FACTOID # 9: The bookmobile capital of America is Kentucky.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
RELATED ARTICLES
People who viewed "Crusade" also viewed:
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Crusade
Crusades
FirstPeople'sGerman1101SecondThirdFourthAlbigensianChildren'sFifthSixthSeventhShepherds'EighthNinthAragoneseAlexandrianNicopolisNorthernHussite

The Crusades were a series of military campaigns waged in the name of Christendom[1] and usually sanctioned by the Pope[2] They were of a religious character, combining pilgrimage with military warfare. When originally conceptualized, the aim was to recapture Jerusalem and the Holy Land from the Muslims while supporting the Byzantine Empire against the "ghazwat" of the Seljuq [3] expansion into Anatolia. The fourth crusade however was diverted and resulted in the conquest of Constantinople. Later crusades were launched against various targets for a mixture of religious, economic, and political reasons, such as the Albigensian Crusade, the Aragonese Crusade, and the Northern Crusades. The First Crusade was launched in 1095 by Pope Urban II to regain control of the sacred city of Jerusalem and the Christian Holy Land from Muslims. ... The Crusade of 1101 was a minor crusade, actually three separate movements, organized in 1100 and 1101 in the successful aftermath of the First Crusade. ... The Second Crusade was the second major crusade launched from Europe, called in 1145 in response to the fall of the County of Edessa the previous year. ... The Third Crusade (1189–1192) was an attempt by European leaders to reconquer the Holy Land from Saladin. ... The Fourth Crusade (1201–1204), originally designed to conquer Jerusalem through an invasion of Egypt, instead, in 1204, invaded and conquered the Eastern Orthodox city of Constantinople, capital of the Byzantine Empire. ... The Albigensian Crusade or Cathar Crusade (1209 - 1229) was a 20-year military campaign initiated by the Roman Catholic Church to eliminate the religion practiced by the Cathars of Languedoc, which the Roman Catholic hierarchy considered apostasy. ... The Childrens Crusade is the name given to a variety of fictional and factual events in 1212 that combine some or all of these elements: visions by a boy, children marching to south Italy, an attempt to free the Holy Land, and children being sold into slavery. ... The Fifth Crusade (1217–1221) was an attempt to take back Jerusalem and the rest of Holy Land by first conquering the powerful Muslim state in Egypt. ... The Sixth Crusade started in 1228 as an attempt to reconquer Jerusalem. ... The Seventh Crusade was a crusade led by Louis IX of France from 1248 to 1254. ... The Shepherds Crusade is two separate events from the 13th and 14th century. ... The Eighth Crusade was a crusade launched by Louis IX of France, (who was by now in his mid-fifties) in 1270. ... // Summary The Ninth Crusade which is sometimes grouped with the Eighth Crusade, is commonly considered to be the last of the medieval Crusades to defend Christianity from the Muslims in the Holy Land. ... The Aragonese Crusade or Crusade of Aragón was declared by Pope Martin IV against the king of Aragón, Peter III the Great, in 1284 and 1285. ... The Alexandrian Crusade of October 1365[1] was a seaborne[2] Crusade on Alexandria led by Peter I of Cyprus. ... Combatants Ottoman Empire France, Hungary Commanders Bayezid I Sigismund of Hungary, John of Nevers Strength About 100,000 About 100,000 Casualties About 35,000 About 20,000 The Battle of Nicopolis (modern Nikopol, Bulgaria) took place on September 25, 1396, between a French-Hungarian alliance and the Ottoman Empire. ... The Teutonic knights in Pskov in 1240. ... Hussite War Wagons and Hand Cannoneers Hussite Crossbowman and Shield Carrier Hussite War Wagons The Hussite Wars, also called the Bohemian Wars involved the military actions against and amongst the followers of Jan Hus in Bohemia in the period 1420 to circa 1434. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times. ... Look up crusade in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This medieval map, which abstracts the known world to a cross inscribed within an orb, remakes geography in the service of Christian iconography. ... The current Pope is Benedict XVI (born Joseph Alois Ratzinger), who was elected at the age of 78 on 19 April 2005. ... For other uses of the term, see Holy War. ... Pilgrim at Mecca A pilgrimage is a term primarily used in religion and spirituality of a long journey or search of great moral significance. ... Jerusalem (Hebrew: , Yerushaláyim or Yerushalaim; Arabic: , al-Quds; official Arabic in Israel: أورشليم القدس, Urshalim-Al-Quds) is Israels capital, most populous, [1] and largest city, with a population of 724,000 (as of May 24, 2006 [2]) contained in 123 km². An ancient Middle Eastern city on the watershed... The phrase The Holy Land (Arabic الأرض المقدسة, al-Arḍ ul-Muqaddasah; Hebrew ארץ הקודש: Standard Hebrew Éreẓ haQodeš, Tiberian Hebrew ʾÉreṣ haqQāḏēš; Latin Terra Sancta) generally refers to Israel, otherwise known as Palestine (sometimes including Jordan, Syria and parts of Egypt). ... A Muslim is a believer in or follower of Islam. ... Byzantine Empire (native Greek name: - Basileia tōn Romaiōn) is the term conventionally used since the 19th century to describe the Greek-speaking Roman Empire of the Middle Ages, centered at its capital in Constantinople. ... Ghazw (plural ghazawāt) (Arabic: غزو) is an Arabic word meaning an armed incursion for the purposes of conquest, plunder, or the capture of slaves and is cognate with the terms ghāziya and maghāzī. In pre-Islamic times it signified the plundering raids organized by nomadic Bedouin warriors against... The Seljuqs (also Seldjuk, Seldjuq, Seljuk, sometimes also Seljuq Turks; in modern Turkish Selçuklular; in Persian سلجوقيان Saljūqiyān; in Arabic سلجوق Saljūq, or السلاجقة al-Salājiqa) were a dynasty that ruled parts of Central Asia and the Middle East from the 11th to 14th centuries. ... Asia Minor lies east of the Bosporus, between the Black Sea and the Mediterranean. ... The Fourth Crusade (1201–1204), originally designed to conquer Jerusalem through an invasion of Egypt, instead, in 1204, invaded and conquered the Eastern Orthodox city of Constantinople, capital of the Byzantine Empire. ... Map of Constantinople. ... The Albigensian Crusade or Cathar Crusade (1209 - 1229) was a 20-year military campaign initiated by the Roman Catholic Church to eliminate the religion practiced by the Cathars of Languedoc, which the Roman Catholic hierarchy considered apostasy. ... The Aragonese Crusade or Crusade of Aragón was declared by Pope Martin IV against the king of Aragón, Peter III the Great, in 1284 and 1285. ... The Teutonic knights in Pskov in 1240. ...


Beyond the medieval military events, the word "crusade" has evolved to have multiple meanings and connotations. For additional meanings, see usage of the term "crusade" below and/or the dictionary definition. This article is about the medieval crusades. ...

Contents


Historical context

It is necessary to look for the origin of a crusading ideal in the struggle between Christians and Muslims in Spain and consider how the idea of a holy war emerged from this background.Norman F. Cantor

The origins of the crusades lie in developments in Western Europe earlier in the Middle Ages, as well as the deteriorating situation of the Byzantine Empire in the east. The breakdown of the Carolingian Empire in the later 9th century, combined with the relative stabilisation of local European borders after the Christianisation of the Vikings, Slavs, and Magyars, meant that there was an entire class of warriors who then had very little to do but fight amongst themselves and terrorise the peasant population. The Church tried to stem this violence with the Peace and Truce of God movements, which was somewhat successful, but trained warriors always sought an outlet for their violence. One later outlet was the Reconquista in Spain and Portugal, which at times occupied Iberian knights and some mercenaries from elsewhere in Europe in the fight against the Islamic Moors. Norman F. Cantor (born in Winnipeg, Canada in 1930, died in Miami, Florida, United States on September 18, 2004) was a historian who specialized in the medieval period. ... A common understanding of Western Europe in modern times. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... Byzantine Empire (native Greek name: - Basileia tōn Romaiōn) is the term conventionally used since the 19th century to describe the Greek-speaking Roman Empire of the Middle Ages, centered at its capital in Constantinople. ... Map of Carolingian Empire The term Carolingian Empire is sometimes used to refer to the realm of the Franks under the dynasty of the Carolingians. ... The name Viking is a loan from the native Scandinavian term for the Norse seafaring warriors who raided the coasts of Scandinavia, Europe and the British Isles from the late 8th century to the 11th century, the period of European history referred to as the Viking Age. ... The Slavic peoples are the most numerous ethnic and linguistic body of peoples in Europe. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Peace and Truce of God was a medieval European movement of the Roman Catholic Church which applied spiritual sanctions in order to control and stop the violence of feudal society. ... The Reconquista (Reconquest) refers to the process for which the Christian Kingdoms of northern Hispania, defeated and conquered the southern Muslim and moorish states of the Iberian Peninsula, existing since the Arab invasion of 711. ... A statue of an armoured knight of the Middle Ages For the chess piece, see knight (chess). ... Mercenary (disambiguation). ... Pencil and charcoal Drawing of Moor The Moors were the medieval Muslim inhabitants of al-Andalus (the Iberian Peninsula including present day Spain and Portugal) and the Maghreb and western Africa, whose culture is often called Moorish. ...

Pope Urban II at the Council of Clermont, where he preached an impassioned sermon to take back the Holy Land.
Pope Urban II at the Council of Clermont, where he preached an impassioned sermon to take back the Holy Land.

