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Encyclopedia > Cruise missile
A Taurus KEPD 350 cruise missile of the German Luftwaffe
A Taurus KEPD 350 cruise missile of the German Luftwaffe

A cruise missile is a guided missile which carries an explosive payload and uses a lifting wing and a propulsion system, usually a jet engine, to allow sustained flight; it is essentially a flying bomb. Cruise missiles are generally designed to carry a large conventional or nuclear warhead many hundreds of miles with high accuracy. Modern cruise missiles can travel at supersonic or high subsonic speeds, are self-navigating, and fly on a non-ballistic very low altitude trajectory in order to avoid radar detection. In general (and for the purposes of this article), cruise missiles are distinct from unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) in that they are used only as weapons and not for reconnaissance, the warhead is integrated into the vehicle, and the vehicle is always sacrificed in the mission. Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1280x960, 230 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Cruise missile Taurus missile Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1280x960, 230 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Cruise missile Taurus missile Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Deutsche Luftwaffe or   (German: air force, IPA: ) is the commonly used term for the German air force. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Missile. ... For other uses, see Missile (disambiguation). ... A Pratt and Whitney turbofan engine for the F-15 Eagle is tested at Robins Air Force Base, Georgia, USA. The tunnel behind the engine muffles noise and allows exhaust to escape. ... The Vergeltungswaffe 1 Fi 103 / FZG-76 (V-1), known as the Flying bomb, Buzz bomb or Doodlebug, was the first modern guided missile used in wartime and the first cruise missile. ... The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 kilometers (11 mi) above the hypocenter A nuclear weapon derives its destructive force from nuclear reactions of fusion or fission. ... A United States Navy F/A-18E/F Super Hornet in transonic flight. ... Subsonic has two possible meanings: A speed lower than the speed of sound is called subsonic. ... For other uses, see Radar (disambiguation). ... The £124 million Taranis UAV built by BAE Systems An unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) is an aircraft with no onboard pilot. ... Mixed reconnaissance patrol of the Polish Home Army and the Soviet Red Army during Operation Tempest, 1944 Reconnaissance is the military term for the active gathering of information about an enemy, or other conditions, by physical observation. ... A B61 nuclear bomb in various stages of assembly; the nuclear warhead is the bullet-shaped silver cannister in the middle-left of the photograph. ...

Contents

Concise history

In the period between the World Wars Great Britain developed the Larynx (Long Range Gun with Lynx Engine) which underwent a few flight tests in the 1920s. Germany first deployed cruise missiles, during World War II. The German V-1 flying bomb introduced in 1944 was the first weapon to use the classic cruise missile layout of a bomb-like fuselage, short wings, a dorsally mounted engine, and a guidance system (a simple inertial guidance system). The V-1 was propelled by a simple pulse-jet engine, the sound of which gave the V-1 its nickname of "doodlebug". Accuracy was sufficient only for use against very large targets (the general area of a city). The V-1 and similar early weapons are often referred to as flying bombs. Also in World War II the Imperial Japanese forces used piloted aircraft with an explosive payload known as kamikazes, and the purpose-built and piloted rocket engined Ohka. Early British pilotless aircraft, started in September 1925. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... The V-1 (German: Vergeltungswaffe 1) was the first guided missile used in war and the forerunner of todays cruise missile. ... Year 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... An inertial guidance system consists of an Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) combined with a set of guidance algorithms and control mechanisms, allowing the path of a vehicle to be controlled according to the position determined by the inertial navigation system. ... A pulse jet engine (or pulsejet) is a very simple form of internal combustion engine wherein the combustion occurs in pulses and the propulsive effort is a jet; a reaction to the rearward flow of hot gases. ... The Vergeltungswaffe 1 Fi 103 / FZG-76 (V-1), known as the Flying bomb, Buzz bomb or Doodlebug, was the first modern guided missile used in wartime and the first cruise missile. ... A Japanese Zero about to hit the USS Missouri. ... This article is about vehicles powered by rocket engines. ... Ohka Model 11 replica at the Yasukuni Shrine The Yokosuka MXY-7 Ohka (櫻花 cherry blossom) was a purpose-built kamikaze aircraft employed by Japan towards the end of World War II. The United States gave the aircraft the name Baka (Japanese for fool). It was a small flying bomb that...


