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Encyclopedia > Cruiser
USS Port Royal (CG-73), a Ticonderoga-class guided missile cruiser (really an uprated guided missile destroyer), launched in 1992.

A cruiser is a type of warship. The nature and role of the cruiser has changed considerably over the years. Official Navy photo of USS Port Royal (CG-73) in 1997, from http://www. ... Official Navy photo of USS Port Royal (CG-73) in 1997, from http://www. ... USS Port Royal (CG 73) is a United States Navy Ticonderoga-class guided missile cruiser, the 27th and final in the class. ... Ticonderoga class cruiser is a class of warships in the US Navy, first ordered and authorized in FY 1978. ... A guided missile is a military rocket that can be directed in flight to change its flight path. ... A guided missile destroyer is, as the name suggests, a destroyer designed to launch guided missiles. ... 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday. ...


Historically a cruiser was not a type of ship but a warship role. Cruisers were ships — often frigates or smaller vessels — which were assigned a role largely independent from the fleet. Typically this might involve missions such as raiding enemy merchant shipping. In the late 19th Century the term 'cruiser' came to mean ships designed to fulfill such a role, and from the 1890s to the 1950s a 'cruiser' was a warship larger than a destroyer but smaller than a battleship. For much of 19th century and the first half of the 20th, the cruiser was a navy's long-range "force projection" weapon, while the larger ships stayed nearer to home. Their main role was to attack enemy merchant vessels, so much so that this task came to be called cruiser warfare. Other roles included reconnaissance, and cruisers were often attached to the battlefleet. In the later 20th century, the decline of the battleship left the cruiser as the largest and most powerful surface combatant. However, the role of the cruiser increasingly became one of providing air defence for a fleet, rather than independent cruiser warfare. At the beginning of the 21st century, cruisers are the heaviest surface combatant ships in use, with only four nations (the United States, Russia, France and Peru) operating these. Sailing frigates were 4th, 5th, or 6th-rated ships in the rating system of the Royal Navy. ... USS McFaul (DDG-74) In naval terminology, a destroyer is a fast and maneuverable yet long-endurance warship intended to escort larger vessels in a fleet or battle group and defend them against smaller, short-range but powerful attackers (originally torpedo boats, later submarines and aircraft). ... The firepower of a battleship demonstrated by USS Iowa A battleship is a large, heavily-armored warship with a main battery consisting of the largest caliber of guns. ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Merchant Navy. ... Mixed reconnaissance patrol of the Polish Home Army and the Soviet Red Army during Operation Tempest, 1944 Reconnaissance is the military term for the active gathering of information about an enemy, or other conditions, by physical observation. ...

Contents

Early History

The term "cruiser" was first commonly used in the 17th century to refer to an independent warship. "Cruiser" meant the purpose or mission of a ship, rather than a category of vessel. However, the term was nonetheless generally used to mean a smaller, faster warship. In the 17th Century, the ship of the line was generally too large, inflexible and expensive to be despatched on long-range missions (for instance, to the Americas), and too strategically important to be put at risk of fouling and foundering by continual patrol duties. The Dutch navy was noted for its cruisers in the 17th century, while the British and later French and Spanish later caught up in terms of their numbers and deployment. The British Cruizers and Convoys Acts were an attempt by mercantile interests in Parliament to focus the Navy on commerce defence and raiding with cruisers, rather than the more scarce and expensive ships of the line.[1] Ships of the line were 1st, 2nd, or 3rd-rated ships in the rating system of the Royal Navy. ... Royal Netherlands Navy Jack The Koninklijke Marine (Royal Netherlands Navy ) is the navy of the Netherlands. ...


During the 18th Century the frigate became the pre-eminent type of cruiser. A frigate was a small, fast, long range, lightly armed (single gun-deck) ships used for scouting, carrying dispatches, and disrupting enemy trade. The other principal type of cruiser was the sloop, but many other miscellaneous types of ship were used as 'cruisers'; at this stage the designation meant a role rather than a type of craft. For the bird, see Frigatebird. ... A sloop-rigged J-24 sailboat A sloop (From Dutch sloep) in sailing, is a vessel with a fore-and-aft rig. ...


Armoured and Protected Cruisers

During the 19th century, as steam propulsion became the norm, fleets started to use the term 'cruiser' more descriptively to refer to some ironclad warships as well as a miscellany of unarmored frigates, sloops, and corvettes, most of which had mixed steam and sail propulsion. For pre-modern armoured ships, see Pre-industrial armoured ships. ...


