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Encyclopedia > Crucifixion
This article is part of the
Capital punishment series
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Capital punishment debate · Religious views · Wrongful execution Crucifixion may refer to: Crucifixion, an ancient method of execution, where the victim is tied or nailed to a large wooden cross and left to hang until dead Crucifixion, a song from the 1971 rock opera Jesus Christ Superstar by composer Andrew Lloyd Weber and lyric writer Tim Rice Crucify... Capital punishment, or the death penalty, is the execution of a convicted criminal by the state as punishment for crimes known as capital crimes or capital offences. ... Capital punishment, or the death penalty, is often the subject of controversy. ... Most major world religions take an ambiguous position on the morality of capital punishment. ... Capital punishment Wrongful execution is a miscarriage of justice occurring when an innocent person is put to death by capital punishment, the death penalty. The possibility of wrongful executions is one of the arguments presented by the opponents of capital punishment; other arguments include failing to deter crime more than...

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Australia · Brazil · Canada · PR China · Europe · France · Germany · India · Italy · Iraq · Japan · Malaysia · Pakistan · Philippines · Russia · Taiwan · United Kingdom · United States The Peoples Republic of China currently uses capital punishment for a variety of crimes, ranging from tax evasion, corruption and racketeering to murder. ... The only countries in Europe that havent abolished the death penalty yet is Albania, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Latvia and Russia. ...

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Decapitation · Electrocution · Firing squad · Gas chamber · Hanging · Lethal injection · Shooting Electric chair as used for electrocutions. ... Decapitation (from Latin, caput, capitis, meaning head), or beheading, is the removal of a living organisms head. ... The electric chair is an execution method in which the person being put to death is strapped to a chair and electrocuted through electrodes placed on the body. ... The Third of May by Francisco Goya Execution by firing squad is a method of capital punishment, particularly common in times of war. ... For other uses, see Gas chamber (disambiguation). ... Hanging is the suspension of a person by a ligature, usually a cord wrapped around the neck, causing death. ... This article is about the execution and euthanasia method. ... Execution by shooting is a form of capital punishment whereby an executed person is shot by a firearm or firearms. ...

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Crucifixion is an ancient method of execution, where the condemned is tied or nailed to a large wooden cross and left to hang until dead. Death Penalty World Map Color Key: Blue: Abolished for all crimes Green: Abolished for crimes not committed in exceptional circumstances (such as crimes committed in time of war) Orange: Abolished in Practice Red: Legal Form of Punishment Execution of a soldier of the 8th Infantry at Prescott, Arizona, 1877 Execution... Also known as the Latin cross or crux ordinaria. ...


This form of execution was widely practiced in Ancient Rome and in neighbouring Mediterranean cultures; similar methods were invented in the Persian Empire.[1] Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... Persia redirects here. ...


Crucifixion was used by the Romans until AD 337,[2] after Christianity had been legalized in the Roman Empire in 313 and had become the religion favoured by the Emperor Constantine I, but before it became the official state religion. However, crucifixion has been used in various places in modern times. Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is... Flavius Valerius Aurelius Constantinus[2] (27 February c. ...


A crucifix, an image of Christ crucified on a cross, is for most Christians the main symbol of their religion, but some Protestant Christians prefer to use a cross without the figure (the "corpus" - Latin for "body") of Christ. The Crucifix, a cross with corpus, a symbol used in Catholicism in contrast with some other Christian communions, which use only a cross. ... This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is... A reliquary in the form of an ornate Christian Cross Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ...

Contents

Details of crucifixion

"Crucifixion of St. Peter" by Caravaggio
"Crucifixion of St. Peter" by Caravaggio

Crucifixion was rarely performed for ritual or symbolic reasons outside of Christianity, but usually to provide a death that was particularly painful (hence the term excruciating, literally "out of crucifying"), gruesome (hence dissuading against the crimes punishable by it) and public (hence the metaphorical expression "to nail to the cross"), using whatever means were most expedient for that goal. Crucifixion methods varied considerably with location and time period. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (618x800, 120 KB) Summary Michelangelo Merisi, aka Caravaggio: , Santa Maria del Popolo, Rome. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (618x800, 120 KB) Summary Michelangelo Merisi, aka Caravaggio: , Santa Maria del Popolo, Rome. ...


The Greek and Latin words corresponding to "crucifixion" applied to many different forms of painful execution, from impaling on a stake to affixing to a tree, to an upright pole (what some call a crux simplex) or to a combination of an upright (in Latin, stipes) and a crossbeam (in Latin, patibulum).[3] For other uses, see impale. ...


