The Mamluks eventually made good their pledge to cleanse the entire Middle East of the infidel Franks. With the fall of Antioch (1268), Tripoli (1289), and Acre (1291), those Christians unable to leave the cities were massacred or enslaved and the last traces of Christian rule in the Levant disappeared.[27][28] An Ottoman Mamluk, from 1810 Mamluks (or Mameluks) (the Arabic word usually translates as owned, singular: مملوك plural: مماليك) comprised slave soldiers used by the Muslim Caliphs and the Ottoman Empire, and who on more than one occasion seized power for themselves. ... Among the Christian states in the Levant (in yellow) Little Armenia and the northern Frank kingdom of Antioch were the most regular allies of the Mongols. ... Khanates of Mongolian Empire: Il-Khanate, Chagatai Khanate, Empire of the Great Khan (Yuan Dynasty), Golden Horde The Ilkhanate (also spelled Il-khanate or Il Khanate) was one of the four divisions within the Mongol Empire. ... For other uses, see Mongols (disambiguation). ... Combatants Egyptian Mamluks Mongols Commanders Saif ad-Din Qutuz, Baibars C * Kitbuqa + Strength About 20,000-30,000 About 10,000-20,000 The Battle of Ain Jalut (or Ayn Jalut, in Arabic: عين جالوت, the Eye of Goliath or the Spring of Goliath) took place on September 3, 1260 between the... The Principality of Antioch in the context of the other states of the Near East in 1135 AD. The Principality of Antioch, including parts of modern-day Turkey and Syria, was one of the crusader states created during the First Crusade. ... Armenian Cilicia and Crusader States The County of Tripoli was the last of the four major Crusader states in the Levant to be created. ... The Siege of Acre took place in 1291 and resulted in the fall of Acre, the last territory of the crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem. ... This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... The Levant The Levant (IPA: ) is an imprecise geographical term historically referring to a large area in the Middle East south of the Taurus Mountains, bounded by the Mediterranean Sea on the west, and by the northern Arabian Desert and Upper Mesopotamia to the east. ...


The very last Frankish foothold was the island of Ruad, three kilometers from the Syrian shore, which was occupied for several years by the Knights Templar but was ultimately lost to the Mamluks in the Siege of Ruad on September 26th, 1302. For other uses, see Knights Templar (disambiguation). ... An Ottoman Mamluk, from 1810 Mamluks (or Mameluks) (the Arabic word usually translates as owned, singular: مملوك plural: مماليك) comprised slave soldiers used by the Muslim Caliphs and the Ottoman Empire, and who on more than one occasion seized power for themselves. ... Ruad was the bridgehead of the Franks for a coordinated offensive with the Mongols. ...


Northern Crusades (Baltic and Germany)

The Teutonic Knights in Pskov in 1240 as depicted in Sergei Eisenstein's Alexander Nevsky (1938).
The Teutonic Knights in Pskov in 1240 as depicted in Sergei Eisenstein's Alexander Nevsky (1938).
Main article: Northern Crusades

The Crusades in the Baltic Sea area and in Central Europe were efforts by (mostly German) Christians to subjugate and convert the peoples of these areas to Christianity. These Crusades ranged from the 12th century, contemporaneous with the Second Crusade, to the 16th century. Image File history File links Nevsky2. ... Image File history File links Nevsky2. ... For the state, see Monastic state of the Teutonic Knights. ... Pskov (Russian: , ancient Russian spelling Пльсковъ (Plescow)) is an ancient city, located in the north-west of Russia about 20 km east from the Estonian border, on the Velikaya River. ... Sergei Mikhailovich Eisenstein (Russian: Сергей Михайлович Эйзенштейн) (January 23, 1898 – February 11, 1948) was a revolutionary Soviet Russian film director and film theorist noted in particular for his silent films Strike, Battleship Potemkin and Oktober. ... For other uses, see Alexander Nevsky (disambiguation). ... The Teutonic knights in Pskov in 1240. ... For other uses, see Baltic (disambiguation). ... Central Europe The Alpine Countries and the Visegrád Group (Political map, 2004) Central Europe is the region lying between the variously and vaguely defined areas of Eastern and Western Europe. ...


Contemporaneous with the Second Crusade, Saxons and Danes fought against Polabian Slavs in the 1147 Wendish Crusade. In the 13th century, the Teutonic Knights led Germans, Poles, and Pomeranians against the Old Prussians during the Prussian Crusade. For other uses, see Saxon (disambiguation). ... The Danish nation is a concept closely connected to 19th century ethnic nationalism. ... Polabian Slavs is a collective term applied to a number of Slavic tribes living along the Elbe, between the Baltic Sea to the north, Solau to the west and Sudetes to the south. ... The Northern Crusades, or Baltic Crusades, were undertaken by Western Europeans against the still heathen people of North Eastern Europe around the Baltic Sea. ... For the state, see Monastic state of the Teutonic Knights. ... Pomeranians (Pomorzanie) are a group of Slavic tribes living in historical region of Pomerania along the shore of Baltic Sea between Oder and Vistula rivers. ... Prussian tribes settlements. ...  Baltic tribes and Prussian clans ca. ...


Between 1232 and 1234, there was a crusade against the Stedingers. This crusade was special, because the Stedingers were not heathens or heretics, but fellow Roman Catholics. They were free Frisian farmers who resented attempts of the count of Oldenburg and the archbishop Bremen-Hamburg to make an end to their freedoms. The archbishop excommunicated them, and Pope Gregory IX declared a crusade in 1232. The Stedingers were defeated in 1234. Stedingen is an area north of Bremen in the delta of the Weser river. ... The Frisians are an ethnic group of northwestern Europe, inhabiting an area known as Frisia. ... Oldenburg is a historical state in todays Germany named for its capital, Oldenburg. ... The Archbishopric of Bremen was an ecclesiastical state in the Holy Roman Empire. ... Pope Gregory IX, born Ugolino dei Conti, was pope from 1227 to August 22, 1241. ...


The Teutonic Order's attempts to conquer Orthodox Russia (particularly the Republics of Pskov and Novgorod), an enterprise endorsed by Pope Gregory IX, can also be considered as a part of the Northern Crusades. One of the major blows for the idea of the conquest of Russia was the Battle of the Ice in 1242. With or without the Pope's blessing, Sweden also undertook several crusades against Orthodox Novgorod. Orthodox icon of Pentecost. ... Pskov Feudal Republic (Псковская феодальная республика in Russian) was a Russian medieval state between the second half of the 13th century and early 16th century. ... Medieval walls of Novgorod City The Novgorod Feudal Republic (Новгородская феодальная республика or Novgorodskaya feodalnaya respublika in Russian) was a powerful medieval state which stretched from the Baltic Sea to the Ural Mountains between the 12th and 15th century. ... Pope Gregory IX, born Ugolino dei Conti, was pope from 1227 to August 22, 1241. ... Combatants Novgorod Republic Teutonic Knights, Danish knights, militia of Dorpat Commanders Prince Alexander Nevsky Master Dietrich von Grüningen, Prince-Bishop Hermann Strength 4000-5,000 1,500-2500 Casualties Light around 400 knights killed and 90 captured, a number of infantry killed A monument in Pskov Oblast marking the... The Republic of Novgorod and medieval Sweden waged a number of wars for control of the Gulf of Finland, an area vital for the lucrative Hanseatic trade. ...


Other crusades

Crusade against the Tatars

In 1259 Mongols led by Burundai and Nogai Khan ravaged the principality of Halych-Volynia, Lithuania and Poland. After that Pope Alexander IV tried without success to create a crusade against the Blue Horde. Burundai was a notable Mongol general of the middle XIII century. ... Nogai Khan (died 1299), also called Kara Nogai (Black Nogai), was a Khan of the Golden Horde and a great-grandson of Genghis Khan. ... Halych-Volynia principality was the Ruthenian successor state of Kievan Rus on the territory of Rus menora (Rus propria) including the lands of Red Ruthenia, Black Ruthenia, and the remainder of southwestern Rus. This state also briefly controlled the region of Bessarabia and Moldavia. ... Alexander IV, né Rinaldo Conti (Anagni, ca. ... Blue Horde was one of descendat states which formed around 1227 as the Mongol Empire desintegrated. ...


In the 14th century, Khan Tokhtamysh combined the Blue and White Hordes forming the Golden Horde. It seemed that the power of the Golden Horde had begun to rise, but in 1389, Tokhtamysh made the disastrous decision of waging war on his former master, the great Tamerlane. Tamerlane's hordes rampaged through southern Russia, crippling the Golden Horde's economy and practically wiping out its defenses in those lands. Tokhtamysh (d. ... The Golden Horde (Mongolian: Altan Ordyn Uls; Tatar: ; Russian: ) is a Russian designation for the Mongol[1][2][3] — later Turkicized[4] — khanate established in the western part of the Mongol Empire after the Mongol invasion of Rus in the 1240s: present-day Russia, Ukraine, Kazakhstan, and the Caucasus. ... For the chess engine Tamerlane, see Tamerlane. ...