Immediately after the war the United States Air Force had 21 different guided missile projects including would-be cruise missiles. All were cancelled by 1948 except four: the Air Material Command BANSHEE, the SM-62 Snark, the SM-64 Navaho, and the MGM-1 Matador. The BANSHEE design was similar to Operation Aphrodite; like Aphrodite it failed, and was cancelled in April 1949[1]. “The U.S. Air Force” redirects here. ... Snark missile launch The Northrop SM-62 Snark was a specialised intercontinental missile with a nuclear warhead briefly operated by the US Strategic Air Command from 1958 until 1961. ... The SM-64 Navaho was the last-built in a line of intermediate-range ballistic missiles designed by North American Aviation in the late 1950s for the U.S. Air Force. ... The Martin MGM-1 Matador was the first operational surface-to-surface cruise missile built by the United States, similar in concept to the German V-1. ... Operation Aphrodite was the code name of a secret program initiated by the United States Army Air Forces during the latter part of World War II. The United States Eighth Air Force used Aphrodite both as an experimental method of destroying V weapon production and launch facilities and as a...


During the Cold War period both the United States and the Soviet Union experimented further with the concept, deploying early cruise missiles from land, submarines and aircraft. The main outcome of the U.S. Navy submarine missile project was the SSM-N-8 Regulus missile, based upon the V-1. For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... A Regulus I missile at the USS Bowfin museum ship at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii The SSM-N-8A Regulus cruise missile was the nuclear deterrent weapon employed by the United States Navy from 1955 to 1964. ...


The U.S. Air Force's first operational surface-to-surface missile was the winged, mobile, nuclear-capable MGM-1 Matador, also similar in concept to the V-1. Deployment overseas began in 1954, first to West Germany and later to the Republic of China (Taiwan) and South Korea. On November 7, 1956 U. S. Air Force Matador units in West Germany, whose missiles were capable of striking targets in the Warsaw Pact, deployed from their fixed day-to-day sites to unannounced dispersed launch locations. This alert was in response to the crisis posed by the Soviet attack on Hungary which suppressed the 1956 Hungarian Revolution. The Martin MGM-1 Matador was the first operational surface-to-surface cruise missile built by the United States, similar in concept to the German V-1. ... Combatants Soviet Union ÁVH Hungarian government, various nationalist militias Commanders Yuri Andropov Pál Maléter, Béla Király, Gergely Pongrátz, József Dudás Strength 150,000 troops, 6,000 tanks 100,000+ demonstrators (some later armed), unknown number of soldiers Casualties 720 killed according to official...


Between 1957 and 1961 the United States followed an ambitious and well-funded program to develop a nuclear-powered cruise missile, Project Pluto. It was designed to fly below the enemy's radar at speeds above Mach 3 and carry a number of hydrogen bombs that it would drop on its path over enemy territory. Although the concept was proven sound and the 500 megawatt engine finished a successful test run in 1961, no airworthy device was ever completed. The project was finally abandoned in favor of ICBM development. On January 1, 1957, the U.S. Air Force and the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission selected the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratorys (LLNL) predecessor, the Lawrence Radiation Laboratory, to study the feasibility of applying heat from nuclear reactors to ramjet engines. ... An F/A-18 Hornet breaking the sound barrier. ... The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, in 1945 lifted nuclear fallout some 18 km (60,000 feet) above the epicenter. ... The megawatt (symbol: MW) is a unit for measuring power corresponding to one million (106) watts. ... A Minuteman III missile soars after a test launch. ...