The first ironclads were, because of their single gun decks, still referred to as "frigates", even though they were more powerful than existing ships of the line. The French constructed a number of smaller ironclads for overseas cruising duties, starting with the Belliqueuse, commisisoned 1865. These were the first armored cruisers. By the 1870s, many other nations had produced ironclads specifically for fast, independent, raiding and patrol. These vessels came to adopt the term armored cruiser, while their heavier cousins adopted the term battleship. Until the 1890s armoured cruisers were still built with masts for a full sailing rig, to enable them to operate far from friendly coaling stations.[2] Ironclad warships, frequently shortened to just ironclads, were ships sheathed with thick iron plates for protection. ... Armored cruiser General-Admiral (1873) Armored cruiser USS Brooklyn (1898) Armored cruiser HMS Good Hope (1901) Armored cruiser SMS Blücher (1908) The armored cruiser was a naval cruiser protected by armor on its sides as well as on the decks and gun positions. ... The firepower of a battleship demonstrated by USS Iowa A battleship is a large, heavily-armored warship with a main battery consisting of the largest caliber of guns. ...


Unarmoured cruising warships, built out of wood, iron, steel or a combination of those materials, remained popular until towards the end of the 19th century. The ironclad's armour often mean that it was limited to a short range under steam, and many ironclads were unsuited to long-range missions or for work in distant colonies. The cruiser's lack of armour meant that it could fulfill its traditional role. Even though mid- or late-19th century cruisers typically carried up-to-date guns firing explosive shells, they were unable to face ironclads in combat. This was evidenced by the clash between HMS Shah, a modern British cruiser, and the Peruvian monitor Huascar. Even though the Peruvian vessel was obsolescent by the time of the encounter, it stood up well to roughly 50 hits from British shells. Look up monitor in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Huáscar is a small armoured turret ship, similar to the monitor type. ...


The Protected Cruiser

Main article: Protected cruiser A schematic section of a protected cruiser illustrating the protection scheme. ...


In the 1880s naval architects found a solution to the problem of how to give a fast, independent cruiser the protection needed to survive in combat. Steel armour was considerably stronger, for the same weight, than iron. By putting a relatively thin layer of steel armour above the vitals of the ship, and by placing the coal bunkers where they might stop shellfire, a useful degree of protection could be achieved without slowing the ship too much.


The first protected cruiser was the groundbreaking Chilean ship Esmeralda. Produced by a shipyard at Elswick, in Britain, owned by Armstrong, she inspired a group of protected cruisers produced in the same yard and known as the Elswick cruisers. Her forecastle, poop deck and the wooden board deck had been removed, replaced with an armoured deck. Esmeraldaˈs armament consisted of fore and aft 10-inch (25.4 cm) guns and 6-inch (15.2 cm) guns in the midships positions. It could reach a speed of 18 knots, and was propelled by steam alone. It also had a displacement of less than 3,000 tons. During the two following decades, this cruiser type came to be the inspiration for combining heavy artillery, high speed and low displacement. forecastle with figurehead Grand Turk Focsle of the Prince William, a modern square rigged ship, in the North Sea. ... Stern of the Grand Turk with poop deck above In naval architecture, a poop deck is a deck that constitutes the roof of a poop cabin built in the aft (rear) part of the superstructure of a ship. ...


Torpedo cruisers

The torpedo cruiser was a smaller unarmoured cruiser, which emerged in the 1880s-1890s. These ships could reach speed up to 20 knots and were armed with medium to small calibre guns, as well as torpedoes. These ships were tasked with guard and reconnaissance duties, to repeat signals and all other duties of a fleet, which were suited for smaller vessels. These ships could also function as the flagship of a torpedo boat flottilla. After the 1900s, these ships were usually traded for faster ships with better sea going qualities.


Cruisers in the Jeune Ecole school

The adoption of the protected cruiser was hastened by the Jeune Ecole school of naval doctrine. The Jeune Ecole (Young School) was a French naval school of thought developed during the 19th century. ...


Cruisers from 1900 to 1914

Main articles: armored cruiser and protected cruiser
The German light cruiser SMS Emden, launched in 1908.
The German light cruiser SMS Emden, launched in 1908.