After losing the war, Tokhtamysh was then dethroned by the party of Khan Temur Kutlugh and Emir Edigu, supported by Tamerlane. When Tokhtamysh asked Vytautas the Great for assistance in retaking the Horde, the latter readily gathered a huge army which included Lithuanians, Ruthenians, Russians, Mongols, Moldavians, Poles, Romanians and Teutonic Knights. Vytautas the Great, 17th century painting Trakai Island Castle Vytautas the Great (Lithuanian:  ; Belarusian: ; Polish: ; Ruthenian: Vitovt; German: ; Latin: Alexander Vitoldus; ca. ... Honorary guard of Mongolia. ... For other uses of Moldavia or Moldova, see Moldova (disambiguation). ... For the state, see Monastic state of the Teutonic Knights. ...


In 1398, the huge army moved from Moldavia and conquered the southern steppe all the way to the Dnieper River and northern Crimea. Inspired by their great successes, Vytautas declared a 'Crusade against the Tatars' with Papal backing. Thus, in 1399, the army of Vytautas once again moved on the Horde. His army met the Horde's at the Vorskla River, slightly inside Lithuanian territory. The Dnieper River (Russian: , Dnepr; Belarusian: , Dniapro; Ukrainian: , Dnipro) is a river which flows from Russia, through Belarus and Ukraine, ending its flow in the Black Sea. ... Motto Процветание в единстве(Russian) Protsvetanie v edinstve(transliteration) Prosperity in unity Anthem Нивы и горы твои волшебны, Родина(Russian) Nivy i gory tvoi volshebny, Rodina(transliteration) Your fields and mounts are wonderful, Motherland Location of Crimea (red) with respect to Ukraine (light blue). ... Boniface IX, né Piero Tomacelli (1356 – October 1, 1404), was the second Roman Pope of the Western Schism from November 2, 1389 – until October 1, 1404). ... The Vorskla River (Ukrainian: ), located in northeastern Ukraine, is tributary to the Dnieper. ...


Although the Lithuanian army was well equipped with cannon, it could not resist a rear attack from Edigu's reserve units. Vytautas hardly escaped alive. Many princes of his kin—possibly as many as 20—were killed (for example, Stefan Musat, Prince of Moldavia and two of his brothers, while a fourth was badly injured[citation needed]), and the victorious Tatars besieged Kiev. "And the Christian blood flowed like water, up to the Kievan walls," as one chronicler put it. Meanwhile, Temur Kutlugh died from the wounds received in the battle, and Tokhtamysh was killed by one of his own men. For other uses, see Cannon (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that Moldavia (historical region) be merged into this article or section. ... Map of Ukraine with Kiev highlighted Coordinates: , Country Ukraine Oblast Kiev City Municipality Raion Municipality Government  - Mayor Leonid Chernovetskyi Elevation 179 m (587 ft) Population (2006)  - City 4,450,968  - Density 3,299/km² (8,544. ...


Crusades in the Balkans

To counter the expanding Ottoman Empire, several crusades were launched in the 15th century. The most notable are: Ottoman redirects here. ...

Sigismund (February 14/15, 1368 - December 9, 1437) was Holy Roman Emperor from 1433 to 1437. ... // Combatants Ottoman Empire Kingdom of Hungary, Holy Roman Empire, France, Wallachia, Poland, England, Kingdom of Scotland, Old Swiss Confederacy, Republic of Venice, Republic of Genoa, Knights of St. ... The Crusade of Varna was a string of events in 1443-1444 between the Kingdom of Hungary, the Serbian Despotate, and the Ottoman Empire. ... Władysław III of Varna. ... Combatants Hungary, Poland and others Ottoman Empire Commanders Władysław III of Poland † Janos Hunyadi Murad II Strength ~ 20,000 ~ 60,000[1][2] Casualties ~ 11,000 ~ 8,000 The Battle of Varna took place on November 10, 1444 near Varna in eastern Bulgaria. ... Combatants Ottoman Empire Kingdom of Hungary Commanders Mehmet II John Hunyadi Strength About 100,000 About 75,000 Casualties About 50,000 About 10,000 After the fall of Constantinople in 1453, Ottoman sultan Mehmed II was rallying his resources in order to subjugate the Kingdom of Hungary. ... John Hunyadi, as imagined by a 17th century artist John Hunyadi (Medieval Latin: Ioannes Corvinus, German: Johann Hunyadi; Hungarian: Hunyadi János, Romanian: Iancu or Ioan de Hunedoara) (c. ... Saint Giovanni da Capestrano (in English, John Capistrano, June 24, 1386 – Ilok, October 23, 1456), Italian friar, theologian and inquisitor, was born in the village of Capestrano, in the diocese of Sulmona in the Abruzzi. ...

Aragonese Crusade

The Aragonese Crusade, or Crusade of Aragón, was declared by Pope Martin IV against the King of Aragón, Peter III the Great, in 1284 and 1285. The Aragonese Crusade or Crusade of Aragón was declared by Pope Martin IV against the king of Aragón, Peter III the Great, in 1284 and 1285. ... Martin IV, né Simon de Brion (ca. ... Peter III of Aragon (Catalan: Pere) (1239 – November 11, 1285, also Peter I of Valencia, Peter II of Barcelona), known as the Great, was the king of Aragon and Valencia and count of Barcelona from 1276 to 1285. ...


Alexandrian Crusade

The Alexandrian Crusade of October 1365 was a minor seaborne crusade against Muslim Alexandria led by Peter I of Cyprus. His motivation was at least as commercial as religious. It had limited success. The Alexandrian Crusade of October 1365[1] was a seaborne[2] Crusade on Alexandria led by Peter I of Cyprus. ... This article is about the city in Egypt. ... Peter I of Cyprus (1328-17 January 1369) was King of Cyprus since his fathers abdication on him on 1358 till 1369. ...


Hussite Crusade

The Hussite Crusade(s), also known as the "Hussite Wars," or the "Bohemian Wars," involved the military actions against and amongst the followers of Jan Hus in Bohemia in the period 1420 to circa 1434. The Hussite Wars were arguably the first European war in which hand-held gunpowder weapons such as muskets made a decisive contribution. The Taborite faction of the Hussite warriors were basically infantry, and their many defeats of larger armies with heavily armoured knights helped affect the infantry revolution. In the end, it was an inconclusive war. Crusades First – Peoples – German – 1101 – Second – Third – Fourth – Albigensian – Childrens – Fifth – Sixth – Seventh – Shepherds – Eighth – Ninth – Aragonese – Alexandrian – Nicopolis – Northern – Hussite – Varna – Otranto Hussite Wars Nekmer - SudomÄ•Å™ – Vítkov – VyÅ¡ehrad – Nebovidy - NÄ›mecký Brod – HoÅ™ice – Ústí nad Labem – Tachov – Lipany – Grotniki The Hussite Wars, also called... Jan Hus ( ) (IPA: , alternative spellings John Hus, Jan Huss, John Huss) (c. ... Flag of Bohemia Bohemia (Czech: ; German: ) is a historical region in central Europe, occupying the western and middle thirds of the Czech Republic. ... Muskets and bayonets aboard the frigate Grand Turk. ... The Taborites (Czech Táborité, singular Táborita) were members of a religious protestant community centered on the Bohemian city of Tábor during the Hussite Wars in the 15th century. ...


Swedish Crusades

The Swedish conquest of Finland in the Middle Ages has traditionally been divided into three "crusades": the First Swedish Crusade around 1155 AD, the Second Swedish Crusade about 1249 AD and the Third Swedish Crusade in 1293 AD. The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... The First Swedish Crusade is a legendary military expedition presumably in the 1150s that has traditionally been seen as the conquest of Finland by Sweden, with pagan Finns converted into Christianity. ... Second Swedish Crusade was a semi-historical Swedish military expedition to Finland by Birger jarl in the 13th century. ... The Third Swedish Crusade was a Swedish military expedition to Karelia in 1293 CE, on area controlled by Novgorod. ...


The First Swedish Crusade is purely legendary, and according to most historians today, never took place as described in the legend and did not result in any ties between Finland and Sweden. For the most part, it was made up in the late 13th century to date the Swedish rule in Finland further back in time. No historical record has also survived describing the second one, but it probably did take place and ended up in the concrete conquest of southwestern Finland. The third one was against Novgorod, and is properly documented by both parties of the conflict.[citation needed] Velikiy Novgorod (Russian: ) is the foremost historic city of North-Western Russia, situated on the M10(E95) federal highway connecting Moscow and St. ...