If a crossbeam was used, the condemned man or woman was forced to carry it on his or her shoulders, which would have been torn open by flagellation, to the place of execution. A whole cross would weigh well over 300 pounds (135 kilograms), but the crossbeam would weigh only 75-125 pounds (35-60 kilograms).[4] The Roman historian Tacitus records that the city of Rome had a specific place for carrying out executions, situated outside the Esquiline Gate,[5] and had a specific area reserved for the execution of slaves by crucifixion.[6] Upright posts would presumably be fixed permanently in that place, and the crossbeam, with the condemned man perhaps already nailed to it, would then be attached to the post. Whipping on a post Flagellation is the act of whipping (Latin flagellum, whip) the human body. ... For other uses, see Tacitus (disambiguation). ...


The person executed may sometimes have been attached to the cross by ropes, but nails are mentioned in a passage of Josephus, where he states that, at the Siege of Jerusalem (70), "the soldiers out of rage and hatred, nailed those they caught, one after one way, and another after another, to the crosses, by way of jest",[7] and in John 20:25. Objects, such as nails, used in the execution of criminals were sought as amulets.[8] A fanciful representation of Flavius Josephus, in an engraving in William Whistons translation of his works Josephus (37 – sometime after 100 CE),[1] who became known, in his capacity as a Roman citizen, as Titus Flavius Josephus,[2] was a 1st-century Jewish historian and apologist of priestly and... Combatants Roman Empire Jews of Judea Commanders Titus Flavius Vespasianus Simon Bar-Giora Yohanan mi-Gush Halav (John of Gischala) Eleazar ben Simon Strength 70,000 men 13,000 men, split among three factions Casualties Unknown 60,000–1,100,000 (mass civilian casualties) The Siege of Jerusalem in the... An amulet from the Black Pullet grimoire An amulet (from Latin amuletum, meaning A means of protection) consists of any object intended to bring good luck and/or protection to its owner. ...


Cross shape

See also Cross or stake as gibbet on which Jesus died
Justus Lipsius: De cruce, p. 47Image by Justus Lipsius of the crucifixion of Jesus
Justus Lipsius: De cruce, p. 47
Image by Justus Lipsius of the crucifixion of Jesus
Crux simplex, a simple wooden stake. Image by Justus Lipsius.
Crux simplex, a simple wooden stake. Image by Justus Lipsius.


The gibbet on which crucifixion was carried out could be of many shapes. Josephus describes multiple tortures and positions of crucifixion during the siege of Jerusalem (70) as Titus crucified the rebels;[9] and Seneca the Younger recounts: "I see crosses there, not just of one kind but made in many different ways: some have their victims with head down to the ground; some impale their private parts; others stretch out their arms on the gibbet."[10] Justus Lipsius:De cruce, p. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Justus Lipsius, Joost Lips or Josse Lips (October 18, 1547 — March 23, 1606), was a Flemish philologian and humanist. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 333 × 599 pixels Full resolution (748 × 1346 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 333 × 599 pixels Full resolution (748 × 1346 pixel, file size: 1. ... Justus Lipsius, Joost Lips or Josse Lips (October 18, 1547 — March 23, 1606), was a Flemish philologian and humanist. ... A fanciful representation of Flavius Josephus, in an engraving in William Whistons translation of his works Josephus (37 – sometime after 100 CE),[1] who became known, in his capacity as a Roman citizen, as Titus Flavius Josephus,[2] was a 1st-century Jewish historian and apologist of priestly and... Combatants Roman Empire Jews of Judea Commanders Titus Flavius Vespasianus Simon Bar-Giora Yohanan mi-Gush Halav (John of Gischala) Eleazar ben Simon Strength 70,000 men 13,000 men, split among three factions Casualties Unknown 60,000–1,100,000 (mass civilian casualties) The Siege of Jerusalem in the... For other uses, see Titus (disambiguation). ... Bust, traditionally thought to be Seneca, now identified by some as Hesiod. ...


At times the gibbet was only one vertical stake, called in Latin crux simplex or palus. This was the simplest available construction for torturing and killing the criminals. Frequently, however, there was a cross-piece attached either at the top to give the shape of a T (crux commissa) or just below the top, as in the form most familiar in Christian symbolism (crux immissa).[11] Other forms were in the shape of the letters X and Y.