In 1009 the Fatimid caliph al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah sacked the pilgrimage hospice in Jerusalem and destroyed the Church of the Holy Sepulchre. al-Hakim's successors allowed it to be rebuilt later by the Byzantine emperor, but this event was remembered in Europe and helped spark the crusade. [2] In 1063, Pope Alexander II had given papal blessing to Iberian Christians in their wars against the Muslims, granting both a papal standard (the vexillum sancti Petri) and an indulgence to those who were killed in battle. Pleas from the Byzantine Emperors, now threatened under by the Seljuks, first, in 1074, from Emperor Michael VII to Pope Gregory VII and, in 1095, from Emperor Alexius I Comnenus to Pope Urban II, thus fell on ready ears. Pope Urban II at the Council of Clermont, painting from c. ... Pope Urban II at the Council of Clermont, painting from c. ... Urban II, né Otho of Lagery (or Otto or Odo) (1042 - July 29, 1099), pope from 1088 to July 29, 1099, was born into nobility in France at Lagery (near Châtillon-sur-Marne) and was church educated. ... Pope Urban II at the Council of Clermont, given a Late Gothic setting in this painting of c 1490 The Council of Clermont was a mixed synod of ecclesiastics and laymen of the Roman Catholic Church, which was held in November 1095 and triggered the First Crusade. ... The Fatimids or Fatimid Caliphate (Arabic الفاطميون) is the Ismaili Shiite dynasty that ruled much of North Africa from A.D. 5 January 910 to 1171. ... Caliph is the term or title for the Islamic leader of the Ummah, or community of Islam. ... Hakim bi-Amr Allah (literally: Ruler by Gods Command), known as the Mad Caliph, was the sixth Fatimid Caliph in Egypt, ruling from 996 to 1021. ... Main Entrance to the Church of the Holy Sepulchre The Church of the Holy Sepulchre, called the Church of the Resurrection (Anastasis in Greek and Surp Harutyun in Armenian) by Eastern Christians, is a Christian church now within the walled Old City of Jerusalem. ... Alexander II, né Anselmo Baggio (d. ... Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on Jesus of Nazareth, and on his life and teachings as presented in the New Testament. ... In Catholic theology, an indulgence is the remission granted by the Church of the temporal punishment due to sins already forgiven by God. ... The Seljuk Turks (Turkish: Selçuk; Arabic: سلجوق Saljūq, السلاجقة al-Salājiqa; Persian: سلجوقيان Saljūqiyān; also Seldjuk, Seldjuq, Seljuq) were a major branch of the Oghuz Turks and a dynasty that occupied parts of Central Asia and the Middle East from the 11th to 14th centuries. ... Michael VII Ducas or Parapinakes, was the eldest son of Constantine X Ducas and Eudocia Macrembolitissa. ... YOU ARE NOT LOGGED IN. YOUR COMPUTER WILL SHUT DOWN IN 5 SECONDS. PLEASE STAND BY. ... Byzantine emperor Alexius I Comnenus Alexius I (1048–August 15, 1118), Byzantine emperor (1081–1118), was the third son of John Comnenus, the nephew of Isaac I Comnenus (emperor 1057–1059). ... Urban II, né Otho of Lagery (or Otto or Odo) (1042 – July 29, 1099), was a Pope from 1088 to July 29, 1099. ...


The Crusades were, in part, an outlet for an intense religious piety which rose up in the late 11th century among the lay public. Crusaders after pronouncing a solemn vow, received a cross from the hands of the pope or his legates, and was thenceforth considered a soldier of the Church. This was due in part to the Investiture Controversy, which had started around 1075 and was still on-going during the First Crusade. Christendom had emerged as political conception that supposed the union of all peoples and sovereigns under the direction of the pope and had been greatly affected by the Investiture Controversy; as both sides tried to marshal public opinion in their favor, people became personally engaged in a dramatic religious controversy. The result was an awakening of intense Christian piety and public interest in religious affairs. This was further strengthened by religious propaganda, advocating Just War in order to retake the Holy Land, which included Jerusalem (where the death, resurrection and ascension into heaven of Jesus took place according to Christian theology) and Antioch (the first Christian city), from the Muslims. All of this eventually manifested in the overwhelming popular support for the First Crusade, and the religious vitality of the 12th century. The word legate comes from the Latin legare (to send). It has several meanings, all related to representatives: A legate is a member of a diplomatic embassy. ... The Investiture Controversy was the most significant conflict between secular and religious powers in medieval Europe. ... This medieval map, which abstracts the known world to a cross inscribed within an orb, remakes geography in the service of Christian iconography. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Jerusalem (Hebrew: , Yerushaláyim or Yerushalaim; Arabic: , al-Quds; official Arabic in Israel: أورشليم القدس, Urshalim-Al-Quds) is Israels capital, most populous, [1] and largest city, with a population of 724,000 (as of May 24, 2006 [2]) contained in 123 km². An ancient Middle Eastern city on the watershed... Antioch on the Orontes (Greek: Αντιόχεια η επί Δάφνη, Αντιόχεια ή επί Ορόντου or Αντιόχεια η Μεγάλη; Latin: Antiochia ad Orontem, also Antiochia dei Siri), the Great Antioch or Syrian Antioch was an ancient city located on the eastern side (left bank) of the Orontes River about 30 km from the sea and its port, Seleucia of Pieria (Suedia, now Samanda...


This background in the Christian West must be matched with that in the Muslim East. Muslim presence in the Holy Land goes back to the initial Arab conquest of Palestine in the 7th century. This did not interfere much with pilgrimage to Christian holy sites or the security of monasteries and Christian communities in the Holy Land of Christendom, and western Europeans were not much concerned with the loss of far-away Jerusalem when, in the ensuing decades and centuries, they were themselves faced with invasions by Muslims and other hostile non-Christians such as the Vikings and Magyars. However, the Muslim armies' successes were putting strong pressure on the Eastern Orthodox Byzantine Empire. The Arabs (Arabic: عرب ) are predominantly speakers of the Arabic language, rather than a pure ethnic group, mainly found throughout the Middle East and North Africa. ... Map of the British Mandate of Palestine. ... Pilgrim at Mecca A pilgrimage is a term primarily used in religion and spirituality of a long journey or search of great moral significance. ... Jerusalem (Hebrew: , Yerushaláyim or Yerushalaim; Arabic: , al-Quds; official Arabic in Israel: أورشليم القدس, Urshalim-Al-Quds) is Israels capital, most populous, [1] and largest city, with a population of 724,000 (as of May 24, 2006 [2]) contained in 123 km². An ancient Middle Eastern city on the watershed... Eastern Orthodoxy (also called Greek Orthodoxy and Russian Orthodoxy) is a Christian tradition which represents the majority of Eastern Christianity. ...


A turning point in western attitudes towards the east came in the year 1009, when the Fatimid caliph of Cairo, al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah, had the Church of the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem destroyed. His successor permitted the Byzantine Empire to rebuild it under stringent circumstances, and pilgrimage was again permitted, but many stories began to be circulated in the West about the cruelty of Muslims toward Christian pilgrims; these stories then played an important role in the development of the crusades later in the century. The Fatimid Empire or Fatimid Caliphate ruled North Africa from A.D. 909 to 1171. ... Cairos location in Egypt Coordinates: Governor Dr. Abdul Azim Wazir Area    - City 210 km²  - Metro 1,492 km² Population    - City (2005) 7,438,376  - Density 35,420/km²  - Urban 10,834,495  - Metro 15,200,000 Time zone EET (UTC+2) EEST (UTC+3) Cairo (Arabic: ‎ translit: , transl. ... Main Entrance to the Church of the Holy Sepulchre The Church of the Holy Sepulchre, called the Church of the Resurrection (Anastasis in Greek and Surp Harutyun in Armenian) by Eastern Christians, is a Christian church now within the walled Old City of Jerusalem. ... Jerusalem (Hebrew: , Yerushaláyim or Yerushalaim; Arabic: , al-Quds; official Arabic in Israel: أورشليم القدس, Urshalim-Al-Quds) is Israels capital, most populous, [1] and largest city, with a population of 724,000 (as of May 24, 2006 [2]) contained in 123 km². An ancient Middle Eastern city on the watershed... Byzantine Empire (native Greek name: - Basileia tōn Romaiōn) is the term conventionally used since the 19th century to describe the Greek-speaking Roman Empire of the Middle Ages, centered at its capital in Constantinople. ... For alternative meanings for The West in the United States, see the U.S. West and American West. ...


The immediate cause of the First Crusade was Alexius I's appeal to Pope Urban II for mercenaries to help him resist Muslim advances into territory of the Byzantine Empire. In 1071, at the Battle of Manzikert, the Byzantine Empire had been defeated, and this defeat led to the loss of all but the coastlands of Asia Minor (modern Turkey). Although the East-West Schism was brewing between the Catholic Western church and the Greek Orthodox Eastern church, Alexius I expected some help from a fellow Christian. However, the response was much larger, and less helpful, than Alexius I desired, as the Pope called for a large invasion force to not merely defend the Byzantine Empire but also retake Jerusalem. Urban II, né Otho of Lagery (or Otto or Odo) (1042 – July 29, 1099), was a Pope from 1088 to July 29, 1099. ... The Battle of Manzikert, or The Battle of Malazgirt, was fought between the Byzantine Empire and Seljuk forces led by Alp Arslan on August 26, 1071 near Manzikert, Armenia (modern Malazgirt, Turkey). ... The Byzantine Empire is the term conventionally used to describe the Roman Empire during the Middle Ages, centered at its capital in Constantinople. ... Great Schism redirects here. ...


When the First Crusade was preached in 1095, the Christian princes of northern Iberia had been fighting their way out of the mountains of Galicia and Asturias, the Basque Country and Navarre, with increasing success, for about a hundred years. The fall of Moorish Toledo to the Kingdom of León in 1085 was a major victory, but the turning points of the Reconquista still lay in the future. The disunity of the Muslim emirs was an essential factor, and the Christians, whose wives remained safely behind, were hard to beat: they knew nothing except fighting, they had no gardens or libraries to defend, and they worked their way forward through alien territory populated by infidels, where the Christian fighters felt they could afford to wreak havoc. All these factors were soon to be replayed in the fighting grounds of the East. Spanish historians have traditionally seen the Reconquista as the molding force in the Castilian character, with its sense that the highest good was to die fighting for the Christian cause of one's country. Galicia (Spain) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Capital Oviedo Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 10th  10 604 km²  2,1% Population  â€“ Total (2005)  â€“ % of Spain  â€“ Density Ranked 13th  1 076 635  2,4%  101,53/km² Demonym  â€“ English  â€“ Asturian  â€“ Spanish  asturian  asturianu  asturiano Statute of Autonomy January 11, 1982 Parliamentary representation  â€“ Congress seats  â€“ Senate seats  8  2... Location of Historical Territory of the Basque Country The Ikurriña, Basque Country flag The Lauburu, Basque Country symbol This article is about the traditional overall Basque domain. ... Navarre (Spanish Navarra, Basque Nafarroa) is an autonomous community in Spain. ... Pencil and charcoal Drawing of Moor The Moors were the medieval Muslim inhabitants of al-Andalus (the Iberian Peninsula including present day Spain and Portugal) and the Maghreb and western Africa, whose culture is often called Moorish. ... [[ Image:Toledo, Spain Toledo is a city and municipality located in central Spain, about 70 kilometers south of Madrid. ... The city of León was founded by the Roman Seventh Legion (for unknown reasons always written as Legio Septima Gemina (twin seventh legion). It was the headquarters of that legion in the late empire and was a center for trade in gold which was mined at Las Médulas... The Reconquista (Reconquest) refers to the process for which the Christian Kingdoms of northern Hispania, defeated and conquered the southern Muslim and moorish states of the Iberian Peninsula, existing since the Arab invasion of 711. ... An infidel (literally, one without faith) is one who doubts or rejects central tenets of a religion, especially those regarding its deities. ... This article or section needs a complete rewrite for the reasons listed on the talk page. ...