According to archaeological finds, Finland was largely Christian already before the said crusades. Thus the "crusades" can rather be seen as ordinary expeditions of conquest whose main target was territorial gain. The expeditions were dubbed as actual crusades only in the 19th century by the national-romanticist Swedish and Finnish historians.[citation needed]


Dissent Against the Concept of Crusades

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Elements of the Crusades were criticized by some from the time of their inception in 1095. For example, Roger Bacon felt the Crusades were not effective because, "those who survive, together with their children, are more and more embittered against the Christian faith."[29] In spite of some criticism, the movement was still widely supported in Europe long after the fall of Acre in 1291. J. Hoeberichts argues that St. Francis of Assisi stood in complete and unique opposition to the theological justification and the violent methods of Christendom in his book Francis and Islam.[citation needed] Historians agree that Francis crossed enemy lines to meet the Sultan of Egypt. Hoeberichts cast doubt on the intentions most Christian historians assign to Francis. From the fall of Acre forward, the Crusades to recover Jerusalem and the Christian East were largely lost. Later, 18th century rationalists judged the Crusaders harshly. Likewise, some modern historians in the West expressed moral outrage. As recently as the 1950s, Sir Steven Runciman wrote a resounding condemnation: For the Nova Scotia premier see Roger Bacon (politician). ... The kingdom of Jerusalem and the other Crusader states (in shades of green) in the context of the Near East in 1135. ... The Age of Enlightenment (French: ; Italian: ; German: ; Swahili: ; Swedish: Upplysningen) was an eighteenth-century movement in Western philosophy. ... Sir James Cochran Stevenson Runciman (7 July 1903 - 1 November 2000) was a British historian known for his work on the Middle Ages. ...

"High ideals were besmirched by cruelty and greed...the Holy War was nothing more than a long act of intolerance in the name of God".[29]

Historical perspective

Western and Eastern historiography present variously different views on the crusades, in large part because "crusade" invokes dramatically opposed sets of associations—"crusade" as a valiant struggle for a supreme cause, and "crusade" as a byword for barbarism and aggression. This contrasting view is not recent since Christians have in the past struggled with the tension of military activity and teachings of Christ to "love one's enemies" and to "turn the other cheek". For these reasons, the crusades have been controversial even among contemporaries. Historiography studies the processes by which historical knowledge is obtained and transmitted. ...


Western sources speak of both heroism, faith and honour (emphasized in chivalric romance), but also of acts of brutality. Orthodox Christian and Islamic chroniclers tell stories of barbarian savagery and brutality, although it was not until 1899 that the first Islamic history of the Crusades was written. Prior to the growth of Arab nationalism in the 20th century, the Crusades were virtually unknown in the Islamic world.[30] As a literary genre, romance or chivalric romance refers to a style of heroic prose and verse narrative current in Europe from the Middle Ages to the Renaissance. ...


Islamic perspective

General:


In the minds of the Muslims the Crusades were Western invasions motivated by the West’s greed and hatred for Islam, while the Christian West thought they were reclaiming the Holy Land and stopping the spread of Islam. For the West these wars were known as the ‘crusades’ which comes from the Latin word for cross. The Muslims, on the other hand, referred to the wars as “Frankish Invasions” using the Arabic word al-ifranj which is the term for French although it was applied to Westerns in general. [31] One of the ironic things about the Crusades is that even though “God may have indeed wished it, there is certainly no evidence that the Christians of Jerusalem did, or that anything extraordinary was occurring to pilgrims there to prompt such a response at that moment in history.”[32] A Muslim is a believer in or follower of Islam. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). ...


Results of the Crusades on the Islamic World:


The Crusades have made a lasting impact on the Islamic world, especially in their perception of the West and of Christians. In fact even today Muslims still consider the Crusades to be a symbol of Western hostility toward Islam.[33] The Muslims were horrified by the brutality of the Franks and how they so willingly massacred civilians and broke promises. It did not help that the Crusaders felt little to no remorse for what they did and when the Muslims compared that to Saladin’s reputation of being a man of honor they thought even less of the Franks.[34]The fact that the Franks were motivated more by politics and greed than true religious reason has led Muslims to feel that when Europe began to colonize the East it was merely a continuation of the Crusades. This view caused the Muslims to set up intellectual barriers and become very isolationist in their policies causing them to be left behind in the world scene.[35] Now extremists of both the Christian and Islamic faith believe that confrontation is inevitable and because of this view the Crusades remain in focus keeping them in an active albeit violent role in contemporary politics. [36]


Eastern Orthodoxy

Like Muslims, Eastern Orthodox Christians also see the Crusades as attacks by "the barbarian West", but centered on the sack of Constantinople in 1204. Among vast[citation needed] quantities of gold, which was accumulated for more than 1300 years by the Roman Empire, many relics and artifacts taken from Constantinople are still to be found in the West, in the Vatican and elsewhere, like the Greek Horses on the façade of St. Mark's in Venice. Both the cultural and the economic capital gained after of the sack of Constantinople played a significant part in the rise of the Italian cities that gave birth to renaissance.[citation needed] The original Horses of Saint Mark The Triumphal Quadriga or Horses of Saint Mark is a set of Roman or Greek bronze statues of four horses, originally part of a monument depicting a quadriga. ... San Marco di Venezia, as seen from the Piazza San Marco St Marks Basilica (Italian: Basilica di San Marco) is the most famous of the churches of Venice and one of the best known examples of Byzantine architecture. ... For other uses, see Venice (disambiguation). ...


Popular reputation in Western Europe

In Western Europe, the Crusades have traditionally been regarded by laypeople as heroic adventures, though the mass enthusiasm of common people was largely expended in the First Crusade, from which so few of their class returned. Today, the "Saracen" adversary is crystallized in the lone figure of Saladin; his adversary Richard the Lionheart is, in the English-speaking world, the archetypical crusader king, while Frederick Barbarossa and Louis IX fill the same symbolic niche in German and French culture. Even in contemporary areas, the crusades and their leaders were romanticized in popular literature; the Chanson d'Antioche was a chanson de geste dealing with the First Crusade, and the Song of Roland, dealing with the era of the similarly romanticized Charlemagne, was directly influenced by the experience of the crusades, going so far as to replace Charlemagne's historic Basque opponents with Muslims. A popular theme for troubadours was the knight winning the love of his lady by going on crusade in the east. Saracens was a term used in the Middle Ages for those who professed the religion of Islam. ... Saladin, properly known as Salah al-DÄ«n Yusuf ibn Ayyub (Arabic: , Kurdish: ) (c. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... The Chanson dAntioche is a chanson de geste in 9000 lines of poetry in stanzas called laisses, composed about 1180 for a courtly French audience. ... The chansons de geste, Old French for songs of heroic deeds, are the epic poetry that appears at the dawn of French literature. ... The Song of Roland (La Chanson de Roland) is an 11th century Old French epic poem about the Battle of Roncevaux Pass (or Roncesvalles) fought by Roland of the Brittany Marches and his fellow paladins. ... Charlemagne (left) and Pippin the Hunchback. ... Language(s) Basque - few monoglots Spanish - 1,525,000 monoglots French - 150,000 monoglots Basque-Spanish - 600,000 speakers Basque-French - 76,000 speakers [4] other native languages Religion(s) Traditionally Roman Catholic The Basques (Basque: ) are an indigenous people[5] who inhabit parts of north-central Spain and southwestern... For other uses, see Troubadour (disambiguation). ...

The ever-living Frederick Barbarossa, in his mountain cave: a late 19th century German woodcut
The ever-living Frederick Barbarossa, in his mountain cave: a late 19th century German woodcut

In the 14th century, Godfrey of Bouillon was united with the Trojan War and the adventures of Alexander the Great against a backdrop for military and courtly heroics of the Nine Worthies who stood as popular secular culture heroes into the 16th century, when more critical literary tastes ran instead to Torquato Tasso and Rinaldo and Armida, Roger and Angelica. Later, the rise of a more authentic sense of history among literate people brought the Crusades into a new focus for the Romantic generation in the romances of Sir Walter Scott in the early 19th century. Crusading imagery could be found even in the Crimean War, in which the United Kingdom and France were allied with the Muslim Ottoman Empire, and in World War I, especially Allenby's capture of Jerusalem in 1917. Image File history File links Barbarossa01. ... Image File history File links Barbarossa01. ... Frederick Barbarossa in a 13th century chronicle. ... Godfrey of Bouillon, from a tapestry painted in 1420 Godfrey of Bouillon (c. ... The fall of Troy, by Johann Georg Trautmann (1713–1769). ... For the film of the same name, see Alexander the Great (1956 film). ... Oldest known sculptures of the Nine Worthies at the old city hall Cologne, Germany. ... A culture hero is a historical or mythological hero who changes the world through invention or discovery. ... The tone or style of this article or section may not be appropriate for Wikipedia. ... Raeburns portrait of Sir Walter Scott in 1822. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Field Marshal Edmund Henry Hynman Allenby, 1st Viscount Allenby (April 23, 1861 - May 14, 1936) was a British soldier most famous for his role during World War I. Field Marshal Edmund Allenby Early years and active service Born in Brackenhurst, Nottinghamshire, Allenby was educated at Haileybury College. ...


In Spain, the popular reputation of the Crusades is outshone by the particularly Spanish history of the Reconquista. El Cid is the central figure. Statue of El Cid in Burgos. ...