Shortly after turn of the 20th century there were difficult questions about the design of future cruisers. The traditional armoured cruiser - essentially a cut-down pre-Dreadnought battleship - seemed less suited to the needs of modern navies, and the older protected and unarmoured cruisers even less so. In the Royal Navy, Jackie Fisher cut back hugely on older vessels, including many cruisers of different sorts, calling them 'a miser's hoard of useless junk' that any modern cruiser would sweep from the seas. Armored cruiser General-Admiral (1873) Armored cruiser USS Brooklyn (1898) Armored cruiser HMS Good Hope (1901) Armored cruiser SMS Blücher (1908) The armored cruiser was a naval cruiser protected by armor on its sides as well as on the decks and gun positions. ... A schematic section of a protected cruiser illustrating the protection scheme. ... Image File history File linksMetadata SMS_Emden. ... Image File history File linksMetadata SMS_Emden. ... A light cruiser is a warship that is not so large and powerful as a regular (or heavy) cruiser, but still larger than ships like destroyers. ... SMS Emden was a light cruiser of the German navy. ... 1908 (MCMVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... USS Massachusetts, a pre-dreadnought battleship launched in 1893 The term pre-dreadnought refers to the last type of battleship before the British Royal Navys HMS Dreadnought (1906). ... ...


Battlecruisers

HMS Repulse in 1919
HMS Repulse in 1919

Main article: Battlecruiser Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 184 pixel Image in higher resolution (1687 × 387 pixel, file size: 45 KB, MIME type: image/png) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Battlecruiser Cruiser Renown... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 184 pixel Image in higher resolution (1687 × 387 pixel, file size: 45 KB, MIME type: image/png) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Battlecruiser Cruiser Renown... HMS Hood (left) and the battleship HMS Barham (right), in Malta, 1937. ...


Fisher envisaged a fusion between the battleship and the cruiser. He believed that to ensure British naval dominance in its overseas colonial possessions, a fleet of large, fast, powerfully-armed vessels which would be able to hunt down and mop up enemy cruisers and armored cruisers with overwhelming fire superiority was needed. These vessel came to be known as the battlecruiser (a misnomer that would lead to errors in deployment against battleships, as they were never intended to join in the main battle line), and the first were commissioned into the Royal Navy in 1907. While, in spite of Fisher's lobbying, the concept never came to dominate naval warfare, Britain, Germany and eventually Japan all came to build squadrons of battlecruisers. The firepower of a battleship demonstrated by USS Iowa A battleship is a large, heavily-armored warship with a main battery consisting of the largest caliber of guns. ...


Light cruisers

Main article: Light cruiser A light cruiser is a warship that is not so large and powerful as a regular (or heavy) cruiser, but still larger than ships like destroyers. ...


At around the same time as the battlecruiser was developed, the distinction between the armoured and the unarmoured cruiser finally disappeared. By the British Town class cruiser (1910), it was possible for a small, fast cruiser to carry both belt and deck armour, particularly when turbine engines were adopted. These 'light armored cruisers' began to occupy the traditional cruiser role once it became clear that the battlecruiser squadrons were required to operate with the battle fleet. The Town class was a class of light cruisers built for the Royal Navy (RN) and Royal Australian Navy (RAN) and were good long-range cruisers, perfect for the vast Empire that the RN had to patrol . ...


Flotilla leaders

Main article: Flotilla leader

Some light cruisers were built specifically to act as the leaders of flotillas of destroyers. A flotilla leader was a warship suitable for commanding a flotilla of destroyers or other small warships, typically a small cruiser or a large destroyer. ... USS McFaul (DDG-74) In naval terminology, a destroyer is a fast and maneuverable yet long-endurance warship intended to escort larger vessels in a fleet or battle group and defend them against smaller, short-range but powerful attackers (originally torpedo boats, later submarines and aircraft). ...


Auxiliary cruisers

Main article: Auxiliary cruiser

The auxiliary cruiser was a merchant ship hastily armed with small guns on the outbreak of war. Auxiliary cruisers were used to fill gaps in their long-range lines or provide escort for other cargo ships, although they generally proved to be useless in this role because of their low speed, feeble firepower and lack of armor. In both world wars the Germans also used small merchant ships armed with cruiser guns to surprise Allied merchant ships. Some large liners were armed in the same way. In British service these were known as Armed Merchant Cruisers (AMC). The Germans and French used them in World War I as raiders because of their high speed (around 30 knots (56 km/h)), and they were used again as raiders in World War II by the Germans and Japanese. In both the First World War and in the early part of the Second, they were used as convoy escorts by the British. Auxiliary cruisers were merchant ships taken over for conversion into a vessel armed with cruiser-size guns, and employed either for convoy protection against true cruisers, or for commerce-raiding missions, where its appearance was used to trick merchant ships into approaching. ... Armed Merchantmen were merchant ships taken over by their nations navies, equipped with guns, and then used for military purposes. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Merchant Navy. ...


