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Encyclopedia > Crude oil
Pumpjack pumping an oil well near Sarnia, Ontario
Pumpjack pumping an oil well near Sarnia, Ontario

Petroleum (from Greek petrarock and elaion – oil or Latin oleum – oil ) or crude oil is a thick, dark brown or greenish liquid. Petroleum is often shorted like "petro" (i.e. petrodiesel is petroleum diesel). Oil Well with horsehead pump near Sarnia, Ontario, Canada. ... A colourful nodding donkey in the United States A nodding donkey or pump jack is the overground drive for a submersible pump in a borehole. ... Sarnia is a city in Southwestern Ontario, Canada (population 70,876 in 2001). ... Sedimentary, volcanic, plutonic, metamorphic rock types of North America. ... Latin is an ancient Indo-European language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ... A liquid will assume the shape of its container. ... Nodding donkey pumping an oil well near Sarnia, Ontario, 2001 Petroleum (from Latin petrus – rock and oleum – oil), mineral oil, or crude oil, sometimes colloquially called black gold, is a thick, dark brown or greenish flammable liquid, which exists in the upper strata of some areas of the Earths...


Petroleum exists in the upper strata of some areas of the Earth's crust. It consists of a complex mixture of various hydrocarbons, largely of the alkane series, but may vary much in appearance and composition. Petroleum is used mostly, by volume, for producing fuel oil and gasoline (petrol), both important "primary energy" sources (IEA Key World Energy Statistics). Petroleum is also the raw material for many chemical products, including solvents, fertilizers, pesticides, and plastics. 88% of all petroleum extracted is processed as fuel; the other 12% is converted into other materials such as plastic. Since petroleum is a non-renewable resource, many people are worried about the consequences of its depletion. Due to its constant want in the world oil has occasionally been dubbed as the black gold. Strata is a comic science fiction novel by Terry Pratchett. ... Earth (often referred to as The Earth) is the third planet in the solar system in terms of distance from the Sun, and the fifth in order of size. ... Earth cutaway from core to exosphere. ... Hydrocarbons are refined at oil refineries and processed at chemical plants In chemistry, a hydrocarbon is any chemical compound that consists only of the elements carbon (C) and hydrogen (H). ... An alkane in organic chemistry is a saturated hydrocarbon without cycles, that is, an acyclic hydrocarbon in which the molecule has the maximum possible number of hydrogen atoms and so has no double bonds. ... Fuel oil is a fraction obtained from petroleum distillation, either as a distillate or a residue. ... petrol) or Gasoline is a petroleum-derived liquid mixture consisting primarily of hydrocarbons, used as fuel in internal combustion engines. ... Gasoline, as it is known in North America, or petrol, in many Commonwealth countries (sometimes also called motor spirit) is a petroleum-derived liquid mixture consisting primarily of hydrocarbons, used as fuel in internal combustion engines. ... Primary energy is energy contained in raw fuels and any other forms of energy received by a system as input to the system. ... A chemical substance is any material substance used in or obtained by a process in chemistry: A chemical compound is a substance consisting of two or more chemical elements that are chemically combined in fixed proportions. ... A solvent is a liquid that dissolves a solid, liquid, or gaseous solute, resulting in a solution. ... spreading manure, an organic fertiliser Fertilizers or fertilisers are compounds given to plants with the intention of promoting growth; they are usually applied either via the soil, for uptake by plant roots, or by foliar feeding, for uptake through leaves. ... A cropduster spreading pesticide. ... Plastic covers a range of synthetic or semisynthetic polymerization products. ...

Contents


Formation

Biogenic theory

Most geologists view crude oil, like coal and natural gas, as the product of compression and heating of ancient organic materials over geological time scales. According to this theory, it is formed from the decayed remains of prehistoric small marine animals and algae. (Terrestrial plants tend to form coal.) Over millennia this organic matter, mixed with mud, is buried under thick sedimentary layers of material. The resulting high levels of heat and pressure cause the remains to metamorphose, first into a waxy material known as kerogen, and then into liquid and gaseous hydrocarbons in a process known as catagenesis. Because hydrocarbons are less dense than the surrounding rock, these migrate upward through adjacent rock layers until they become trapped beneath impermeable rocks, within porous rocks called reservoirs. Concentration of hydrocarbons in a trap forms an oil field, from which the liquid can be extracted by drilling and pumping. The Blue Marble: The famous photo of the Earth taken en route to the Moon by Apollo 17s Harrison Schmitt on December 7, 1972. ... Coal (previously referred to as pitcoal or seacoal) is a fossil fuel extracted from the ground by underground mining or open-pit mining (surface mining). ... Many stoves use natural gas. ... In geology, diagenesis refers to all the chemical, physical, and biological changes undergone by a sediment after its initial deposition and during and after its lithification, exclusive of surface alteration (weathering). ... Benzene An organic compound is any member of a large class of chemical compounds whose molecules contain carbon, with the exception of carbides, carbonates, carbon oxides and elementary carbon. ... The table and timeline of geologic periods presented here is in accordance with the dates and nomenclature proposed by the International Commission on Stratigraphy. ... Theory has a number of distinct meanings in different fields of knowledge, depending on the context and their methodologies. ... The term prehistory (Greek words προ = before and ιστορία = history) is usually used to describe the period before written history became available. ... Marine is an umbrella term for things relating to the ocean, as with marine biology, marine geology, and as a term for a navy, etc. ... Phyla Animals are a major group of organisms, classified as the kingdom Animalia or Meta­zoa. ... A seaweed (Laurencia) up close: the branches are multicellular and only about 1 mm thick. ... Terrestrial literally means of the earth and is used in a variety of contexts: In biology and in the general sense, terrestrial means indicates ground-dwelling (compare aquatic). ... These pages contain the trends of millennia and centuries. ... Benzene An organic compound is any member of a large class of chemical compounds whose molecules contain carbon, with the exception of carbides, carbonates, carbon oxides and elementary carbon. ... Matter is commonly defined as the substance of which physical objects are composed. ... In computer gaming, a MUD (Multi-User Dungeon or Domain or Dimension) is a multi-player computer game that combines elements of role-playing games, hack and slash style computer games and social instant messaging chat rooms. ... Two types of sedimentary rock: limey shale overlaid by limestone. ... In physics, heat is defined as energy in transit. ... Pressure (symbol: p) is the force per unit area applied on a surface in a direction perpendicular to that surface. ... Metamorphism can be defined as the mineralogical, chemical and crystallographic changes in a solid-state rock, i. ... Kerogens are chemical compounds that make up a portion of the organic matter in sedimentary rocks. ... Catagenesis is a term used in petroleum geology to describe the cracking process which results in the conversion of organic kerogens into hydrocarbons. ... An oil reservoir, petroleum system or petroleum reservoir is often thought of as being an underground lake of oil, but it is actually composed of hydrocarbons contained in porous rock formations. ... Drilling rig in a small oil field Near Sarnia, Ontario, 2001 An oil field is an area with an abundance of oil wells extracting petroleum (oil) from below ground. ... A drill is a tool with a rotating drill bit used for drilling holes in various materials. ... Manual water pump in KoÅ¡ice-Ťahanovce, Slovakia An electric driven pump of water works nearby the Hengstey See, Germany 19th century Dutch diesel pump in Rijswijk, Netherlands Hand pump used to obtain water in Afghanistan This article is about the mechanical device. ...


Geologists also refer to the "oil window". This is the temperature range that oil forms in--below the minimum temperature oil does not form, and above the maximum temperature natural gas forms instead. Though this corresponds to different depths for different locations around the world, a 'typical' depth for the oil window might be 4 - 6 km. Note that oil may be trapped at much shallower depths, even if it is not formed there. Three conditions must be present for oil reservoirs to form: a rich source rock, a migration conduit, and a trap (seal) that concentrates the hydrocarbons.


The reactions that produce oil and natural gas are often modeled as first order breakdown reactions, where kerogen breaks down to oil and natural gas by a large set of parallel reactions, and oil eventually breaks down to natural gas by another set of reactions.


Abiogenic theory

The idea of abiogenic petroleum origin was championed in the Western world by astronomer Thomas Gold based on thoughts from Russia, mainly on studies of Nikolai Kudryavtsev. The idea proposes that large amounts of carbon exist naturally in the planet, some in the form of hydrocarbons. Hydrocarbons are less dense than aqueous pore fluids, and migrate upward through deep fracture networks. Thermophilic, rock-dwelling microbial life-forms are in part responsible for the biomarkers found in petroleum. The hypothesis of abiogenic petroleum origin holds that petroleum is formed by non-biological processes deep in the earths crust and mantle. ... The term Western world or the West can have multiple meanings depending on its context. ... Thomas Gold (May 22, 1920 – June 22, 2004) was an Austrian astrophysicist, a professor of astronomy at Cornell University, and a member of the US National Academy of Sciences. ... Nikolai Alexandrovich Kudryavtsev Russian: (Opochka, October 21, 1893 - Leningrad, December 12, 1971) was a Russian petroleum geologist. ... General Name, Symbol, Number carbon, C, 6 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 14, 2, p Appearance black (graphite) colorless (diamond) Atomic mass 12. ... A planet is generally considered to be a relatively large mass of accreted matter in orbit around a star. ... An extremophile is an organism, usually unicellular, which thrives in or requires extreme conditions. ... E. coli magnified 10,000 times. ... Biomarker is an occasionally used synonym for biosignature, which is a term used in astrobiology to indicate a measurable phenomenon that indicates the presence of life. ...


