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Encyclopedia > Cruise ship

A cruise ship or a cruise liner is a passenger ship used for pleasure voyages, where the voyage itself and the ship's amenities are considered an essential part of the experience. Cruising has become a major part of the tourism industry, with millions of passengers each year as of 2006. The industry's rapid growth has seen nine or more newly built ships catering to a North American clientele added every year since 2001, as well as others servicing European clientele. Smaller markets such as the Asia-Pacific region are generally serviced by older tonnage displaced by new ships introduced into the high growth areas. A passenger ship is a ship whose primary function is to carry passengers. ... A cruising sailboat anchored in the San Blas Islands, in Panama. ... Tourist redirects here. ... North America North America is a continent [1] in the Earths northern hemisphere and (chiefly) western hemisphere. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... For other meanings of Pacific, see Pacific (disambiguation). ...


Cruise ships operate on a mostly set roundabout courses, returning with their passengers to their originating port. In contrast, ocean liners do "line voyages" in open seas, are strongly built to withstand the rigors of transoceanic voyages, and typically ferry passengers from one point to another, rather than on round trips. Some liners also engage in longer trips which may not lead back to the same port for many months.[1] This article does not cite any references or sources. ...

Cruise ship and iceberg in Antarctica
Cruise ship and iceberg in Antarctica

A river cruise ship has similar amenities, however is shorter, narrower, and has a shallower draft, allowing it to travel inland waterways. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 520 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,000 × 650 pixels, file size: 414 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Cruise ship and iceberg in Antarctica. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 520 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,000 × 650 pixels, file size: 414 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Cruise ship and iceberg in Antarctica. ... For other uses, see Iceberg (disambiguation). ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ...

Contents

History

Early years

The first vessel built exclusively for this purpose was the Prinzessin Victoria Luise, commissioned by Albert Ballin, general manager of Hamburg-America Line. The ship was completed in 1900. For other uses, see Ship (disambiguation). ... Prinzessin Victoria Luise was a 4,409 gross-ton passenger ship of the Hamburg-America Line. ... Albert Ballin ca. ... Hapag-Lloyd is a German transportation company comprising a cargo container shipping line and a cruise line. ...


The practice as known today grew gradually out of the transatlantic crossing tradition, which, despite the best efforts of engineers and sailors into the mid-20th century, rarely took less than about four days. In the competition for passengers, ocean liners added many luxuries — most famously seen in the Titanic, but also available in other ships — such as fine dining, well-appointed staterooms, and so forth. For other uses, see Transatlantic (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Titanic (disambiguation). ...


In the late 19th century, Albert Ballin, director of the Hamburg-America Line, was the first to make a regular practice of sending his transatlantic ships out on long southern cruises during the worst of the winter season of the North Atlantic. Other companies followed suit. Some of them built specialized ships designed for easy transformation between summer crossings and winter cruising. Albert Ballin ca. ... Hapag-Lloyd is a German transportation company comprising a cargo container shipping line and a cruise line. ... For other uses, see Atlantic (disambiguation) The Atlantic Ocean is Earths second-largest ocean, covering approximately one-fifth of its surface. ...


Jet age

With the advent of large passenger jet aircraft in the 1960s, the vast majority of intercontinental travellers switched from ships to planes. There are some however, who enjoy the few days of luxury and enforced idleness that a liner voyage affords, so a small niche market has remained for transatlantic voyages. Excluding this exception, the ocean liner transport business crashed. Cruising voyages however gained in popularity; slowly at first but at an increased rate from the 1980s onwards. Initially the fledgling industry was serviced primarily by redundant liners, and even the first purpose built cruise ships were relatively small. However, after the success of the SS Norway (previously the SS France, re-launched in 1980) as the Caribbean's first "super-ship", the size of these vessels has risen dramatically to become the largest passenger ships ever built. Jet aircraft are aircrafts with jet engines. ... Look up plane in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A niche market also known as a target market is a focused, targetable portion (subset) of a market sector. ... The SS France was a Compagnie Générale Transatlantique (CGT, or French Line) ocean liner, constructed by the Chantiers de lAtlantique shipyard at Saint-Nazaire, France, and put into service in February 1961. ...