World War I

Main Article: Naval warfare of World War I British battleship HMS Irresistible abandoned and sinking, 18 March 1915, during the Battle of Gallipoli. ...


Cruisers were one of the workhorse types of ship of World War I.


Cruisers from 1919-1945

Naval construction in the 1920s and 1930s was limited by international treaties designed to prevent the repetition of the Dreadnought arms race of the early 20th Century. The Washington Naval Treaty of 1922 placed limits on the construction of ships with a displacement of 10,000 tons or more and an armament of greater than 8 inch calibre. A number of navies commissioned classes of cruisers at the top end of this limit. The London Naval Treaty in 1930 then formalised the distinction between these 'heavy' cruisers and light cruisers: a 'heavy' cruiser was one with guns of 6.1in calibre or more. The Second London Naval Treaty attempted to reduce the tonnage of new cruisers to 8,000 or less, but this had little impact; Japan and Germany were not signatories, and navies had already begun to evade treaty limitations on warships. Look up dreadnought in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Washington Naval Treaty limited the naval armaments of its five signatories: the United States, the British Empire, the Empire of Japan, the French Third Republic, and Italy. ... Look up ton in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... An inch (plural: inches; symbol or abbreviation: in or, sometimes, ″ - a double prime) is the name of a unit of length in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ... The London Naval Treaty was an agreement between the United Kingdom, Japan, France, Italy and the United States, signed on April 22, 1930, which to regulate submarine warfare and limited military shipbuilding. ... The Second London Naval Disarmament Conference opened in England on December 9, 1935. ...


The German pocket battleships

Main article: Pocket battleship

The German Deutschland class was a series of three panzerschiffe ("armoured ships"), a form of heavily armed cruiser, built by the German Reichsmarine in accordance with restrictions imposed by the Treaty of Versailles. The class is named after the first ship of this class to be completed (the Deutschland). All three ships were launched between 1931 and 1934, and served with Germany's Kriegsmarine during World War II. Pocket battleship is an English language term for a class of warships built by German Reichsmarine in accordance with restrictions imposed by the Treaty of Versailles. ... Reichsmarine Jack The Reichsmarine was the name of the German Navy during the Weimar Republic. ... The Treaty of Versailles (1919) was the peace treaty which officially ended World War I between the Allied and Associated Powers and Germany. ... The Deutschland (later re-named Lützow), was the lead ship of a heavy cruiser class that served in the German Kriegsmarine before and during World War II. The ship was originally classified as an armored ship (Panzerschiff) by Germany, and referred to as a pocket battleship by the British. ... 1931 (MCMXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link is to a full 1931 calendar). ... 1934 (MCMXXXIV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... The Kriegsmarine (or War Navy) was the name of the German Navy between 1935 and 1945, during the Nazi regime, superseding the Reichsmarine. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...


The British began referring to the vessels as pocket battleships, in reference to the heavy firepower contained in the relatively small vessels; they were considerably smaller than battleships and battlecruisers, and although their displacement was that of a heavy cruiser, they were armed with guns larger than the heavy cruisers of other nations. Deutschland class ships continue to be called pocket battleships in some circles. The ships were actually two feet longer than the American Pennsylvania class battleships. The firepower of a battleship demonstrated by USS Iowa A battleship is a large, heavily-armored warship with a main battery consisting of the largest caliber of guns. ... HMS Invincible, one of Britains first battlecruisers Battlecruisers were large warships of the early 20th century. ... The term heavy cruiser is used to refer to large cruisers, a form of warship. ... The Pennsylvania-class battleships, of the United States Navy, were an enlargement of the Nevada class; having two additional 14 in (356 mm) 45 caliber main battery guns, greater length and displacement, four propellers and slightly higher speed. ...