While ballistic missiles were the preferred weapons for land targets, heavy nuclear and conventional tipped cruise missiles were seen by the USSR as a primary weapon to destroy US naval carrier battle groups. Large submarines (e.g. Echo and Oscar classes) were developed to carry these weapons and shadow US battle groups at sea, and large bombers (e.g. Backfire, Bear, and Blackjack models) were equipped with the weapons in their air-launched cruise missile (ALCM) configuration. Diagram of V-2, the first ballistic missile. ... The Abraham Lincoln battle group during the 2000 RIMPAC exercises A carrier battle group (CVBG) consists of an aircraft carrier (CV) and its escorts. ... Echo II class submarine Echo class is the NATO reporting name assigned to the submarines created by six projects of the Soviet Navy. ... Oscar class submarine The Soviet Union’s Project 949 (Granit) and Project 949A (Antey) submarines are known in the West by their NATO reporting names: the Oscar-I and Oscar-II classes respectively. ... Tu-22M The Tupolev Tu-22M (NATO reporting name Backfire) is a supersonic, swing-wing, long-range strategic and maritime strike bomber developed by the Soviet Union. ... The Tupolev Tu-95 (Туполев Ту–95) (NATO reporting name Bear) is the most successful and longest-serving Tupolev strategic bomber and missile carrier built by the Soviet Union during the Cold War. ... The Tupolev Tu-160 (NATO reporting name Blackjack) is a supersonic, variable-geometry heavy bomber designed by the Soviet Union. ...


Warhead

Most cruise missiles carry about 500 kg of explosives[citation needed], because most were designed to sink ships and destroy bunkers[citation needed]. Some carry a nuclear warhead. This article is concerned solely with chemical explosives. ... The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 kilometers (11 mi) above the hypocenter A nuclear weapon derives its destructive force from nuclear reactions of fusion or fission. ...


Aerodynamics

The aerodynamics of a cruise missile are quite similar to those of an airplane, including the use of wings. For the Daft Punk song, see Aerodynamic (song). ... Fixed-wing aircraft is a term used to refer to what are more commonly known as aeroplanes in Commonwealth English (excluding Canada) or airplanes in North American English. ... The word wing or wings has more than one use: In aeronautics a wing is an apparatus used to create lift. ...


Engine

Most cruise missiles are propelled by a jet engine, with a turbofan engine being the most common due to its efficiency. A Pratt and Whitney turbofan engine for the F-15 Eagle is tested at Robins Air Force Base, Georgia, USA. The tunnel behind the engine muffles noise and allows exhaust to escape. ... Schematic diagram of high-bypass turbofan engine CFM56-3 turbofan, lower half, side view. ...


Guidance

The lowest cost system in wide use uses a radar altimeter, barometric altimeter and clock to navigate a digital strip map[citation needed]. Some systems may now use satellite navigation or inertial guidance, but these are substantially more expensive[citation needed], and GPS systems are only slightly more accurate than a map-based system (TERCOM)[citation needed]. Anti-ship cruise missiles like the RGM-84 Harpoon or the SS-N-12 Sandbox may also employ infrared or radar guidance. A Radar Altimeter measures altitude above the terrain presently beneath the aircraft. ... For other uses, see Clock (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Digital (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Map (disambiguation). ... Satellite navigation systems use radio time signals transmitted by satellites to enable mobile receivers on the ground to determine their exact location. ... An inertial navigation system measures the position and altitude of a vehicle by measuring the accelerations and rotations applied to the systems inertial frame. ... GPS redirects here. ... Terrain Contour Matching (TERCOM) navigation system uses an on-board contour map of the terrain that a cruise missile will be flying over. ... A Harpoon missile on display at the USS Bowfin museum at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii The AGM-84 Harpoon is a US all-weather, over-the-horizon, anti-ship missile system. ... The SS-N-12 Sandbox was a liquid-fueled, rocket powered, supersonic cruise missile used by the Soviet Navy in the 70s. ...