Pacific Princess off the U.S. West Coast.
Norwegian Sun, one of many cruise ships sailing to Alaska from Vancouver, Canada.

Image File history File links Pacific_Princess_1987. ... Image File history File links Pacific_Princess_1987. ... Pacific Princess off the US West Coast Pacific (formerly Sea Venture and Pacific Princess) is a cruise ship. ... Motto: (traditional) In God We Trust (official, 1956–present) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City Official language(s) None at the federal level; English de facto Government Federal Republic  - President George W. Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence - Declared - Recognized... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1400x1050, 357 KB) This image was created by me, Flying Penguin of Pacific Spirit Photography ([email protected] ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1400x1050, 357 KB) This image was created by me, Flying Penguin of Pacific Spirit Photography ([email protected] ... Norwegian Sun is a sister to Norwegian Sky (now Pride of Aloha), and was delivered from Lloyd Werft (Bremen) in 2001. ... For other uses, see Vancouver (disambiguation). ...

Modern days

The 1970s television show The Love Boat, featuring Princess Cruises' since-sold ship Pacific Princess, did much to raise awareness of cruises as a vacation option for ordinary people in the United States. Initially this growth was centered around the Caribbean, Alaska and Mexico, but now encompasses all areas of the globe. As of 2004, several hundred cruise ships, some carrying over 3,000 passengers and measuring over 100,000 gross tons, ply routes all over the world. For certain destinations such as the Arctic and Antarctica, cruise ships are very nearly the only way to visit, a fact that is the primary attraction for many tourists. The Love Boat was an American television series set on a cruise ship, which aired on the ABC Television Network from 1977 until 1986. ... Princess Cruises logo Princess Cruises is an American cruise line, based out of Santa Clarita, California, that operates cruise ships also shares the same building with Cunard Line headquarters. ... Pacific Princess off the US West Coast Pacific (formerly Sea Venture and Pacific Princess) is a cruise ship. ... West Indies redirects here. ... For other uses, see Alaska (disambiguation). ... The red line indicates the 10°C isotherm in July, commonly used to define the Arctic region border Artificially coloured topographical map of the Arctic region The Arctic is the region around the Earths North Pole, opposite the Antarctic region around the South Pole. ...


Organization

Present-day cruise ships are organized much like floating hotels, with a complete "hospitality staff" in addition to the usual ship's crew. It is not uncommon for the most luxurious ships to have more crew and staff than passengers. For other uses, see Hotel (disambiguation). ...


As with any vessel, adequate provisioning is crucial, especially on a cruise ship serving several thousand meals at each seating. Passengers and crew on the Royal Caribbean International ship Mariner of the Seas consume 20,000 pounds (9,000 kg) of beef, 28,000 eggs, 8,000 gallons (30,000 L) of ice cream, and 18,000 slices of pizza in a week.[citation needed] Workers load a Cruise Ship in Charlotte Amalie, USVI A storeroom onboard the Silverseas Silver Whisper Cruise ships consume vast amounts of food every day, the following is a list of supplies provisioned onboard the Celebrity cruise ship Constellation for a average 7 day cruise. ... U.S. headquarters in Miami, Florida. ... Mariner of the Seas is one of five Voyager class cruise ships from Royal Caribbean International; it is one of the largest in its fleet and among the largest passenger ships in the world. ...