Deutschland class ships were initially classified as panzerschiffe, but the Kriegsmarine reclassified them as heavy cruisers in February 1940. The Kriegsmarine (or War Navy) was the name of the German Navy between 1935 and 1945, during the Nazi regime, superseding the Reichsmarine. ...


Anti-aircraft cruisers

Main article: Anti-aircraft cruiser
USS Atlanta (CL-51)

The development of the anti-aircraft cruiser began in the late 1920s and early 1930s when the Royal Navy re-armed several of their WWI light cruisers to provide protection against aircraft for the larger warships. As naval air power became more and more predominant during WWII, measures had to be taken in order to provide effective anti-aircraft defence. The first anti-aircraft cruisers were regular, light or heavy cruisers, which were modified to carry additional anti-aircraft artillery. The first purpose built anti-aircraft cruiser was the British Dido class cruisers, completed shortly before the beginning of WWII. Having sacrificed their medium artillery for more anti-aircraft armament, the anti-aircraft cruisers often needed protection themselves against heavier surface units. At the battle of Guadalcanal, the US Navy lost two anti-aircraft cruisers due to enemy action. USS Port Royal (CG-73), a Ticonderoga-class guided missile cruiser (really an uprated guided missile destroyer), launched in 1992. ... USS Atlanta (CL-51) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... USS Atlanta (CL-51) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The Royal Navy of the United Kingdom is the oldest of the British armed services (and is therefore the Senior Service). ... The Dido class was a class of sixteen (including the Bellona sub-class) light cruisers built for the Royal Navy. ... Operation Watchtower On August 7, 1942, the 1st Marine Division performed an amphibious landing east of the Tenaru River. ...


Most post-WWII cruisers were tasked with air defense roles. In the early 1950s, advances in aviation technology forced the move from anti-aircraft artillery to anti-aircraft missiles. Therefore most cruisers of today are equipped with surface-to-air missiles as their main armament. The US Navy has operated a long line of classes of anti-aircraft cruisers (CLAA), starting with the Atlanta class. The modern equivalent of the anti-aircraft cruiser is the guided missile cruiser (CAG/CLG/CG/CGN). The Atlanta class cruisers were US Navy light cruisers designed originally as flotilla leaders but which ended up gaining recognition as effective anti-aircraft cruisers. ...

Russian Navy cruiser, Kirov-class, probably RFS Admiral Nakhimov.
Russian Navy cruiser, Kirov-class, probably RFS Admiral Nakhimov.
The Ticonderoga-class cruiser USS Cape St. George (CG-71), firing a Tomahawk missile.
The Ticonderoga-class cruiser USS Cape St. George (CG-71), firing a Tomahawk missile.

Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Radars: Voskhod MR-800 (Top Pair) 3D search radar on foremast Fregat MR-710 (Top Steer) 3D search radar on main mast 2 × Palm Frond navigation radar on foremast Sonar Horse Tail VDS (Variable Deep Sonar) Fire control: 2 × Top Dome for SA-N-6 fire control 4 × Bass Tilt... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1652x1076, 304 KB) Source: http://www. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1652x1076, 304 KB) Source: http://www. ... Ticonderoga class cruiser is a class of warships in the US Navy, first ordered and authorized in FY 1978. ... USS (CG-71), named for the site of a World War II naval action off New Ireland in the Solomon Islands where a U.S. Navy destroyer force led by Captain Arleigh Burke defeated a Japanese destroyer force on 25 November 1943, is a Ticonderoga class guided missile cruiser laid...