While the Reconquista was the most prominent example of Christian war against Muslim conquests, it is not the only such example. The Norman adventurer Robert Guiscard had conquered the "toe of Italy," Calabria, in 1057 and was holding what had traditionally been Byzantine territory against the Muslims of Sicily. The maritime states of Pisa, Genoa and Catalonia were all actively fighting Islamic strongholds in Majorca and Sardinia, freeing the coasts of Italy and Catalonia from Muslim raids. Much earlier, of course, the Christian homelands of Syria, Lebanon, Palestine, Egypt, and so on had been conquered by Muslim armies. This long history of losing territories to a religious enemy, created a powerful motive to respond to Byzantine emperor Alexius I's call for holy war to defend Christendom, and to recapture the lost lands, starting at the most important one of all, Jerusalem itself. The Normans (adapted from the name Northmen or Norsemen) were a mixture of the indigenous population of Neustria and Danish or Norwegian Vikings who began to occupy the northern area of France now known as Normandy in the latter half of the 9th century. ... Robert Guiscard (i. ... Sicily (Sicilia in Italian and Sicilian, Σικελία in Greek) is an autonomous region of Italy and the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, with an area of 25,700 sq. ... Pisa is a city in Tuscany, central Italy, on the right bank of the mouth of the river Arno on the Tyrrhenian Sea. ... Country Italy Region Liguria Province Genoa (GE) Mayor Giuseppe Pericu (since May 30, 2002) Elevation 20 m Area 243 km² Population  - Total (as of April 30, 2005) 611,476  - Density 2,571/km² Time zone CET, UTC+1 Coordinates Gentilic Genovesi Dialing code 010 Postal code 16100 Patron St. ... Capital Barcelona Official languages Catalan, Spanish, Aranese Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 6th in Spain  32 114 km²  6,3% Population  â€“ Total (2005)  â€“ % of Spain  â€“ Density Ranked 2nd in Spain  6 995 206  15,9%  217,82/km² GDP Total (2004) GDP: €157,124 billion GDP per /capita: $26,550... Majorca (Mallorca in Catalan and Spanish, sometimes also encountered in English),: from Latin insula maior, later Maiorica, (major island) is one of the Balearic Islands (Catalan: Illes Balears, Spanish: Islas Baleares), which are located in the Mediterranean Sea and are a part of Spain. ... Sardinia (Sardegna in Italian, Sardigna or Sardinna in the Sardinian language, is the second largest island in the Mediterranean Sea (Sicily is the largest), between Italy, Spain and Tunisia, south of Corsica. ... Map of the British Mandate of Palestine. ... A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Turkish: Müslüman, Persian and Urdu: مسلمان, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of Islam. ...


The papacy of Pope Gregory VII had struggled with reservations about the doctrinal validity of a holy war and the shedding of blood for the Lord and had resolved the question in favour of justified violence. More importantly to the Pope, the Christians who made pilgrimages to the Holy Land were being persecuted. Actions against Arians and other heretics offered historical precedents in a society where violence against unbelievers, and indeed against other Christians, was acceptable and common. Saint Augustine of Hippo, Gregory's intellectual model, had justified the use of force in the service of Christ in The City of God, and a Christian "just war" might enhance the wider standing of an aggressively ambitious leader of Europe, as Gregory saw himself. The northerners would be cemented to Rome and their troublesome knights could see the only kind of action that suited them. Previous attempts by the church to stem such violence, such as the concept of the "Peace of God", were not as successful as hoped. To the south of Rome, Normans were showing how such energies might be unleashed against both Arabs (in Sicily) and Byzantines (on the mainland). A Latin hegemony in the Levant would provide leverage in resolving the Papacy's claims of supremacy over the Patriarch of Constantinople, which had resulted in the Great Schism of 1054, a rift that might yet be resolved through the force of Frankish arms. YOU ARE NOT LOGGED IN. YOUR COMPUTER WILL SHUT DOWN IN 5 SECONDS. PLEASE STAND BY. ... This article is about theological views like those of Arius. ... For the first Archbishop of Canterbury, see Saint Augustine of Canterbury Aurelius Augustinus, Augustine of Hippo, or Saint Augustine (November 13, 354 – August 28, 430) was one of the most important figures in the development of Western Christianity. ... The City of God, opening text, created c. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The Patriarch of Constantinople is the Ecumenical Patriarch, ranking as the first among equals in the Eastern Orthodox communion. ...


In the Byzantine homelands, the Eastern Emperor's weakness was revealed by the disastrous defeat at the Battle of Manzikert in 1071, which reduced the Empire's Asian territory to a region in western Anatolia and around Constantinople. A sure sign of Byzantine desperation was the appeal of Alexius I Comnenus to his enemy, the Pope, for aid. But Gregory was occupied with the Investiture Controversy and could not call on the German emperor, so a crusade never took shape. The Battle of Manzikert, or The Battle of Malazgirt, was fought between the Byzantine Empire and Seljuk forces led by Alp Arslan on August 26, 1071 near Manzikert, Armenia (modern Malazgirt, Turkey). ... The Investiture Controversy was the most significant conflict between secular and religious powers in medieval Europe. ...


For Gregory's more moderate successor, Pope Urban II, a crusade would serve to reunite Christendom, bolster the Papacy, and perhaps bring the East under his control. The disaffected Germans and the Normans were not to be counted on, but the heart and backbone of a crusade could be found in Urban's own homeland among the northern French.


On a popular level, the first crusades unleashed a wave of impassioned, personally felt pious Christian fury that was expressed in the massacres of Jews that accompanied the movement of the Crusader mobs through Europe, as well as the violent treatment of "schismatic" Orthodox Christians of the east. The violence against the Orthodox Christians culminated in the sack of Constantinople in 1204, in which most of the Crusading armies took part.


The 13th century crusades never expressed such a popular fever, and after Acre fell for the last time in 1291, and after the extermination of the Occitan Cathars in the Albigensian Crusade, the crusading ideal became devalued by Papal justifications of political and territorial aggressions within Catholic Europe. Cathars being expelled from Carcassonne in 1209. ... The Albigensian Crusade or Cathar Crusade (1209 - 1229) was a 20-year military campaign initiated by the Roman Catholic Church to eliminate the religion practiced by the Cathars of Languedoc, which the Roman Catholic hierarchy considered apostasy. ...


The last crusading order of knights to hold territory were the Knights Hospitaller. After the final fall of Acre, they took control of the island of Rhodes, and in the sixteenth century, were driven to Malta. These last crusaders were finally unseated by Napoleon Bonaparte in 1798. The Knights Hospitaller (also known as Knights of Rhodes, Knights of Malta, Cavaliers of Malta, and the Order of St John of Jerusalem) is a tradition which began as a Benedictine hospitaller Order founded in Jerusalem, following the First Crusade, ca. ... Location map of Rhodes Rhodes, (Greek: Ρόδος (pron. ... Napoleon I Bonaparte, Emperor of the French, King of Italy, Mediator of the Swiss Confederation and Protector of the Confederation of the Rhine (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a general of the French Revolution, the ruler of France as First Consul (Premier Consul) of the French Republic from...


The major crusades

A traditional numbering scheme for the crusades gives us nine during the 11th to 13th centuries, as well as other smaller crusades that are mostly contemporaneous and unnumbered. There were frequent "minor" crusades throughout this period, not only in Palestine, but also in the Iberian Peninsula and central Europe, against not only Muslims, but also Christian heretics and personal enemies of the Papacy or other powerful monarchs. Such "crusades" continued into the 16th century, until the Renaissance and Reformation when the political and religious climate of Europe was significantly different than that of the Middle Ages. The following is a listing of the "major" crusades. Palestine (from Latin: ; Hebrew: Pleshet, פלשתינה Palestina; Arabic: ‎ Filastīn, Falastīn) is one of several names for the geographic region between the Mediterranean Sea and the banks of the Jordan River with various adjoining lands. ... Raphael was famous for depicting illustrious figures of the Classical past with the features of his Renaissance contemporaries. ... The Protestant Reformation was a movement which began in the 16th century as a series of attempts to reform the Roman Catholic Church, but ended in division and the establishment of new institutions, most importantly Lutheranism, Reformed churches, and Anabaptists. ...


First Crusade

Full article: First Crusade The First Crusade was launched in 1095 by Pope Urban II to regain control of the sacred city of Jerusalem and the Christian Holy Land from Muslims. ...


After Byzantine emperor Alexius I called for help with defending his empire against the Seljuk Turks, in 1095 at the Council of Clermont Pope Urban II called upon all Christians to join a war against the Turks, a war which would count as full penance. Crusader armies managed to defeat two substantial Turkish forces at Dorylaeum and at Antioch, finally marching to Jerusalem with only a fraction of their original forces. In 1099, they took Jerusalem by assault and massacred the population. As a result of the First Crusade, several small Crusader states were created, notably the Kingdom of Jerusalem. Following this crusade there was a second, unsuccessful wave of crusaders, the Crusade of 1101. Byzantine emperor Alexius I Comnenus Alexius I (1048–August 15, 1118), Byzantine emperor (1081–1118), was the third son of John Comnenus, nephew of Isaac I Comnenus (emperor 1057–1059). ... The Seljuk coat of arms was a double headed eagle The Seljuk Turks (also Seldjuk, Seldjuq, Seljuq; in modern Turkish Selçuklular; in Persian سلجوقيان SaljÅ«qiyān; in Arabic سلجوق SaljÅ«q, or السلاجقة al-Salājiqa) were a major branch of the Oghuz Turks and a dynasty that ruled parts of... Pope Urban II at the Council of Clermont, given a Late Gothic setting in this painting of c 1490 The Council of Clermont was a mixed synod of ecclesiastics and laymen of the Roman Catholic Church, which was held in November 1095 and triggered the First Crusade. ... Urban II, né Otho of Lagery (or Otto or Odo) (1042 – July 29, 1099), was a Pope from 1088 to July 29, 1099. ... The Battle of Dorylaeum took place during the First Crusade on July 1, 1097, between the crusaders and the Seljuk Turks, near Dorylaeum in Anatolia. ... The Siege of Antioch took place during the First Crusade in 1097 and 1098. ... Combatants Crusaders Fatimids Commanders Raymond of Toulouse Godfrey of Bouillon Iftikhar ad-Dawla Strength 1,500 knights 12,000 infantry 1,000 garrison Casualties Unknown At least 40,000 military and civilian dead The Siege of Jerusalem took place from June 7 to July 15, 1099 during the First Crusade. ... The Crusader states, c. ... Official language Latin, French, Italian, and other western languages; Greek and Arabic also widely spoken Capital Jerusalem, later Acre Constitution Various laws, so-called Assizes of Jerusalem The Kingdom of Jerusalem was a Christian kingdom established in the Levant in 1099 by the First Crusade. ... The Crusade of 1101 was a minor crusade, actually three separate movements, organized in 1100 and 1101 in the successful aftermath of the First Crusade. ...