This theory is very much a minority opinion amongst geologists. This theory often pops up when scientists are not able to explain apparent oil inflows into certain oil reservoirs. These instances are rare.


Extraction

Locating an oil field is the first obstacle to be overcome. Today, petroleum engineers use instruments such as gravimeters and magnetometers in the search for petroleum. Generally, the first stage in the extraction of crude oil is to drill a well into the underground reservoir. Historically, in the USA, some oil fields existed where the oil rose naturally to the surface, but most of these fields have long since been depleted, except for certain remote locations in Alaska. Often many wells (called multilateral wells) are drilled into the same reservoir, to ensure that the extraction rate will be economically viable. Also, some wells (secondary wells) may be used to pump water, steam, acids or various gas mixtures into the reservoir to raise or maintain the reservoir pressure, and so maintain an economic extraction rate. An accelerometer or gravimeter is a device for measuring acceleration and the effects of gravity. ... A magnetometer is a scientific instrument used to measure the strength of magnetic fields. ... Drilling rig in a small oil field Near Sarnia, Ontario, 2001 An oil field is an area with an abundance of oil wells extracting petroleum (oil) from below ground. ... Water (from the Old English waeter; c. ... In physical chemistry, and in engineering, steam refers to vaporized water. ... For other uses, see Acid (disambiguation). ...


If the underground pressure in the oil reservoir is sufficient, then the oil will be forced to the surface under this pressure. Gaseous fuels or natural gas are usually present, which also supply needed underground pressure. In this situation it is sufficient to place a complex arrangement of valves (the Christmas tree) on the well head to connect the well to a pipeline network for storage and processing. This is called primary oil recovery. Usually, only about 20% of the oil in a reservoir can be extracted this way. A valve is a device that regulates the flow of fluids (either gases, fluidised solids, slurries or liquids) by opening, closing, or partially obstructing various passageways. ... In petroleum extraction, a christmas tree is an assembly of valves, spools and fittings for an oil well, named for its resemblance to a decorated tree. ... Well head is a term used in the oil and gas industry to describe the equipment located at the top of a well. ...


Over the lifetime of the well the pressure will fall, and at some point there will be insufficient underground pressure to force the oil to the surface. If economical, and it often is, the remaining oil in the well is extracted using secondary oil recovery methods (see: energy balance and net energy gain). Secondary oil recovery uses various techniques to aid in recovering oil from depleted or low-pressure reservoirs. Sometimes pumps, such as beam pumps and electrical submersible pumps (ESPs), are used to bring the oil to the surface. Other secondary recovery techniques increase the reservoir's pressure by water injection, natural gas reinjection and gas lift, which injects air, carbon dioxide or some other gas into the reservoir. Together, primary and secondary recovery allow 25% to 35% of the reservoir's oil to be recovered. Energy balance has the following meanings in several fields: In physics, energy balance is a systematic presentation of energy flows and transformations in a system. ... Net Energy Gain is an important concept in energy economics, referring to the difference between the energy required to harvest the energy source against the energy provided by using that source. ... A colourful nodding donkey in the United States A nodding donkey is the overground drive for a submersible pump in a borehole. ... A submersible pump is a pump which has a hermetically sealed motor close-coupled to the pump body. ... The water injection method used in oil production is where water is injected back into the reservoir usually to increase pressure and thereby stimulate production. ... Gas reinjection is the reinjection of natural gas into an underground reservoir, typically one already containing both natural gas and crude oil, in order to increase the pressure within the reservoir and thus induce the flow of crude oil. ... Gas lift is one of a number of processes used to artificially lift oil from wells where there is insufficient reservoir pressure. ... Layers of Atmosphere (NOAA) Air redirects here. ... Carbon dioxide is an atmospheric gas comprised of one carbon and two oxygen atoms. ...


Tertiary oil recovery reduces the oil's viscosity to increase oil production. Tertiary recovery is started when secondary oil recovery techniques are no longer enough to sustain production, but only when the oil can still be extracted profitably. This depends on the cost of the extraction method and the current price of crude oil. When prices are high, previously unprofitable wells are brought back into production and when they are low, production is curtailed. Thermally enhanced oil recovery methods (TEOR) are tertiary recovery techniques that heat the oil and make it easier to extract. Steam injection is the most common form of TEOR, and is often done with a cogeneration plant. In this type of cogeneration plant, a gas turbine is used to generate electricity and the waste heat is used to produce steam, which is then injected into the reservoir. This form of recovery is used extensively to increase oil production in the San Joaquin Valley, which has very heavy oil, yet accounts for 10% of the United States' oil production. In-situ burning is another form of TEOR, but instead of steam, some of the oil is burned to heat the surrounding oil. Occasionally, detergents are also used to decrease oil viscosity. Tertiary recovery allows another 5% to 15% of the reservoir's oil to be recovered. The pitch drop experiment at the University of Queensland. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... In economics, business, and accounting, a cost is a price paid, or otherwise associated with, a commercial event or economic transaction. ... Cogeneration (also combined heat and power or CHP) is the use of a power station to simultaneously generate both heat and electricity. ... This machine has a single-stage radial compressor and turbine, a recuperator, and foil bearings. ... Lightning strikes during a night-time thunderstorm. ... The eight-county San Joaquin Valley is the part of the Central Valley of California that lies south of the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta in Stockton. ... The word burn has many meanings: Look up burn in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


Drilling

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Drilling mud, also called drilling fluid, is a lubricant used while drilling oil and natural gas wells. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Roughneck -- slang term for an unskilled or slightly skilled labourer in a number of industries. ... Directional drilling (sometimes known as slant drilling outside the oil industry) is the science of drilling non-vertical wells. ...

History

The first oil wells were drilled in China in the 4th century or earlier. They had depths of up to 243 meters and were drilled using bits attached to bamboo poles. The oil was burned to evaporate brine and produce salt. By the 10th century, extensive bamboo pipelines connected oil wells with salt springs. Ancient Persian tablets indicate the medicinal and lighting uses of petroleum in the upper levels of their society. An oil well is a term for any perforation through the Earths surface designed to find and release both petroleum oil and gas hydrocarbons. ... Drill bits are the cutters of drill tools. ... Diversity Around 91 genera and 1,000 species Subtribes Arthrostylidiinae Arundinariinae Bambusinae Chusqueinae Guaduinae Melocanninae Nastinae Racemobambodinae Shibataeinae See the full Taxonomy of the Bambuseae. ... Brine is water saturated or nearly saturated with salt. ... Sodium chloride, also known as common salt, table salt, or halite, is a chemical compound with the formula NaCl. ... Diversity Around 91 genera and 1,000 species Subtribes Arthrostylidiinae Arundinariinae Bambusinae Chusqueinae Guaduinae Melocanninae Nastinae Racemobambodinae Shibataeinae See the full Taxonomy of the Bambuseae. ... The Persian Empire was a series of historical empires that ruled over the Iranian plateau. ...


In the 8th century, the streets of the newly constructed Baghdad were paved with tar, derived from easily accessible petroleum from natural fields in the region. In the 9th century, oil fields were exploited in Baku, Azerbaijan, to produce naphtha. These fields were described by the geographer Masudi in the 10th century, and by Marco Polo in the 13th century, who described the output of those wells as hundreds of shiploads. (See also: Timeline of Islamic science and technology.) A street in Ynysybwl, Wales, typical of a small town A street is a public parcel of land adjoining buildings in an urban context, on which people may freely assemble, interact, and move about. ... Location of Baghdad within Iraq Baghdad (Arabic: ‎ translit: , Kurdish: Bexda, from Persian Baagh-daad or Bag-Da-Du meaning “Garden of God” [1]) is the capital of Iraq and of Baghdad Governorate. ... Tar is a viscous black liquid derived from the destructive distillation of organic matter. ... Satellite view of Baku The Baku harbour on the south of Absheron peninsula The Maiden Tower in old town Baku Baku (Azerbaijani: Bakı), sometimes known as Baky or Baki, is the capital of Azerbaijan. ... Naphtha is a group of various volatile flammable liquid hydrocarbon mixtures used primarily as feedstocks in refineries for the reforming process and in the petrochemical industry for the production of olefins in steam crackers. ... A geographer is a crazy psycho whose area of study is geocrap, the pseudoscientific study of Earths physical environment and human habitat and the study of boring students to death. ... Abd al-Hasan Ali ibn al-Husayn Masudi (d. ... Marco Polo (September 15, 1254, Venice; or Curzola, Venetian Dalmatia — January 8, 1324, Venice) was a Venetian trader and explorer who, together with his father Niccolò and his uncle Maffeo, was one of the first Westerners to travel the Silk Road to China (which he called Cathay) and visited the... // General remarks All year dates are given in the Gregorian calendar except where noted. ...