Categories

Cruise missiles can be categorized by size, speed (subsonic or supersonic), and range, and whether launched from land, air, surface ship, or submarine. Often versions of the same missile are produced for different launch platforms; sometimes air- and submarine-launched versions are a little lighter and smaller than land- and ship-launched versions.


Guidance systems can vary across missiles. Some missiles can be fitted with any of a variety of navigation systems (Inertial navigation, TERCOM, or satellite navigation). Larger cruise missiles can carry either a conventional or a nuclear warhead, while smaller ones carry only conventional warheads. An inertial navigation system measures the position and altitude of a vehicle by measuring the accelerations and rotations applied to the systems inertial frame. ... Terrain Contour Matching (TERCOM) navigation system uses an on-board contour map of the terrain that a cruise missile will be flying over. ... Satellite navigation systems use radio time signals transmitted by satellites to enable mobile receivers on the ground to determine their exact location. ...


Hypersonic

Hypersonic cruise missiles fly at extreme high speed.


Examples:

The BrahMos is a supersonic cruise missile that can be launched from submarines, ships, aircraft or land. ...

Supersonic

These missiles travel faster than the speed of sound, usually using ramjet engines. The range is typically 100-500km, but can be greater. Guidance systems vary.


Examples:

  • SLAM (not to be confused with the SLAM cruise missile) and SM-64 Navaho were U.S. early-cold-war era projects for strategic long-range cruise missiles. Neither was accepted into service.
  • P-500 Bazalt (Soviet Union/Russia)
  • P-270 Moskit (Soviet Union/Russia)
  • P-800 Oniks (Soviet Union)
  • P-700 Granit (Soviet Union/Russia)
  • PJ-10 BrahMos (India/Russia)

The Supersonic Low Altitude Missile or SLAM (not to be confused with the U.S. Navys current Standoff Land Attack Missile) was a failed U.S. Air Force project conceived around 1955; the height of the cold war. ... The Standoff Land Attack Missile or SLAM is an over-the-horizon, all-weather cruise missile which grew out of the Navys Harpoon anti-ship missile in the 1970s. ... The SM-64 Navaho was the last-built in a line of intermediate-range ballistic missiles designed by North American Aviation in the late 1950s for the U.S. Air Force. ... SS-N-12 launchers on the aviation cruiser Kiev. ... SS-N-22 Sunburn is the NATO reporting name for two unrelated Soviet anti-ship missiles. ... The P-800 Oniks (3M55, Russian: , alternatively termed Yakhont (Яхонт) for export markets) is a Russian supersonic anti-ship cruise missile developed by NPO Mashinostroyeniya as a ramjet version of P-80 Zubr. ... The P-700 Granit (NATO reporting name SS-N-19 Shipwreck) is a Russian naval anti-ship missile. ... The Brahmos Supersonic Cruise Missile The BrahMos is a supersonic cruise missile that can be launched from submarines, ships, aircraft or land. ...

Long-range subsonic

Both the USA and the USSR developed several long-range subsonic cruise missiles. These missiles have a range of over 1,000 kilometers and fly at about 800km/h. They typically have a launch weight of about 1,500kg, and can carry either a conventional or a nuclear warhead. Earlier versions of these missiles used inertial navigation; later versions use much more accurate TERCOM and DSMAC systems. Most recent versions can use satellite navigation. An inertial navigation system measures the position and altitude of a vehicle by measuring the accelerations and rotations applied to the systems inertial frame. ... Terrain Contour Matching (TERCOM) navigation system uses an on-board contour map of the terrain that a cruise missile will be flying over. ... Terrain Contour Matching (TERCOM) navigation system uses an on-board contour map of the terrain that a cruise missile will be flying over. ... Satellite navigation systems use radio time signals transmitted by satellites to enable mobile receivers on the ground to determine their exact location. ...