Second Crusade

Full article: Second Crusade The Second Crusade was the second major crusade launched from Europe, called in 1145 in response to the fall of the County of Edessa the previous year. ...


After a period of relative peace, in which Christians and Muslims co-existed in the Holy Land, Bernard of Clairvaux preached a new crusade when the town of Edessa was conquered by the Turks. French and German armies under Louis VII of France and Conrad III of Germany, marched to Asia Minor in 1147, but failed to accomplish any major successes, and indeed endangered the survival of the Crusader states with a foolish attack on Damascus. By 1150, both leaders had returned to their countries without any result. The phrase The Holy Land (Arabic الأرض المقدسة, al-Arḍ ul-Muqaddasah; Hebrew ארץ הקודש: Standard Hebrew Éreẓ haQodeš, Tiberian Hebrew ʾÉreṣ haqQāḏēš; Latin Terra Sancta) generally refers to Israel, otherwise known as Palestine (sometimes including Jordan, Syria and parts of Egypt). ... Saint Bernard of Clairvaux (Fontaines, near Dijon, 1090 – August 21, 1153 in Clairvaux) was a French abbot and the primary builder of the reforming Cistercian monastic order. ... The County of Edessa was one of the Crusader states in the 12th century, based around a city with an ancient history and an early tradition of Christianity (see Edessa). ... Louis VII of France. ... King Conrad III (Miniature, 13th century) Conrad III (1093 - February 15, 1152, Bamberg), the first German king of the Hohenstaufen dynasty, was the son of Frederick I, Duke of Swabia and Agnes, a daughter of Emperor Henry IV. Conrad was appointed duke of Franconia by his uncle, emperor Henry V... Damascus by night, pictured from Jabal Qasioun; the green spots are minarets Damascus (Arabic: ‎ transliterated: Also commonly: الشام ash-Shām) is the capital and largest city of Syria. ...


Third Crusade

Full article: Third Crusade The Third Crusade (1189–1192) was an attempt by European leaders to reconquer the Holy Land from Saladin. ...


In 1187, Saladin, Sultan of Egypt, recaptured Jerusalem. Pope Gregory VIII called for a crusade, which was led by several of Europe's most important leaders: Philip II of France, Richard I of England and Frederick I, Holy Roman Emperor. Frederick drowned in Cilicia in 1190, leaving an unstable alliance between the English and the French. Philip left, in 1191, after the Crusaders had recaptured Acre from the Muslims. The Crusader army headed down the coast of the Mediterranean Sea. They defeated the Muslims near Arsuf and were in sight of Jerusalem. However, the inability of the Crusaders to thrive in the locale due to inadequate food and water resulted in an empty victory. Richard left the following year after establishing a truce with Saladin. On Richard's way home, his ship was wrecked and he ended up in Austria. In Austria, his enemy, Duke Leopold, captured him, delivered him to Frederick's son Henry VI and Richard was held for a king's ransom. By 1197, Henry felt himself ready for a Crusade, but he died in the same year of malaria. This article or section may contain inappropriate or misinterpreted citations. ... Jerusalem (Hebrew: , Yerushaláyim or Yerushalaim; Arabic: , al-Quds; official Arabic in Israel: أورشليم القدس, Urshalim-Al-Quds) is Israels capital, most populous, [1] and largest city, with a population of 724,000 (as of May 24, 2006 [2]) contained in 123 km². An ancient Middle Eastern city on the watershed... Gregory VIII, né Albert de Mora (Benevento, ca. ... Philip II (French: Philippe II), called Philip Augustus (French: Philippe Auguste) (August 21, 1165 – July 14, 1223), was King of France from 1180 to 1223. ... Richard I (September 8, 1157 – April 6, 1199) was King of England from 1189 to 1199. ... Frederick Barbarossa in a 13th century Chronicle. ... Cilicia as Roman province, 120 AD In Antiquity, Cilicia (Κιλικία) was the name of a region, now known as Çukurova, and often a political unit, on the southeastern coast of Asia Minor (modern Turkey), north of Cyprus. ... Henry VI, Holy Roman Emperor (November 1165, Nijmegen – September 28, 1197, Messina) was king of Germany 1190-1197, and Holy Roman Emperor 1191-1197. ...


Fourth Crusade

Full article: Fourth Crusade The Fourth Crusade (1201–1204), originally designed to conquer Jerusalem through an invasion of Egypt, instead, in 1204, invaded and conquered the Eastern Orthodox city of Constantinople, capital of the Byzantine Empire. ...


Jerusalem having fallen back into Muslim hands a decade earlier, the Fourth Crusade was initiated in 1202 by Pope Innocent III, with the intention of invading the Holy Land through Egypt. The Venetians, under Doge Enrico Dandolo, gained control of this crusade and diverted it first to the Christian city of Zara, then to Constantinople where they attempted to place a Byzantine exile on the throne. After a series of misunderstandings and outbreaks of violence, the city was sacked in 1204. Innocent III, born Lotario de Conti di Segni (Gavignano, near Anagni, ca. ... Country Italy Region Veneto Province Venice (VE) Mayor Massimo Cacciari (since April 18, 2004) Elevation m Area 412 km² Population  - Total (as of December 31, 2004) 271,251  - Density 646/km² Time zone CET, UTC+1 Coordinates Gentilic Veneziani Dialing code 041 Postal code 30100 Frazioni Chirignago, Favaro Veneto, Mestre... Grand Procession of the Doge, 16th century For some thousand years, the chief magistrate and leader of the Most Serene Republic of Venice was styled the Doge, a rare but not unique Italian title derived from the Latin Dux, as the major Italian parallel Duce and the English Duke. ... Dandolo Preaching the Crusade, by Gustav Dore Tomb of Enrico Dandolo Enrico Dandolo (1107?-1205) was the Doge (1192-1205) of Venice during the Fourth Crusade. ... Map of Constantinople. ...


Albigensian Crusade

Full article: Albigensian Crusade The Albigensian Crusade or Cathar Crusade (1209 - 1229) was a 20-year military campaign initiated by the Roman Catholic Church to eliminate the religion practiced by the Cathars of Languedoc, which the Roman Catholic hierarchy considered apostasy. ...


The Albigensian Crusade was launched in 1209 to eliminate the heretical Cathars of southern France. It was a decades-long struggle that had as much to do with the concerns of northern France to extend its control southwards as it did with heresy. In the end, both the Cathars and the independence of southern France were exterminated. Cathars being expelled from Carcassone in 1209. ... Heresy, according to the Oxford English Dictionary, is a theological or religious opinion or doctrine maintained in opposition, or held to be contrary, to the Catholic or Orthodox doctrine of the Christian Church, or, by extension, to that of any church, creed, or religious system, considered as orthodox. ... Cathars being expelled from Carcassone in 1209. ...


Children's Crusade

Full article: Children's Crusade The Childrens Crusade is the name given to a variety of fictional and factual events in 1212 that combine some or all of these elements: visions by a boy, children marching to south Italy, an attempt to free the Holy Land, and children being sold into slavery. ...


The Children's Crusade is a possibly fictitious or misinterpreted crusade of 1212. The story is that an outburst of the old popular enthusiasm led a gathering of children in France and Germany, which Pope Innocent III interpreted as a reproof from heaven to their unworthy elders. None of the children actually reached the Holy Land; they were all sold as slaves, settled along the route to Jerusalem, or died of hunger during the journey. Events The first Great Fire of London burns most of the city to the ground Battle of Navas de Tolosa Childrens crusade Crusaders push the Muslims out of northern Spain In Japan, Kamo no Chōmei writes the Hōjōki, one of the great works of classical Japanese... Innocent III, born Lotario de Conti di Segni (Gavignano, near Anagni, ca. ... Jerusalem (Hebrew: , Yerushaláyim or Yerushalaim; Arabic: , al-Quds; official Arabic in Israel: أورشليم القدس, Urshalim-Al-Quds) is Israels capital, most populous, [1] and largest city, with a population of 724,000 (as of May 24, 2006 [2]) contained in 123 km². An ancient Middle Eastern city on the watershed...


Fifth Crusade

Full article: Fifth Crusade The Fifth Crusade (1217–1221) was an attempt to take back Jerusalem and the rest of Holy Land by first conquering the powerful Muslim state in Egypt. ...


By processions, prayers, and preaching, the Church attempted to set another crusade on foot, and the Fourth Council of the Lateran (1215) formulated a plan for the recovery of the Holy Land. A crusading force from Hungary, Austria, and Bavaria achieved a remarkable feat in the capture of Damietta in Egypt in 1219, but under the urgent insistence of the papal legate, Pelagius, they proceeded to a foolhardy attack on Cairo, and an inundation of the Nile compelled them to choose between surrender and destruction. The Fourth Council of the Lateran was summoned by Pope Innocent III with his Bull of April 19, 1213. ... The Free State of Bavaria  (German: Freistaat Bayern), with an area of 70,553 km² (27,241 square miles) and 12. ... Damietta is a port in Dumyat, Egypt on the Mediterranean Sea at the Nile delta, about 200 kilometres north of Cairo. ... A Papal Legate -from the Latin, authentic Roman title Legatus- is a personal representative of the Pope to the nations, or rather to some part of the universal church. ... Cairos location in Egypt Coordinates: Governor Dr. Abdul Azim Wazir Area    - City 210 km²  - Metro 1,492 km² Population    - City (2005) 7,438,376  - Density 35,420/km²  - Urban 10,834,495  - Metro 15,200,000 Time zone EET (UTC+2) EEST (UTC+3) Cairo (Arabic: ‎ translit: , transl. ... A flood (in Old English flod, a word common to Teutonic languages; compare German Flut, Dutch vloed from the same root as is seen in flow, float) is an overflow of water, an expanse of water submerging land, a deluge. ... The Nile ; Ancient Egyptian iteru), a river in Africa, is accepted by most authorities as being the |longest river on Earth]]. The Nile has two tributaries, the White Nile and Blue Nile, the former being the longer of the two. ...