Role of women

While traditional historiography conceptualizes the crusades as a masculine movement symbolic of honour and male courage, women were also involved.


Women at home were intricately connected whether aware of it or not in the recruitment of crusading men. Their encouragement and familial ties would present men friendly connections which made the prospect of taking the cross more appealing for those risking their lives. Arguably the most significant role that women played in the West during the crusades was their preservation of the home. The best known example is of Adela of Blois, wife of Stephen of Blois whose correspondence with her husband while he was on Crusade and she was at home managing his fief has survived in part. It appears she was rather more keen on his crusading than he was. Men could journey to The Holy Land without having to worry about their home because their wives were in charge of their estates and families.[37] Adela of Blois (c. ... Stephen II Henry (c. ... The Holy Land is a concept album by country singer Johnny Cash, released on Columbia Records in 1969 (see 1969 in music). ...


Even though most women showed their support for the crusades at home, some women took the cross themselves to go on the crusade. Aristocratic women who joined the movement often found that they had new positions of authority they did not have in the West. Eleanor of Aquitaine, the wealthy queen of France and the wife of king Louis VII, took the cross from St. Bernard of Clairvaux on Easter Sunday 1145 to join her husband.[38] Another woman who had ultimate political power in the East was Melisende of Jerusalem, who under law gained hereditary rights to the crown upon her husband’s death. Like Eleanor, Melisende never led troops into battle, but she did participate in acts of political diplomacy. Less successful was her granddaughter Sibylla of Jerusalem, whose choice of husband had been a crucial political issue since her childhood. Her second marriage to Guy of Lusignan made him the king-consort on the death of Baldwin IV, with disastrous results. While most women were there to help and care for the crusading men by bringing them water or raising their spirits by offering emotional support, there were women who had specific tasks which defined their feminine characteristics like the washerwoman.[39] Eleanor of Aquitaine (right) and John sans Terre Eleanor of Aquitaine (or Aliénor), Duchess of Aquitaine and Gascony and Countess of Poitou (1122[1]–April 1, 1204) was one of the wealthiest and most powerful women in Europe during the High Middle Ages. ... Louis VII may refer to: Louis VII of France the Younger (1120–1180). ... Bernard of Clairvaux, illustrated in A Short History of Monks and Monasteries by Alfred Wesley Wishart, 1900 Saint Bernard of Clairvaux (Fontaines, near Dijon, 1090 – August 21, 1153 in Clairvaux) was a French abbot and theologian who was the main voice of conservatism during the intellectual revival of Western Europe... Melisende (1105 – September 11, 1161) was Queen of Jerusalem from 1131 to 1153. ... Top: Baldwin IV betrothes Sibylla to Guy; Bottom: Sibylla and Guy are married. ... Imaginary portrait of Guy of Lusignan by François-Edouard Picot, c. ... King consort is a title given in some monarchies to the husband of a Queen regnant. ... Baldwin IV (1161-1185), the son of Amalric I of Jerusalem and his first wife Agnes of Edessa, was king of Jerusalem from 1174 to 1183, when he had his nephew Baldwin V crowned in his place. ...


The permanent residents of the Crusader kingdoms, if born in Europe, had usually come unmarried. Very many married women from Apulia in Southern Italy, where living conditions were often harsh, encouraged young women to take ship for Palestine in the knowledge that many men there were looking for wives. This article is bad because of the Italian region. ...


The most controversial role that women had in the crusades was of course the role which threatened their femininity, actual militancy. When analyzing the primary documentation of female militancy, one must be cautious. The accounts of women fighting come mostly from Muslim historians whose aim was to portray Christian women as barbaric and ungodly because of their acts of killing. The contrasting view from Christian accounts portray women fighting only in emergency situations for the preservation of the camps and their own lives. In these cases women are seen as more feminine while behaving like ‘proper women’.[40] Virtually all crusade writings came from men, and women would have been interpreted subjectively no matter what roles they played.


Legacy

Europe

The crusades have been remembered relatively favourably in western Europe (countries which were, at the time of the Crusades, Roman Catholic countries). Nonetheless, there have certainly been many vocal critics of the Crusades in Western Europe since the Renaissance.


Politics and culture

The Crusades had an enormous influence on the European Middle Ages. At times, much of the continent was united under a powerful Papacy, but by the 14th century, the development of centralized bureaucracies (the foundation of the modern nation-state) was well on its way in France, England, Burgundy, Portugal, Castile, and Aragon partly because of the dominance of the church at the beginning of the crusading era. The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... The Pope is the Catholic Bishop and patriarch of Rome, and head of the Roman Catholic Church and the Eastern Catholic Churches. ... The term nation-state, while often used interchangeably with the terms unitary state and independent state, refers properly to the parallel occurence of a state and a nation. ... Coat of arms of the second Duchy of Burgundy and later of the French province of Burgundy Burgundy (French: ; German: ) is a historic region of France, inhabited in turn by Celts (Gauls), Romans (Gallo-Romans), and various Germanic peoples, most importantly the Burgundians and the Franks; the former gave their... The starting point of Crown of Castile can be considered when the union of the Kingdoms of Castile and Leon in 1230 or the later fusion of their Cortes (their Parlaments). ... Capital Zaragoza Official language(s) Spanish Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 4th  47,719 km²  9. ...


Although Europe had been exposed to Islamic culture for centuries through contacts in Iberian Peninsula and Sicily, much knowledge in areas such as science, medicine, and architecture was transferred from the Islamic to the western world during the crusade era. Islam â–¶(?) (Arabic: الإسلام al-islām) the submission to God is a monotheistic faith, one of the Abrahamic religions, the worlds second-largest religion, and said by some sources to be the fastest growing religion in some parts of the world. ... Sicily ( in Italian and Sicilian) is an autonomous region of Italy and the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, with an area of 25,708 km² (9,926 sq. ...


The military experiences of the crusades also had their effects in Europe; for example, European castles became massive stone structures as they were in the east, rather than smaller wooden buildings as they had typically been in the past. For other uses, see Castle (disambiguation). ...


In addition, the Crusades are seen as having opened up European culture to the world, especially Asia:

The Crusades brought about results of which the popes had never dreamed, and which were perhaps the most, important of all. They re-established traffic between the East and West, which, after having been suspended for several centuries, was then resumed with even greater energy; they were the means of bringing from the depths of their respective provinces and introducing into the most civilized Asiatic countries Western knights, to whom a new world was thus revealed, and who returned to their native land filled with novel ideas... If, indeed, the Christian civilization of Europe has become universal culture, in the highest sense, the glory redounds, in no small measure, to the Crusades."[3]

Along with trade, new scientific discoveries and inventions made their way east or west. Arab advances (including the development of algebra, optics, and refinement of engineering) made their way west and sped the course of advancement in European universities that led to the Renaissance in later centuries This article is about the branch of mathematics. ...


The invasions of German crusaders prevented formation of the large Lithuanian state incorporating all Baltic nations and tribes. Lithuania was destined to become a small country and forced to expand to the East looking for resources to combat the crusaders.[41]


Trade

The need to raise, transport and supply large armies led to a flourishing of trade throughout Europe. Roads largely unused since the days of Rome saw significant increases in traffic as local merchants began to expand their horizons. This was not only because the Crusades prepared Europe for travel, but also because many wanted to travel after being reacquainted with the products of the Middle East. This also aided in the beginning of the Renaissance in Italy, as various Italian city-states from the very beginning had important and profitable trading colonies in the crusader states, both in the Holy Land and later in captured Byzantine territory. For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... This article is about the European Renaissance of the 14th-17th centuries. ... A city-state is a region controlled exclusively by a city. ... For other uses, see Holy Land (disambiguation). ... The Byzantine Empire is the term conventionally used to describe the Roman Empire during the Middle Ages, centered at its capital in Constantinople. ...


Increased trade brought many things to Europeans that were once unknown or extremely rare and costly. These goods included a variety of spices, ivory, jade, diamonds, improved glass-manufacturing techniques, early forms of gun powder, oranges, apples, and other Asian crops, and many other products.


The achievement of preserving Christian Europe must not, however, ignore the eventual fall of the Christian Byzantine Empire, which was mostly caused by Fourth Crusade's extreme aggression against Eastern Orthodox Christianity, largely at the instigation of the infamous Enrico Dandolo, the Doge of Venice and financial backer of the Fourth Crusade (1202-1204). The Byzantine lands had been a stable Christian state since the 4th century, though had been in a crisis immediately before the Fourth Crusade.[22] After the Crusaders took Constantinople in 1204, the Byzantines never again had as large or strong a state and finally fell in 1453. Byzantine redirects here. ... The Entry of the Crusaders into Constantinople (Eugène Delacroix, 1840). ... Eastern Orthodoxy (also called Greek Orthodoxy and Russian Orthodoxy) is a Christian tradition which represents the majority of Eastern Christianity. ... Dandolo Preaching the Crusade, by Gustav Dore Tomb of Enrico Dandolo Enrico Dandolo (1107?-1205) was the Doge (1192-1205) of Venice during the Fourth Crusade. ... Grand Procession of the Doge, 16th century For about a thousand years, the chief magistrate and leader of the Most Serene Republic of Venice was styled the Doge, a rare but not unique Italian title derived from the Latin Dux, as the major Italian parallel Duce and the English Duke. ... This article is about the city before the Fall of Constantinople (1453). ...