The modern history of petroleum began in 1846, with the discovery of the process of refining kerosene from coal by Atlantic Canada's Abraham Pineo Gesner. Poland's Ignacy Łukasiewicz discovered a means of refining kerosene from the more readily available "rock oil" ("petr-oleum") in 1852 and the first rock oil mine was built in Bóbrka, near Krosno in southern Poland in the following year. These discoveries rapidly spread around the world, and Meerzoeff built the first Russian refinery in the mature oil fields at Baku in 1861. At that time Baku produced about 90% of the world's oil. The battle of Stalingrad was fought over Baku (now the capital of the Azerbaijan Republic). To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Russian kerosene lamp Kerosene or paraffin oil (British English, not to be confused with the waxy solid also called paraffin) is a colorless flammable hydrocarbon liquid. ... Coal (previously referred to as pitcoal or seacoal) is a fossil fuel extracted from the ground by underground mining or open-pit mining (surface mining). ... The four Canadian Atlantic provinces. ... Abraham Pineo Gesner, born May 2, 1797 in Cornwallis Township, Nova Scotia, Canada – died April 29, 1864 in Halifax, Nova Scotia, was a physician and geologist who became one of the primary founders of the petroleum industry . ... Jan Józef Ignacy Łukasiewicz Jan Józef Ignacy Łukasiewicz (March 8, 1822 - January 7, 1882) was a Polish pharmacist and inventor of the first method of distilling kerosene from seep oil. ... Coat of Arms Krosno (in full The Royal Free City of Krosno, Polish: Królewskie Wolne Miasto Krosno) is a town in south-eastern Poland with 48. ... Satellite view of Baku The Baku harbour on the south of Absheron peninsula The Maiden Tower in old town Baku Baku (Azerbaijani: Bakı), sometimes known as Baky or Baki, is the capital of Azerbaijan. ...

Oil field in California, 1938. The first modern oil well was drilled in 1848 by Russian engineer F.N. Semyonov, on the Aspheron Peninsula north-east of Baku.
Oil field in California, 1938. The first modern oil well was drilled in 1848 by Russian engineer F.N. Semyonov, on the Aspheron Peninsula north-east of Baku.

The first commercial oil well drilled in North America was in Oil Springs, Ontario, Canada in 1858, dug by James Miller Williams. The American petroleum industry began with Edwin Drake's discovery of oil in 1859, near Titusville, Pennsylvania. The industry grew slowly in the 1800s, driven by the demand for kerosene and oil lamps. It became a major national concern in the early part of the 20th century; the introduction of the internal combustion engine provided a demand that has largely sustained the industry to this day. Early "local" finds like those in Pennsylvania and Ontario were quickly exhausted, leading to "oil booms" in Texas, Oklahoma, and California. Oilfields, California, 1938 Photographer: Dorothea Lange Public domain image from Library of Congress This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Official language(s) English Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Area  Ranked 3rd  - Total 158,302 sq mi (410,000 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 770 miles (1,240 km)  - % water 4. ... Satellite view of Baku The Baku harbour on the south of Absheron peninsula The Maiden Tower in old town Baku Baku (Azerbaijani: Bakı), sometimes known as Baky or Baki, is the capital of Azerbaijan. ... Motto: Ut Incepit Fidelis Sic Permanet (Latin: Loyal she began, loyal she remains) Official languages English Flower White trillium Capital Toronto Largest city Toronto Lieutenant-Governor James K. Bartleman Premier Dalton McGuinty (Liberal) Parliamentary representation  - House seat  - Senate seats 106 24 Area Total  - Land  - Water    (% of total)  Ranked 4th 1... Edwin L. Drake Edwin Laurentine Colonel Drake (1819-1880), an American oil driller, is popularly credited with being the first to drill for oil. ... Titusville is a city located in Crawford County, Pennsylvania. ... Russian kerosene lamp Kerosene or paraffin oil (British English, not to be confused with the waxy solid also called paraffin) is a colorless flammable hydrocarbon liquid. ... Antique bronze oil lamp with Christian symbol (replica) An oil lamp is a device used for lighting or for preserving a flame that is fueled by animal, vegetable or mineral oil. ... One of the most influential doctrines in history is that all humans are divided into groups called nations. ... A colorized automobile engine The internal combustion engine is a heat engine in which the burning of a fuel occurs in a confined space called a combustion chamber. ... Official language(s) None Capital Harrisburg Largest city Philadelphia Area  Ranked 33rd  - Total 46,055 sq mi (119,283 km²)  - Width 160 miles (255 km)  - Length 280 miles (455 km)  - % water 2. ... Motto: Ut Incepit Fidelis Sic Permanet (Latin: Loyal she began, loyal she remains) Official languages English Flower White trillium Capital Toronto Largest city Toronto Lieutenant-Governor James K. Bartleman Premier Dalton McGuinty (Liberal) Parliamentary representation  - House seat  - Senate seats 106 24 Area Total  - Land  - Water    (% of total)  Ranked 4th 1... Official language(s) See: Languages of Texas Capital Austin Largest city Houston Area  Ranked 2nd  - Total 268,581 sq mi (695,622 km²)  - Width 660 miles (1,065 km)  - Length 790 miles (1,270 km)  - % water 2. ... Official language(s) None Capital Oklahoma City Largest city Oklahoma City Area  Ranked 20th  - Total 69,960 sq. ... Official language(s) English Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Area  Ranked 3rd  - Total 158,302 sq mi (410,000 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 770 miles (1,240 km)  - % water 4. ...


By 1910, significant oil fields had been discovered in Canada (specifically, in the province of Alberta), the Dutch East Indies (1885, in Sumatra), Persia (1908, in Masjed Soleiman), Peru, Venezuela, and Mexico, and were being developed at an industrial level. Motto: Fortis et liber (Latin: Strong and free) Official languages English Flower Wild rose Capital Edmonton Largest city Calgary Lieutenant-Governor Norman Kwong Premier Ralph Klein (PC) Parliamentary representation  - House seat  - Senate seats 28 6 Area Total  - Land  - Water    (% of total)  Ranked 6th 661,848 km² 642,317 km² 19... The Dutch East Indies, or Netherlands East Indies, (Dutch: Nederlands-Indië) was the name of the colonies set up by the Dutch East India Company, which came under administration of the Netherlands during the 19th century (see Indonesia). ... Sumatra (also spelled Sumatara and Sumatera) is the sixth largest island of the world (approximately 470,000 km²) and is the third largest island of Indonesia after Borneo (of which Kalimantan belongs to Indonesia) and New Guinea. ... The Persian Empire was a series of historical empires that ruled over the Iranian plateau. ... Masjed Soleyman (also Masjid Soleiman and Masjid-al-Salaman) (مسجد سلیمان in Persian) is a town in the southwestern province of Khuzestan, Iran. ...


Even until the mid-1950s, coal was still the world's foremost fuel, but oil quickly took over. Following the 1973 energy crisis and the 1979 energy crisis, there was significant media coverage of oil supply levels. This brought to light the concern that oil is a limited resource that will eventually run out, at least as an economically viable energy source. At the time, the most common and popular predictions were always quite dire, and when they did not come true, many dismissed all such discussion. The future of petroleum as a fuel remains somewhat controversial. USA Today news (2004) reports that there are 40 years of petroleum left in the ground. Some would argue that because the total amount of petroleum is finite, the dire predictions of the 1970s have merely been postponed. Others argue that technology will continue to allow for the production of cheap hydrocarbons and that the earth has vast sources of unconventional petroleum reserves in the form of tar sands, bitumen fields and oil shale that will allow for petroleum use to continue in the future, with both the Canadian tar sands and United States shale oil deposits representing potential reserves matching existing liquid petroleum deposits worldwide. The 1950s were the decade that spanned the years 1950 through 1959, although some sources say from 1951 through 1960. ... Coal (previously referred to as pitcoal or seacoal) is a fossil fuel extracted from the ground by underground mining or open-pit mining (surface mining). ... (Redirected from 1973 energy crisis) United States, drivers of vehicles with odd numbered license plates were allowed to purchase gasoline only on odd-numbered days of the month, while drivers with even-numbers were limited to even-numbered days. ... The 1979 (or second) oil crisis occurred in the wake of the Iranian Revolution. ... USA Today is a national American newspaper published by the Gannett Corporation. ... Tar sands, also referred to as oil sands or bituminous sands, are a combination of clay, sand, water, and bitumen. ... Oil shale is a general term applied to a group of fine black to dark brown shales rich enough in organic material (called kerogen) to yield petroleum upon distillation. ...


Today, about 90% of vehicular fuel needs are met by oil. Petroleum also makes up 40% of total energy consumption in the United States, but is responsible for only 2% of electricity generation. Petroleum's worth as a portable, dense energy source powering the vast majority of vehicles and as the base of many industrial chemicals makes it one of the world's most important commodities. Access to it was a major factor in several military conflicts, including World War II and the Persian Gulf War. About 80% of the world's readily accessible reserves are located in the Middle East, with 62.5% coming from the Arab 5: Saudi Arabia (12.5%), UAE, Iraq, Qatar and Kuwait. The USA has less than 3%. The word commodity is a term with distinct meanings in business and in Marxian political economy. ... Combatants Allies: United Kingdom, France/Free France, Soviet Union, United States, Canada, China, India, Australia, Poland, New Zealand, South Africa, and others Axis Powers: Germany, Italy, Japan, and others Casualties Military dead: 17 million Civilian dead: 33 million Total dead: 50 million Military dead: 8 million Civilian dead: 4 million... See also: 2003 invasion of Iraq and Gulf War (disambiguation) C Company, 1st Battalion, The Staffordshire Regiment, 1st UK Armoured Division The Persian Gulf War was a conflict between Iraq and a coalition force of 34 nations led by the United States. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... UAE redirects here; for other uses of that term, see UAE (disambiguation) The United Arab Emirates is an oil-rich country situated in the south-east of the Arabian Peninsula in Southwest Asia, comprising seven emirates: Abu Dhabi, Ajman, Dubai, Fujairah, Ras al-Khaimah, Sharjah and Umm al-Quwain. ...