Sixth Crusade

Full article: Sixth Crusade The Sixth Crusade started in 1228 as an attempt to reconquer Jerusalem. ...


In 1228, Emperor Frederick II set sail from Brindisi for Syria, though laden with the papal excommunication. Through diplomacy he achieved unexpected success, Jerusalem, Nazareth, and Bethlehem being delivered to the Crusaders for a period of ten years. This was the first major crusade not initiated by the Papacy, a trend that was to continue for the rest of the century. Frederick II (left) meets al-Kamil (right) Frederick II (December 26, 1194 - (December 13, 1250), Holy Roman Emperor of the Hohenstaufen dynasty, was pretender to the title of King of the Romans from 1212, unopposed holder of that monarchy from 1215, and Holy Roman Emperor from 1220 until his death... Categories: Italy-related stubs | Towns in Puglia ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Jerusalem (Hebrew: , Yerushaláyim or Yerushalaim; Arabic: , al-Quds; official Arabic in Israel: أورشليم القدس, Urshalim-Al-Quds) is Israels capital, most populous, [1] and largest city, with a population of 724,000 (as of May 24, 2006 [2]) contained in 123 km². An ancient Middle Eastern city on the watershed... This article is about the Middle East city of Nazareth. ... Bethlehem (Arabic بيت لحم house of meat; Standard Hebrew בית לחם house of bread, Bet léḥem / Bet láḥem; Tiberian Hebrew Bêṯ léḥem / Bêṯ lāḥem; Greek: Βηθλεέμ) is a city in the West Bank under Palestinian Authority considered a central hub of Palestinian cultural and tourism industries. ...

Image File history File links Crusade_damietta. ... Only representation of Saint Louis known to be true to life - Early 14th century statue from the church of Mainneville, Eure, France King Louis IX of France or Saint Louis (April 25, 1214/1215 – August 25, 1270) was King of France from 1226 until his death. ... Damietta is a port in Dumyat, Egypt on the Mediterranean Sea at the Nile delta, about 200 kilometres north of Cairo. ...

Seventh Crusade

Full article: Seventh Crusade The Seventh Crusade was a crusade led by Louis IX of France from 1248 to 1254. ...


The papal interests represented by the Templars brought on a conflict with Egypt in 1243, and in the following year a Khwarezmian force summoned by the latter stormed Jerusalem. Although this provoked no widespread outrage in Europe as the fall of Jerusalem in 1187 had done, Louis IX of France organized a crusade against Egypt from 1248 to 1254, leaving from the newly constructed port of Aigues-Mortes in southern France. It was a failure and Louis spent much of the crusade living at the court of the Crusader kingdom in Acre. In the midst of this crusade was the first Shepherds' Crusade in 1251. The Seal of the Knights — the two riders have been interpreted as a sign of poverty or the duality of monk/soldier. ... Chorasmian, also known as Khwarezmian or Khwarazmian, is the name of an extinct northeastern Iranian language closely related to Sogdian. ... Only representation of Saint Louis known to be true to life - Early 14th century statue from the church of Mainneville, Eure, France King Louis IX of France or Saint Louis (April 25, 1214/1215 – August 25, 1270) was King of France from 1226 until his death. ... Ramparts of the Town of Aigues-Mortes, one of the Municipalities of Languedoc. ... The Shepherds Crusade is two separate events from the 13th and 14th century. ...


Eighth Crusade

Full article: Eighth Crusade The Eighth Crusade was a crusade launched by Louis IX of France, (who was by now in his mid-fifties) in 1270. ...


The eighth Crusade was organized by Louis IX in 1270, again sailing from Aigues-Mortes, initially to come to the aid of the remnants of the Crusader states in Syria. However, the crusade was diverted to Tunis, where Louis spent only two months before dying. The Eighth Crusade is sometimes counted as the Seventh, if the Fifth and Sixth Crusades are counted as a single crusade. The Ninth Crusade is sometimes also counted as part of the Eighth. Only representation of Saint Louis known to be true to life - Early 14th century statue from the church of Mainneville, Eure, France King Louis IX of France or Saint Louis (April 25, 1214/1215 – August 25, 1270) was King of France from 1226 until his death. ... Ramparts of the Town of Aigues-Mortes, one of the Municipalities of Languedoc. ...


Ninth Crusade

Full article: Ninth Crusade // Summary The Ninth Crusade which is sometimes grouped with the Eighth Crusade, is commonly considered to be the last of the medieval Crusades to defend Christianity from the Muslims in the Holy Land. ...


The future Edward I of England undertook another expedition in 1271, after having accompanied Louis on the Eighth Crusade. He accomplished very little in Syria and retired the following year after a truce. With the fall of Antioch (1268), Tripoli (1289), and Acre (1291) the last traces of the Christian rule in Syria disappeared. Edward I (June 17, 1239 – July 7, 1307), popularly known as Longshanks because of his 6 foot 2 inch (1. ... The Principality of Antioch (in red) within the frame of the Crusader states. ... Armenian Cilicia and Crusader States The County of Tripoli was the last of the four major Crusader states in the Levant to be created. ... The Siege of Acre took place in 1291 and resulted in the fall of Acre, the last territory of the crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem. ...


Crusades in Baltic and Central Europe

The Teutonic knights in Pskov in 1240 as depicted in Sergei Eisenstein's Alexander Nevsky (1938).
The Teutonic knights in Pskov in 1240 as depicted in Sergei Eisenstein's Alexander Nevsky (1938).

Full article: Northern Crusades Image File history File links Nevsky2. ... Image File history File links Nevsky2. ... The Teutonic Knights or Teutonic Order is a German Roman Catholic religious order formed at the end of the 12th century in Acre in Palestine. ... The Trinity Cathedral (1682-99) is a symbol of Pskovs former might and independence. ... Sergei Eisenstein in 1920s Sergei Eisenstein Sergei Mikhailovich Eisenstein (Russian: Сергей Михайлович Эйзенштейн, Latvian: Sergejs Eizenšteins) (January 23, 1898 – February 11, 1948) was a revolutionary Soviet theatrical scenic designer-turned-film director and film theorist noted in particular for his silent films Strike, Battleship Potemkin and Oktober, which vastly influenced early documentary... Alexander Nevsky is a film directed by Sergei Eisenstein and Dmitry Vasiliev released in 1938, during the Stalin era, with Nikolai Cherkasov in the title role. ... The Teutonic knights in Pskov in 1240. ...


The Crusades in the Baltic Sea area and in Central Europe were efforts by (mostly German) Christians to subjugate and convert the peoples of these areas to Christianity. These Crusades ranged from the 12th century, contemporaneous with the Second Crusade, to the 16th century. Map of the Baltic Sea. ... Regions of Europe Central Europe is the region lying between the variously and vaguely defined areas of Eastern and Western Europe. ...


Between 1232 and 1234, there was a crusade against the Stedingers. This crusade was special, because the Stedingers were not heathens or heretics, but fellow Roman Catholics. They were free Frisian farmers who resented attempts of the count of Oldenburg and the archbishop Bremen-Hamburg to make an end to their freedoms. The archbishop excommunicated them and the pope declared a crusade in 1232. The Stedingers were defeated in 1234. Stedingen is an area north of Bremen in the delta of the Weser river. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Oldenburg is a historical state in todays Germany named for its capital, Oldenburg. ... The Archbishopric of Bremen was an ecclesiastical state in the Holy Roman Empire. ...


Crusade against the Tatars

In the 14th century Khan Tokhtamysh combined the Blue and White Hordes forming the Golden Horde. It seemed that the power of the Golden Horde had begun to rise, but in 1389, Tokhtamysh made the disastrous decision of waging war on his former master, the great Tamerlane. Tamerlane's hordes rampaged through southern Russia, crippling the Golden Horde's economy and practically wiping out its defenses in those lands. Tokhtamysh (d. ... For the chess engine Tamerlane, see Tamerlane. ...


After losing the war, Tokhtamysh was then dethroned by the party of Khan Temur Kutlugh and Emir Edigu, supported byTamerlane. When Tokhtamysh asked Vytautas the Great for assistance in retaking the Horde, the latter readily gathered a huge army which included Lithuanians, Ruthenians, Russians, Mongols, Moldavians, Poles, Romanians and Teutonic knights. For the chess engine Tamerlane, see Tamerlane. ... Vytautas the Great, 17th century painting The castle in Trakai. ... The Teutonic Knights or Teutonic Order is a German Roman Catholic religious order formed at the end of the 12th century in Acre in Palestine. ...


In 1398, the huge army moved from Moldavia and conquered the southern steppe all the way to the Dnieper River and northern Crimea. Inspired by their great successes, Vytautas declared a 'Crusade against the Tatars' with Papal backing. Thus in 1399, the army of Vytautas once again moved on the Horde. His army met the Horde's at the Vorskla River, slightly inside Lithuanian territory. The Dnieper River (also: Dnepr, Dniapro, or Dnipro) is a river (2,290 km length) which flows from Russia through Belarus and then Ukraine. ... Motto: Процветание в единстве - Prosperity in unity Anthem: Нивы и горы твои волшебны, Родина - Your fields and mounts are wonderful, Motherland Capital Simferopol Largest cities Simferopol, Eupatoria, Kerch, Theodosia, Yalta Official language Ukrainian. ... The Vorskla River (Ukrainian: ), located in northeastern Ukraine, is tributary to the Dnieper. ...


Although the Lithuanian army was well equipped with cannons, it could not resist a rear attack from Edigu's reserve units. Vytautas hardly escaped alive. Many princes of his kin - possibly as many as 20 - were killed (as for example, Stefan Musat, Prince of Moldavia and two of his brothers, while a forth was badly injured), and the victorious Tatars besieged Kiev. "And the Christian blood flowed like water, up to the Kievan walls", as one chronicler put it. Meanwhile Temur Kutlugh died from the wounds received in the battle, and Tokhtamysh was killed by one of his own men. A small American Civil War-era cannon on a carriage A caun is any large tubular firearm designed to fire a heavy projectile over a considerable distance. ... It has been suggested that Moldavia (historical region) be merged into this article or section. ... Location Map of Ukraine with Kiev highlighted. ...