Examples:

  • AGM-86B (United States)
  • BGM-109 Tomahawk (United States/United Kingdom)
  • Kh-55 Granat (USSR)
  • Hyunmoo IIIC (South Korea)
  • Nirbhay (India)

The Boeing AGM-86B and AGM-86C ALCM are sub-sonic air-launched cruise missiles (ALCMs) operated by the United States Air Force. ... The Tomahawk Land Attack Missile (TLAM) is a long-range, all-weather, subsonic cruise missile. ... The Raduga Kh-55 Granat (NATO reporting name AS-15 Kent) is a Soviet/CIS subsonic long-range cruise missile capable of delivering a nuclear warhead. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Nirbhay (Dauntless, Fearless) is a long range, subsonic cruise missile in development in India. ...

Medium-range subsonic

These missiles are about the same size and weight and fly at similar speeds to the above category, but the range is (officially)[citation needed] less than 1,000km. Guidance systems vary.


Examples:

This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Storm Shadow is an Anglo-French air-launched cruise missile, manufactured by MBDA and used by Britain, France, and Italy. ... The Babur missile (named after the Mughal Emperor Babur) is the first cruise missile fielded by Pakistan. ... Raad meaning Thunder in Arabic is a Pakistani Air Launched Cruise Missile (ALCM), in service with the Pakistan Airforce. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...

Short-range

These are subsonic missiles which weigh around 500kg and have a range of 70-300km. Navigation systems are usually simpler than those of larger missiles. They are not always called "cruise" missiles.


Examples:

The AGM-84 Harpoon is a US all-weather, over-the-horizon, anti-ship missile system. ... The RBS15 is a anti-ship missile developed by the Swedish company Bofors (now Saab Bofors Dynamics) and will be also produced by Bodenseewerk Gerätetechnik of Germany. ... The Yingji-82 or YJ-82 (Chinese: 鹰击-82, literally Eagle Strike; NATO reporting name: CSS-N-8 Saccade) is a Chinese anti-ship missile first unveiled in 1989 by the China Haiying Electro-Mechanical Technology Academy (CHETA), also known as the Third Academy. ... Zāhir ud-Dīn Mohammad, commonly known as Bābur (February 14, 1483 – December 26, 1530) (Chaghatay/Persian: ; also spelled ), was a Muslim Emperor from Central Asia who founded the Mughal dynasty of India. ...

Employment

The most common mission for cruise missiles is to attack relatively high value targets such as ships, command bunkers, bridges and dams. Modern guidance system permit precise attacks.


(As of 2001) the BGM-109 Tomahawk missile model has become a significant part of the US naval arsenal. It gives ships and submarines an extremely accurate, long-range, conventional land attack weapon. Each costs about $1,900,000 USD. The US Air Force deploys an air launched cruise missile, the AGM-86. It can be launched from bombers like the B-52 Stratofortress. Both the Tomahawk and the AGM-86 were used extensively during Operation Desert Storm. The British Royal Navy (RN) also operates cruise missiles, specifically the US-made Tomahawk, used by the RN's nuclear submarine fleet. Conventional warhead versions were first fired in combat by the RN in 1999, during the Kosovo War. Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ... A Tomahawk cruise missile The Tomahawk Land Attack Missile (TLAM) is a long-range, all-weather, subsonic cruise missile with stubby wings. ... “The U.S. Air Force” redirects here. ... The Boeing AGM-86B and AGM-86C ALCM are sub-sonic air-launched cruise missiles (ALCMs) operated by the United States Air Force. ... “B-52” redirects here. ... Combatants U.S.-led coalition Iraq Commanders George H. W. Bush, Norman Schwarzkopf, Colin Powell Saddam Hussein, Ali Hassan Al-Majid, Hussein Kamel Strength 660,000 ~545,000 Casualties 345 dead, 1,000 wounded 25,000 - 100,000 dead, 100,000 - 300,000 wounded The 1991 Gulf War (also Persian... This article is about the navy of the United Kingdom. ... This article is about the year. ... The term Kosovo War or Kosovo Conflict is often used to describe two sequential and at times parallel armed conflicts (a civil war followed by an international war) in the southern Serbian province called Kosovo (officially Kosovo and Metohia), part of the former Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. ...


