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Encyclopedia > Crusader states
The Near East in 1135, with the Crusader states in green hues.
The Near East in 1135, with the Crusader states in green hues.
Asia Minor and the Crusader states, c. 1140
Asia Minor and the Crusader states, c. 1140

The Crusader states were a number of mostly 12th- and 13th-century feudal states created by Western European crusaders in Asia Minor, Greece and the Holy Land (ancient and modern Israel and Palestine). The Middle Eastern Islamic powers eventually conquered them. The name also refers to other territorial gains (often small and short-lived) made by medieval Christendom against Muslim and pagan adversaries. Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Asia Minor and the States of the Crusaders in Syria, about 1140, from a Classical Atlas of Ancient Geography by Alexander G. Findlay, 1849. ... Asia Minor and the States of the Crusaders in Syria, about 1140, from a Classical Atlas of Ancient Geography by Alexander G. Findlay, 1849. ... Roland pledges his fealty to Charlemagne; from a manuscript of a chanson de geste. ... This article is about the medieval crusades. ... Anatolia (Greek: ανατολη anatole, rising of the sun or East; compare Orient and Levant, by popular etymology Turkish Anadolu to ana mother and dolu filled), also called by the Latin name of Asia Minor, is a region of Southwest Asia which corresponds today to... For other uses, see Holy Land (disambiguation). ... A 2003 satellite image of the region. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... This T-and-O map, which abstracts the known world to a cross inscribed within an orb, remakes geography in the service of Christian iconography. ... Pagan and heathen redirect here. ...



While the Reconquista, the centuries-long fight to reconquer the Iberian peninsula from the Arabo-Barbaresque Moors (who called it al-Andalus), fills all the criteria for crusades, it is not customary to call the resulting Catholic principalities there Crusader states, except for the Kingdom of Valencia.[1] For other senses of this word, see Reconquista (disambiguation). ... Al-Andalus is the Arabic name given the Iberian Peninsula by its Muslim conquerors; it refers to both the Caliphate proper and the general period of Muslim rule (711–1492). ... History of Spain Series Prehistoric Spain Roman Spain Medieval Spain Age of Reconquest Age of Expansion Age of Enlightenment Reaction and Revolution First Spanish Republic The Restoration Second Spanish Republic Spanish Civil War The Dictatorship Modern Spain Topics Economic History Military History Social History The Aragonese Empire was the regime...

In the Levant

The first four Crusader states were created in the Levant immediately after the First Crusade: The Levant The Levant (IPA: ) is an imprecise geographical term historically referring to a large area in the Middle East south of the Taurus Mountains, bounded by the Mediterranean Sea on the west, and by the northern Arabian Desert and Upper Mesopotamia to the east. ... Combatants Christendom, Catholicism West European Christians, Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia Seljuks, Arabs and other Muslims The First Crusade was launched in 1095 by Pope Urban II with the dual goals of liberating the sacred city of Jerusalem and the Holy Land from Muslims and freeing the Eastern Christians from Muslim...

The Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia had its origins before the Crusades, but was granted the status of a kingdom by Pope Innocent III, and later became semi-westernized by the (French) Lusignan dynasty. The County of Edessa was one of the Crusader states in the 12th century, based around a city with an ancient history and an early tradition of Christianity (see Edessa). ... Events First Crusade: end of the siege of Antioch. ... Events Louis VII capitulates to Pope Celestine II and so earns the popes absolution Pope Celestine II is succeeded by Pope Lucius II December 24 - Edessa falls to Zengi Montauban, France, is founded First recorded example of an anti-Semitic blood libel in England Normandy comes under Angevin control... The Principality of Antioch in the context of the other states of the Near East in 1135 AD. The Principality of Antioch, including parts of modern-day Turkey and Syria, was one of the crusader states created during the First Crusade. ... Events First Crusade: end of the siege of Antioch. ... Conradin (right) is executed by Charles I of Sicily, thus extinguishing the Hohenstaufen dynasty, in 1268. ... Armenian Cilicia and Crusader States The County of Tripoli was the last of the four major Crusader states in the Levant to be created. ... Tripoli (population 1 million, Arabic: Ţarabulus) is the capital of Libya. ... Events September 3 - St. ... Events Battle of Naklo Battle of Hundsfeld Fulk of Jerusalem becomes count of Anjou Alfonso I of Aragon marries Urraca of Castile Crusaders capture Tripoli Anselm of Laon becomes chancellor of Laon Births July 25 - Afonso, first king of Portugal Deaths Alfonso VI of Castile Anselm of Canterbury, philosopher and... For broader historical context, see 1280s and 13th century. ... The kingdom of Jerusalem and the other Crusader states (in shades of green) in the context of the Near East in 1135. ... 1099 also refers to a United States tax form used for, among other purposes, reporting payments made to independent Contractors. ... For broader historical context, see 1290s and 13th century. ... The Old City of Akko in the 19th or early 20th century, looking south-west from atop the Land Wall Promenade, the open space now a parking lot. ... The Crusader state of the Kingdom of Jerusalem, created in 1099, was divided into a number of smaller seigneuries. ... The Principality of Galilee was one of the four major seigneuries of the crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem, according to 13th-century commentator John of Ibelin. ... The double County of Jaffa and Ascalon was one of the four major seigneuries of the Kingdom of Jerusalem, according to 13th-century commentator John of Ibelin. ... Oultrejordain or Oultrejourdain (French for beyond the Jordan) was the name used during the Crusades for an extensive and partly undefined region to the east of the Jordan river, an area known in ancient times as Edom and Moab. ... The Lordship of Sidon was one of the four major seigneuries of the Kingdom of Jerusalem, according to the 13th-century writer John of Ibelin. ... The Kingdom of Cilician Armenia, 1199-1375. ... Pope Innocent III (c. ... The Lusignan family originated in Poitou in western France, and in the late 12th century came to rule the Kingdom of Jerusalem and the Kingdom of Cyprus. ...