Crusade legacy

The Crusades had profound and lasting historical impacts.


Europe

The Crusades had an enormous influence on the European Middle Ages. At times, much of the continent was united under a powerful Papacy, but by the 14th century the development of centralized bureaucracies (the foundation of the modern nation-state) was well on its way in France, England, Burgundy, Portugal, Castile, and Aragon partly because of the dominance of the church at the beginning of the crusading era. Although Europe had been exposed to Islamic culture for centuries through contacts in Iberian Peninsula and Sicily, much Islamic thought, such as science, medicine, and architecture, was transferred to the west during the crusades. The military experiences of the crusades also had their effects in Europe; for example, European castles became massive stone structures, as they were in the east, rather than smaller wooden buildings as they had typically been in the past. The need to raise, transport and supply large armies led to a flourishing of trade throughout Europe. Roads largely unused since the days of Rome saw significant increases in traffic as local merchants began to expand their horizons. This was not only because the Crusades prepared Europe for travel, but rather that many wanted to travel after being reacquainted with the products of the Middle East. This also aided in the beginning of the Renaissance in Italy, as various Italian city-states from the very beginning had important and profitable trading colonies in the crusader states, both in the Holy Land and later in captured Byzantine territory. Despite the ultimate defeat in the Middle East, the Crusaders regained the Iberian Peninsula permanently and slowed down the military expansion of Islam. The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... The Pope is the Catholic Bishop and patriarch of Rome, and head of the Roman Catholic Church and the Eastern Catholic Churches. ... The term nation-state, while often used interchangeably with the terms unitary state and independent state, refers properly to the parallel occurence of a state and a nation. ... Motto: (French for God and my right) Anthem: Multiple unofficial anthems Capital London Largest city London Official language(s) English Government Constitutional monarchy  - Queen Queen Elizabeth II  - Prime Minister Tony Blair MP Unification    - by Athelstan AD927  Area    - Total 130,395 km² (1st in UK)   50,346 sq mi   - Water (%) Population... Coat of arms of the 2nd duchy of Burgundy and later of the French province of Burgundy Burgundy (French: Bourgogne) is a historic region of France, inhabited in turn by Pre-Indo-European people, Celts (Gauls), Romans (Gallo-Romans), and various Germanic peoples, most importantly the Burgundians and the Franks. ... The starting point of Crown of Castile can be considered when the union of the Kingdoms of Castile and Leon in 1230 or the later fusion of their Cortes (their Parlaments). ... Capital Zaragoza Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 4th  47 719 km²  9,4% Population  â€“ Total (2005)  â€“ % of Spain  â€“ Density Ranked 11th  1 269 027  2,9%  26,59/km² Demonym  â€“ English  â€“ Spanish  Aragonese  aragonés Statute of Autonomy August 16, 1982 ISO 3166-2 AR Parliamentary representation  â€“ Congress seats  â€“ Senate... World map showing Europe Political map Europe is one of the seven traditional continents of Earth; the term continent here referring to a cultural and political distinction, rather than a physiographic one, thus leading to various perspectives about Europes precise borders. ... Islam â–¶(?) (Arabic: الإسلام al-islām) the submission to God is a monotheistic faith, one of the Abrahamic religions, the worlds second-largest religion, and said by some sources to be the fastest growing religion in some parts of the world. ... The Iberian Peninsula, or Iberia, is located in the extreme southwest of Europe. ... Sicily (Sicilia in Italian and Sicilian, Σικελία in Greek) is an autonomous region of Italy and the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, with an area of 25,700 sq. ... For other uses, including people named Islam, see Islam (disambiguation). ... A castle (from the Latin castellum) is a structure that is fortified for defence against an enemy and generally serves as a military headquarters dominating the surrounding countryside[1]. The term is most often applied to a small self-contained fortress, usually of the Middle Ages. ... The Roman Empire was a phase of the ancient Roman civilization characterized by an autocratic form of government. ... Raphael was famous for depicting illustrious figures of the Classical past with the features of his Renaissance contemporaries. ... A city-state is a region controlled exclusively by a city. ... The phrase The Holy Land (Arabic الأرض المقدسة, al-Arḍ ul-Muqaddasah; Hebrew ארץ הקודש: Standard Hebrew Éreẓ haQodeÅ¡, Tiberian Hebrew ʾÉreá¹£ haqQāḏēš; Latin Terra Sancta) generally refers to Israel, otherwise known as Palestine (sometimes including Jordan, Syria and parts of Egypt). ... Byzantine Empire (native Greek name: - Basileia tōn Romaiōn) is the term conventionally used since the 19th century to describe the Greek-speaking Roman Empire of the Middle Ages, centered at its capital in Constantinople. ...


Islamic world

The crusades had profound but localized effects upon the Islamic world, where the equivalents of "Franks" and "Crusaders" remained expressions of disdain. Muslims traditionally celebrate Saladin, the Kurdish warrior, as a hero against the Crusaders. In the 21st century, some in the Arab world, such as the Arab independence movement and Pan-Islamism movement, continue to call Western involvement in the Middle East a "crusade". The Crusades were regarded by the Islamic world as cruel and savage onslaughts by European Christians. This article or section may contain inappropriate or misinterpreted citations. ... The Kurds are an ethnic group indigenous to a region often referred to as Kurdistan, an area which includes adjacent parts of Iran, Iraq, Syria, and Turkey. ... Pan-Islam is a religious movement calling for the Muslims of the world to unite. ...


Jewish community

1250 French Bible illustration depicts Jews (identifiable by Judenhut) being massacred by Crusaders
1250 French Bible illustration depicts Jews (identifiable by Judenhut) being massacred by Crusaders

The Crusaders' atrocities against Jews in the German and Hungarian towns, later also in those of France and England, and in the massacres of Jews in Palestine and Syria have become a significant part of the history of anti-Semitism, although no Crusade was ever declared against Jews. These attacks left behind for centuries strong feelings of ill will on both sides. The social position of the Jews in western Europe was distinctly worsened, and legal restrictions increased during and after the Crusades. They prepared the way for the anti-Jewish legislation of Pope Innocent III and formed the turning-point in medieval anti-Semitism. The history of the Jews and the Crusades is one of Crusader atrocities against Jews and has become a part of the history of anti-Semitism for the Jews in the Middle Ages. ... Jews being killed by Crusaders, from a 1250 French bible File links The following pages link to this file: History of the Jews in Poland ... Jews being killed by Crusaders, from a 1250 French bible File links The following pages link to this file: History of the Jews in Poland ... The Jewish poet Süßkind von Trimberg wearing a Judenhut (Codex Manesse, 14. ... This is a partial chronology of hostilities towards or discrimination against the Jews as a religious or ethnic group. ... Innocent III, born Lotario de Conti di Segni (Gavignano, near Anagni, ca. ... The Eternal Jew: 1937 German poster. ...


The Crusading period brought with it many narratives from Jewish sources. Among the better-known Jewish narratives are the chronicles of Solomon Bar Simson and Rabbi Eliezer bar Nathan, The Narrative of the Old Persecutions by Mainz Anonymous, and Sefer Zekhirah, and The Book of Remembrance, by Rabbi Ephraim of Bonn.


The Caucasus

In the Caucasus mountains of Georgia, in the remote highland region of Khevsureti, a tribe called the Khevsurs are thought to possibly be direct descendants of a party of crusaders who got separated from a larger army and have remained in isolation with some of the crusader culture intact. Into the 20th century, relics of armour, weaponry and chain mail were still being used and passed down in such communities. Russian serviceman and ethnographer Arnold Zisserman who spent 25 years (1842-67) in the Caucasus, believed the exotic group of Georgian highlanders were descendants of the last Crusaders based on their customs, language, art and other evidence.[4] American traveler Richard Halliburton (1900-1939) saw and recorded the customs of the tribe in 1935[5]. Khevsureti mountains Fortress village Shatili Khevsureti is a historic province in eastern Georgia, located along both the northern and southern slopes of the Great Caucasus Mountains. ... Khevsureti mountains Khevsureti is a historic province in eastern Georgia, located along both the northern and southern slopes of the Great Caucasus Mountains. ... Richard Halliburton Richard Halliburton (9 January 1900–c. ...


Usage of the term "crusade"

For other uses of the term "crusade", see Crusade (disambiguation).
Look up Crusade in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

The crusades were never referred to as such, by their participants. The original crusaders were known by various terms, including fideles Sancti Petri (the faithful of St. Peter) or milites Christi (knights of Christ). They saw themselves as undertaking an iter, a journey, or a peregrinatio, a pilgrimage, though pilgrims were usually forbidden from carrying arms. Like pilgrims, each crusader swore a vow (a votus), to be fulfilled on successfully reaching Jerusalem, and they were granted a cloth cross (crux) to be sewn into their clothes. This "taking of the cross", the crux, eventually became associated with the entire journey; the word "crusade" (coming into English from the French croisade, the Italian crociata, or the Portuguese cruzada) developed from this. Look up crusade in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wiktionary is a Wikimedia Foundation project intended to be a free wiki dictionary (hence: Wiktionary) (including thesaurus and lexicon) in every language. ...


Since the 17th century, the term "crusade" has carried a connotation in the West of being a righteous campaign, usually to "root out evil", or to fight for a just cause. In a non-historical common or theological use, "crusade" has come to have a much broader emphatic or religious meaning —substantially removed from 'armed struggle.' See Occident (movement) for the French political movement. ... In religion and ethics, evil refers to the bad aspects of the behaviour and reasoning of human beings —those which are deliberately void of conscience, and show a wanton desire for destruction. ...


In a broader sense, "crusade" can be used, always in a rhetorical and metaphorical sense, to identify as righteous any war that is given a religious justification. Rhetoric (from Greek ρήτωρ, rhêtôr, orator, teacher) is the art or technique of persuasion, usually through the use of language. ... In language, a metaphor (from the Greek: metapherin) is a rhetorical trope defined as a direct comparison between two or more seemingly unrelated subjects. ... The United States detonated an atomic bomb over Nagasaki on August 9, 1945. ... Various religious symbols Religion is a system of social coherence based on a common group of beliefs or attitudes concerning an object, person, unseen being, or system of thought considered to be supernatural, sacred, divine or highest truth, and the moral codes, practices, values, institutions, and rituals associated with such...


