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Encyclopedia > Cruelty to animals
A man in Shanghai asks for money, holding a monkey with a rope around its neck and missing a limb.
A man in Shanghai asks for money, holding a monkey with a rope around its neck and missing a limb.
A live fowl market in Asia with live, dead and dying birds.
A live fowl market in Asia with live, dead and dying birds.

Cruelty to animals is the infliction of unnecessary suffering or harm to animals. Suffering, or pain in this sense,[1] is a basic affective experience of unpleasantness and aversion associated with harm or threat of harm in an individual. ... Harm can be defined as causing physical or psychological/emotional damage or injury to a person, animal or other entity. ...


Broadly speaking, there are two approaches to the issue. The animal welfare position holds that there is nothing inherently wrong with using animals for human purposes, such as food, clothing, entertainment, and research, but that it should be done in a humane way that reduces unnecessary suffering. Animal rights theorists criticize this position, arguing that the words "unnecessary" and "humane" are subject to widely differing interpretations, and that the only way to ensure protection for animals is to end their status as property, and to ensure that they are never used as commodities. Animal welfare is the viewpoint that animals, especially those under human care, should not suffer. ... A man holds a monkey with a limb missing by a rope around her neck, a scene epitomizing the idea of animal ownership. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...

Contents

In law

Many jurisdictions around the world have enacted statutes which forbid cruelty to some animals; for example, see Animal Protection Laws of the USA & Canada (Third Edition), Cruelty to Animals Acts in the United States (2001) and Cruelty to Animals Acts in the United Kingdom 1835, 1949 and 1876. The Cruelty to Animals Act 1835 was an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom (citation 5 & 6 Will. ...


These statutes provide minimum requirements for care and treatment of animals, but do not require optimal treatment or address issues of confinement, lack of environmental enrichments, or stress. They require that animals be provided shelter, food, water and medical treatment and that animals not be tortured, or killed in an inhumane manner. Some practices, even if controversial (such as treatment of rodeo and circus animals or medical research or animals deemed pests, including geese), are usually exempted from the enforcement of laws against cruelty. For other uses, see Rodeo (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Circus (disambiguation). ... Medical research (or experimental medicine) is basic research and applied research conducted to aid the body of knowledge in the field of medicine. ...


By country

Australia

In Australia, many states have enacted legislation outlawing cruelty to animals. Whilst police maintain an overall jurisdiction in prosecution of criminal matters, in many states officers of the RSPCA and other animal welfare charities are accorded authority to investigate and prosecute animal cruelty offences. This page deals with property as ownership rights. ...


Most jurisdictions simply depend on law enforcement officers who may not be knowledgeable in the area or assign it a high priority. Spectacular stories about grave atrocities and animal hoarders are mainstays of local TV news reporting, but most offences concern lack of adequate shelter or food and similar mundane deficiencies in animal care. For the band, see The Police. ... An animal hoarder is a person who keeps large numbers, sometimes hundreds, of animals, usually domestic pets like cats and dogs. ...


China

As of 2006 there were no available laws in China governing acts of cruelty to animals.[1] In certain jurisdictions such as Fuzhou, dog control officers may kill any unaccompanied dogs on sight.[2]   (Chinese: ; Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Fu-chou; BUC: Hók-ciÅ­; EFEO: Fou-Tcheou; also seen as Foochow or Fuchow) is the capital and the largest prefecture-level city of Fujian (福建) province, Peoples Republic of China. ... An animal control officer may be an employee of a municipality, is an employee of, or a contractor to, a municipality, is charged with the responsibility of responding to calls for service ranging from stray animals to investigations of animal cruelty and dogfighting, and bringing them to a compound or...


Mexico

In Mexico, animal cruelty laws are slowly being implemented. The Law of Animal Protection of the Federal District] is wide-ranging, based on banning 'unnecessary suffering.' The law prohibits conducts from dissection for students in high school or earlier years, to negligence of the owner in providing medical attention to an animal that needs it. Similar laws now exist in most states. However, this is blatantly disregarded by much of the public and authorities; animal protection legislation is gaining relevance very slowly.