Alternative means of producing oil

As oil prices continue to escalate, other alternatives to producing oil have been gaining importance. The best known such methods involve extracting oil from sources such as oil shale or tar sands. These resources are known to exist in large quantities; extracting the oil at low cost and without too deleterious an impact on the environment remains a challenge. Crude oil prices, 2004-2006 (not adjusted for inflation) U.S. Retail Gasoline prices, 2004-2006 (not adjusted for inflation) Oil prices from 1861-2006 in dollars of the day and 2006 dollars. ... Oil shale is a general term applied to a group of fine black to dark brown shales rich enough in organic material (called kerogen) to yield petroleum upon distillation. ... Tar sands, also referred to as oil sands or bituminous sands, are a combination of clay, sand, water, and bitumen. ...


It is also possible to transform natural gas or coal into oil (or, more precisely, the various hydrocarbons found in oil). Many stoves use natural gas. ... Coal (previously referred to as pitcoal or seacoal) is a fossil fuel extracted from the ground by underground mining or open-pit mining (surface mining). ...


The best-known such method is the Fischer-Tropsch process, It was a concept pioneered in Nazi Germany when imports of petroleum were restricted due to war and Germany found a method to extract oil from coal. It was known as Ersatz ("substitute" in German), and accounted for nearly half the total oil used in WWII by Germany. However, the process was used only as a last resort as naturally occurring oil was much cheaper. As crude oil prices increase, the cost of coal to oil conversion becomes comparatively cheaper. The Fischer-Tropsch process is a catalyzed chemical reaction in which carbon monoxide and hydrogen are converted into liquid hydrocarbons of various forms. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... Combatants Allies: United Kingdom, France/Free France, Soviet Union, United States, Canada, China, India, Australia, Poland, New Zealand, South Africa, and others Axis Powers: Germany, Italy, Japan, and others Casualties Military dead: 17 million Civilian dead: 33 million Total dead: 50 million Military dead: 8 million Civilian dead: 4 million...


The method involves converting high ash coal into synthetic oil in a multistage process. Ideally, a ton of coal produces nearly 200 liters (1.25 bbl, 52 US gallons) of crude, with by-products ranging from tar to rare chemicals. A synthetic oil is an oil manufactured for enhanced lubrication performance using the Fischer-Tropsch process which converts carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, and methane into liquid hydrocarbons of various forms. ... The word ton or tonne is derived from the Old English tunne, and ultimately from the Old French tonne, and referred originally to a large cask with a capacity of 252 wine gallons, which holds approximately 2100 pounds of water. ... The liter (spelled liter in American English and litre in Commonwealth English) is a unit of volume. ... A by-product is a secondary or incidental product deriving from a manufacturing process or chemical reaction, and is not the primary product or service being produced. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


Currently, two companies have commercialised their Fischer-Tropsch technology. Shell in Bintulu, Malaysia, uses natural gas as a feedstock, and produces primarily low-sulfur diesel fuels. Sasol in South Africa uses coal as a feedstock, and produces a variety of synthetic petroleum products. The process is today used in South Africa to produce most of the country's diesel fuel from coal by the company Sasol. The process was used in South Africa to meet its energy needs during its isolation under Apartheid. This process has received renewed attention in the quest to produce low sulfur diesel fuel in order to minimize the environmental impact from the use of diesel engines. Bintulu is a coastal town, and the capital of the Bintulu District (7,220. ... Many stoves use natural gas. ... A feedstock is a petrochemical used as a raw material to be fed into a machine or processing plant. ... General Name, Symbol, Number sulfur, S, 16 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 16, 3, p Appearance lemon yellow Atomic mass 32. ... Diesel or Diesel fuel is a specific fractional distillate of fuel oil (mostly petroleum) that is used as fuel in a diesel engine invented by German engineer Rudolf Diesel. ... Diesel or Diesel fuel is a specific fractional distillate of fuel oil (mostly petroleum) that is used as fuel in a diesel engine invented by German engineer Rudolf Diesel. ... Sasol (originally South African Steenkolen en Olie) is a South African company involved in mining, energy, chemicals and synfuels. ... A segregated beach in South Africa, 1982. ... General Name, Symbol, Number sulfur, S, 16 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 16, 3, p Appearance lemon yellow Atomic mass 32. ... Diesel or Diesel fuel is a specific fractional distillate of fuel oil (mostly petroleum) that is used as fuel in a diesel engine invented by German engineer Rudolf Diesel. ... In politics and other non-technical contexts, nature or (the) (natural) environment often refers to that part of the natural world that people deem important or valuable, for any reason — economic, aesthetic, philosophical, hedonistic, sentimental, etc. ... An engine is something that produces some effect from a given input. ...


An alternative method is the Karrick process, which converts coal into crude oil, pioneered in the 1930s in the United States. Karrick Process, from U.S. Patent #1,958,918. ...


More recently explored is thermal depolymerization (TDP). In theory, TDP can convert any organic waste into petroleum. Thermal depolymerization (TDP) is a process for the reduction of complex organic materials (usually waste products of various sorts, often known as biomass) into light crude oil. ...


Production, consumption and alternatives

The term alternative propulsion or "alternate methods of propulsion" includes both

The nowdays cars can be classified between the next main groups: This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... A colorized automobile engine The internal combustion engine is a heat engine in which the burning of a fuel occurs in a confined space called a combustion chamber. ... General Name, Symbol, Number hydrogen, H, 1 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 1, 1, s Appearance colorless Atomic mass 1. ... Lightning strikes during a night-time thunderstorm. ... General Motors EV1 // An electric vehicle, or EV, is a vehicle with one or more electric motors for vehicle propulsion. ... 2004 Toyota Prius, a hybrid gas-electric vehicle Honda Insight, the first hybrid gas-electric vehicle sold in North America 2006 Honda Civic Hybrid A hybrid vehicle is a vehicle using an on-board Rechargeable energy storage system (RESS) and a fueled propulsion power source for vehicle propulsion. ... The air car is a car being developed and manufactured by Moteur Développement International (MDI), founded by the French inventor Guy Nègre. ... A fuel cell is an electrochemical device similar to a battery, but differing from the latter in that it is designed for continuous replenishment of the reactants consumed; i. ...

  • Pampetro cars, this is, only uses petroleum.
  • Hybrid vehicle, that uses petroleum and other source, generally, electricity.
  • Petrofree car, that do not use petroleum, like 100 % electric cars, hydrogen vehicles...

See also: renewable energy, greenhouse gas, climate change. 2004 Toyota Prius, a hybrid gas-electric vehicle Honda Insight, the first hybrid gas-electric vehicle sold in North America 2006 Honda Civic Hybrid A hybrid vehicle is a vehicle using an on-board Rechargeable energy storage system (RESS) and a fueled propulsion power source for vehicle propulsion. ... A fuel cell powered vehicle from GM A hydrogen vehicle is an automobile which uses hydrogen as its primary source of power for locomotion. ... Renewable energy (sources) or RES capture their energy from existing flows of energy, from on-going natural processes, such as sunshine, wind, flowing water (hydropower), biological processes, and geothermal heat flows. ... Top: Increasing atmospheric CO2 levels as measured in the atmosphere and ice cores. ... Variations in CO2, temperature and dust from the Vostok ice core over the last 400 000 years Climate change refers to the variation in the Earths global climate or regional climates over time. ...

2004 U.S. government predictions for oil production other than in OPEC and the former Soviet Union
2004 U.S. government predictions for oil production other than in OPEC and the former Soviet Union
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World energy consumption, 1970-2025. Source: International Energy Outlook 2004.
World energy consumption, 1980-2030. Source: International Energy Outlook 2006.
World energy consumption, 1980-2030. Source: International Energy Outlook 2006.


Image File history File links Download high resolution version (861x467, 214 KB)Hubbert peak graph from public domain document Strategic Significance of America s Oil Shale Resource Volume I Assessment of Strategic Issues at http://www. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (861x467, 214 KB)Hubbert peak graph from public domain document Strategic Significance of America s Oil Shale Resource Volume I Assessment of Strategic Issues at http://www. ... Logo The Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) is made up of Algeria, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Libya, Nigeria, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates and Venezuela; since 1965, its international headquarters have been in Vienna, Austria. ... (Source: Energy Information Administration: International Energy Outlook 2004, http://www. ... (Source: Energy Information Administration: International Energy Outlook 2004, http://www. ... Image File history File links EIA_IEO2006. ... Image File history File links EIA_IEO2006. ...


Black Gold

Black gold, in most of the world, refers to crude oil or petroleum. The name is derived from the black color of crude oil combined with its status as a highly valuable resource, serving in the industrial age, in many ways, the same role that gold did in the pre-industrial era. Pumpjack pumping an oil well near Sarnia, Ontario Petroleum (from Greek petra – rock and elaion – oil or Latin oleum – oil ) or crude oil is a thick, dark brown or greenish liquid. ... BLACK is a first-person shooter for PlayStation 2 and Xbox, developed by Criterion Software and published by Electronic Arts. ... Industrialisation (or industrialization) or an industrial revolution (in general, with lowercase letters) is a process of social and economic change whereby a human society is transformed from a pre-industrial to an industrial state . ... General Name, Symbol, Number gold, Au, 79 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 11, 6, d Appearance metallic yellow Atomic mass 196. ...


In the Appalachian Mountains of the United States, a major coal-producing region, the term refers to coal. In Taiwan, it means iron, petroleum, and coal. A rainy day in the Great Smoky Mountains, Western North Carolina The Appalachian Mountains (French: les Appalaches) are a vast system of North American mountains, partly in Canada, but mostly in the United States, forming a zone, from 100 to 300 miles wide, running from Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada, 1... General Name, Symbol, Number iron, Fe, 26 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 8, 4, d Appearance lustrous metallic with a grayish tinge Atomic mass 55. ... Coal (previously referred to as pitcoal or seacoal) is a fossil fuel extracted from the ground by underground mining or open-pit mining (surface mining). ...