Many older cruise ships have had multiple owners over their lifetimes. Since each cruise line has its own livery and often a naming theme (for instance, ships of the Holland America Line have names ending in "-dam", e.g. MS Statendam, and Royal Caribbean's ships' names all end with "of the Seas", e.g. MS Freedom of the Seas), it is usual for the transfer of ownership to entail a refitting and a name change. Some ships have had a dozen or more identities. A cruise line is a company that operates cruise ships. ... Rather unusually, these Angels wear white hart (deer) badges, with the personal livery of King Richard II of England, who commissioned this, the Wilton diptych, about 1400 A livery is a uniform or other sign worn in a non-military context on a person or object (such as an airplane... Holland America was founded in 1873 as the Dutch-America Steamship Company, a shipping and Passenger line. ... The MS Statendam is a cruise ship of the Holland America Line. ... Royal Caribbean cruise ships Ultra-Voyager class, includes Freedom of the Seas, currently in construction with a scheduled delivery of May 2006. ... M/S Freedom of the Seas is a Royal Caribbean International cruise ship and the name ship of her class. ...


Cruise ships and former liners often find employment in applications other than those for which they were built. A shortage of hotel accommodation for the 2004 Summer Olympics led to a plan to moor a number of cruise ships in Athens to provide tourist accommodation. On September 1, 2005, FEMA contracted three Carnival Cruise Lines vessels to house Hurricane Katrina evacuees.[2] The ceremony for the lighting of the flame is arranged as a pagan pageant, with priestesses dancing. ... This article is about the capital of Greece. ... is the 244th day of the year (245th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... New FEMA seal The Federal Emergency Management Agency or FEMA is an agency of the United States government dedicated to swift response in the event of disasters, both natural and man-made. ... Carnival Cruise Lines is a cruise line operating a large number of cruise ships. ... This article is about the Atlantic hurricane of 2005. ...


River Cruise Ships

Although much of the same luxury trappings are available on river cruise ships, there are significant differences. The ships are much smaller, perhaps carrying 100-240 people. There is more opportunity to visit ashore, and it's possible to leave the boat and catch it again later using alternative transportation. Sea motion is less to the point where passengers may have no sense of motion whatever when not on the ocean (Some river cruise ships also travel in the open ocean.) http://cruises.about.com/cs/shipprofiles/a/vikingeurope.htm River cruises are more common than ocean cruises, and many more destinations are available: Europe, Russia, Egypt, North America, China, and Southeast Asia.


Regional industries

Caribbean Cruising Industry

The first journeys across the Caribbean Sea were made by Amerindian canoeists who “settled the island chains, paddling north from the river systems of the Orinoco and the Amazon”.[3] This resulted in the fight for control of the Caribbean, particularly for the Caribbean Sea between the European powers. The sea became an economic highway for “slavers, traders, buccaneers, and fishermen”.[4] It also became a passageway for “escaped slaves, indentured labourers and settlers, and later still a watery flight path for emigrants and boat people”.[5]


The present day Caribbean cruising industry is a massive market, and continues to grow each year. The cruising industry is expanding faster than land-based tourism. Cruising has grown from “an estimated 900,850 passengers in 1983 to 2.3 million passengers in 1993”.[6] These statistics were expected to double by the year 2000.


There are many different cruise lines operating in the Caribbean, which include: Royal Caribbean, Princess Cruises, Carnival Cruise Line, Celebrity Cruise Line, Disney Cruise Line, Holland America, P&O, Cunard, and Norwegian Cruise Line. There are also many smaller cruise lines that cater to a more intimate feeling among its guests. The biggest cruise line companies are Royal Caribbean, Princess Cruises, and Carnival Cruise Line.


Royal Caribbean Cruise Line is currently sailing the two largest cruise ships in the world. These are the Freedom of the Seas, and Liberty of the Seas. They are part of the brand new Freedom Class ships that Royal Caribbean is offering. Both of these ships are operating in the Caribbean, offering Eastern and Western Caribbean itineraries. These two ships alone carry approximately 3,634 passengers .[7]. There are more ships that are currently being built that are part of the Freedom Class. Royal Caribbean Cruise Line is also building the Genesis X cruise ship, which will be larger than the current Freedom Class ships. Royal Caribbean is a cruise line that caters to people of all ages. Endless amounts of activities are offered onboard and on-land. They have many contracts with local shore excursions for its passengers at every port they visit.