United Kingdom

In the United Kingdom, cruelty to animals is a criminal offence and one may be fined or jailed for it for up to five years, under the Cruelty to Animals Act 1835, 1949 or 1876. One notable case occurred when a group of students placed a hedgehog in a microwave in the late 1990s. Bestiality is also a criminal offense. One may also be prosecuted for running over an animal.[citation needed] The RSPCA, founded in 1824 as the SPCA, was the first animal welfare society in the world The Cruelty to Animals Act 1835 was an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom (citation 5 & 6 Will. ... This article is about the spiny mammal. ... Microwave oven A microwave oven, or microwave, is a kitchen appliance employing microwave radiation primarily to cook or heat food. ... For the band, see 1990s (band). ... This article is about zoophilia, the emotional and (optionally) sexual attraction of humans to animals. ... The Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (RSPCA) is a charity in England and Wales that promotes animal welfare. ...


United States

In the United States a few jurisdictions, notably Massachusetts and New York, agents of humane societies and associations may be appointed as special officers to enforce statutes outlawing animal cruelty. "Brute Force: Animal Police and the Challenge of Cruelty" by Arnold Arluke is an ethnographic study of these special humane law enforcement officers. This article is about the U.S. state. ... This article is about the state. ... Ethnography ( ethnos = people and graphein = writing) is the genre of writing that presents varying degrees of qualitative and quantitative descriptions of human social phenomena, based on fieldwork. ... American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (usually referred to as the ASPCA) is a non-profit organization dedicated to preventing the abuse of animals. ...


In 2004, a Florida legislator proposed a ban on "cruelty to bovines," stating: "A person who, for the purpose of practice, entertainment, or sport, intentionally fells, trips, or otherwise causes a cow to fall or lose its balance by means of roping, lassoing, dragging, or otherwise touching the tail of the cow commits a misdemeanor of the first degree."[3] This article is about the U.S. State of Florida. ... A stilt-walker entertaining shoppers at a shopping centre in Swindon, England Entertainment is an activity designed to give pleasure or relaxation to an audience (although in the case of a computer game the audience may be only one person). ... A misdemeanor, or misdemeanour, in many common law legal systems, is a lesser criminal act. ...


It is to be noted, however, that in the USA ear cropping, tail docking, the Geier Hitch, rodeo sports and other acts perceived as cruelty in many other countries are often condoned. Penalties for cruelty can be minimal, if pursued. Currently, 44 of the 50 states have enacted felony penalties for certain forms of animal abuse.[4] However, in most jurisdictions, animal cruelty is most commonly charged as a misdemeanor offense. In one recent California case, a felony conviction for animal cruelty could theoretically net a 25 year to life sentence due to their three-strikes law, which increases sentences based on prior felony convictions.[5] Docking may refer to: the use of a Dock, e. ... // Definition and Usage The Geier Hitch is a tool or technique used in livestock management and animal husbandry. ...


In 2003, West Hollywood, California passed an ordinance banning declawing of house cats.[6] In 2007, Norfolk, Virginia passed legislation only allowing the procedure for medical reasons.[7] However, most jurisdictions allow the procedure. It is illegal in many parts of Europe.[8]


By practice

Circuses

The use of animals in the circus has been a matter for argument recently, as animal welfare groups have documented instances of animal cruelty, used in the training of performing animals. e.g. video [1] evidence filmed by Animal Defenders International and [2] by PETA. Animals in the circus are open to many diseases and are often whipped. The Humane Society of the United States has documented multiple cases of abuse and neglect [3]. Some animals go berserk, as in the case of Tyke, an elephant with Circus International in Honolulu, Hawaii who killed her trainer then ran loose outside until she was shot and killed with almost 100 bullets. The Humane Society of the United States and the Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals present their case here and here as to why the use of animals, especially wild animals, ought to be disallowed in circuses. Animal trainers, however, deny that such abuse is commonplace [4] [5]. Animal Defenders International (ADI) is a non-profit campaigning group working for better treatment of animals, and animal rights. ... Peta can refer to: Peta (prefix), a prefix meaning times 1015 in the International System of Units People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA), an animal-rights organization People Eating Tasty Animals, a parody of People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals Peta, Greece, a town in the prefecture... HSUS logo The Humane Society of the United States (HSUS) is a Washington, D.C-based animal welfare advocacy group. ... The Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (SPCA) is any of a number of societies whose operations include protecting and providing shelter to animals in danger. ...