Taking into account the fall of the Byzantines, the Crusades could be portrayed as the defense of Roman Catholicism against the violent expansion of Islam, rather than the defense of Christianity as a whole against Islamic expansion. On the other hand, the Fourth Crusade could be presented as an anomaly, though this does not explain the Northern Crusades which also targeted Orthodox Christians. It is also possible to find a compromise between these two points of view, specifically that the Crusades were Roman Catholic campaigns which primarily sought to fight Islam to preserve Catholicism, and secondarily sought to thereby protect the rest of Christianity; in this context, the Fourth Crusade's crusaders could have felt compelled to abandon the secondary aim in order to retain Dandolo's logistical support in achieving the primary aim. Even so, the Fourth Crusade was condemned by the Pope of the time (Pope Innocent III) and is now generally remembered throughout Europe as a disgraceful failure. The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... The Teutonic knights in Pskov in 1240. ... Pope Innocent III (c. ...


From a larger perspective, and certainly from that of noted naval/maritime historian Archibald Lewis, the Crusades must be viewed as part of a massive macrohistorical event during which Western Europe, primarily by its ability in naval warfare, amphibious siege, and maritime trade, was able to advance in all spheres of civilization.[22] Recovering from the Dark Ages of AD 700-1000, throughout the 11th century Western Europe began to push the boundaries of its civilization.[22] Prior to the First Crusade the Italian city-state of Venice, along with the Byzantine Empire, had cleared the Adriatic Sea of Islamic pirates, and loosened the Islamic hold on the Mediterranean Sea (Byzantine-Muslim War of 1030-1035).[22] The Normans, with the assistance of the Italian city-states of Genoa and Pisa, had retaken Sicily from the Muslims from 1061-1091.[22] These conflicts prior to the First Crusade had both retaken Western European territory and weakened the Islamic hold on the Mediterranean, allowing for the rise of Western European Mediterranean trading and naval powers such as the Sicilian Normans and the Italian city-states of Venice, Genoa, and Pisa.[22] Petrarch, who conceived the idea of a European Dark Age. From Cycle of Famous Men and Women, Andrea di Bartolo di Bargillac, c. ... Combatants Christendom, Catholicism West European Christians, Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia Seljuks, Arabs and other Muslims The First Crusade was launched in 1095 by Pope Urban II with the dual goals of liberating the sacred city of Jerusalem and the Holy Land from Muslims and freeing the Eastern Christians from Muslim... For other uses, see Venice (disambiguation). ... Byzantine redirects here. ... A satellite image of the Adriatic Sea. ... Mediterranean redirects here. ... Norman conquests in red. ... For other uses, see Genoa (disambiguation). ... Leaning Tower of Pisa. ... Sicily ( in Italian and Sicilian) is an autonomous region of Italy and the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, with an area of 25,708 km² (9,926 sq. ... Combatants Christendom, Catholicism West European Christians, Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia Seljuks, Arabs and other Muslims The First Crusade was launched in 1095 by Pope Urban II with the dual goals of liberating the sacred city of Jerusalem and the Holy Land from Muslims and freeing the Eastern Christians from Muslim...


During the Middle Ages, the key trading region of the Earth was the Black Sea-Mediterranean Sea-Red Sea.[22] It was the aforementioned pre-First Crusade actions, along with the Crusades themselves, which allowed Western Europe to control the trade of the Mediterranean Sea and Black Sea, a control which began in the 1000s and would only be threatened by the Turkish Ottoman Empire beginning in the mid-to-late 1400s.[22] This Western European control of vital sea lanes allowed the economy of Western Europe to advance to previously unknown degrees, most obviously as regards the Maritime Republics of Venice, Genoa, and Pisa.[22] Indeed, it is no coincidence that the Renaissance began in Italy, as the Maritime Republics, through their control of the Eastern Mediterranean and Black Seas, were able to return to Italy the ancient knowledge of the Greeks and Romans, as well as the products of distant East Asia.[22] For other uses, see Black Sea (disambiguation). ... Mediterranean redirects here. ... Location of the Red Sea The Red Sea is an inlet of the Indian Ocean between Africa and Asia. ...


Combined with the Mongol Empire, Western Europe traded extensively with East Asia, the security of the Mongol Empire allowing the products of Asia to be brought to such Western European controlled ports as Acre, Antioch, Kaffa (on the Black Sea) and even, for a time, Constantinople itself.[22] The Fifth Crusade of 1217-1221 and the Seventh Crusade of 1248-1254 were largely attempts to secure Western European control of the Red Sea trade region, as both Crusades were directed against Egypt, the power base of the Ayyubid, and then Mameluke, Sultanates.[22] It was only in the 1300s, as the stability of trade with Asia collapsed with the Mongol Empire, the Mamelukes destroyed the Middle Eastern Crusader States, and the rising Ottoman Empire impeded further Western European trade with Asia, that Western Europeans sought alternate trade routes to Asia, ultimately leading to Columbus's voyage of 1492.[22] An acre is the name of a unit of area in a number of different systems, including Imperial units and United States customary units. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Antakya. ... Kaffa is the name of several geographical locations: Crimean city of Kaffa or Caffa is currently known as Feodosiya; The Kingdom of Kaffa; The former province of Kaffa in Ethiopia This is a disambiguation page — a list of articles associated with the same title. ... Frisian crusaders confront the Tower of Damietta, Egypt. ... The Seventh Crusade was a crusade led by Louis IX of France from 1248 to 1254. ... The Ayyubid Dynasty was a Muslim dynasty of Egypt, Iraq in the 12th and 13th centuries. ... An Ottoman Mamluk, from 1810 Mamluks (or Mameluks) (the Arabic word usually translates as owned, singular: مملوك plural: مماليك) comprised slave soldiers used by the Muslim Caliphs and the Ottoman Empire, and who on more than one occasion seized power for themselves. ... Map of Somalia including the self-proclaimed boundary of Somaliland Northern Somali sultanates In the late Nineteenth Century, two sultanates emerged and ruled Northern Somalia, an area stretching as far west to Burco from Las Khorey. ... An Ottoman Mamluk, from 1810 Mamluks (or Mameluks) (the Arabic word usually translates as owned, singular: مملوك plural: مماليك) comprised slave soldiers used by the Muslim Caliphs and the Ottoman Empire, and who on more than one occasion seized power for themselves. ... Ottoman redirects here. ... Look up columbus in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Islamic world

The crusades had profound but localized effects upon the Islamic world, where the equivalents of "Franks" and "Crusaders" remained expressions of disdain. The Muslims tended to use the word "Frank" to describe all Western Europeans, regardless of nationality.[42]


Muslims traditionally celebrate Saladin as a hero against the Crusaders. In the 21st century, some in the Arab world, such as the Arab independence movement and Pan-Islamism movement, continue to call Western involvement in the Middle East a "crusade". The Crusades were regarded by the Islamic world as cruel and savage onslaughts by European Christians. Pan-Islam is a religious movement calling for the Muslims of the world to unite. ...


The most devastating long term consequence of the crusades, according to historian Peter Mansfield, was the creation of an Islamic mentality that sought a retreat into isolation. He says "Assaulted from all quarters, the Muslim world turned in on itself. It became oversensitive [and] defensive… attitudes that grew steadily worse as world-wide evolution, a process from which the Muslim world felt excluded, continued."[43]. Peter Mansfield was born in 1928 in Ranchi,India, and was educated at Winchester and Cambridge. ...


Jewish community

1250 French Bible illustration depicts Jews (identifiable by Judenhut) being massacred by Crusaders
1250 French Bible illustration depicts Jews (identifiable by Judenhut) being massacred by Crusaders

Though the Muslims in power at the time tried to protect the Jews in The Holy Land, the Crusaders' atrocities against them in the German and Hungarian towns, later also in those of France, England, and in the massacres of Jews in Palestine and Syria have become a significant part of the history of anti-Semitism, although no Crusade was ever declared against Jews. These attacks left behind for centuries strong feelings of ill will on both sides. The social position of the Jews in western Europe was distinctly worsened, and legal restrictions increased during and after the Crusades. They prepared the way for the anti-Jewish legislation of Pope Innocent III and formed the turning-point in medieval anti-Semitism. It must also be noted that Pope Innocent III reiterated papal injunctions against forcible conversions of Jews, and added: "No Christian shall do the Jews any personal injury...or deprive them of their possessions...or disturb them during the celebration of their festivals...or extort money from them by threatening to exhume their dead."[44]. 1250 French Bible illustration depicts Jews (identifiable by Judenhut) being massacred by Crusaders The history of the Jews and the Crusades is one of Crusader atrocities, but also one of the popes and some clergys defense of them. ... Jews being killed by Crusaders, from a 1250 French bible File links The following pages link to this file: History of the Jews in Poland ... Jews being killed by Crusaders, from a 1250 French bible File links The following pages link to this file: History of the Jews in Poland ... The Jewish poet Süßkind von Trimberg wearing a Judenhut (Codex Manesse, 14. ... This is a partial chronology of hostilities towards or discrimination against the Jews as a religious or ethnic group. ... Pope Innocent III (c. ... The Eternal Jew: 1937 German poster. ...