The term was popularized by the television show The Beverly Hillbillies where it was mentioned in the theme song, along with another synonym for crude oil, "Texas Tea". The Beverly Hillbillies was a TV sitcom about a hillbilly family living in Southern California in the 1960s. ...


Environmental effects

Global fossil carbon emissions, an indicator of consumption, for 1800-2000. Total is black. Oil is in blue.
Global fossil carbon emissions, an indicator of consumption, for 1800-2000. Total is black. Oil is in blue.

The presence of oil has significant social and environmental impacts, from accidents and routine activities such as seismic exploration, drilling, and generation of polluting wastes. Oil extraction is costly and sometimes environmentally damaging, although Dr. John Hunt of the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution pointed out in a 1981 paper that over 70% of the reserves in the world are associated with visible macroseepages, and many oil fields are found due to natural leaks. Offshore exploration and extraction of oil disturbs the surrounding marine environment. Extraction may involve dredging, which stirs up the seabed, killing the sea plants that marine creatures need to survive. Crude oil and refined fuel spills from tanker ship accidents have damaged fragile ecosystems in Alaska, the Galapagos Islands, Spain, and many other places. Description Global annual fossil fuel carbon dioxide emissions, in million metric tons of carbon, as reported by the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center [1]. Original data: Marland, G., T.A. Boden, and R. J. Andres. ... Description Global annual fossil fuel carbon dioxide emissions, in million metric tons of carbon, as reported by the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center [1]. Original data: Marland, G., T.A. Boden, and R. J. Andres. ... Human relationships within an ethnically diverse society. ... Devils Punchbowl Waterfall, New Zealand. ... Seismology (from the Greek seismos = earthquake and logos = word) is the scientific study of earthquakes and the movement of waves through the Earth. ... Water pollution Pollution is the release of chemical, physical, biological or radioactive contaminants to the environment. ... John M. Hunt (1918 – 2005) was a geologist, chemist, and oceanographer. ... The Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI) is devoted to scientific research and science- and engineering-education leading to MS and PhD degrees in oceanography and related fields. ... Dredging is the process by which either new waterways are created or existing waterways are deepened. ... The seabed is the bottom of the ocean. ... Look up kill in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A tanker is a ship designed to transport liquids in bulk. ... In ecology, an ecosystem is a combination of all the living and non-living elements of an area. ... Official language(s) English Capital Juneau Largest city Anchorage Area  Ranked 1st  - Total 663,267 sq mi (1,717,854 km²)  - Width 808 miles (1,300 km)  - Length 1,479 miles (2,380 km)  - % water 13. ... NASA Satellite photo of the Galápagos archipelago. ...


Burning oil releases carbon dioxide into the atmosphere, which contributes to global warming. Per energy unit, oil produces less CO2 than coal, but more than natural gas. However, oil's unique role as a transportation fuel makes reducing its CO2 emissions a particularly thorny problem; amelioration strategies such as carbon sequestering are generally geared for large power plants, not individual vehicles. Global mean surface temperatures 1856 to 2005; this map shows mean surface temperature anomalies during the period 1995 to 2004 with respect to the average temperatures from 1940 to 1980 Global warming refers to the increases in the average temperature of the Earths atmosphere and oceans in recent decades. ... Carbon dioxide is an atmospheric gas comprised of one carbon and two oxygen atoms. ... This page is a candidate to be copied to Wiktionary. ... A power station (also power plant) is a facility for the generation of electric power. ...


Renewable energy alternatives do exist, although the degree to which they can replace petroleum and the possible environmental damage they may cause are uncertain and controversial. Sun, wind, geothermal, and other renewable electricity sources cannot directly replace high energy density liquid petroleum for transportation use; instead automobiles and other equipment must be altered to allow using electricity (in batteries) or hydrogen (via fuel cells or internal combustion) which can be produced from renewable sources. Other options include using biomass-origin liquid fuels (ethanol, biodiesel). Any combination of solutions to replace petroleum as a liquid transportation fuel will be a very large undertaking. Renewable energy (sources) or RES includes all sources of energy that are captured from on-going natural processes, such as solar power, wind power, water flow in streams (hydro power), biomass, biodiesel and geothermal heat flows. ... The Sun is the star at the center of our solar system. ... Wind is the roughly horizontal movement of air (as opposed to an air current) caused by uneven heating of the Earths surface. ... Geothermal power is electricity generated by utilizing naturally occurring geological heat sources. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... General Name, Symbol, Number hydrogen, H, 1 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 1, 1, s Appearance colorless Atomic mass 1. ... A fuel cell is an electrochemical device similar to a battery, but differing from the latter in that it is designed for continuous replenishment of the reactants consumed; i. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Ethanol, also known as ethyl alcohol or grain alcohol, is a flammable, colorless chemical compound, one of the alcohols that is most often found in alcoholic beverages. ... Biodiesel sample Biodiesel refers to a diesel-equivalent, processed fuel derived from biological sources. ...


(See also Hydrogen economy.) A hydrogen economy is a hypothetical future economy in which the primary form of stored energy for mobile applications and load balancing is hydrogen (H2). ...


Future of oil

Main article: Hubbert peak theory

The Hubbert peak theory, also known as peak oil, is a theory concerning the long-term rate of production of conventional oil and other fossil fuels. It assumes that oil reserves are not replenishable (i.e. that abiogenic replenishment, if it exists at all, is negligible), and predicts that future world oil production must inevitably reach a peak and then decline as these reserves are exhausted. Controversy surrounds the theory, as predictions for when the global peak will actually take place are highly dependent on the past production and discovery data used in the calculation. The Hubbert curve, devised by M. King Hubbert, is a model of future oil availability. ... Marion King Hubbert (October 5, 1903 – October 11, 1989) was a geophysicist who worked at the Shell research lab in Houston, Texas. ... The Hubbert peak theory, also known as peak oil, is an influential theory concerning the long-term rate of conventional oil production and depletion. ...


Proponents of peak oil theory also refer as an example of their theory, that when any given oil well produces oil in similar volumes to the amount of water used to obtain the oil, it tends to produce less oil afterwards, leading to the relatively quick exhaustion and/or commercial unviablility of the well in question.


The issue can be considered from the point of view of individual regions or of the world as a whole. Originally M. King Hubbert noticed that the discoveries in the United States had peaked in the early 1930s, and concluded that production would then peak in the early 1970s. His prediction turned out to be correct, and after the US peaked in 1971 - and thus lost its excess production capacity - OPEC was finally able to manipulate oil prices, which led to the oil crisis in 1973. Since then, most other countries have also peaked: Scotland's North Sea, for example in the late 1990s. China has confirmed that two of its largest producing regions are in decline, and Mexico's national oil company, Pemex, has announced that Cantarell Field, one of the world's largest offshore fields, is expected to peak in 2006, and then decline 14% per annum. Marion King Hubbert (October 5, 1903 – October 11, 1989) was a geophysicist who worked at the Shell research lab in Houston, Texas. ... Logo The Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) is made up of Algeria, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Libya, Nigeria, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates and Venezuela; since 1965, its international headquarters have been in Vienna, Austria. ... North Sea oil refers to oil and natural gas (hydrocarbons) produced from oil reservoirs beneath the North Sea. ... A Pemex gas station in Puerto Vallarta Petróleos Mexicanos (PEMEX) is Mexicos state-owned, nationalized petroleum company. ... Cantarell Field or Cantarell Complex is the largest oil field in Mexico, located 80 kilometers offshore in the Bay of Campeche. ...


For various reasons (perhaps most importantly the lack of transparency in accounting of global oil reserves), it is difficult to predict the oil peak in any given region. Based on available production data, proponents have previously (and incorrectly) predicted the peak for the world to be in years 1989, 1995, or 1995-2000. However these predictions date from before the recession of the early 1980s, and the consequent reduction in global consumption, the effect of which was to delay the date of any peak by several years. A new prediction by Goldman Sachs picks 2007 for oil and some time later for natural gas. Just as the 1971 U.S. peak in oil production was only clearly recognized after the fact, a peak in world production will be difficult to discern until production clearly drops off. Accountancy (British English) or accounting (American English) is the process of maintaining, auditing, and processing financial information for business purposes. ... The Goldman Sachs Group, Inc. ...


One signal is that 2005 saw a dramatic fall in announced new oil projects coming to production from 2008 onwards. Since it takes on average four to six years for a new project to start producing oil, in order to avoid the peak, these new projects would have to not only make up for the depletion of current fields, but increase total production annually to meet increasing demand. 2005 also saw substantial increases in oil prices due to temporary circumstances, which then failed to be controlled by increasing production. The inability to increase production in the short term, indicating a general lack of spare capacity, and the corresponding uncontrolled price fluctuations, can be interpreted as a sign that peak oil has occurred or is presently in the process of occurring.


Classification

The oil industry classifies "crude" by the location of its origin (e.g., "West Texas Intermediate, WTI" or "Brent") and often by its relative weight (API gravity) or viscosity ("light", "intermediate" or "heavy"); refiners may also refer to it as "sweet", which means it contains relatively little sulfur, or as "sour", which means it contains substantial amounts of sulfur and requires more refining in order to meet current product specifications. The Oil industry brings to market what is currently considered the lifeblood of nearly all other industry, if not industrialized civilization itself. ... API Gravity is a specific gravity scale developed by the American Petroleum Institute (API) for measuring the relative density of various petroleum liquids. ... The pitch drop experiment at the University of Queensland. ... Light crude oil as opposed to heavy crude oil contains a low content of wax. ... Heavy crude oil is the type of crude oil which is characterised by the presence of high amount of wax in it, as compared to light crude oil which contains a lesser amount of wax. ... General Name, Symbol, Number sulfur, S, 16 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 16, 3, p Appearance lemon yellow Atomic mass 32. ... General Name, Symbol, Number sulfur, S, 16 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 16, 3, p Appearance lemon yellow Atomic mass 32. ...