Restrictions

Sweden, Austria, Costa Rica, India, Finland, and Singapore have restricted the use of animals in entertainment. The UK and Scottish Parliaments have committed to ban certain wild animals in travelling circuses. Approximately 200 local authorities in the UK have banned all animal acts on council land. Animal acts are still very popular in former Soviet Union and throughout much of Europe, the Americas, and Asia. In the United States animal welfare standards are overseen by the United States Department of Agriculture under provisions of the Animal Welfare Act, however, says the HSUS, "while standards for handling, care, treatment, and transport are written into the federal Animal Welfare Act (administered by the U.S. Department of Agriculture), those standards are minimal and poorly enforced. Persistent violators are rarely prosecuted" [6]. One can view or request the USDA inspection reports for conditions of animals at various circuses here. Efforts to ban circus animals in cities like Denver, Colorado have been rejected by voters. [7]. Activists saw the defeat as evidence that "big business won, wild animals lost" [8].


In response to a growing unease from the public about the use of animals in entertainment the formation of animal free circuses have begun cropping up around the globe [9] [10].


In theory and practice

There are many different reasons why individuals abuse animals. Animal cruelty covers a wide range of actions (or lack of action), so one blanket answer simply isn’t possible. Each type of abuse has displayed certain patterns of behavior that we can use to help understand more about why people commit the crimes we encounter today.


Animal cruelty is often broken down into two main categories: active and passive, also referred to as commission and omission, respectively.


Passive cruelty is typified by cases of neglect, where the crime is a lack of action rather than the action itself. Examples of neglect are starvation, dehydration, parasite infestations, allowing a collar to grow into an animal’s skin, inadequate shelter in extreme weather conditions, and failure to seek veterinary care when an animal needs medical attention.


In many cases of neglect where an investigator feels that the cruelty occurred as a result of ignorance, they may attempt to educate the pet owner and then revisit the situation to check for improvements. In more severe cases however, exigent circumstances may require that the animal is removed from the site immediately and taken in for urgent medical care.


Active cruelty implies malicious intent, where a person has deliberately and intentionally caused harm to an animal, and is sometimes referred to as NAI (Non-Accidental Injury). Acts of intentional cruelty are often some of the most disturbing and should be considered signs of serious psychological problems. This type of behavior is often associated with sociopathic behavior and should be taken very seriously.[citation needed]


Animal abuse in violent homes can take many forms and can occur for many reasons. Many times a parent or domestic partner who is abusive may kill, or threaten to kill, the household pets to intimidate family members into sexual abuse, to remain silent about previous or current abuse, or simply to psychologically torture the victims, flexing their "power."


Psychological disorders

One of the known warning signs of certain psychopathologies, including anti-social personality disorder, also known as psychopathic personality disorder, is a history of torturing pets and small animals, a behavior known as zoosadism. According to the New York Times, "[t]he FBI has found that a history of cruelty to animals is one of the traits that regularly appears in its computer records of serial rapists and murderers, and the standard diagnostic and treatment manual for psychiatric and emotional disorders lists cruelty to animals a diagnostic criterion for conduct disorders.[citation needed] "A survey of psychiatric patients who had repeatedly tortured dogs and cats found all of them had high levels of aggression toward people as well, including one patient who had murdered a young boy."[citation needed] Robert K. Ressler, an agent with the Federal Bureau of Investigation's behavioral sciences unit, studied serial killers and noted,"Murderers like this [Jeffrey Dahmer] very often start out by killing and torturing animals as kids."[9] Psychopathology is a term which refers to either the study of mental illness or mental distress, or the manifestation of behaviors and experiences which may be indicative of mental illness or psychological impairment. ... Antisocial personality disorder (APD) is a personality disorder which is often characterised by antisocial and impulsive behaviour. ... Ernest Bornemann (1990, cited by Rosenbauer 1997) coined the term zoosadism for those who derive pleasure from inflicting pain on an animal, sometimes with a sexual component. ... The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ... It has been suggested that Rapists be merged into this article or section. ... Conduct disorder is a psychiatric category to describe a pattern of repetitive behavior where the rights of others or the social norms are violated. ...