Later 20th century

The rise of air power during World War II dramatically changed the nature of naval combat. Even the fastest cruisers could not outrun an airplane, which were increasingly able to attack at longer distances over the ocean. This change led to the end of independent operations by single ships or very small task groups, and for the second half of the 20th century naval operations were based around very large fleets able to fend off all but the largest air attacks. This has led most navies to change to fleets designed around ships dedicated to a single role, anti-submarine or anti-aircraft typically, and the large "generalist" ship has disappeared from most forces. The United States Navy, the Russian Navy, and the Peruvian Navy (with the Almirante Grau) are the only remaining navies which operate cruisers. France operates a single cruiser, FN Jeanne d'Arc, which in the NATO pennant number system is classified as an aircraft carrier, but for training purposes only. Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Anti-submarine warfare is a term referring to warfare directed against submarines. ... American troops man an anti-aircraft gun near the Algerian coastline in 1943 Anti-aircraft, or air defense, is any method of combating military aircraft from the ground. ... The United States Navy, also known as the USN or the U.S. Navy, is a branch of the United States armed forces responsible for conducting naval operations. ... The Russian Navy (Russian: Военно-Морской Флот (ВМФ) - Voyenno- Morskoy Flot (VMF) or Military Maritime Fleet) is the naval arm of the Russian armed forces. ... Peruvian Navy Jack The Peruvian Navy (Marina de Guerra del Perú) is the branch of the Peruvian Armed Forces tasked with surveillance, patrol and defense on lakes, rivers and the Pacific Ocean up to 200 nautical miles from the peruvian littoral. ... BAP Almirante Grau (CLM-81) is a De Ruyter class cruiser in service with the Peruvian Navy. ... The Jeanne dArc (R97) is a helicopter cruiser of the French Navy. ... Four aircraft carriers, (bottom-to-top) Principe de Asturias, amphibious assault carrier USS Wasp, supercarrier USS Forrestal and light V/STOL carrier HMS Invincible, showing size differences of late 20th century carriers An aircraft carrier is a warship designed to deploy and recover aircraft — in effect acting as a sea...


In the Soviet Navy, cruisers formed the basis of their combat groups. In the immediate post-war era they built a fleet of large-gun ships, but replaced these fairly quickly with very large ships carrying huge numbers of guided missiles and anti aircraft missiles. The most recent ships of this type, the four Kirovs, were built in the 1970s and 1980s, and, with the exception of the two newest in the class, RFS Pyotr Velikiy and RFS Admiral Nakhimov, are no longer in service today. Russia also operates one Kara-class and four Slava-class cruisers, plus one Kuznetsov-class carrier which is officially designated as a cruiser. The Soviet Navy (Russian: Военно-морской флот СССР, Voyenno-morskoy flot SSSR, literally Naval military forces of the USSR) was the naval arm of the Soviet armed forces. ... A guided missile is a military rocket that can be directed in flight to change its flight path. ... Radars: Voskhod MR-800 (Top Pair) 3D search radar on foremast Fregat MR-710 (Top Steer) 3D search radar on main mast 2 × Palm Frond navigation radar on foremast Sonar Horse Tail VDS (Variable Deep Sonar) Fire control: 2 × Top Dome for SA-N-6 fire control 4 × Bass Tilt... The 1970s decade refers to the years from 1970 to 1979. ... The 1980s refers to the years from 1980 to 1989. ... The RFS Pyotr Velikiy is a Kirov class battlecruiser of the Russian Navy. ... The Kara is a class of Cold War era Soviet guided missile cruisers. ... The Slava class cruiser, Soviet designation Project 1164 Atlant, is a large conventionally-powered warship, currently operated by Russia and Ukraine. ...


The United States Navy has centered on the aircraft carrier since WWII. The Ticonderoga-class cruisers, built in the 1980s, were originally designed and designated as a class of destroyer, intended to provide a very powerful air-defense in these carrier-centered fleets. The ships were later redesignated largely as a public relations move, in order to highlight the capability of the Aegis combat system the ships were designed around. In the years since the launch of USS Ticonderoga in 1981 the class has received a number of upgrades that have dramatically improved their capabilities for anti-submarine and land attack (using the Tomahawk missile). Like their Soviet counterparts, the modern Ticonderogas can also be used as the basis for an entire battle group. Their cruiser designation was almost certainly deserved when first built, as their sensors and combat management systems enable them to act as 'flagships' for a surface warship flotilla if no carrier is present, but newer ships rated as destroyers and also equipped with AEGIS approach them very closely in capability, and once more blur the line between the two classes. Four aircraft carriers, (bottom-to-top) Principe de Asturias, amphibious assault carrier USS Wasp, supercarrier USS Forrestal and light V/STOL carrier HMS Invincible, showing size differences of late 20th century carriers An aircraft carrier is a warship designed to deploy and recover aircraft — in effect acting as a sea... Ticonderoga class cruiser is a class of warships in the US Navy, first ordered and authorized in FY 1978. ... The 1980s refers to the years from 1980 to 1989. ... USS McFaul (DDG-74) In naval terminology, a destroyer is a fast and maneuverable yet long-endurance warship intended to escort larger vessels in a fleet or battle group and defend them against smaller, short-range but powerful attackers (originally torpedo boats, later submarines and aircraft). ... Four aircraft carriers, (bottom-to-top) Principe de Asturias, amphibious assault carrier USS Wasp, supercarrier USS Forrestal and light V/STOL carrier HMS Invincible, showing size differences of late 20th century carriers An aircraft carrier is a warship designed to deploy and recover aircraft — in effect acting as a sea... Public relations (PR): Building sustainable relations with all publics in order to create a postive brand image. ... USS Lake Champlain, a Ticonderoga-class Aegis guided missile cruiser, launched in 1987 The Aegis combat system is an integrated missile guidance system used by the United States Navy. ... USS Ticonderoga (DDG/CG-47), fifth to bear the name, was a guided-missile cruiser, homeported in Pascagoula, Mississippi. ... 1981 (MCMLXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Anti-submarine warfare is a term referring to warfare directed against submarines. ... The Tomahawk Land Attack Missile (TLAM) is a long-range, all-weather, subsonic cruise missile with stubby wings. ...