Ardent activists may also refer to their causes as "crusades," as in the "Crusade against Adult Illiteracy," or a "Crusade against Littering." In recent years, however, the use of "crusade" as a positive term has become less frequent in order to avoid giving offense to Muslims or others offended by the term. The term may also sarcastically or pejoratively characterize the zealotry of agenda promoters, for example with the monicker "Public Crusader" or the campaigns "Crusade against abortion," and the "Crusade for prayer in public schools." Zealotry was a movement in first century Judaism, described by Josephus as one of the four sects at this time. ...


Popular reputation

In Western Europe, the Crusades have traditionally been regarded by laypeople as heroic adventures, though the mass enthusiasm of common people was largely expended in the First Crusade, from which so few of their class returned. Today, the "Saracen" adversary is crystallized in the lone figure of Saladin; his adversary Richard the Lionheart is, in the English-speaking world, the archetypical crusader king, while Frederick Barbarossa (illustration, below left) and Louis IX fill the same symbolic niche in German and French culture. Even in contemporary areas, the crusades and their leaders were romanticized in popular literature; the Chanson d'Antioche was a chanson de geste dealing with the First Crusade, and the Song of Roland, dealing with the era of the similarly romanticized Charlemagne, was directly influenced by the experience of the crusades, going so far as to replace Charlemagne's historic Basque opponents with Muslims. A popular theme for troubadors was the knight winning the love of his lady by going on crusade in the east. Image File history File links Crusade. ... Image File history File links Crusade. ... Cecil Blount DeMille (August 12, 1881 – January 21, 1959) was one of the most successful filmmakers during the first half of the 20th century. ... VHS cover for The Crusades The Crusades is a 1935 film directed by Cecil B. DeMille. ... The term Saracen comes from Greek sarakenoi, which is itself derived from the Arabic word شرقيين sharqiyyin (easterners). The word was used in the early centuries of the Roman Empire to describe a nomadic Arab tribe from the Sinai Desert. ... This article or section may contain inappropriate or misinterpreted citations. ... Richard I (September 8, 1157 – April 6, 1199) was King of England from 1189 to 1199. ... Frederick in a 13th century Chronicle Frederick I (German: Friedrich I. von Hohenstaufen)(1122 – June 10, 1190), also known as Friedrich Barbarossa (Frederick Redbeard) was elected king of Germany on March 4, 1152 and crowned Holy Roman Emperor on June 18, 1155. ... Only representation of Saint Louis known to be true to life - Early 14th century statue from the church of Mainneville, Eure, France King Louis IX of France or Saint Louis (April 25, 1214/1215 – August 25, 1270) was King of France from 1226 until his death. ... The Chanson dAntioche is a chanson de geste in 9000 lines of poetry in stanzas called laisses, composed about 1180 for a courtly French audience. ... The chansons de geste, Old French for songs of heroic deeds, are the epic poetry that appears at the dawn of French literature. ... The Song of Roland (La Chanson de Roland) is an 11th century Old French epic poem about the Battle of Roncevaux Pass (or Roncesvalles) fought by Roland of the Brittany Marches and his fellow paladins. ... Charlemagne (742 or 747 – 28 January 814) (also Charles the Great[1]; from Latin, Carolus Magnus[2]), son of King Pippin the Short and Bertrada of Laon, was king of the Franks from 768 to 814 and king of the Lombards from 774 to 814. ... The Basques are an indigenous people who inhabit parts of Spain and France. ... A troubadour was a composer and performer of songs in particular styles during the Middle Ages in Europe. ...

The ever-living Frederick Barbarossa, in his mountain cave: a late 19th century German woodcut
The ever-living Frederick Barbarossa, in his mountain cave: a late 19th century German woodcut

In the 14th century, Godfrey of Bouillon was united with the Trojan War and the adventures of Alexander the Great against a backdrop for military and courtly heroics of the Nine Worthies who stood as popular secular culture heroes into the 16th century, when more critical literary tastes ran instead to Torquato Tasso and Rinaldo and Armida, Roger and Angelica. Later, the rise of a more authentic sense of history among literate people brought the Crusades into a new focus for the Romantic generation in the romances of Sir Walter Scott in the early 19th century. Crusading imagery could be found even in the Crimean War, in which the United Kingdom and France were allied with the Muslim Ottoman Empire, and in the First World War, especially Allenby's capture of Jerusalem in 1917 (illustration, below right). Image File history File links Barbarossa01. ... Image File history File links Barbarossa01. ... Frederick Barbarossa in a 13th century Chronicle. ... Godfrey of Bouillon, from a tapestry painted in 1420 Godfrey of Bouillon (c. ... The fall of Troy by Johann Georg Trautmann (1713–1769) From the collections of the granddukes of Baden, Karlsruhe The Trojan War was a war waged, according to legend, against the city of Troy in Asia Minor (present-day Turkey), by the armies of the Achaeans, after Paris of Troy... Alexander the Great ;clfmbxpcokfgj;xcofjgxpcofgjxpcokvbm (Greek: [1], Megas Alexandros; July 356 BC — June 11, 323 BC), also known as Alexander III, king of Macedon (336–323 BC), was one of the most successful military commanders in history, conquering most of his known world before his death; he is frequently included... The Nine Worthies were nine historical figures meant to be the embodiment of the ideal of chivalry. ... A culture hero is a historical or mythological hero who changes the world through invention or discovery. ... Torquato Tasso (March 11, 1544 – April 25, 1595) was an Italian poet of the 16th century, best known for his poem La Gerusalemme liberata (Jerusalem Delivered; 1575), in which he describes the imaginary combats between Christians and Muslims at the end of the First Crusade, during the siege of Jerusalem. ... Portrait of Sir Walter Scott, by Sir Edwin Henry Landseer Sir Walter Scott, 1st Baronet (14 August 1771–21 September 1832) was a prolific Scottish historical novelist and poet popular throughout Europe during his time. ... Combatants United Kingdom France Ottoman Empire Kingdom of Sardinia Russian Empire Strength 250,000 British 400,000 French 10,000 Sardinian 2,200,000 Russian Casualties 17,500 British 90,000 French 35,000 Turkish 2,050 Sardinian killed, wounded and died of disease 110,000 killed, wounded and died... Imperial motto (Ottoman Turkish) دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) The Ottoman Empire at the height of its power (1683) Official language Ottoman Turkish Capital Söğüt (1299-1326), Bursa (1326-1365), Edirne (1365-1453), Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul) (1453-1922) Imperial anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Sovereigns Padishah... Combatants Allied Powers: British Empire The Dominion of Canada France Italy Russian Empire United States Central Powers: Austria-Hungary Bulgaria Germany Ottoman Empire Commanders Douglas Haig Sir Arthur Currie John Jellicoe Ferdinand Foch Nicholas II Woodrow Wilson John Pershing Wilhelm II Reinhard Scheer Franz Josef I Oskar Potiorek Ä°smail Enver... Field Marshal Edmund Henry Hynman Allenby, 1st Viscount Allenby (April 23, 1861 - May 14, 1936) was a British soldier most famous for his role during World War I. Field Marshal Edmund Allenby Early years and active service Born in Brackenhurst, Nottinghamshire, Allenby was educated at Haileybury College. ...


In Spain, the popular reputation of the Crusades is outshone by the particularly Spanish history of the Reconquista. El Cid is the central figure. The Reconquista (Reconquest) refers to the process for which the Christian Kingdoms of northern Hispania, defeated and conquered the southern Muslim and moorish states of the Iberian Peninsula, existing since the Arab invasion of 711. ... Statue of El Cid in Burgos. ...


Eastern Orthodoxy

Like Muslims, Eastern Orthodox Christians also see the Crusades as attacks by the barbarian West, but centered on the sack of Constantinople in 1204. Many relics and artifacts taken from Constantinople are still in Roman Catholic hands, in the Vatican and elsewhere. Disagreement currently exists between modern Turks and Greeks over the claimant rights to the Greek Horses on the facade of St. Mark's in Venice. The Greeks argue that the frieze is inherently part of Greek culture and identity, similar to the "Elgin" Marbles and the Turks counter that the freize originated from what is now modern-day Istanbul. A picture of Turkish popular history of the Crusades can be assembled by compiling text of official Turkish brochures on Crusader fortifications in the Aegean coast and coastal islands. Countries of Central Europe, despite the fact that formally they also belonged to Western Christianity, were the most skeptical about the idea of Crusades. Many cities in Hungary were sacked by passing bands of Crusaders; Polish Prince Leszek I the White refused to join a Crusade, allegedly because of the lack of mead in Palestine. Later on, Poland and Hungary were themselves subject to conquest from the Crusaders (see Teutonic Order), and therefore championed the notion that pagans have the right to live in peace and have property rights to their lands (see Pawel Wlodkowic). ... Map of Constantinople. ... The original Horses of Saint Mark The Triumphal Quadriga or Horses of Saint Mark is set a of Roman or Greek bronze statues of four horses, originally part of a monument depicting a quadriga. ... San Marco di Venezia, as seen from the Piazza San Marco St Marks Basilica (Italian: Basilica di San Marco) is the most famous of the churches of Venice and one of the best known examples of Byzantine architecture. ... Country Italy Region Veneto Province Venice (VE) Mayor Massimo Cacciari (since April 18, 2004) Elevation m Area 412 km² Population  - Total (as of December 31, 2004) 271,251  - Density 646/km² Time zone CET, UTC+1 Coordinates Gentilic Veneziani Dialing code 041 Postal code 30100 Frazioni Chirignago, Favaro Veneto, Mestre... Istanbul (Turkish: , Greek: , see other names) is Turkeys most populous city, and its cultural, and economic centre. ... Western Christianity refers to Catholicism, Protestantism, and Anglicanism (which is also usually included in the Protestant category). ... Leszek I the White. ... Mead Mead is a fermented alcoholic beverage made of honey, water, and yeast. ... Palestine (from Latin: ; Hebrew: Pleshet, פלשתינה Palestina; Arabic: ‎ FilastÄ«n, FalastÄ«n) is one of several names for the geographic region between the Mediterranean Sea and the banks of the Jordan River with various adjoining lands. ... Teutonic Knights, charging into battle. ... Paganism (from Latin paganus, meaning a country dweller or civilian) is a blanket term which has come to connote a broad set of spiritual or religious beliefs and practices of natural or polytheistic religions, as opposed to the Abrahamic monotheistic religions. ... Paweł Włodkowic, Paulus Wladimiri (1370-1435) was a distinguished scholar, lawyer and the rector of the University of Cracow. ...