Cruelty to animals is one of the three components of the MacDonald Triad, indicators of violent antisocial behavior in children and adolescents. According to the studies used to form this model, cruelty to animals is a common (but not with every case) behavior in children and adolescents who grow up to become serial killers and other violent criminals. The MacDonald triad are three major personality traits in children that are said to be warning signs for the tendency to become a serial killer. ... Serial killers are individuals who have a history of multiple slayings of victims who were usually unknown to them beforehand. ...


It has also been found that animal cruelty in children is frequently committed by children who have witnessed or been victims of abuse themselves. In two separate studies cited by the Humane Society of the United States (HSUS), roughly one-third of families suffering from domestic abuse indicated that at least one child had hurt or killed a pet.


Film making

There is a case of cruelty to animals in the South Korean film The Isle, according to its director Kim Ki-Duk.[10] In the film, a real frog is skinned alive while fish are mutilated. For Korea as a whole, see Korea. ... The Isle movie poster The Isle (Seom) is a South Korean film directed by Kim Ki-duk in the year 2000. ... Kim Ki-duk is a Korean film maker noted for his meditative, philosophical films. ... Distribution of frogs (in black) Suborders Archaeobatrachia Mesobatrachia Neobatrachia - List of Anuran families The frogness babe is an amphibian in the order Anura (meaning tail-less from Greek an-, without + oura, tail), formerly referred to as Salientia (Latin saltare, to jump). ... For other uses, see Fish (disambiguation). ...


Several animals were killed for the camera in the controversial Italian film Cannibal Holocaust.[11] The images in the film include the slow and graphic beheading and ripping apart of a turtle, a monkey being beheaded and its brains being consumed by natives and a spider being chopped apart. In fact, Cannibal Holocaust was only one film in a collective of similarly themed movies (cannibal films) that featured unstaged animal cruelty. Their influences were rooted in the films of Mondo filmmakers, which sometimes contained similar content. For the Brutal Juice song, see Cannibal Holocaust (song). ... For other uses, see Turtle (disambiguation). ... Approximate worldwide distribution of monkeys. ... For other uses, see Spider (disambiguation). ... Poster for Cannibal Holocaust, one of the best-known cannibal films. ... Mondo film is a documentary film, more precisely a pseudo-documentary, usually depicting sensational topics and scenes. ...


More recently, the video sharing site YouTube has been criticized for hosting thousands of videos of real life animal cruelty, especially the feeding of one animal to another for the purposes of entertainment and spectacle. In spite of these videos being flagged as inappropriate by many users, YouTube has generally failed to take the same policing actions to remove them that they have with videos containing copyright infringement or sexual content.[12][13] YouTube is a popular video sharing website where users can upload, view and share video clips. ... The Cathach of St. ...


The Screen Actors Guild (SAG) has contracted with the American Humane Association (AHA) for monitoring of animal use during filming or while on the set.[14] Compliance with this arrangement is voluntary and only applies to films made in the United States. Films monitored by the American Humane Association may bear one of their end-credit messages. Many productions, including those made in the US, do not advise AHA or SAG of animal use in films, so there is no oversight.[15] The Screen Actors Guild (SAG) is an American labor union representing over 120,000 film and television principal performers and background performers worldwide. ... The American Humane Association is an organization founded in 1877 dedicated to the welfare of animals and children. ...