Aircraft cruisers

Main article: Aircraft cruiser

From time to time, some navies have experimented with aircraft-carrying cruisers. One example is the Swedish HMS Gotland. Another variant are the helicopter cruiser. The last example in service was the Soviet Navy's Kiev class, the last unit of which has been converted to a pure aircraft carrier and sold to India. The Russian Navy's RFS Admiral Kuznetsov is nominally designated as an aviation cruiser but otherwise resembles a standard medium aircraft carrier, albeit with an SSM battery. The Royal Navy's aircraft-carrying Invincible-class vessels were originally designated 'through-deck cruisers', but have been more properly designated as small aircraft carriers. HMS Gotland was a seaplane cruiser of the Swedish Navy built by Götaverken. ... Aircraft carrier Kiev, USSR, 1975-1996 The Kiev class carriers (also know as Project 1143 or as the Krechyet class) were the first class of fixed-wing aircraft carriers build in Russia. ... The Soviet aircraft carrier Admiral Flota Svetskogo Soyuza Kuznetsov (originally named Tbilisi) was intended to be the lead ship of the Kuznetsov-class of aircraft carriers (also known as Project 1143. ... SSM can be an abbreviation for Same-sex marriage A common abbreviation to Summerslam. ... The Royal Navy of the United Kingdom is the oldest of the British armed services (and is therefore the Senior Service). ... The sixth (and current) HMS Invincible. ... Four aircraft carriers, (bottom-to-top) Principe de Asturias, amphibious assault carrier USS Wasp, supercarrier USS Forrestal and light V/STOL carrier HMS Invincible, showing size differences of late 20th century carriers An aircraft carrier is a warship designed to deploy and recover aircraft — in effect acting as a sea...


The US Navy's "cruiser gap"

Prior to the introduction of the Ticonderogas, the US Navy used odd naming conventions that left its fleet seemingly without many cruisers, although a number of their ships were cruisers in all but name. From the 1950s to the 1970s, US Navy "cruisers" were large vessels equipped with heavy offensive missiles (including the Regulus nuclear cruise missile) for wide-ranging combat against land-based and sea-based targets. All save one — USS Long Beach — were converted from World War II Chicago, Baltimore and Cleveland class cruisers. "Frigates" under this scheme were almost as large as the cruisers and optimized for anti-aircraft warfare, although they were capable anti-surface warfare combatants as well. In the late 1960s, the US government perceived a "cruiser gap"—at the time, the US Navy possessed six ships designated as "cruisers," compared to 19 for the Soviet Union, even though the USN possessed at the time 21 "frigates" with equal or superior capabilities to the Soviet cruisers—because of this, in 1975 the Navy performed a massive redesignation of its forces: The United States Navy reclassified many of its surface vessels in 1975, changing terminology and hull classification symbols for aircraft carriers, cruisers, frigates, and ocean escorts. ... Regulus missile The SSM-N-8A Regulus cruise missile was the nuclear deterrent weapon employed by the United States Navy from 1955 to 1964. ... The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 kilometers (11 mi) above the hypocenter. ... A Taurus KEPD 350 cruise missile of the Luftwaffe A cruise missile is a guided missile which uses a lifting wing and most often a jet propulsion system to allow sustained flight. ... USS Long Beach (CGN-160/CLGN-160/CGN-9) was the first all-new cruiser designed and constructed after World War II (all others were completions or conversions of cruisers begun or completed during the war). ... The United States Navys Baltimore class of heavy cruisers was the last of World War II. The ships looked very much like those of the Cleveland class. ... USS Cleveland (CL-55) The United States Navy designed the Cleveland class of light cruisers for World War II with the goal of increased range and AA armament as compared with earlier classes. ... For the bird, see Frigatebird. ... American troops man an anti-aircraft gun near the Algerian coastline in 1943 Anti-aircraft, or air defense, is any method of combating military aircraft from the ground. ... The 1960s decade refers to the years from January 1, 1960 to December 31, 1969, inclusive. ...