The world reference barrels are: The barrel is the name of several units of measurement. ...

OPEC attempts to keep the price of the Opec Basket between upper and lower limits, by increasing and decreasing production. This makes the measure important for market analysts. The OPEC Basket, including a mix of light and heavy crudes, is heavier than both Brent and WTI. Brent Crude is one of the major classifications of oil consisting of Brent Crude, Brent Sweet Light Crude, Oseberg and Forties. ... The Brent oilfield is one of the most productive parts of Scotlands offshore oil assets, although now in steady decline. ... == Headline text == Ninian refers to a variety of different people and locations: Saint Ninian (c. ... The East Shetland Basin is a major oil-producing area of the North Sea between Scotland and Norway. ... The North Sea is a sea of the Atlantic Ocean, located between the coasts of Norway and Denmark in the east, the coast of the British Isles in the west, and the German, Dutch, Belgian and French coasts in the south. ... Sullom Voe is an inlet between North Mainland and Northmavine on Shetland in Scotland, and an oil terminal sited on its shore. ... See Shetland (disambiguation) for other meanings. ... A benchmark is a point of reference for a measurement. ... West Texas Intermediate (WTI) is a type of crude oil used as a benchmark in oil pricing and the underlying commodity of New York Mercantile Exchanges oil futures. ... World map showing the location of Asia. ... For other meanings of Pacific, see Pacific (disambiguation). ... Logo The Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) is made up of Algeria, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Libya, Nigeria, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates and Venezuela; since 1965, its international headquarters have been in Vienna, Austria. ... Bonny Light oil is a grade of crude oil produced in the Bonny region of Nigeria. ... Flag Coordinates , Government Emirate Dubai Sheikh Mohammed bin Rashid Al Maktoum Geographical characteristics Area     City 4,114 km² Population     City (2004) 1,070,779     Density   293. ... Isthmus-34 Light is a crude oil produced in Mexico mainly in the Campeche zone, in the Gulf of Mexico along with the extraction centers on Chiapas, Tabasco and Veracruz. ...


See also [1]


In June 15, 2005 the OPEC basket was changed to reflect the characteristics of the oil produced by OPEC members. The new OPEC Reference Basket (ORB) is made up of the following: Saharan Blend (Algeria), Minas (Indonesia), Iran Heavy (Islamic Republic of Iran), Basra Light (Iraq), Kuwait Export (Kuwait), Es Sider (Libya), Bonny Light (Nigeria), Qatar Marine (Qatar), Arab Light (Saudi Arabia), Murban (UAE) and BCF 17 (Venezuela).


See also: http://www.opec.org/home/basket.aspx


Pricing

Overnight gas price hike shown at a Chicago area BP-Amoco station (background). The Shell station (foreground) has not yet posted the 12 cent price hike.
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Overnight gas price hike shown at a Chicago area BP-Amoco station (background). The Shell station (foreground) has not yet posted the 12 cent price hike.
Short-Term Oil Prices, 2004-2006 (not adjusted for inflation).
Short-Term Oil Prices, 2004-2006 (not adjusted for inflation).
Medium-Term Oil Prices, 1994-2006 (not adjusted for inflation).
Medium-Term Oil Prices, 1994-2006 (not adjusted for inflation).
Long-Term Oil Prices, 1861-2006 (adjusted for inflation).
Long-Term Oil Prices, 1861-2006 (adjusted for inflation).

References to the oil prices are usually either references to the spot price of either WTI/Light Crude as traded on New York Mercantile Exchange (NYMEX) for delivery in Cushing, Oklahoma; or the price of Brent as traded on the International Commodities Exchange (ICE, which the International Petroleum Exchange has been incorporated into) for delivery at Sullom Voe. The price of a barrel of oil is highly dependent on both its grade (which is determined by factors such as its specific gravity or API and its sulphur content) and location. The vast majority of oil will not be traded on an exchange but on an over-the-counter basis, typically with reference to a marker crude oil grade that is typically quoted via pricing agencies such as Argus Media Ltd and Platts. For example in Europe a particular grade of oil, say Fulmar, might be sold at a price of "Brent plus US$0.25/barrel" or as an intra-company transaction. IPE claim that 65% of traded oil is priced off their Brent benchmarks. Other important benchmarks include Dubai, Tapis, and the OPEC basket. The Energy Information Administration (EIA) uses the Imported Refiner Acquisition Cost, the weighted average cost of all oil imported into the US as their "world oil price". Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1400x800, 467 KB)Image of the heightened price of a gallon of gas in the chicagoland area with an overnight hike (background station) with the foreground gas station not yet caught up. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1400x800, 467 KB)Image of the heightened price of a gallon of gas in the chicagoland area with an overnight hike (background station) with the foreground gas station not yet caught up. ... Download high resolution version (1024x768, 18 KB)Daily oil prices of NYMEX Light Sweet Crude, prepared from data at http://octane. ... Download high resolution version (1024x768, 18 KB)Daily oil prices of NYMEX Light Sweet Crude, prepared from data at http://octane. ... Download high resolution version (1024x768, 19 KB)Ten-day moving average of prices of NYMEX Light Sweet Crude, taken from data at the New Mexico Institue of Mining and Technology. ... Download high resolution version (1024x768, 19 KB)Ten-day moving average of prices of NYMEX Light Sweet Crude, taken from data at the New Mexico Institue of Mining and Technology. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1520x638, 252 KB) Summary Crude oil price history from 1861-2006. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1520x638, 252 KB) Summary Crude oil price history from 1861-2006. ... Oil price in 2003-2005 The price of light, sweet crude oil on NYMEX has been above $40/barrel since late July 2004. ... The spot price of a commodity or a security or a currency is the price that is quoted for settlement (payment and delivery) of the transaction immediately. ... The New York Mercantile Exchange**** NOTE the AMENX is FAKE, created by york-commodities to scam your money, if you send money you will never see it again**** You have been warned. ... Cushing is a city located in Payne County, Oklahoma. ... The International Petroleum Exchange, based in London (England), is one of the worlds largest energy futures and options exchanges. ... Sullom Voe is an inlet between North Mainland and Northmavine on Shetland in Scotland, and an oil terminal sited on its shore. ... API Gravity is a specific gravity scale developed by the American Petroleum Institute (API) for measuring the relative density of various petroleum liquids. ... Over-the-counter (OTC) trading is to trade financial instruments such as stocks, bonds, or derivatives directly between two parties. ... Argus Media Ltd (formerly known as Petroleum Argus Ltd) is a leading independent provider of price information, market data and business intelligence for the global petroleum, natural gas, electricity and coal industries. ... Platts is a major provider of energy information around the world that has been in business for more than a century and is now a divsion of McGraw-Hill. ... The Energy Information Administration (EIA), as part of the U.S. Department of Energy, collects and disseminates data on energy reserves, production, consumption, distribution, prices, technology, and related international, economic, and financial matters. ...


It is often claimed that OPEC sets the oil price and the true cost of a barrel of oil is around $2, which is equivalent to the cost of extraction of a barrel in the Middle East. These estimates of costs ignore the cost of finding and developing oil reserves. Furthermore the important cost as far as price is concerned, is not the price of the cheapest barrel but the cost of producing the marginal barrel. By limiting production OPEC has caused more expensive areas of production such as the North Sea to be developed before the Middle East has been exhausted. OPEC's power is also often overstated. Investing in spare capacity is expensive and the low oil price environment in the late 90s led to cutbacks in investment. This has meant during the oil price rally seen between 2003-2005, OPEC's spare capacity has not been sufficient to stabilise prices.


Oil demand is highly dependent on global macroeconomic conditions, so this is also an important determinant of price. Some economists claim that high oil prices have a large negative impact on the global growth. This means that the relationship between the oil price and global growth is not particularly stable although a high oil price is often thought of as being a late cycle phenomenon.


A recent high point was reached in January 1999, after increased oil production from Iraq coincided with the Asian financial crisis, which reduced demand. The prices then rapidly increased, more than doubling by September 2000, then fell until the end of 2001 before steadily increasing, reaching US $40 to US $50 per barrel by September 2004. [2] In October 2004, light crude futures contracts on the NYMEX for November delivery exceeded US $53 per barrel and for December delivery exceeded US $55 per barrel. Crude oil prices surged to a record high above $60 a barrel in June 2005, sustaining a rally built on strong demand for gasoline and diesel and on concerns about refiners' ability to keep up. This trend continued into early August 2005, as NYMEX crude oil futures contracts surged past the $65 mark as consumers kept up the demand for gasoline despite its high price. (see Oil price increases of 2004-2006).) The Asian financial crisis was a financial crisis that started in July 1997 in Thailand and affected currencies, stock markets, and other asset prices in several Asian countries, many considered East Asian Tigers. ... In finance, a futures contract is a standardized contract, traded on a futures exchange, to buy or sell a certain underlying instrument at a certain date in the future, at a pre-set price. ... Crude oil prices, 2004-2006 (not adjusted for inflation) U.S. Retail Gasoline prices, 2004-2006 (not adjusted for inflation) Oil prices from 1861-2006 in dollars of the day and 2006 dollars. ...