Terror groups

PETA’s Ingrid Newkirk (co-founder of PETA) wrote to then President of the Palestinian National Authority Yasser Arafat after learning that a donkey, laden with explosives, was intentionally blown up on January 26, 2003 in Jerusalem. Newkirk wrote that “Animals claim no nation. They are in perpetual involuntary servitude to all humankind, and although they pose no threat and own no weapons, human beings always win in the undeclared war against them."[16] Newkirk asked Arafat to leave animals out of the conflict. Peta can refer to: Peta (prefix), a prefix meaning times 1015 in the International System of Units People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA), an animal-rights organization People Eating Tasty Animals, a parody of People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals Peta, Greece, a town in the prefecture... PETAs president and co-founder Ingrid Newkirk Ingrid Newkirk (born July 11, 1949) is a British-born animal rights activist, author, and president of People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA), the worlds largest animal rights organization. ... Peta can refer to: Peta (prefix), a prefix meaning times 1015 in the International System of Units People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA), an animal-rights organization People Eating Tasty Animals, a parody of People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals Peta, Greece, a town in the prefecture... “Palestinian government” redirects here. ... Not to be confused with Yasir Arafat (cricketer). ...


See also

A man holds a monkey with a limb missing by a rope around her neck, a scene epitomizing the idea of animal ownership. ... Animal welfare is the viewpoint that animals, especially those under human care, should not suffer. ... Horse racing is a very popular sporting event involving animals. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Cat burning was a form of zoosadistic entertainment in 16th century Paris, France. ... Animal welfare groups argue for greater protection for non-human animals, particularly those used by human beings in laboratories or in entertainment, as well as domestic animals such as those used for food, labour, or as companions (pets). ...

Notes

  1. ^ Richard Spencer. Just who is the glamorous kitten killer of Hangzhou? April 3, 2006.
  2. ^ QQ.com. 福州成立专业捕狗队在街头打狗 April 12, 2006.
  3. ^ Emery, David. Florida to Consider Ban on Cow Tipping. About.com. Retrieved on 2007-06-07.
  4. ^ ALDF: Resources
  5. ^ Accused Dog Killer Could Get 25 Years to Life in Prison
  6. ^ Judge allows California cities to ban cat declawing
  7. ^ Norfolk Bans De-Clawing Of Cats
  8. ^ Declawing Cats: Manicure or Mutilation?
  9. ^ http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9D0CEEDF113EF934A3575BC0A967958260&scp=309&sq=Daniel+Goleman&st=nyt Clues to a Dark Nurturing Ground for One Serial Killer, New York Times August 7, 1991]
  10. ^ Andy McKeague, An Interview with Kim Ki-Duk and Suh Jung on The Isle at monstersandcritics.com, May 11, 2005, retrieved March 11, 2006.
  11. ^ Pointless Cannibal Holocaust Sequel in the Works. Fangoria. Retrieved on 2007-01-13.
  12. ^ Times online, timesonline.co.uk August 19, 2007, retrieved August 25, 2007.
  13. ^ Practical Fishkeeping, practicalfishkeeping.co.uk May 17, 2007, retrieved August 25, 2007.
  14. ^ Entertainment Industry FAQ
  15. ^ Earning Our Disclaimer
  16. ^ PETA: Leave the Animals in Peace

Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 158th day of the year (159th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 13th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Further reading

  • Arluke, Arnold. Brute Force: Animal Police and the Challenge of Cruelty, Purdue University Press (August 15, 2004), hardcover, 175 pages, ISBN 1-55753-350-4. An ethnographic study of humane law enforcement officers.
  • Lea, Suzanne Goodney (2007). Delinquency and Animal Cruelty: Myths and Realities about Social Pathology, hardcover, 168 pages, ISBN 978-1-59332-197-0. Lea challenges the assertion made by animal rights activists that animal cruelty enacted during childhood is a precursor to human-directed violence. The activists argue that our most violent criminals started off their bloody sprees with animal torture. Many parents, teachers, school administrators, and policy makers have thus accepted this claim on face value. In contrast, Lea finds that, in fact, many American youngsters-- and boys, especially-- engage in acts of animal cruelty but that few of these children go on to enact human-directed violence.
  • Munro H. (The battered pet (1999) In F. Ascione & P. Arkow (Eds.) Child Abuse, Domestic Violence, and Animal Abuse. West Lafayette, IN: Purdue University Press, 199-208.