Princess Cruises is another company with a fleet of large ships. They sailed the world’s largest cruise ship, until it was surpassed by Cunard Line's Queen Mary 2, and finally by Royal Caribbean's "Voyager" class, which itself has now been eclipsed by the "Freedom" class - basically a "stretched" Voyager. Princess Cruises also has a dominant presence in the Caribbean. Princess Cruises are best known for their Grand Class fleet of ships, consisting of Grand Princess, Golden Princess and Star Princess, which used to be the world’s largest cruise ships. Caribbean Princess is similar to the other three "Grand" class ships, but is slightly narrower and has an additional deck of cabins to accommodate more passengers. The Mitsubishi-built "Gem" class ships are often confused with the "Grand" class and are indeed quite similar in size and appearance. This class consists of Diamond, Sapphire and Emerald Princess; Emerald Princess also having an additional deck of cabins. Similarly to Royal Caribbean, they offer many activities onboard and on-land for its passengers but offer a slightly more "laid back" feel. Princess Cruises boast "large ship choice - small ship feel" and achieve this by having a selection of many smaller bars and restaurants compared to the three-deck main restaurants favoured by Royal Caribbean.


Carnival Cruise Line also operates a large number of cruise ships in the Caribbean, and is known for their cheaper and shorter in length cruises of 4 and 5 day durations, which appeal particularly to the domestic US market. They are known for being the “fun ships”. A younger crowd is attracted to Carnival Cruises. Carnival Cruise Line also sailed the world’s largest cruise ship, with its Carnival Destiny in 1996. It has since been beaten.


Many of the American cruise lines in the Caribbean depart from ports in the United States, “nearly one-third of the cruises sailed out of Miami”.[8] Other cruise ships depart from Fort Lauderdale ("Port Everglades") New York, Tampa, Galveston, and San Juan. Many UK cruise lines base their ships out of Barbados for the Caribbean season, operating direct charter flights out of the UK and avoiding the sometimes lengthy delays at US immigration.


Cruises sailing in the Caribbean travel on a variety of different itineraries depending on the port of departure and the length of the cruise. The busiest port of call is the Bahamas with “1.8 million cruise-ship arrivals in 1994”.[9] This is because of the distance it has with Florida, it is very convenient for short and long cruises. The next most popular ports of call were “the US Virgin Islands (1.2 million), St. Maarten (718,553), Puerto Rico (680,195), the Cayman Islands (599,387), and Jamaica (595,036)”.[10] There are many other ports of call that cruise ships include in their itinerary which include: Belize City, Costa Maya, Cozumel, Antigua, Aruba, Grand Turk and Key West. St Thomas in the US Virgin Islands is particularly popular with US passengers because they get a second Duty Free allowance to use on goods purchased there.


Majority of the major cruise lines also stop at their own "Private Island" more truthfully a private section of a Caribbean island. Royal Caribbean brings many of their guests to Labadee, Haiti, which is Royal Caribbean’s private beach that is fenced off to local Haitians. Labadee offers “pristine beaches, breathtaking scenery and spectacular water activities. Even a new Aqua Park for kids. Kayaking, snorkeling, parasailing or simply lying on the beach to relax is all offered”.[11]. Princess Cruises bring many of their guests to Princess Cays, on the island of Eleuthera in the Bahamas. This is Princess Cruises' private beach, which includes the “option to explore a coral reef with schools of tropical fish, a special area dedicated to children's activities, water sports equipment, relaxing music, bar facilities, and a barbecue lunch”.[12]. Holland America cruise line have their own private beach at "Half Moon Cay" in the Bahamas, and Norwegian Cruise Line have likewise "Great Stirrup Cay".