During the Third Crusade, Crusaders founded the Kingdom of Cyprus. Richard I of England conquered Cyprus on the way to Holy Land. The island was made into a kingdom and given to the displaced King of Jerusalem Guy of Lusignan in 1192. It lasted until 1489, when its last queen sold it to Venice. It was later awarded to the Knights Hospitaliers, but was never really taken seriously as an outpost and fell into decline before being lost in a revolt. The Third Crusade (1189–1192), also known as the Kings Crusade, was an attempt by European leaders to reconquer the Holy Land from Saladin. ... The Kingdom of Cyprus was a Roman Catholic Crusader kingdom on the island of Cyprus in the late Middle Ages. ... Richard I (8 September 1157 – 6 April 1199) was King of England and ruler of the Angevin Empire from 6 July 1189 until his death. ... For other uses, see Holy Land (disambiguation). ... Imaginary portrait of Guy of Lusignan by François-Edouard Picot, c. ... // Events The Third Crusade ends in disaster. ... Events March 14 - The Queen of Cyprus, Catherine Cornaro, sells her kingdom to Venice. ...

In the Balkans

The Latin Empire, its vassals and the Greek successor states, ca. 1204
The Latin Empire, its vassals and the Greek successor states, ca. 1204

After the Fourth Crusade, the territories of the Byzantine Empire were divided into several states, beginning the so-called "Francocracy" (Greek: Φραγκοκρατία) period: Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1715x701, 476 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Byzantine Empire Latin Empire Sultanate of Rûm ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1715x701, 476 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Byzantine Empire Latin Empire Sultanate of Rûm ... The Entry of the Crusaders into Constantinople (Eugène Delacroix, 1840). ... Byzantine redirects here. ...

Several islands, most notably Crete (1204-1669), Euboea (Negroponte, until 1470), and the Ionian Islands (until 1797) came under the rule of Venice. The Latin Empire, Empire of Nicaea, Empire of Trebizond and the Despotate of Epirus. ... This article is about the city before the Fall of Constantinople (1453). ... The Kingdom of Thessalonica was a short-lived Crusader State founded after the Fourth Crusade over the conquered Greek lands. ... The Principality of Achaea was one of the three vassal states of the Latin Empire which replaced the Byzantine Empire after the capture of Constantinople during the Fourth Crusade. ... Argos and Nauplia refers to a medieval Lordship in the Principality of Achaea, consisting of the cities of Argos and Nauplia. ... // Duchy of Athens A small crusader state which was established after the Sack of Constantinople (1204) by the Crusaders. ... The margraviate or marquisate of Bodonitsa (also Vodonitsa or Boudonitza), today Mendenitsa, Phthiotis (180 km northwest of Athens), was a Frankish state in Greece following the conquests of the Fourth Crusade. ... The Venetian Duchy of the Archipelago (also called Egeon Pelagos) was a maritime state created in the Aegean Sea in the aftermath the Fourth Crusade. ... Plovdiv (Bulgarian: ) is the second-largest city in Bulgaria after Sofia, with a population of 343,662. ... For other uses, see Crete (disambiguation). ... For the Greek mythological figures see Euboea Euboea, or Negropont or Negroponte (Modern Greek: Εύβοια Évia, Ancient Greek Eúboia), is the second largest of the Greek Aegean Islands and the second largest Greek island overall in area and population (after Crete). ... The Latin Empire with its vassals and the Greek successor states after the partition of the Byzantine Empire, c. ... The Ionian Islands (Modern Greek: Ιόνια νησιά, Ionia nisia; Ancient Greek: , Ionioi NÄ“soi) are a group of islands in Greece. ... Borders of the Republic of Venice in 1796 Capital Venice Language(s) Venetian, Latin, Italian Religion Roman Catholic Government Republic Doge  - 1789–97 Ludovico Manin History  - Established 697  - Treaty of Zara June 27, 1358  - Treaty of Leoben April 17, 1797 * Traditionally, the establishment of the Republic is dated to 697. ...