Ethnography ( ethnos = people and graphein = writing) is the genre of writing that presents varying degrees of qualitative and quantitative descriptions of human social phenomena, based on fieldwork. ...

External links

A man holds a monkey with a limb missing by a rope around her neck, a scene epitomizing the idea of animal ownership. ... Nicolas Atwood is an American animal rights activist based in West Palm Beach, Florida. ... Greg Avery (born 1963), also known as Greg Jennings and Greg Harrison, is a British animal rights activist and co-founder of Stop Huntingdon Animal Cruelty (SHAC), an international campaign to force the closure of Huntingdon Life Sciences (HLS), a controversial animal-testing company with bases in Huntingdon, England, and... David Barbarash was the North American press officer for the Animal Liberation Front between 2000 and 2003. ... Rod Coronado Rodney Adam Coronado is an American eco-anarchist and animal rights activist who has been convicted of arson, conspiracy and other crimes in connection with his activism but now advocates non-violent action. ... Barry Horne Barry Horne was a British animal rights activist who died of kidney failure in Ronkswood Hospital, Worcester on November 5, 2001, following a series of four hunger strikes while serving an 18-year sentence for planting incendiary devices. ... Ronnie Lee is a British animal rights activist, and founder of the Animal Liberation Front. ... Keith Mann is a British animal-rights campaigner, believed to be a senior Animal Liberation Front activist. ... PETAs president and co-founder Ingrid Newkirk Ingrid Newkirk (born July 11, 1949) is a British-born animal rights activist, author, and president of People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA), the worlds largest animal rights organization. ... Alex Pacheco Alexander Fernando Pacheco (born August 1958) is an American animal rights activist. ... Jill Phipps Jill Phipps (January 15, 1964 – February 1, 1995) was a British animal rights activist. ... Henry Spira (June 19, 1927 – September 12, 1998) was a prominent animal rights activist, and architect of the movement in the United States to stop the use of animals in experiments. ... Marianne Louise Thieme (Ede, March 6, 1972) is a Dutch politician, animal activist and publicist. ... Andrew Tyler is the director of Animal Aid, the UKs second largest animal rights organization (after peta). ... Jerry Vlasak is a U.S. physician and prominent member of several controversial nonprofit organizations, including Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine and the Sea Shepherd Conservation Society. ... Paul Watson (born December 2, 1950) is the founder of the Sea Shepherd Conservation Society and is a significant, albeit controversial, figure in the environmental movement and the movement for animal rights. ... Robin Webb runs the Animal Liberation Press Office in the UK, which releases material to the media on behalf of animal rights activists operating as the Animal Liberation Front (ALF), the Animal Rights Militia (ARM), and the Justice Department. ... Image File history File links Olive_baboon1. ... // Action for Animals [http://www. ... Animal Aid logo Animal Aid is the United Kingdoms largest animal rights group and one of the longest established in the world, having been founded in 1977. ... The Animal Legal Defense Fund (ALDF) is an American non-profit animal rights law organization focused on protecting and advancing the interests of animals through the legal system. ... Beagles stolen by British ALF activists from a testing laboratory owned by the Boots Group. ... The Animal Liberation Front Supporters Group (ALFSG) is an organization that provides moral and financial support to people imprisoned for breaking the law in the name of animal rights, in particular Animal Liberation Front activists. ... The Animal Liberation Press Office was set up in October 1991 to relay information to the media about direct action undertaken by the Animal Liberation Front, the Animal Rights Militia, the Justice Department, and other radical animal-rights groups. ... The Animal Rights Militia (ARM) is a name used by animal-rights activists who are prepared to carry out acts of violence against human beings. ... The British Union for the Abolition of Vivisection is a pressure group based near Highbury Corner in North London, United Kingdom that campaigns peacefully against vivisection. ... The logo of The Great Ape Project, which aims to expand moral equality to great apes, and to foster greater understanding of them by humans. ... The Justice Department is a militant animal-rights organization, set up in Britain in 1993, and active there and in the United States. ... People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals logo People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA) is an animal rights organization based in the United States. ... The Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine (PCRM) is a non-profit organization based in Washington, D.C., that promotes preventive medicine, conducts clinical research, and encourages higher standards for ethics and effectiveness in research. ... The Primate Freedom Project is a 501(c)3 not for profit grassroots abolitionist animal rights organization based in Atlanta, Georgia. ... The Sea Shepherd Conservation Society is a non-profit, non-governmental maritime organization founded by Paul Watson in 1977. ... The Southern Animal Rights Coalition (SARC) is an umbrella organisation for groups campaigning against animal abuse in southern England. ... SPEAK, the Voice for the Animals is a British animal rights campaign that aims to end animal experimentation and vivisection in the UK. Its current focus is opposition to a new animal testing center being built by Oxford University. ... A monkey inside Huntingdon Life Sciences in the United States. ... Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... A man holds a monkey with a limb missing by a rope around her neck, a scene epitomizing the idea of animal ownership. ... The Animals (Scientific Procedures) Act (ASPA) is a law passed by the U.K. parliament in 1986, which regulates the use of laboratory animals in the U.K. Fundamentally, actions that have the potential of causing pain, distress or lasting harm to animals are illegal in the U.K. under... For other uses, see Animal testing (disambiguation). ... A bile bear in Huizhou Farm, Vietnam. ... Bull attacking a matador Bullfighting or tauromachy (Spanish toreo, corrida de toros or tauromaquia; Portuguese corrida de touros or tauromaquia) is a blood sport that involves, most of the times, professional performers (matadores) who execute various formal moves with the goal of appearing graceful and confident, while masterful over the... Covance (NYSE: CVD), formerly Hazleton Laboratories, with headquarters in Princeton, New Jersey, is one of the worlds largest and most comprehensive drug development services companies, according to its own website, with annual revenues over $1 billion, global operations in 17 countries, and approximately 6,700 employees worldwide. ... The factual accuracy of part of this article is disputed. ... A mink farm in the United States Fur farming is the practice of breeding or raising certain types of animals for their fur. ... A Great Ape research ban, or severe restrictions on the use of non-human great apes in research, is currently in place in the Netherlands, New Zealand, the United Kingdom, Sweden, Germany and Japan, and has been proposed in Austria. ... Several greyhounds before a race. ... The term Green Scare, alluding to the Red Scares, periods of fear over communist infiltration of U.S. society, is a term popularized by environmental activists to refer to legal action by the U.S. government against the radical environmentalist movement. ... Horse-racing is an equestrian sporting activity which has been practiced over the centuries; the chariot races of Roman times were an early example, as was the contest of the steeds of the god Odin and the giant Hrungnir in Norse mythology. ... Horse slaughter is the practice of slaughtering horses for meat. ... This article is about the hunting of prey by human society. ... Huntingdon Life Sciences (HLS) is a contract animal-testing company founded in 1952 in England, now with facilities in Huntingdon, Cambridgeshire and Eye, Suffolk in the UK; New Jersey in the U.S.; and in Japan. ... The international trade in primates sees 32,000 wild-caught primates sold on the international market every year. ... The meat industry is the industrial aspect of agriculture. ... Nafovannys maternity clinic. ... Filmed by PETA, Covance primate-testing lab, Vienna, Virginia, 2004-5. ... Open rescue is a term for a form of direct action practiced by certain animal rights and animal welfare activists. ... Operation Backfire is an ongoing multi-agency criminal investigation, led by the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), into destructive acts in the name of animal rights and environmental causes in the United States. ... A pet store or pet shop is a store at which one can purchase supplies for pets and, often, the pets themselves. ... Puppy mill — puppy farming in the United Kingdom and Australia—is a disparaging term for the practices of some dog breeders. ... Sericulture, or silk farming, is the rearing of silkworms for the production of raw silk. ... The relevance of particular information in (or previously in) this article or section is disputed. ... Veal is the meat of young calves (usually male) appreciated for its delicate taste and tender texture. ... Vegan redirects here. ... A variety of vegetarian food ingredients Vegetarianism is the practice of a diet that excludes all animal flesh, including poultry, game, fish, shellfish or crustacea, and slaughter by-products. ... The Brown Dog affair was a controversy and cause célèbre for a