See also

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Category:Crusades

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Wikimedia Commons logo by Reid Beels The Wikimedia Commons (also called Commons or Wikicommons) is a repository of free content images, sound and other multimedia files. ... Bull of the Crusade were the Papal bulls which granted indulgences to those who took part in the crusades against Muslims, pagans or sometimes heretics (from the Catholic viewpoint). ... The art of the Crusades encompassed roughly two artistic periods in Europe, the Romanesque Period, and the Gothic period, the transition between the two occurring around the middle of the 12th century. ... The Crusade cycle is an Old French cycle of chansons de geste concerning the First Crusade and its aftermath. ... The Crusader states, c. ... This is a list of the principal leaders of the Crusades, classified by Crusade. ... Christian military orders appeared following the First Crusade. ... A religious war is a war where the main cause is, or appears to be, religion or religious differences. ... The Shepherds Crusade is two separate events from the 13th and 14th century. ... Tenth Crusade is a term sometimes used by those opposed to the US-led occupations of Afghanistan and Iraq that followed the September 11, 2001 attacks on the United States of America. ...

References and further reading

  • Andrea, Alfred J. Encyclopedia of the Crusades. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 2003 (ISBN 0-313-31659-7).
  • Asbridge, Thomas S. The First Crusade: A New History. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004 (hardcover, ISBN 0-195-17823-8); New York: Free Press, 2005 (paperback, ISBN 0-743-22084-6).
  • Boas, Adrian J. Archaeology of the Military Orders: A Survey of the Urban Centres, Rural Settlements and Castles of the Military Orders in the Latin East (c. 1120–1291). Oxford: Routledge, 2006 (ISBN 0-415-29980-2).
  • Christiansen, Eric. The Northern Crusades (2nd ed.). London: Penguin, 1998 (paperback, ISBN 0-14-026653-4).
  • Gabrieli, Francesco (editor and translator). Arab Historians of the Crusades. New York: Dorset Press, 1989 (hardcover, ISBN 0880294523); Berkeley, CA; Los Angeles; London: University of California Press, 1984 (paperback, ISBN 0520052242).
  • Harris, Jonathan. Byzantium and the Crusades. London, Hambledon Continuum, 2003 (hardcover, ISBN 1-852-85298-4); 2006 (paperback, ISBN 1-852-85501-0).
  • Hillenbrand, Carole. The Crusades: Islamic Perspectives. Chicago, IL: Fitzroy Dearborn, 1999 (hardcover, ISBN 1-579-58210-9); New York: Routledge, 2000 (paperback, ISBN 0-415-92914-8).
  • Holt, P.M. (Peter Malcolm), The Age of the Crusades: The Near East from the Eleventh Century to 1517. Boston, MA: Longman, 1986 (paperback, ISBN 0-582-4930-3X); 1989 (texbook, ISBN 0-582-49302-1).
  • Maalouf, Amin, The Crusades Through Arab Eyes. London: Saqi Books, 1984 (hardcover, ISBN 0-863-56113-6); 1985 (paperback, ISBN 0-863-56023-7); 2001 (paperback reprint, ISBN 0-863-56023-7); New York: Schocken Books, 1989 (paperback reissue, ISBN 0805208984).
  • Madden, Thomas F. The New Concise History of the Crusades. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 2005 (hardcover, updated edition, ISBN 0-742-53822-2).
  • Mayer, Hans Eberhard. The Crusades (2nd ed.). New York: Oxford University Press, 1988 (hardcover, ISBN 0-198-73098-5; paperback, ISBN 0-198-73097-7).
  • Oldenbourg, Zoé. The Crusades. 1965; London: Phoenix Press, 2001 (paperback, ISBN 1842122231).
  • Phillips, Jonathan. The Fourth Crusade and the Sack of Constantinople. London: Jonathan Cape, 2004 (hardcover, ISBN 0224069861); Pimlico, 2005 (paperback, ISBN 1-844-13080-0).
  • Regan, Geoffrey. Lionhearts: Richard I, Saladin, and the Era of the Third Crusade. New York: Walker & Company, 1999 (hardcover, ISBN 0-8027-1354-8).
  • Riley-Smith, Jonathan. The Crusades: A History (2nd ed.). New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2005 (paperback, ISBN 0-300-10128-7).
  • Riley-Smith, Jonathan. The First Crusade and the Idea of Crusading. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1986 (hardcover, ISBN 0-812-280261-; paperback, ISBN 0-812-21363-7).
  • Riley-Smith, Jonathan. The First Crusaders, 1095–1131. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press (New ed.), 1997 (hardcover, ISBN 0-521-59005-1); 1998 (paperback, ISBN 0-521-64603-0).
  • Riley-Smith, Jonathan (ed.). The Oxford Illustrated History of the Crusades. New York: Oxford University Press, 1995 (hardcover, ISBN 0-198-20435-3); New ed., 2001 (paperback, ISBN 0-192-85428-3). As The Oxford History of the Crusades. New York: Oxford University Press, 2002 (paperback, ISBN 0-192-80312-3).
  • Riley-Smith, Jonathan. What were the Crusades? Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 1977 (hardcover, ISBN 0-874-71944-5); Ft. Collins, CO: Ignatius Press, 2002 (paperback, ISBN 0-898-70954-7); New York: Palgrave MacMillan (3rd rev. ed.), 2002 (paperback, ISBN 0-333-94904-8).
  • Runciman, Steven, A History of the Crusades (3 vols.). Cambridge; New York: Cambridge University Press, 1951 (hardcover, ISBN 0-521-20554-9; hardcover, ISBN 0-521-35997-X); 1987 (paperback reprint, ISBN 0-521-34772-6, ISBN 052134770X)
  • Tyerman, Christopher. "The Cross and the State", History Today, September 2006, Volume 56, Issue 9, pp. 28–30.
  • Tyerman, Christopher. God's War: A New History of the Crusades. London: Allen Lane, 2006 (ISBN 0-713-99220-4).
    • Reviewed by Jonathan Sumption in The Spectator, August 26, 2006.

Amin Maalouf (Arabic: ; born (25 February 1949 in Beirut) is a Lebanese author. ... Sir James Cochran Stevenson Runciman (7 July 1903 - 1 November 2000) was a British historian known for his work on the Middle Ages. ...

Notes

  1. ^ This term refers to a particular political polity of the Medieval world.
  2. ^ The Sixth Crusade was the first crusade to set sail without the official blessing of the Church setting a precedent allowing other rulers to independently call for crusades on subsequent expeditions to the Holy land.
  3. ^ The Seljuk were a Turkic branch of the Central Asian Oghuz Turks who had recently overrun the Ghaznavids, Buyids and other dynasties contesting the authority of the Abbassid caliphate. They converted to Islam and established themselves as the de facto rulers, and only formally acknowledging the caliph's suzeranity.
  4. ^ [1]
  5. ^ Sword and Buckler Fighting among the Lost Crusaders. Excerpts of Halliburton's observations

The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times. ... The Sixth Crusade started in 1228 as an attempt to reconquer Jerusalem. ... The phrase The Holy Land (Arabic الأرض المقدسة, al-Arḍ ul-Muqaddasah; Hebrew ארץ הקודש: Standard Hebrew Éreẓ haQodeÅ¡, Tiberian Hebrew ʾÉreá¹£ haqQāḏēš; Latin Terra Sancta) generally refers to Israel, otherwise known as Palestine (sometimes including Jordan, Syria and parts of Egypt). ... This article is about the various peoples speaking one of the Turkic languages. ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ... For all Turkic groupings and Turkic history, see Turkic peoples. ... The Ghaznavid Empire was a state in the region of todays Afghanistan that existed from 977 to 1186. ... The Buyid confederation existed within the Islamic empire from 945 to 1055. ... Abbasid provinces during the caliphate of Harun al-Rashid Abbasid was the dynastic name generally given to the caliphs of Baghdad, the second of the two great Sunni dynasties of the Muslim empire. ... An Anglicized/Latinized version of the Arabic word خليفة or Khalīfah, Caliph (  listen?) is the term or title for the Islamic leader of the Ummah, or community of Islam. ... For other uses, including people named Islam, see Islam (disambiguation). ... De facto is a Latin expression that means in fact or in practice. It is commonly used as opposed to de jure (meaning by law) when referring to matters of law or governance or technique (such as standards), that are found in the common experience as created or developed without...

External links

  • Kenneth Setton, ed., A History of the Crusades. Madison, 1969-1989 (e-book online)
  • Angeliki E. Laiou, The Crusades from the Perspective of Byzantium and the Muslim World, (e-book online), includes chapter on Historiography of the crusades.
  • E.L. Skip Knox, The Crusades, a virtual college course through Boise State University.
  • Paul Crawford, Crusades: A Guide to Online Resources, 1999.

Boise State University is a state university located near downtown Boise, the capital city of Idaho. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Crusade (1218 words)
The Fourth Crusade was initiated by Pope Innocent III in 1202, but ended up in the sacking of Constantinople in 1204, as crusaders fought alongside Venetians and traitors to the Byzantine Empire.
The vital crusading spirit was now dead, and the succeeding crusades are to be explained rather as arising from the efforts of the papacy in its struggle against the secular power, to divert the military energies of the European nations toward Syria.
A crusading force from Hungary, Austria, and Bavaria achieved a remarkable feat in the capture of Damietta in Egypt in 1219, but under the urgent insistence of the papal legate, Pelagius, they proceeded to a foolhardy attack on Cairo, and an inundation of the Nile compelled them to choose between surrender and destruction.
Crusade - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (4350 words)
The 13th century crusades never expressed such a popular fever, and after Acre fell for the last time in 1291, and after the extermination of the Occitan Cathars in the Albigensian Crusade, the crusading ideal became devalued by Papal justifications of political and territorial aggressions within Catholic Europe.
The eighth Crusade was organized by Louis IX in 1270, again sailing from Aigues-Mortes, initially to come to the aid of the remnants of the Crusader states in Syria.
The Crusaders' atrocities against Jews in the German and Hungarian towns, later also in those of France and England, and in the massacres of non-combatants in Palestine and Syria have become a significant part of the history of anti-Semitism, although no Crusade was ever declared against Jews.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m