Both Tomahawk (as AGM-109) and ALCM (AGM-86) were competing designs for the USAF ALCM nuclear tipped cruise missile to be carried by the B-52 heavy bomber.[citation needed] The USAF adopted the AGM-86 for its bomber fleet while AGM-109 was adapted to launch from trucks and ships and adopted by the USAF and Navy. The truck-launched versions, and also the Pershing II and SS-20 Intermediate Range Ballistic Missiles, were later destroyed under the bilateral INF (Intermediate Range Nuclear Forces) treaty with the USSR. B-52 can refer to the following: The Boeing B-52 Stratofortress strategic bomber aircraft A hairstyle popular in the 1950s and 1960s, named after the aircraft A rock band, The B-52s, named after the hairstyle A cocktail This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which...


India and Russia have jointly developed the supersonic cruise missile BrahMos. There are three versions of the Brahmos: ship/land-launched, air-launched and sub-launched. The ship/land-launched version were operational as of late 2007. The Brahmos has the capability to attack targets on land. Russia also continues to operate other cruise missiles: the SS-N-12 Sandbox, SS-N-19 Shipwreck, SS-N-22 Sunburn and SS-N-25 Switchblade. The UK and France operate the Storm Shadow, Germany and Spain the Taurus missile while Pakistan has developed its own cruise missile somewhat similar to Tomahawk cruise missile, named the Babur missile. Both the People's Republic of China and the Republic of China (Taiwan) have designed several cruise missile variants, such as the well-known C-802, some of which are capable of carrying biological, chemical, nuclear, and conventional warheads. The BrahMos is a supersonic cruise missile that can be launched from submarines, ships, aircraft or land. ... The SS-N-12 Sandbox was a liquid-fueled, rocket powered, supersonic cruise missile used by the Soviet Navy in the 70s. ... The P-700 Granit (Russian: ; English: ) is a Soviet and Russian naval anti-ship missile. ... SS-N-22 Sunburn is the NATO reporting name for two unrelated Soviet anti-ship missiles. ... Storm Shadow is an Anglo-French air-launched cruise missile, manufactured by MBDA and used by Britain, France, and Italy. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Babur missile (named after the Mughal Emperor Babur) is the first cruise missile fielded by Pakistan. ... For the Chinese civilization, see China. ... The Yingji-82 or YJ-82 (Chinese: 鹰击-82, literally Eagle Strike; NATO reporting name: CSS-N-8 Saccade) is a Chinese anti-ship missile first unveiled in 1989 by the China Haiying Electro-Mechanical Technology Academy (CHETA), also known as the Third Academy. ...


Nuclear warhead versions

SSM-N-8 Regulus
SSM-N-8 Regulus

The US has 460 AGM-129 Advanced Cruise Missiles (ACMs) with a W80 nuclear warhead (5KT or 150KT selectable yield) for B-52 Stratofortress (B-52H) external carriage. Also there are ca. 350 sea-launched cruise missiles with the same nuclear warhead. The range of the missile is 3000 km. These missiles have been "mothballed" and placed in storage. Image File history File links A military (public domain) photo of a Regulus cruise missile. ... Image File history File links A military (public domain) photo of a Regulus cruise missile. ... A Regulus I missile at the USS Bowfin museum ship at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii The SSM-N-8A Regulus cruise missile was the nuclear deterrent weapon employed by the United States Navy from 1955 to 1964. ... A stealthy strategic nuclear-tipped cruise missile. ... A W80 nuclear warhead. ... “B-52” redirects here. ...