brief period in Edwardian England, from 1903 to 1910, and revolving around vivisection and a statue erected in memory of a dog killed in the cause of medical research. ... Britches after being removed from the laboratory by the Animal Liberation Front Britches was the name given by researchers to a stumptail macaque monkey who was born into a breeding colony at the University of California, Riverside in March 1985. ... A marmoset inside Cambridge University, filmed by BUAV The use of primates in experiments at Cambridge University is controversial, first coming to widespread public attention in the UK following undercover investigations lasting ten months in 1998 by the British Union for the Abolition of Vivisection (BUAV), the results of which... Harry Harlows pit of despair The pit of despair, or vertical chamber, was a device used in experiments conducted on rhesus macaque monkeys during the 1970s by American comparative psychologist Harry Harlow and his students at the University of Wisconsin. ... The Silver Spring monkeys were 17 monkeys kept in small wire cages inside the Institute of Behavioral Research in Silver Spring, Maryland, by Dr. Edward Taub, who was researching regeneration of severed nerves with a grant from the National Institute of Health (NIH). ... Unnecessary Fuss is the name of a film produced by Ingrid Newkirk and Alex Pacheco of People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA), showing footage shot inside the University of Pennsylvanias Head Injury Clinic in Philadelphia, described by the university as the longest standing and most respected center... Image:Steven best. ... Dr. Stephen Clark Stephen Richard Lyster Clark (born October 30, 1945) is a British philosopher and international authority on animal rights, currently professor of philosophy and Leverhulme Research Fellow at the University of Liverpool. ... Gary Lawrence Francione (1954) is an American law professor at Rutgers University. ... This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ... Tom Regan (born November 28, 1938 in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania) is an American philosopher and animal-rights activist. ... Richard D. Ryder (born 1940) is a British psychologist who, after performing psychology experiments on animals, began to speak out against the practice, and became one of the pioneers of the modern animal liberation and animal rights movements. ... For other persons named Peter Singer, see Peter Singer (disambiguation). ... Steven M. Wise is the author of Though the Heavens May Fall, a book concerning the 18th century trial in England which led to the abolition of slavery. ... Animal Liberation: A New Ethics for Our Treatment of Animals is a book by Australian philosopher Peter Singer. ... Behind the Mask: The Story Of The People Who Risk Everything To Save Animals is a 2006 documentary film about the Animal Liberation Front. ... Earthlings is a 2005 multi-award winning documentary written, produced and directed by Shaun Monson and co-produced by Persia White. ... Arkangel is a British-based bi-annual animal liberation magazine, first published in the winter of 1989. ... Bite Back is a website that promotes the cause of the Animal Liberation Front (ALF). ... No Compromise is a San Francisco-based bi-annual animal liberation magazine, first published in the winter of 1989. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Overview of Texas Animal Cruelty Laws (1806 words)
Generally, state criminal cruelty laws are written to protect “every living dumb creature” or “every living vertebrate, except humans.” In a handful of states, the laws do exclude certain types of animals from the applicability of cruelty laws, such as fish, crustaceans, or invertebrates, but these exceptions are the minority.
However, if a person is prosecuted and found guilty of animal cruelty, Texas laws impose different punishments based on the type of cruel action involved, whether the conviction was one of many offenses, or whether the defendant involved is a minor.
For cruelty convictions involving depriving an animal of food or water, abandoning an animal, transporting an animal in a cruel manner, injuring someone else’s animal, and overworking an animal, the defendant will be punished with a Class A misdemeanor, which may include a fine up to $4,000, jail time up to a year, or both.
animal cruelty (954 words)
Animal welfare organizations across the country work daily to educate people about how to care for their companion animals and how they can prevent animal cruelty.
Companion animals are primarily covered by state animal cruelty laws, which vary from state to state and county to county.
In states where animal cruelty is considered a misdemeanor, individuals who commit intentional cruelty crimes against animals can receive, at most, one year in jail and a $1,000 fine.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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