The crusading period brought with it many narratives from Jewish sources. Among the better-known Jewish narratives are the chronicles of Solomon Bar Simson and Rabbi Eliezer bar Nathan, "The Narrative of the Old Persecutions," by Mainz Anonymous, and "Sefer Zekhirah," and "The Book of Remembrance," by Rabbi Ephraim of Bonn. The Mainz Anonymous is an account of the German Crusade of 1096 written soon thereafter by an anonymous Jewish author. ... Ephraim of Bonn was a Jewish writer who documented the massacre of the Jews at the city of York in the year 1190. ...


Caucasus

In the Caucasus Mountains of Georgia, in the remote highland region of Khevsureti, a tribe called the Khevsurs are thought to possibly be direct descendants of a party of crusaders who got separated from a larger army and have remained in isolation with some of the crusader culture intact. Into the 20th century, relics of armor, weaponry and chain mail were still being used and passed down in such communities. Russian serviceman and ethnographer Arnold Zisserman who spent 25 years (1842–67) in the Caucasus, believed the exotic group of Georgian highlanders were descendants of the last Crusaders based on their customs, language, art and other evidence.[45] American traveler Richard Halliburton saw and recorded the customs of the tribe in 1935.[46] The Caucasus Mountains are a mountain system between the Black and Caspian seas in the Caucasus region, usually considered the southeastern limit of Europe. ... Khevsureti mountains Fortress village Shatili Khevsureti is a historic province in eastern Georgia, located along both the northern and southern slopes of the Great Caucasus Mountains. ... Khevsureti mountains Khevsureti is a historic province in eastern Georgia, located along both the northern and southern slopes of the Great Caucasus Mountains. ... Richard Halliburton Richard Halliburton (9 January 1900– presumed dead 23 March 1939) was an American explorer, athlete, and author. ...


Etymology and use of the term "crusade"

For other uses of the term "crusade", see Crusade (disambiguation).
Look up Crusade in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

The crusades were never referred to as such by their participants. The original crusaders were known by various terms, including fideles Sancti Petri (the faithful of Saint Peter) or milites Christi (knights of Christ). They saw themselves as undertaking an iter, a journey, or a peregrinatio, a pilgrimage, though pilgrims were usually forbidden from carrying arms. Like pilgrims, each crusader swore a vow (a votus), to be fulfilled on successfully reaching Jerusalem, and they were granted a cloth cross (crux) to be sewn into their clothes. This "taking of the cross", the crux, eventually became associated with the entire journey; the word "crusade" (coming into English from the French croisade, the Italian crociata, the Portuguese cruzada, or the German Kreuzzug) developed from this. Look up crusade in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 151 languages. ... St Peter redirects here. ...


Since the 17th century, the term "crusade" has carried a connotation in the West of being a righteous campaign, usually to "root out evil", or to fight for a just cause. In a non-historical common or theological use, "crusade" has come to have a much broader emphatic or religious meaning—substantially removed from "armed struggle." Occident redirects here. ... For other uses, see Evil (disambiguation). ...


In a broader sense, "crusade" can be used, always in a rhetorical and metaphorical sense, to identify as righteous any war that is given a religious or moral justification. Rhetoric (from Greek , rhêtôr, orator, teacher) is generally understood to be the art or technique of persuasion through the use of oral, visual, or written language; however, this definition of rhetoric has expanded greatly since rhetoric emerged as a field of study in universities. ... This article is about metaphor in literature and rhetoric. ... Various Religious symbols, including (first row) Christian, Jewish, Hindu, Bahai, (second row) Islamic, tribal, Taoist, Shinto (third row) Buddhist, Sikh, Hindu, Jain, (fourth row) Ayyavazhi, Triple Goddess, Maltese cross, pre-Christian Slavonic Religion is the adherence to codified beliefs and rituals that generally involve a faith in a spiritual... Morality (from the Latin manner, character, proper behavior) has three principal meanings. ...


Ardent activists may also refer to their causes as "crusades," as in the "Crusade against Adult Illiteracy," or a "Crusade against Littering." In recent years, however, the use of "crusade" as a positive term has become less frequent in order to avoid giving offense to Muslims or others offended by the term.[citation needed] The term may also sarcastically or pejoratively characterize the zealotry of agenda promoters, for example with the moniker "Public Crusader" or the campaigns "Crusade against abortion," and the "Crusade for prayer in public schools." “Zealot” redirects here. ...


In line with this usage George W. Bush in 2002 described his anti-terrorism campaign as a "crusade" but was compelled to repudiate the term when it was pointed out that the word had a very different, and offensive, meaning to Muslims and Jews. George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the forty-third and current President of the United States of America, originally inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ...


See also

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Knightly Orders
Famous Opponents

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... 1250 French Bible illustration depicts Jews (identifiable by Judenhut) being massacred by Crusaders The history of the Jews and the Crusades is one of Crusader atrocities, but also one of the popes and some clergys defense of them. ... Bull of the Crusade were the Papal bulls which granted indulgences to those who took part in the crusades against Muslims, pagans or sometimes heretics (from the Catholic viewpoint). ... The art of the Crusades encompassed roughly two artistic periods in Europe, the Romanesque Period, and the Gothic period, the transition between the two occurring around the middle of the 12th century. ... The Crusade cycle is an Old French cycle of chansons de geste concerning the First Crusade and its aftermath. ... The Near East in 1135, with the Crusader states in green hues. ... The Hashashin (also Hashishin, Hashashiyyin or Assassins) were a religious sect of Ismaili Shiites from the Nizari sub-sect originating from post-Islamic Persia. ... This is a list of the principal leaders of the Crusades, classified by Crusade. ... Krak des Chevaliers, Syria This is a list of castles in the eastern Mediterranean and Middle East, founded or occupied during the crusades. ... Christian military orders appeared following the First Crusade. ... For other uses of the term, see Holy War. ... The Hussites comprised an early Protestant Christian movement, followers of Jan Hus. ... For other uses, see Jihad (disambiguation). ... The Shepherds Crusade is two separate events from the 13th and 14th century. ... Combatants Byzantine Empire,[1] Arab Ghassanids, Bulgarian Empire (later) Muslim Arabs (Rashidun, Umayyad and Abbasid Caliphates) Syria was just the start of Arab expansion. ... The Islamic conquest and domination of Sicily (as well as parts of southern Italy) is a process whose origin must be traced back in the general expansion of Islam from the 7th century onwards (see Muslim conquests for more details). ... The Tenth Crusade is a rhetorical device that builds an analogy between the U.S.-led War on Terrorism and the historical Crusades. ... Kingdom of Heaven is a 2005 epic film, directed and produced by Ridley Scott, and written by William Monahan. ... Medieval demography is the study of human demography in Europe during the Middle Ages. ... During the Islamic Golden Age, usually dated from the 8th century to the 13th century,[1] engineers, scholars and traders of the Islamic world contributed enormously to the arts, agriculture, economics, industry, literature, navigation, philosophy, sciences, and technology, both by preserving and building upon earlier traditions and by adding many... Islam in the world. ... Age of the Caliphs  Expansion under the Prophet Muhammad, 622-632  Expansion during the Patriarchal Caliphate, 632-661  Expansion during the Umayyad Caliphate, 661-750 The initial Muslim conquests (632–732), also referred to as the Islamic conquests or Arab conquests,[1] began after the death of the Islamic prophet... Mongol invasions can refer to: 1205–1209 invasion of Western China 1211–1234 invasion of Northern China 1218–1220 invasion of Central Asia 1220-1223, 1235-1330 invasions of Georgia and the Caucasus 1220–1224 of the Cumans 1223–36 invasion of Volga Bulgaria 1231–1259 invasion of Korea 1237... The wars of the Ottoman Empire in Europe are also sometimes referred to as the Ottoman Wars or as Turkish Wars, particularly in older, European texts. ... For other senses of this word, see Reconquista (disambiguation). ... Frisian crusaders attack the tower of Damietta in a painting by Cornelis Claesz van Wieringen. ... Among the Christian states in the Levant (in yellow) Little Armenia and the northern Frank kingdom of Antioch were the most regular allies of the Mongols. ... In 1260 Baibars, the Sultan of Egypt and Syria, began to threaten the crusader state of Antioch, which (as a vassal of the Armenians) had supported the Mongols, the traditional enemies of the Turks. ... The Knights Hospitaller (also known as Knights of Rhodes, Knights of Malta, Cavaliers of Malta, and the Order of St. ... For other uses, see Knights Templar (disambiguation). ... For the state, see Monastic state of the Teutonic Knights. ... Saladin, properly known as Salah al-DÄ«n Yusuf ibn Ayyub (Arabic: , Kurdish: ) (c. ... al-Malik al-Zahir Rukn al-Din Baibars al-Bunduqdari (also spelled Baybars) (Arabic: ) was a Mamluk Sultan of Egypt and Syria. ... Al-Malik Al-Ashraf Khalil (Arabic: المالك الأشرف خليل ) (died 1293) was the Mamluk sultan of Egypt from 1290 until his assassination in December, 1293. ... Imad ad-Din Atabeg Zengi (al-Malik al-Mansur) (also Zangi, Zengui, Zenki, or Zanki; in Turkish Ä°madeddin Zengi, in Arabic: عماد الدین زنكي) (c. ...