The cruising industry continues to gain popularity every year, resulting in an expansion of cruise ships being built and exploring new islands in the Caribbean. Itineraries are constantly changing to appeal to repeat cruisers. Lengths of cruises typically vary from 4 nights, to 14 nights, while a "world cruise" can be between 90 and 100 nights in duration. Also, different cruise lines cater to the different customer clientele. This boom in the cruising industry allows its passengers to get a small taste of the Caribbean Islands, in hopes that they will return again either on their own or by cruise. A decline in the cruising industry is nowhere in sight.


Shipyards

The market for cruise ships is dominated by three European companies: EU redirects here. ...

Very few cruise ships have been built by other shipyards; many of these exceptions are old ocean liners, many of them still operating under steam power. Only one ship built in the United States, the SS The Emerald is still sailing the Seven Seas. [13] Aker Yards (OSE: AKY) is an international shipbuilding company with 18 shipyards in Norway, Finland, Germany, Romania, Brazil, France,Ukraine and Vietnam. ... Aker Finnyards is a Finnish shipbuilding company. ... Aker Finnyards is a Finnish shipbuilding company. ... Wärtsilä is a Finnish manufacturer of large (diesel) engines and power plants. ... The Batillus oil tanker at the end of its construction in Saint-Nazaire, being refueled by the Port-Vendres Chantiers de lAtlantique is one of the worlds largest shipyards, based in Saint-Nazaire, France. ... The Batillus oil tanker at the end of its construction in Saint-Nazaire, being refueled by the Port-Vendres Chantiers de lAtlantique is one of the worlds largest shipyards, based in Saint-Nazaire, France. ... Fincantieri - Cantieri Navali Italiani S.p. ... The Norwegian Jewel, constructed by Meyer Werft The Meyer Werft is one of the remaining large German shipyards, headquartered in Papenburg. ... // The term steam engine may also refer to an entire railroad steam locomotive. ... SS The Emerald is a cruise ship owned by the Cyprus-based shipping company Louis Cruise Lines, under long-term charter to the United Kingdom-based Thomson Cruises. ...


Infections on cruise ships

Norovirus

See also: Norovirus#Norovirus_on_cruise_ships

Norovirus infections continue to be a problem on cruise ships. In 2002, there were 25 reported outbreaks, with 2,648 passengers becoming ill from the virus.[14] There have been number of voyages where hundreds of passengers have become ill.[15][16][17][18] Outbreak investigations by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention have shown that transmission among cruise ship passengers is almost wholly person-to-person; water supplies have never been implicated.[citation needed]
Norovirus is a genus of viruses of the family Caliciviridae. ... Norovirus is a genus of viruses of the family Caliciviridae. ...


Legionella

Other pathogens which are known to be a problem on board cruise ships include Legionella, the bacteria which causes Legionnaires' disease. Legionella can colonise the domestic water systems and whirlpool spas as well as cooling systems used on board. Legionella, and in particular the most virulent strain, Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1, can cause infections when inhaled as an aerosol or aspirated. Infections are more common amongst the over 50's, with smokers and others with pre-existing respiratory disease being particularly vulnerable. The demographic most commonly using cruise ships can be particularly vulnerable. A number of cases of Legionnaires' disease have been associated with cruise ships[19][20][21]. Species Legionella adelaidensis Legionella anisa Legionella beliardensis Legionella birminghamensis Legionella bozemanii Legionella brunensis Legionella busanensis Legionella cherrii Legionella cincinnatiensis Legionella donaldsonii Legionella drancourtii Legionella drozanskii Legionella erythra Legionella fairfieldensis Legionella fallonii Legionella feeleii Legionella geestiana Legionella gratiana Legionella gresilensis Legionella hackeliae Legionella israelensis Legionella jamestowniensis Legionella jordanis Legionella lansingensis Legionella... Legionellosis is an infection caused by species of the bacterium Legionella, most notably . ...