The SSM-N-8 Regulus was also designed for a nuclear warhead. A Regulus I missile at the USS Bowfin museum ship at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii The SSM-N-8A Regulus cruise missile was the nuclear deterrent weapon employed by the United States Navy from 1955 to 1964. ...


See also:

Russia has Kh-55SM cruise missiles, with similar to US AGM-129 range of 3000 km, but are able to carry more powerful warhead of 200 kt. The Federal Government of the United States is known to possess three types of weapons of mass destruction: nuclear weapons, chemical weapons and biological weapons. ... U.S. President Reagan and Soviet General Secretary Gorbachev signing the INF Treaty, 1987. ... Woensdrecht is a municipality and a town in the southern Netherlands. ...


Efficiency in modern warfare

Cruise missiles are among the most expensive of single-use weapons, up to several million dollars apiece. One consequence of this is that its users face difficult choices in targeting, to avoid expending the missiles on targets of low value. For instance during Operation Enduring Freedom the United States attacked targets of very low monetary value with cruise missiles, which led many to question the efficiency of the weapon. However, proponents of the cruise missile counter that the same counterargument applies to cruise missiles as to other types of UAVs: they are cheaper than human pilots when total training and infrastructure costs are taken into account[citation needed], not to mention the reluctance of the armed forces of many countries to risk the loss of life of their own personnel. Combatants United States, Poland, France, Canada, Pakistan, India, Australia, United Kingdom, Germany, Netherlands, New Zealand, Philippines (in the Philippines theatre only), Northern Alliance, Italy, Czech Republic, Hungary, Ethiopia, Somalia, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Croatia, Albania, Macedonia, Romania, Portugal, Bulgaria, Sweden, Norway, Denmark, Georgia Taliban, al-Qaeda, Abu Sayyaf, Jemaah... The £124 million Taranis UAV built by BAE Systems An unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) is an aircraft with no onboard pilot. ...


References

  1. ^ The Evolution of the Cruise Missile by Werrell, Kenneth P. see PDF page 92

Internal Links

List of missiles by country This list of missiles by country displays the names of missiles in order of the country where they originate, with the countries listed alphabetically and annotated with their continent (and defence alliance, if applicable). ...


External links

  • The Evolution of the Cruise Missile by Werrell, Kenneth P.
  • The Cruise Missile: Precursors and Problems by Werrell, Kenneth P.
  • An introduction to cruise missiles – From the website of the Federation of American Scientists (FAS)
  • Feasibility of Third World Advanced Ballistic & Cruise Missile Threat NDIA 155 slide presentation from 1999
  • The DIY cruise missile
  • The W80 Warhead
  • Cruise Missile Fundamentals
  • Tomahawk Variants
  • Bypassing the NMD: China and the Cruise Missile Proliferation Problem (Kh-55)
  • Video of cruise missile formation over Iraq

  Results from FactBites:
 
Cruise missile - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1205 words)
While ballistic missiles were the preferred weapons for land targets, heavy nuclear and conventional tipped cruise missiles were seen by the USSR as a primary weapon to destroy US carrier battle groups.
Cruise missiles are well-suited to assassination, but most organizations with the means to fund development avoid assassination as a policy.
However, the same counterargument applies to cruise missiles as to other types of UAVs, which is that cruise missiles are still cheaper than human pilots when total training and infrastructure costs are taken into account, not to mention the intrinsic value of human life.
Cruise Missile - MSN Encarta (1438 words)
A cruise missile is so accurate that it can be aimed not just at a building, but at a specific place in the building, such as a door or window.
Warheads used in the JASSM cruise missile are filled with a type of explosive material that will not blow up if the warhead is dropped accidentally, or even if the airplane carrying the missile catches fire on the ground.
The United States produced thousands of these new missiles, including the Tomahawk, made by General Dynamics (now Raytheon), which could be launched from ships, submarines, or trucks, and the Air-Launched Cruise Missile (ALCM), made by The Boeing Company, which was launched by B-52 bombers.
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