These states faced the attacks of the Byzantine Greek successor states of Nicaea and Epirus, as well as Bulgaria. Thessalonica and the Latin Empire were reconquered by the Byzantine Greeks by 1261. Descendants of the Crusaders continued to rule in Athens and the Peloponnesus (Morea) until the 15th century when the area was conquered by the Ottoman Empire. The Empire of Nicaea was the largest of the states founded by refugees from the Byzantine Empire after Constantinople was conquered during the Fourth Crusade. ... The Despotate of Epirus was one of the medieval Greek successor states of the Byzantine Empire, founded in the aftermath of the Fourth Crusade in 1204. ... Events July 25 - Constantinople re-captured by Nicaean forces under the command of Michael VIII Palaeologus, Byzantine Empire re-formed August 29 - Urban IV becomes Pope, the last man to do so without being a Cardinal first Bela IV of Hungary repels Tatar invasion Charles of Anjou given rule of... Peloponnesos (Greek: Πελοπόννησος, sometime Latinized as Peloponnesus or Anglicized as The Peloponnese) is a large peninsula in Greece, forming the part of the country south of the Isthmus of Corinth. ... The Morea and surrounding states carved from the Byzantine Empire, as they were in 1265 (William R. Shepherd, Historical Atlas, 1911) The name Morea (Μωρέας) for Peloponnesos first appears in the 10th century in Byzantine chronicles. ... (14th century - 15th century - 16th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 15th century was that century which lasted from 1401 to 1500. ... Ottoman redirects here. ...

  • The military order of the Knights Hospitaller of Saint John established itself on Rhodes (and several other Aegean islands; see below) in 1310, with regular influx of new blood, until the Ottomans finally drove them out (to Malta) in 1522.
    • the island of Kastellorizo (like Rhodes a part of the Aegean Dodecanese island group) was taken by the Knights of St. John Hospitaller of Jerusalem in 1309; the Egyptians occupied it from 1440 until 1450; then the Kingdom of Naples ruled; Venetian rule began in 1635 (as Castellorosso); all these states, excluding the Egyptians, were Catholic; Ottoman rule was established in 1686, although Greeks controlled the island during the Greek War of Independence from 1821-1833.
    • other neighbouring territories temporarily under the order were: the cities of Smyrna (now Izmir; 1344-1402), Attaleia (now Antalya; 1361-1373 and Halicarnassos (now Bodrum;1412-14..), all three in Anatolia; the Greek Isthmus city of Corinth (1397-1404)), the city of Salona (ancient Amphissa; 1407-1410) and the islands of Ikaria (1424-1521) and Kos (1215-1522), all now in Greece