  • CVA/CVAN were redesignated CV/CVN (although USS Midway (CV-41) and USS Coral Sea (CV-43) never embarked anti-submarine squadrons).
  • DLG/DLGN (Frigate/Nuclear-powered Frigate) were redesignated CG/CGN (Guided Missile Cruiser/Nuclear-powered Guided Missile Cruiser).
  • Farragut-class guided missile frigates (DLG), being smaller and less capable than the others, were redesignated to DDGs (USS Coontz was the first ship of this class to be re-numbered; because of this the class is sometimes called the Coontz class);
  • DE/DEG (Ocean Escort/Guided Missile Ocean Escort) were redesignated to FF/FFG (Guided Missile Frigates), bringing the US "Frigate" designation into line with the rest of the world.

Also, a series of Patrol Frigates of the Oliver Hazard Perry class, originally designated PFG, were redesignated into the FFG line. The cruiser-destroyer-frigate realignment and the deletion of the Ocean Escort type brought the US Navy's ship designations into line with the rest of the world's, eliminating confusion with foreign navies. In 1980, the Navy's then-building DDG-47 class destroyers were redesignated as cruisers (CG-47 Ticonderoga-class guided missile cruiser) to emphasize the additional capability provided by the ships' Aegis combat systems. USS Midway (CVB/CVA/CV-41) was an aircraft carrier of the United States Navy, the lead ship of her class, and the first to be commissioned after the end of World War II. Active in the Vietnam War and in Operation Desert Storm, as of 2006 she is a... USS Coral Sea (CV/CVB/CVA-43), a Midway-class aircraft carrier, was the second ship of the United States Navy to be named for the Battle of the Coral Sea. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... The keel of the USS Coontz was laid at Puget Sound Naval Shipyard in March 1957, just 39 years after Admiral Robert E. Coontz left his post as the shipyards commander. ... The USS McInerney (FFG 8), an Oliver Hazard Perry class frigate. ... Ticonderoga class cruiser is a class of warships in the US Navy, first ordered and authorized in FY 1978. ... USS Lake Champlain, a Ticonderoga-class Aegis guided missile cruiser, launched in 1987 The Aegis combat system is an integrated missile guidance system used by the United States Navy. ...


References

  1. ^ Rodger, N.A.M: The Command of the Ocean, A Naval History of Britain 1649–1815. Allen Lane, London, 2004. ISBN 0-7139-9411-8
  2. ^ Hill, Richard: War at Sea in the Ironclad Age. Cassell, London, 2000. ISBN 0-304-35273-X

See also


  Results from FactBites:
 
Cruiser - Wookieepedia, the Star Wars Wiki (1890 words)
In the real world, the term cruiser originates in the age of sail, when it denoted simply a ship assigned to cruise independently of large battlefleets, either as a scout operating ahead of the main fleet, or on detached duty.
This of course defined cruisers as ships which did not fight in the line of battle, so that the term was particularly applied to frigates, fast, mid-sized vessels that were not designed to stand up to the firepower of ships of the line.
The inter-war naval treaties formally defined cruisers by three main constraints: limiting their displacement to 10,000 tons; redefining a "light cruiser" with nothing more than six-inch guns; and formalizing a new term, heavy cruiser, for ships with guns of up to eight-inch caliber.
Cruiser - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1861 words)
Against the German pocket battleship (heavy cruiser) Graf Spee one heavy and two light British cruisers were able to split the fire of her heavier guns and although damaged, trail her to port where she was subsequently scuttled rather than risk battle again.
Cruisers were also attached to the main battlefleet and used for reconnaissance, sweeping ahead of the fleet looking for the enemy.
Light cruisers were defined to be armed with 6.1 in (155 mm) guns or smaller and heavy cruisers to be armed with larger calibers, 8 in (203 mm) being particularly common.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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