References

Notes

  1. ^ The ocean-going stretch limo - New Zealand Herald, Friday 16 February 2007
  2. ^ $236 Million Cruise Ship Deal Criticized Washington Post, 2005-09-28
  3. ^ Pattullo: 156.
  4. ^ Pattullo: 156.
  5. ^ Pattullo: 156.
  6. ^ Pattullo: 157-158.
  7. ^ Freedom of the Seas - Royal Caribbean International, Monday 12 November 2007
  8. ^ Pattullo: 158.
  9. ^ Pattullo: 158.
  10. ^ Pattullo: 158.
  11. ^ Labadee, Haiti - Royal Caribbean International, Monday 12 November 2007
  12. ^ Princess Cays, Bahamas - Princess Cruises, Monday 12 November 2007
  13. ^ Large Cruise Ships Built by Other Yards
  14. ^ Sea Sick — Infection Outbreaks Challenge the Cruise Ship Experience. Water Quality and Health Council.
  15. ^ BBC news Nov 2006 - Virus-hit cruise ship ends voyage.
  16. ^ BBC news Jan 2007 - Vomiting virus sweeps through QE2
  17. ^ BBC news Nov 2003 - Bug-hit P & O liner Aurora heads for Gibraltar
  18. ^ BBC news Feb 2003 - 250 taken ill on P&O cruise
  19. ^ http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm5445a2.htm
  20. ^ http://www.ewgli.org/data/monthly_reports/2006/mr_dec06.pdf
  21. ^ http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/uk/6920799.stm

The New Zealand Herald is a daily broadsheet newspaper published in Auckland, New Zealand. ... U.S. headquarters in Miami, Florida. ... U.S. headquarters in Miami, Florida. ... Princess Cruises logo Princess Cruises is an American cruise line, based out of Santa Clarita, California, that operates cruise ships also shares the same building with Cunard Line headquarters. ...

Sources

  • Douglas Ward, Berlitz Ocean Cruising and Cruise Ships, published annually, with extensive background in addition to ship descriptions and ratings
  • Monarchs of the Sea: The Great Ocean Liners; Ulrich, Kurt; Tausir Parke; 1999; ISBN 1-86064-373-6
  • "Labadee, Haiti." Royal Caribbean Cruise Line. 04 Nov. 2007 [1].
  • Pattullo, Polly. Last Resorts: the Coast of Tourism in the Caribbean. London: Cassell, 1996.
  • "Ports of Call: Princess Cays, Bahamas." Princess Cruises. 04 Nov. 2007 [2].

See also

Nautical Portal

Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... This is a list of cruise ships, both those in service and those that have since ceased to operate. ... This is a list of cruise lines, companies that operate cruise ships. ... Pride of Bilbao, a cruise ferry operated by P&O Ferries. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... A cruising sailboat anchored in the San Blas Islands, in Panama. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Cruise ships

  Results from FactBites:
 
Cruise ships - Wikitravel (3091 words)
The most well-known destinations for cruise ships are tropical ports in the Caribbean or the Mexican Riviera, but cruises can be found almost anywhere there's a enough water to float a boat and cities to visit.
Cruise ships often take advantage of their "international" status to sell a variety of duty-free liquor and other items that would otherwise be subject to import taxes.
Cruise ships are susceptible to outbreaks of norovirus and other communicable gastro-intestinal illnesses because of the large number of people sharing facilities, as well as the quick turnover that many ships experience (disembarking one set of passengers and embarking a new one in a single day).
Cruise ship - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (813 words)
A cruise ship is a passenger ship used for pleasure voyages, where the voyage itself and the ship's amenities are considered an essential part of the experience.
Cruising has become a major part of the tourism industry, with millions of passengers each year as of 2006.
Present-day cruise ships are organized much like floating hotels, with a complete "hospitality staff" in addition to the usual ship's crew.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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