Baron Vassiliev, a 19th-century Knight Commander The Knights Hospitaller (also known as the Sovereign Order of Saint John of Jerusalem of Rhodes and of Malta, Knights of Malta, Knights of Rhodes, and Chevaliers of Malta) was an organization that began as an Amalfitan hospital founded in Jerusalem in 1080... This article is about the Greek island of Rhodes. ... Kastellórizo is a small Greek island less than 5 km off the south coast of Turkey, about 110 km east of Rhodes. ... The Dodecanese (Greek Δωδεκάνησα, Dodekánisa, Turkish Onikiada, both meaning twelve islands; Italian Dodecaneso) are a group of 12 larger plus 150 smaller Greek islands in the Aegean Sea, off the southwest coast of Turkey. ... The Knights Hospitaller (the or Knights of Malta or Knights of Rhodes) is a tradition which began as a Benedictine nursing Order founded in the 11th century based in the Holy Land, but soon became a militant Christian Chivalric Order under its own charter, and was charged with the care... Combatants Greek revolutionaries United Kingdom France Russian Empire  Ottoman Empire Egyptian Khedivate Commanders Theodoros Kolokotronis Alexander Ypsilanti Georgios Karaiskakis Omer Vryonis Mahmud Dramali Pasha ReÅŸid Mehmed Pasha Ibrahim Pasha. ... Smyrna (Greek: Σμύρνη) is an ancient city (today Ä°zmir in Turkey) that was founded by ancient Greeks at a central and strategic point on the Aegean coast of Anatolia. ... Antalyas symbol Antalya is a city on a bay of the south Turkey in the Antalya Province. ... Map of the Aegean Sea, showing the location of Halicarnassus (modern Bodrum, Turkey) Halicarnassus (modern Bodrum), an ancient Greek city on the southwest coast of Caria, Asia Minor, on a picturesque and advantageous site on the Ceramic Gulf or Gulf of Cos. ... Corinth, or Korinth (Greek: Κόρινθος, Kórinthos; see also List of traditional Greek place names) is a Greek city-state, on the Isthmus of Corinth, the narrow stretch of land that joins the Peloponnesus to the mainland of Greece. ... Solin (It. ... Amphissa redirects here, for the ancient town near todays Roccella Ionica, see Amphissa, Italy Amfissa (Greek: Άμφισσα), other form: Amfissa, Latin: Amphissa is a town and the capital of the Phokida prefecture and the Parnassida province with the population around 10,000. ... This article is about Icaria, a Greek island. ... Port and city view of Kos town on the island Kos. ...

Northern Crusades

In the Baltic region, the indigenous tribes in the Middle Ages at first staunchly refused Christianity. In 1193, Pope Celestine III urged two religious orders of Knights, the Livonian Order and the Teutonic Order, to invade and subjugate the heathens which included the Old Prussians, the Lithuanians and other tribes inhabiting Estonia, Latvia and East Prussia. This period of warfare is called the Northern Crusades. Population density in the wider Baltic region. ... Celestine III, né Giacinto Bobone Orsini ( 1106 - January 8, 1198), was Pope from 1191 to 1198. ... The Livonian Brothers of the Sword (Latin Fratres militiae Christi, literally the brothers of the army of Christ), also known as the Christ Knights, Sword Brethren or The Militia of Christ of Livonia, was a military order started in 1202 by Albert von Buxhövden, bishop of Riga (or Prince... Teutonic Knights, charging into battle. ... Prussian tribes settlements. ... East Prussia (German: Ostpreu en; Polish: Prusy Wschodnie; Russian: Восточная Пруссия — Vostochnaya Prussiya) was a province of Kingdom of Prussia, situated on the territory of former Ducal Prussia. ... The Teutonic knights in Pskov in 1240. ...


  1. ^ See for example The Crusader Kingdom of Valencia: Reconstruction on a Thirteenth-Century Frontier, R.I. Burns, SJ, Harvard, 1967 (available online)

The Society of Jesus (Latin: Societas Iesu), commonly known as the Jesuits, is a Roman Catholic religious order. ...

See also

Krak des Chevaliers, Syria This is a list of castles in the eastern Mediterranean and Middle East, founded or occupied during the crusades. ... Download high resolution version (454x1114, 156 KB)Crusader states, from Muirs Historical Atlas (1911), at http://www. ...

Sources and references

  • Westermann, Großer Atlas zur Weltgeschichte (in German)

  Results from FactBites:
Crusader States, Kings of Jerusalem & Cyprus, Templars, Hospitallers, Israel, etc. (14418 words)
Crusader states can also include the lands of the Teutonic and Livonian Knights in the Baltic, which lasted until Prussia was secularized in 1525 and the last Grand Master of the Livonian Knights was made Duke of Courland by Poland in 1561.
The new State of Israel was able to assemble a continuous piece of territory, with about the land area of New Jersey, from the Gulf of Aqaba to Lebanon, including a salient that ended at the walls of the Old City of Jerusalem.
Israel is not a liberal state, where all citizens have the same individual and interchangeable rights and responsibilities; it is an ethnic state, founded and devoted to the Jewish People, whose rights and obligations, as a group, are different from non-Jewish Israelis.
NationMaster - Encyclopedia: Crusader State (433 words)
The Crusader States were the territories created by Western Europeans who arrived in the Eastern Mediterranean during the Crusades in the 12th and 13th centuries.
Second Crusade After a period of relative peace, in which Christians and Muslims co-existed in the Holy Land, Bernard of Clairvaux preached a new crusade when the town of Edessa was conquered by the Turks.
Eighth Crusade The eighth Crusade was organized by Louis IX in 1270, again sailing from Aigues-Mortes, initially to come to the aid of the remnants of the Crusader states in Syria.
  More results at FactBites »



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