Individuals can now trade crude oil through online trading sites margin account or their banks through structured products indexed on the Commodities markets. A margin account is a brokerage account that can hold both deposited cash and securities, and also allows for borrowing funds from the broker dealer to purchase additional securities with. ... Structured products are synthetic investment instruments specially created to meet the needs that cannot be met from the cash financial instruments available in the markets. ...


See also History and Analysis of Crude Oil Prices and How derivatives drive oil prices up, despite ample supply in physical oil market


Top petroleum-producing countries

Source: Energy Statistics from the U.S. Government

Oil producing countries
Oil producing countries
Oil exports by country
Oil exports by country
Oil imports by country
Oil imports by country

In order of amount produced in 2004 (MMbbl/d = millions of barrels per day): Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1357x720, 56 KB) Summary Map of oil producing countries as listed on wikipedia:List of oil-producing states , also shows US states and canadian provinces producing oil & OPEC members Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: Petroleum List... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1357x720, 56 KB) Summary Map of oil producing countries as listed on wikipedia:List of oil-producing states , also shows US states and canadian provinces producing oil & OPEC members Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: Petroleum List... Countries producing oil This is a list of states that extract crude oil from oil wells. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1600x628, 56 KB) Summary oil exports in bbl/day, as listed on the CIA factbook Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: Petroleum ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1600x628, 56 KB) Summary oil exports in bbl/day, as listed on the CIA factbook Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: Petroleum ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1469x628, 53 KB) Summary oil imports in bbl/day, as listed on the CIA factbook Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: Petroleum ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1469x628, 53 KB) Summary oil imports in bbl/day, as listed on the CIA factbook Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: Petroleum ...

1 peak production already passed in this state Logo The Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) is made up of Algeria, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Libya, Nigeria, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates and Venezuela; since 1965, its international headquarters have been in Vienna, Austria. ... Peak Oil Depletion Scenarios Graph which depicts cumulative published depletion studies by ASPO and other depletion analysts. ...


2 Though still a member, Iraq has not been included in production figures since 1998


In order of amount exported in 2003:

  • Saudi Arabia (OPEC)
  • Russia
  • Norway 1
  • Iran (OPEC)
  • United Arab Emirates (OPEC)
  • Venezuela (OPEC) 1
  • Kuwait (OPEC)
  • Nigeria (OPEC)
  • Mexico 1
  • Algeria (OPEC)
  • Libya (OPEC) 1

1 peak production already passed in this state Peak Oil Depletion Scenarios Graph which depicts cumulative published depletion studies by ASPO and other depletion analysts. ...


Note that the USA consumes almost all of its own production, while the UK has recently become a net-importer rather than net-exporter. Canada exports 1.4 million barrels per day to the U.S.


Total world production/consumption (as of 2005) is approximately 84 million barrels per day.


See also: Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries. The Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) is made up of Algeria, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Libya, Nigeria, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates and Venezuela; since 1965, its international headquarters have been in Vienna, Austria. ...


Petroleum in Military Strategy

  • In World War 2 the Soviet Union sought to protect their oil fields from falling into the hands of Nazi Germany at the Battle of Stalingrad.
  • Many countries have a strategic oil reserve in the event of war or loss of oil supplies.
  • During the Iran-Iraq War many nations sent military ships to escort tankers carrying oil.
  • During the Gulf War, Iraq's retreating troops burned Kuwait's oil fields in order to give them air cover, to slow the advance of pursuing coalition forces, and to damage the Kuwaiti economy.
  • During the Iraq War the United States had military units work to quickly secure oil fields and remove boobytraps. It also had units guarding the Ministry of Petroleum in Baghdad.

German soldiers at the Battle of Stalingrad World War II was the most extensive and costly armed conflict in the history of the world, involving the great majority of the worlds nations, being fought simultaneously in several major theatres, and costing tens of millions of lives. ... Drilling rig in a small oil field Near Sarnia, Ontario, 2001 An oil field is an area with an abundance of oil wells extracting petroleum (oil) from below ground. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... Combatants Axis Powers Soviet Union Commanders Erich von Manstein Friedrich Paulus Hermann Hoth Georgy Zhukov Vasily Chuikov Aleksandr Vasilevsky Strength German Sixth Army German Fourth Panzer Army Romanian Third Army Romanian Fourth Army Hungarian Second Army Italian Eighth Army 500,000 Germans Unknown number Reinforcements Unknown number Axis-allies Stalingrad... Strategic petroleum reserves (SPR) refer to crude oil reserves held by the government of a particular country for the purpose of providing economic and national security during an energy crisis. ... Combatants Iran Iraq Commanders Ayatollah Khomeini Saddam Hussein Ali Hassan al-Majid Strength ~100,000 (initially) ? Casualties Est. ... Combatants U.S.-led coalition Iraq Commanders George H. W. Bush Norman Schwarzkopf Colin Powell Saddam Hussein Ali Hassan al-Majid Hussein Kamel Strength 660,000 545,000 Casualties 345 dead, 1,000 wounded 25,000 - 100,000 dead, 100,000 - 300,000 wounded The 1991 Gulf War (also called... Combatants Republic of Iraq (Saddam Hussein regime), Baath Loyalists, Iraqi insurgency Al Qaeda United States, United Kingdom, Multinational force in Iraq, New Iraqi Army Casualties Iraqi military dead(Saddam-era): 6,000-30,000 Insurgents dead: estimated at 55,000 [1] Civilian dead: 30,000-100,000 Total dead...

Books about the petroleum industry

  • James Howard Kunstler (2005). The Long Emergency: Surviving the Converging Catastrophes of the Twenty-first Century. Atlantic Monthly Press. 0871138883.
  • C.J. Campbell (2004). The Coming Oil Crisis.
  • Peter Odell (2004). Why Carbon Fuels Will Dominate the 21st Century's Global Energy Economy. Multi Science. 0906522226.
  • (2004) Out of Gas: The End of the Age of Oil.
  • Amory B. Lovins (2004). Winning the Oil Endgame. Rocky Mountain Institute. 1881071103.
  • (2003) Hubbert's Peak : The Impending World Oil Shortage.
  • Vaclav Smil (2003). Energy at the Crossroads : Global Perspectives and Uncertainties. The MIT Press. 0262194929.
  • Daniel Yergin (1991). The Prize: The Epic Quest for Oil, Money, and Power. Simon & Schuster. 0671502484.
  • Harold F. Williamson and Arnold R. Daum (1959). The American Petroleum Industry: Volume I, The Age of Illumination. Northwestern University Press.
  • Harold F. Williamson, Ralph L. Andreano, Arnold R. Daum, and Gilbert C. Klose (1963). The American Petroleum Industry: Volume II, The Age of Energy. Northwestern University Press.
  • Beychok, Milton R. (1967). Aqueous Wastes From Petroleum and Petrochemical Plants, 1st Edition, John Wiley and Sons. LCCN 67-19834.

James Howard Jim Kunstler (born 1948) is an American author, public speaker, and social critic. ... The Long Emergency: Surviving the Converging Catastrophes of the Twenty-first Century is a book by James Howard Kunstler exploring the consequnces of a world oil production peak, coinciding with the forces of climate change, resurgent diseases, water scarcity, global economic instability and warfare to cause chaos for future generations. ... Daniel H. Yergin (born February 6, 1947) is an American author and economic researcher. ... The Prize (1991; ISBN 0671502484) is Daniel Yergins 800-page history of the global oil industry from the 1850s through 1990. ...

Films about petroleum

The Internet Movie Database (IMDb) is an online database of information about actors, films, television shows, television stars, video games and production crew personnel. ... The Internet Movie Database (IMDb) is an online database of information about actors, films, television shows, television stars, video games and production crew personnel. ... The Internet Movie Database (IMDb) is an online database of information about actors, films, television shows, television stars, video games and production crew personnel. ... The Internet Movie Database (IMDb) is an online database of information about actors, films, television shows, television stars, video games and production crew personnel. ... The Internet Movie Database (IMDb) is an online database of information about actors, films, television shows, television stars, video games and production crew personnel. ... The Internet Movie Database (IMDb) is an online database of information about actors, films, television shows, television stars, video games and production crew personnel. ... The Internet Movie Database (IMDb) is an online database of information about actors, films, television shows, television stars, video games and production crew personnel. ... The Internet Movie Database (IMDb) is an online database of information about actors, films, television shows, television stars, video games and production crew personnel. ... The Internet Movie Database (IMDb) is an online database of information about actors, films, television shows, television stars, video games and production crew personnel. ... The Internet Movie Database (IMDb) is an online database of information about actors, films, television shows, television stars, video games and production crew personnel. ... The Internet Movie Database (IMDb) is an online database of information about actors, films, television shows, television stars, video games and production crew personnel. ... The Internet Movie Database (IMDb) is an online database of information about actors, films, television shows, television stars, video games and production crew personnel. ... The Internet Movie Database (IMDb) is an online database of information about actors, films, television shows, television stars, video games and production crew personnel. ... The Internet Movie Database (IMDb) is an online database of information about actors, films, television shows, television stars, video games and production crew personnel. ... Syriana is a 2005 Academy Award-winning geopolitical thriller film written and directed by Stephen Gaghan. ... The Prelinger Archives are a collection of films, mostly shorts made for industrial or educational markets. ...