Notes

  1. ^ a b c Riley-Smith, Jonathan. The Oxford History of the Crusades New York: Oxford University Press, 1999. ISBN 0192853643.
  2. ^ such as Muslim territories in Al Andalus, Ifriqiya, and Egypt, as well as in Eastern Europe
  3. ^ a b c Crusades in The New Catholic Encyclopedia, New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1966, Vol. IV, p. 508.[1]
  4. ^ e.g. the Albigensian Crusade, the Aragonese Crusade, the Reconquista and the Northern Crusades.
  5. ^ Halsall, Paul (December 1997). Philip de Novare: Les Gestes des Ciprois, The Crusade of Frederick II, 1228-29. Medieval Sourcebook. Fordham University. Retrieved on 2008-02-08.—"Gregory IX had in fact excommunicated Frederick before he left Sicily the second time"
  6. ^ Denys Pringle "Architecture in Latin East" in The Oxford History of the Crusades ed. Jonathan Riley-Smith (New York:Oxford University Press,1999) 157
  7. ^ Madden, p. 5
  8. ^ Madden, p. 8
  9. ^ East Asian History Sourcebook: Chinese Accounts of Rome, Byzantium and the Middle East, c. 91 B.C.E. - 1643 C.E.
  10. ^ However, Chinese scholar Yang Xianyi states it was Melissenos Kaisar, brother-in-law of Emperor Alexios I Komnenos.
  11. ^ (Chinese) Fundamental Historical Research by Yang Xianyi
  12. ^ http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761561210_2/Crusades.html Encarta - Crusades] accessed January 2, 2007
  13. ^ Fulcher of Chartres, Medieval Sourcebook.
  14. ^ Tuchman, Barbara. A Distant Mirror: The Calamitous 14th Century. Alfred A. Knopf; Reissue edition. (August 1978) 279. ISBN-10: 0394400267.
  15. ^ Arab Historians of the Crusades, trans. F. Gabrieli, trans. E. J. Costello. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1984.
  16. ^ Arab Historians of the Crusades, trans. F. Gabrieli, trans. E. J. Costello. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1984.
  17. ^ Trumpbour, John. “Crusades.” In The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World. , edited by John L. Esposito. Oxford Islamic Studies Online, http://www.oxfordislamicstudies.com/article (accessed Feb 17, 2008).
  18. ^ "Les Croisades, origines et consequences", p.62, Claude Lebedel, ISBN 2737341361
  19. ^ The Damascus Chronicle of the Crusades, Extracted and translated from the chronicle of Ibn Al-Qalanisi, translated by H.A.R. Gibb (London: Luzac & Co., 1932).
  20. ^ Trumpbour, John. “Crusades.” In The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World. , edited by John L. Esposito. Oxford Islamic Studies Online, http://www.oxfordislamicstudies.com/article (accessed Feb 17, 2008).
  21. ^ “Crusades” In The Islamic World: past and Present. , edited by John L. Esposito. Oxford Islamic Studies Online, http://www.oxfordislamicstudies.com/article (accessed Feb 17, 2008).
  22. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s Lewis, Archibald (January 1988). Nomads and Crusaders: AD 1000-1368.. Indiana University Press. ISBN 9780253206527. 
  23. ^ Hallam, Elizabeth. Chronicles of the Crusades: Eye-Witness Accounts of the wars Between Christianity and Islam. London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1989. pp 155-155.
  24. ^ Esposito, John L. Islam: The Straight Path. Oxford University Press: New York, 2005. pg. 59.
  25. ^ Lamb, Harold. The Crusades: The Flame of Islam, Double Day and Company, Inc. New York. 1931 pg. 310-311.
  26. ^ “Crusades” In The Islamic World: past and Present. , edited by John L. Esposito. Oxford Islamic Studies Online, http://www.oxfordislamicstudies.com/article (accessed Feb 17, 2008).
  27. ^ Hetoum II (1289‑1297)
  28. ^ Third Crusade: Siege of Acre
  29. ^ a b Riley-Smith, Jonathan. The Atlas of the Crusades New York: Facts on File, 1990. ISBN 0-8160-2186-4.
  30. ^ Maalouf, Amin. Crusades Through Arab Eyes.
  31. ^ Trumpbour, John. “Crusades.” In The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World., edited by John L. Esposito. Oxford Islamic Studies Online, http://www.oxfordislamicstudies.com/article (accessed Feb 17, 2008).
  32. ^ Peters, “Early Muslim Empires,” pg 85. Qtd in Islam: The Straight Path. John L. Esposito. Oxford University Press: New York, 2005. Pg. 58.
  33. ^ “Crusades” In The Islamic World: past and Present. , edited by John L. Esposito. Oxford Islamic Studies Online, http://www.oxfordislamicstudies.com/article (accessed Feb 17, 2008).
  34. ^ Trumpbour, John. “Crusades.” In The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World. , edited by John L. Esposito. Oxford Islamic Studies Online, http://www.oxfordislamicstudies.com/article (accessed Feb 17, 2008).
  35. ^ Murphy, Thomas Patrick. The Holy War. Columbus: Ohio State University Press, 1976. pg. 198.
  36. ^ Trumpbour, John. “Crusades.” In The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World. , edited by John L. Esposito. Oxford Islamic Studies Online, http://www.oxfordislamicstudies.com/article (accessed Feb 17, 2008).
  37. ^ Jonathan Riley-Smith. The First Crusaders 1096–1131, New York, NY: Cambridge University Press 1997, 99.
  38. ^ Roy Douglas Davis Owen. Eleanor of Aquitaine : queen and legend, Oxford, UK; Cambridge, Mass: Blackwell Publishing 1993, 22.
  39. ^ Susan B. Edington and Sarah Lambert ed. Gendering the Crusades, New York: Columbia University Press 2002, 98.
  40. ^ Helen Nicholson. “Women on the Third Crusade. Journal of Medieval History (23) no.4 (1997) pp. 337.”
  41. ^ (Lithuanian) Tomas Baranauskas. Prūsų sukilimas—prarasta galimybė sukurti kitokią Lietuvą (Prussian rebellion—the lost chance of creating different Lithuania). 20 September, 2006
  42. ^ Atwood, p. 583
  43. ^ A History of the Middle East, Second Edition, London: Penguin Books, 2003, p 21.
  44. ^ Innocent III: Letter on the Jews 1199, Internet Medieval Source Book, Fordham University, 1996, Retrieved on 2006-11-27.
  45. ^ Images from the Georgia–Chechnya Border, 1970–1980, Phoebe A. Hearst Museum of Anthropology.
  46. ^ Sword and Buckler Fighting among the Lost Crusaders. Excerpts of Halliburton's observations

This article is about the historical region. ... In medieval history, Ifriqiya or Ifriqiyah (Arabic: إفريقية) was the area comprising the coastal regions of what are today western Libya, Tunisia, and eastern Algeria. ... Statistical regions of Europe as delineated by the United Nations (UN definition of Eastern Europe marked red):  Northern Europe  Western Europe  Eastern Europe  Southern Europe Pre-1989 division between the West (grey) and Eastern Bloc (orange) superimposed on current borders: Russia (dark orange), other countries formerly part of the USSR... The Albigensian Crusade or Cathar Crusade (1209 - 1229) was a 20-year military campaign initiated by the Roman Catholic Church to eliminate the heresy of the Cathars of Languedoc. ... The Aragonese Crusade or Crusade of Aragón was declared by Pope Martin IV against the king of Aragón, Peter III the Great, in 1284 and 1285. ... For other senses of this word, see Reconquista (disambiguation). ... The Teutonic knights in Pskov in 1240. ... 2008 (MMVIII) will be a leap year starting on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (common) era, in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 39th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Emperor Alexios I Komnenos Alexios I Komnenos or Alexius I Comnenus (Greek: ; Latin: ; 1048 – August 15, 1118), Byzantine emperor (1081–1118), was the son of John Komnenos and Anna Dalassena and the nephew of Isaac I Komnenos (emperor 1057–1059). ... Barbara Wertheim Tuchman (January 30, 1912 – February 6, 1989) was an American historian and author. ...

References

  • Atwood, Christopher P. (2004). The Encyclopedia of Mongolia and the Mongol Empire. Facts on File, Inc. ISBN 0-8160-4671-9.

External links

  • E.L. Skip Knox, The Crusades, a virtual college course through Boise State University.
  • Paul Crawford, Crusades: A Guide to Online Resources, 1999.
  • Thomas F. Madden, The Real History of the Crusades, an essay by a Crusades historian
  • The Society for the Study of the Crusades and the Latin East—an international organization of professional Crusade scholars
  • De Re Militari: The Society for Medieval Military History—contains articles and primary sources related to the Crusades
  • Resources > Medieval Jewish History > The Crusades The Jewish History Resource Center - Project of the Dinur Center for Research in Jewish History, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem
  • The Crusades Encyclopedia - articles, primary and secondary sources, and bibliographies
  • An Islamic View of the Battlefieldan article that provides indepth analysis of the theological basis of human wars
  • A History of the Crusades
  • The Crusades Wiki

Boise State University is a state university located near downtown Boise, the capital city of Idaho. ... Thomas F. Madden (born c. ... The Hebrew University of Jerusalem (‎, Arabic: ) is one of Israels oldest, largest, and most important institutes of higher learning and research. ... Catholic Church redirects here. ... The HISTORY of the Catholic Church covers a period of just under two thousand years, making the Church one of the oldest continuously existing religious institutions in history. ... This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      For... 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Historical map of the Western Schism: red is support for Avignon, blue for Rome The Western Schism or Papal Schism (also known as the Great Schism of Western Christianity) was a split within the Catholic Church (1378 - 1417). ... The Protestant Reformation was a movement which began in the 16th century as a series of attempts to reform the Roman Catholic Church, but ended in division and the establishment of new institutions, most importantly Lutheranism, Reformed churches, and Anabaptists. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... In the Roman Catholic Church, the threefold order, or hierarchy, of bishop, priest, and deacon, conferred through the sacrament of Holy Orders, is a structural feature considered to be of divine institution. ... For other uses, see Pope (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Cardinal (disambiguation). ... See Patriarchs (Bible) for details about Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob of the Book of Genesis in the Hebrew Bible. ... In the Roman Catholic Church, a major archbishop is an Eastern Rite hierarch who has the same jurisdiction in his sui juris particular church that an Eastern rite patriarch does, but whose episcopal see is less prestigious than a patriarchal see. ... Primate (from the Latin Primus, first) is a title or rank bestowed on some bishops in certain Christian churches. ... In hierarchical Christian churches, the rank of metropolitan bishop, or simply metropolitan, pertains to the diocesan bishop or archbishop (then more precisely called Metropolitan archbishop) of a metropolis; that is, the chief city of an old Roman province, ecclesiastical province, or regional capital. ... In Christianity, an archbishop is an elevated bishop heading a diocese of particular importance due to either its size, history, or both, called an archdiocese. ... A bishop in the Catholic Church is a member of the College of Bishops, is an ordained minister, and holds the fullness of the priesthood. ... The Catechism of the Catholic Church, or CCC, is an official exposition of the teachings of the Catholic Church, first published in French in 1992 by the authority of Pope John Paul II.[1] Subsequently, in 1997, a Latin text was issued which is now the official text of reference... This article is about the Christian Trinity. ... Original Sin redirects here. ... In Christian theology, One, Holy, Catholic and Apostolic Church is a phrase describing the nature of the Christian community and/or Christian Church, in the various meanings it has. ... Monument honoring the right to worship, Washington, D.C. In Christianity, worship has been considered by most Christians to be the central act of Christian identity throughout history. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      In Christianity... For other uses, see Salvation (disambiguation). ... The Sermon on the Mount by Carl Heinrich Bloch. ... This article is about the list of religious and moral imperatives. ... A particular Church, in Catholic theology and Canon law, is any of the individual constituent ecclesial communities in full communion with Rome that are part of the Catholic Church as a whole. ... A liturgy is the customary public worship of a religious group, according to their particular traditions. ... The Alexandrian Rite is officially called the Liturgy of Saint Mark, traditionally regarded as the first bishop of Alexandria. ... The Coptic Catholic Church is an Alexandrian Rite church sui juris particular Church in full communion with the Pope of Rome. ... The Ethiopic Catholic Church is a Metropolitan sui iuris Eastern Rite particular Church within the Roman Catholic Church and uses the Ethiopic liturgical rite. ... Antiochene rite designate the family of liturgies originally used in the Patriarchate of Antioch: that of the Apostolic Constitutions; then that of St. ... Maronites (Arabic: , transliteration: , Syriac: ܡܪܘܢܝܐ,Latin: Ecclesia Maronitarum) are members of one of the Eastern Catholic Churches, with a heritage reaching back to Maroun in the early 5th century. ... The Syriac Catholic Church or Syrian Catholic Church is a Christian church in the Levant having practices and rites in common with the Syriac Orthodox Church. ... The Syro-Malankara Catholic Church is a Major Archepiscopal sui iuris Eastern Rite Roman Catholic Church in communion with the Roman Catholic Church, with historical links to the Syrian Catholic Church. ... The Byzantine Rite, sometimes called Constantinopolitan, is the liturgical rite used (in various languages) by all the Eastern Orthodox Churches and by several Eastern Catholic Churches. ... The Italo-Albanian Catholic Church, also known as the Italo-Greek Catholic Church, is one of the Byzantine Rite sui juris churches of the Catholic Communion. ... The Melkite Greek Catholic Church (Arabic: , ) is an Eastern Rite sui juris particular Church of the Catholic Church in communion with the Pope. ... The Russian Catholic Church is a Byzantine Rite church sui juris of the Catholic Church. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... The East Syrian Rite is also known as the Chaldean Rite, Assyrian Rite, or Persian Rite. ... These are the only peoples in this region that were fully and originally Semitic. ... Syro-Malabar Church Official website The Syro-Malabar Catholic Church is a Major Archiepiscopal Church in communion with the Roman Catholic Church. ... Latin Rite, in the singular and accompanied, in English, by the definite article, refers to the sui juris particular Church of the Roman Catholic Church that developed in the area of western Europe and northern Africa where Latin was for many centuries the language of education and culture. ... Ambrosian Rite (also sometimes called the Milanese Rite) named after Saint Ambrose, bishop of Milan in the fourth century, is a Catholic liturgical rite practised among Catholics in the greater part of the Archdiocese of Milan (excluding, notably, the city of Monza, and a few other towns), and neighbouring area... The Anglican Use is an adaptation or usage of the liturgy of the Catholic Roman Rite that is used by some formerly Anglican ecclesial communities that submitted to the authority of the Roman Pontiff. ... The Mozarabic rite is a form of Catholic worship within the Latin Rite of the Catholic Church. ... The Sarum Rite, more properly called the Sarum Use, was a variant of the Latin Rite practiced in Great Britain & Ireland from the late 11th Century until the Reformation. ... The Latin Church is that part of the Roman Catholic Church where the Latin rites are or were used in the liturgy. ... Catholic sacraments redirects here. ... This article is about the Christian religious act of Baptism. ... Confirmation, known also as Chrismation (Catechism of the Catholic Church, 1289), is one of the seven sacraments instituted by Christ for the conferral of sanctifying grace and the strengthening of the union between individual souls and God. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Sacrament of Penance and Reconciliation is popularly called Confession. ... Anointing of the Sick is the ritual anointing of a sick person and is a Sacrament of the Catholic Church. ... The Ministerial Priesthood in the Catholic Church includes both the orders of bishops and presbyters, which in Latin is sacerdos. ... (Gospel of Matthew 19:6) Matrimony, The Seven Sacraments, Rogier van der Weyden, ca. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Crusade (1218 words)
The Fourth Crusade was initiated by Pope Innocent III in 1202, but ended up in the sacking of Constantinople in 1204, as crusaders fought alongside Venetians and traitors to the Byzantine Empire.
The vital crusading spirit was now dead, and the succeeding crusades are to be explained rather as arising from the efforts of the papacy in its struggle against the secular power, to divert the military energies of the European nations toward Syria.
A crusading force from Hungary, Austria, and Bavaria achieved a remarkable feat in the capture of Damietta in Egypt in 1219, but under the urgent insistence of the papal legate, Pelagius, they proceeded to a foolhardy attack on Cairo, and an inundation of the Nile compelled them to choose between surrender and destruction.
Crusade - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (4350 words)
The 13th century crusades never expressed such a popular fever, and after Acre fell for the last time in 1291, and after the extermination of the Occitan Cathars in the Albigensian Crusade, the crusading ideal became devalued by Papal justifications of political and territorial aggressions within Catholic Europe.
The eighth Crusade was organized by Louis IX in 1270, again sailing from Aigues-Mortes, initially to come to the aid of the remnants of the Crusader states in Syria.
The Crusaders' atrocities against Jews in the German and Hungarian towns, later also in those of France and England, and in the massacres of non-combatants in Palestine and Syria have become a significant part of the history of anti-Semitism, although no Crusade was ever declared against Jews.
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