Writers covering the petroleum industry

Brian Black is a professor of history and environmental studies at Pennsylvania State University, Altoona, Pennsylvania. ... Colin Campbell. ... Kenneth S. Deffeyes is a geologist who worked with M. King Hubbert of Hubberts peak fame, at the Shell Oil Company research laboratory in Houston, Texas. ... Thomas Gold (May 22, 1920 – June 22, 2004) was an Austrian astrophysicist, a professor of astronomy at Cornell University, and a member of the US National Academy of Sciences. ... David L. Goodstein (born 1939) is a U.S. physicist and educator. ... Daniel H. Yergin (born February 6, 1947) is an American author and economic researcher. ...

See also (in alphabetic order)

The hypothesis of abiogenic petroleum origin holds that petroleum is formed by non-biological processes deep in the earths crust and mantle. ... Arctic National Wildlife Refuge Map The Arctic National Wildlife Refuge covers about 19,600,000 acres (79,318 km²) in northeastern Alaska, in the North Slope region. ... This list of oil fields includes major fields of the past and present. ... Countries producing oil This is a list of states that extract crude oil from oil wells. ... Countries in decreasing order of oil consumption. ... Peak Oil Depletion Scenarios Graph which depicts cumulative published depletion studies by ASPO and other depletion analysts. ... Ranked list by size A list of largest petroleum companies is always somewhat arbitrary as state-owned companies operate differently as private-owned ones. ... The word ecology is often used in common parlance as a synonym for the natural environment or environmentalism. ... An energy crisis is any great shortfall (or price rise) in the supply of energy resources to an economy. ... (Redirected from 1973 energy crisis) United States, drivers of vehicles with odd numbered license plates were allowed to purchase gasoline only on odd-numbered days of the month, while drivers with even-numbers were limited to even-numbered days. ... The 1979 (or second) oil crisis occurred in the wake of the Iranian Revolution. ... Coal rail cars in Ashtabula, Ohio Fossil fuels, also known as mineral fuels, are hydrocarbon-containing natural resources such as coal, oil and natural gas. ... Global mean surface temperatures 1856 to 2005; this map shows mean surface temperature anomalies during the period 1995 to 2004 with respect to the average temperatures from 1940 to 1980 Global warming refers to the increases in the average temperature of the Earths atmosphere and oceans in recent decades. ... Top: Increasing atmospheric CO2 levels as measured in the atmosphere and ice cores. ... Please wikify (format) this article as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... ... The Hubbert peak theory, also known as peak oil, is an influential theory concerning the long-term rate of conventional oil (and other fossil fuel) extraction and depletion. ... Energy development is the ongoing effort to provide abundant and accessible energy, through knowledge, skills and constructions. ... The 1990 (or third) energy crisis was the mildest and most brief of them all. ... Mineral oil or liquid petrolatum is a by-product in the distillation of petroleum to produce gasoline. ... Many stoves use natural gas. ... Non-conventional oil is oil extracted using techniques other than the traditional oil well method. ... Oil imperialism theories characterize a broad group of political science theories which assert that direct and indirect control of world petroleum reserves is a root factor in current international politics. ... Nationalization or nationalisation is the act of taking assets into state ownership. ... Crude oil price in 2004-2006 Average US retail price of regular unleaded gasoline Oil prices from 1861-2006 in dollars of the day and 2006 dollars. ... View of Shell Oil Refinery in Martinez, California. ... Crude oil is a finite resource. ... An oil well is a term for any perforation through the Earths surface designed to find and release both petroleum oil and gas hydrocarbons. ... The Olduvai theory was first introduced by Richard C. Duncan, Ph. ... Volunteers cleaning up the aftermath of the Prestige oil spill An oil spill is the release of oil (generally, petroleum) into the natural environment, usually the ocean. ... Petroleum geology is a term used to refer to the specific set of geological disciplines that are applied to the search for hydrocarbons (oil exploration). ... A petrodollar is a dollar earned by a country through the sale of oil. ... Alternative propulsion is a term used frequently for power train concepts differing to the standard internal combustion engine concept used in gasoline- or diesel-fueled vehicles. ... Fuel Stations are points at which vehicles operating on gasoline, diesel, natural gas, or hydrogen can stop at in order to refuel. ... Petroleum politics covers the influence of oil on international politics since World War I. Those who dismiss the role of oil in diplomacy may wish to consult the entry Oil imperialism theories. ... Renewable energy (sources) or RES capture their energy from existing flows of energy, from on-going natural processes, such as sunshine, wind, flowing water (hydropower), biological processes, and geothermal heat flows. ... The soft energy path is an energy use and development strategy delineated and promoted by some energy experts and activists, such as Amory Lovins and Tom Bender. ... Thermal depolymerization (TDP) is a process for the reduction of complex organic materials (usually waste products of various sorts, often known as biomass) into light crude oil. ... Thomas Gold (May 22, 1920 – June 22, 2004) was an Austrian astrophysicist, a professor of astronomy at Cornell University, and a member of the US National Academy of Sciences. ... Eugene Island is a submerged mountain 70-85 miles off the Louisiana coast in the Gulf of Mexico. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Petroleum
  • Crude Awakening (NOW)
  • US Energy Information Administration - Part of the informative website of the US Government's Energy Information Administration.
  • American Petroleum Institute - A site run by the American Petroleum Institute, the trade association of the US oil industry.
  • How derivatives drive oil prices up, despite ample supply in physical oil market (9-Jun-06)
  • Andy Xie, MorganStanley economist for Asia, thinks oil is financial bubble (16-Jun-2005)
  • Explanation of pricing mechanism in oil markets
  • The real problems with $50 oil, An analysis by Henry C.K. Liu in Asia Times Online, details the economic impact of high oil prices.
  • Long Emergency Blog - A site with Peak Oil news and discussion, regarding how our world will never be the same.
  • The Oil Drum - A Community Discussion about Peak Oil and the Oil Industry.
  • Petroleum directory
  • Major dates of the Polish petroleum industry
  • Dismissal of the Claims of a Biological Connection for Natural Petroleum.
  • Abiogenic Gas Debate 11:2002 (EXPLORER)
  • An introduction to the modern petroleum science, and to the Russian-Ukrainian theory of deep, abiotic petroleum origins.
  • Unconventional Ideas About Unconventional Gas (Society of Petroleum Engineers)
  • BP Statistical Review of World Energy
  • Oil Rocks
  • Nymex - oil trading center of the US
  • Bloomberg Energy Prices - current prices on world mercantile exchanges
  • Oil Marketer - oil news and market information
  • Oil Prices - Oil related information
  • Oil in troubled waters - Economist article on investor approaches to oil markets, supply, and future
  • Petrobras - The site for the state-owned oil company of Brazil
  • PDVSA - The site for the state-owned oil company of Venezuela
  • venezuelanalysis.com - A site focusing on developments in Venezuela, with a big emphasis on the oil issue.

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Wikimedia Commons logo by Reid Beels The Wikimedia Commons (also called Commons or Wikicommons) is a repository of free content images, sound and other multimedia files. ... Image File history File links Wikinews-logo. ... Wikinews is a free-content news source and a project of the Wikimedia Foundation. ... Now can mean: Wiktionary has related dictionary definitions, such as: now Present (time) Now (Steve Roach) NOW, a Korean graphic novel. ...

Articles

  • Discovery of oil in South East Asia - History of an oil town.
  • The End of the Age of Oil - article adapted from a talk by Caltech vice provost and professor of physics David Goodstein
  • The Politics of Oil - A report on the oil industry's influence of lawmakers and public policy by the Center for Public Integrity.
  • BBC: Stability fears rise as oil reliance grows
  • Top Saudi Says Kingdom Has Plenty of Oil "261 billion barrels in reserve..."
  • Lee Raymond of Exxon Mobile believes oil supplies will rise
  • Known Saudi Arabian Oil Reserves Tripled
  • Pemex's oil estimates double: Mexican Oil company's estimate of reserves doubled.
  • Dismissal of the Claims of a Biological Connection for Natural Petroleum [1]
  • Abiogenic Gas Debate 11:2002 (EXPLORER)
  • Anything Into Oil: Technological savvy could turn 600 million tons of turkey guts and other waste into 4 billion barrels of light Texas crude each year [2]

David L. Goodstein (born 1939) is a U.S. physicist and educator. ... The Center for Public Integrity is a nonprofit, nonpartisan, organization in the United States which is concerned with monitoring campaign finance laws in the U.S. and works for campaign finance reform. ...

Data

  • Department of Energy EIA - World supply and consumption
  • US petroleum prices

References

  1. ^ Kenney, J., Shnyukov, A., Krayushkin, V., Karpov, I., Kutcherov, V. and Plotnikova, I. (2001). "Dismissal of the claims of a biological connection for natural petroleum". Energia 22 (3): 26-34.
  2. ^ Brad Lemley (2003). "Anything Into Oil". Discover 24 (5).


  Results from FactBites:
 
What is crude oil? (1435 words)
Crude oil - as petroleum directly out of the ground is called - is a remarkably varied substance, both in its use and composition.
Second, migration of the oil from the source rock to a "reservoir rock," usually a sandstone or limestone that's thick and porous enough to hold a sizable accumulation of oil.
Crude oil may not be the panacea that snake oil claimed to be.
Howstuffworks "How Oil Refining Works" (476 words)
Crude oil is the term for "unprocessed" oil, the stuff that comes out of the ground.
Crude oil is a fossil fuel, meaning that it was made naturally from decaying plants and animals living in ancient seas millions of years ago -- anywhere you find crude oil was once a sea bed.
Crude oils vary in color, from clear to tar-fl, and in viscosity, from water to almost solid.
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