The earliest writings that speak specifically of the shape of the cross on which Jesus died describe it as shaped like the letter T (the Greek letter tau),[12] or composed of an upright and a transverse beam, together with a small peg in the upright.[13]


Location of the nails

In popular depictions of crucifixion (possibly derived from a literal reading of the translated description in the Gospel of John, of Jesus' wounds being 'in the hands'), the condemned is shown with nails in their hands. However, they would most likely have nails in his or her wrists, as the hands do not have the structure nor the strength to carry the weight of the full body. Although historical documents refer to the nails being in the "hands", the word usually translated as "hand", "χείρ" in Greek, referred to arm and hand together, so that, words are added to denote the hand as distinct from the arm, as "ἄκρην οὔτασε χεῖρα" (he wounded the end of the χείρ, i.e. he wounded her hand).[14] For other uses, see Gospel of John (disambiguation). ...


A possibility that does not require tying is that the nails were inserted just above the wrist, between the two bones of the forearm (the radius and the ulna).[15] The nails could also be driven through the wrist, in a space between four carpal bones. The Gospel word χείρ (cheir), translated as "hand", can include everything below the mid-forearm: Acts 12:7 uses this word to report chains falling off from Peter's 'hands', although the chains would be around what we would call wrists. This shows that the semantic range of χείρ is wider than the English hand, and can be used of nails through the wrist The radius is the bone of the forearm that extends from the outside of your limb to your phlangx (lateral) of the elbow to the thumb side of the wrist. ... The ulna (Elbow Bone) [Figs. ... In human anatomy, the carpal bones are the bones of the human wrist. ...


An experiment that was the subject of a documentary on the National Geographic Channel's Quest For Truth: The Crucifixion, and of a brief news article, showed that a person can be suspended by the palm of their hand. Nailing the feet to the side of the cross relieves strain on the wrists by placing most of the weight on the lower body. The National Geographic Channel is a subscription television network that features documentaries produced by the National Geographic Society. ...


Another possibility, suggested by Frederick Zugibe, is that the nails may have been driven in at an angle, entering in the palm in the crease that delineates the bulky region at the base of the thumb, and exiting in the wrist, passing through the carpal tunnel. Dr. Frederick Zugibe, is the former chief medical examiner of Rockland County New York. ... This article is about the connective tissue. ...


A foot-rest attached to the cross, perhaps for the purpose of taking the man's weight off the wrists, is sometimes included in representations of the crucifixion of Jesus, but is not mentioned in ancient sources. These, however, do mention the sedile, a small seat attached to the front of the cross, about halfway down,[16] which could have served that purpose. If the writings of Josephus are taken into account, a sedile was used at times as a way of impaling the "private parts" as he wrote; this would be achieved by resting the condemned man's weight on a peg or board of some sort, and driving a nail or spike through the genitals. If this was a common practice, then it would give credibility to accounts of crucified men taking days to die upon a cross, since the resting of the body upon a crotch peg or sedile would certainly prevent death by suspension asphyxiation. It would also provide another method of humiliation and great pain to the condemned, since nudity was almost certainly a feature of most crucifixions.[citation needed] Asphyxia is a condition of severely deficient supply of oxygen to the body. ...


Cause of death

The length of time required to reach death could range from a matter of hours to a number of days, depending on exact methods, the health of the crucified person and environmental circumstances.


A theory attributed to Pierre Barbet holds that the typical cause of death was asphyxiation. He conjectured that when the whole body weight was supported by the stretched arms, the condemned would have severe difficulty inhaling, due to hyper-expansion of the lungs. The condemned would therefore have to draw himself up by his arms, or have his feet supported by tying or by a wood block. Indeed, Roman executioners could be asked to break the condemned's legs, after he had hung for some time, in order to hasten his death.[17] Once deprived of support and unable to lift himself, the condemned would die within a few minutes. If death did not come from asphyxiation, it could result from a number of other causes, including physical shock caused by the scourging that preceded the crucifixion, the nailing itself, dehydration, and exhaustion. Pierre Barbet (May 16, 1925 - July 20, 1995) was the main pseudonym used by French science fiction writer Claude Avice. ... Asphyxia is a condition of severely deficient supply of oxygen to the body. ... This article is about the medical condition. ... Whipping on a post Flagellation is the act of whipping (Latin flagellum, whip) the human body. ... Dehydration (hypohydration) is the removal of water (hydro in ancient Greek) from an object. ...


Experiments by Frederick Zugibe have revealed that, when suspended with arms at 60° to 70° from the vertical, test subjects had no difficulty breathing, only rapidly-increasing discomfort and pain. This would correspond to the Roman use of crucifixion as a prolonged, agonizing, humiliating death. Zugibe claims that the breaking of the crucified condemned's legs to hasten death, as mentioned in John 19:31-32, was administered as a coup de grâce, causing severe traumatic shock or hastening death by fat embolism. Crucifixion on a single pole with no transom, with hands affixed over one's head, would precipitate rapid asphyxiation if no block was provided to stand on, or once the legs were broken. Public humiliation was often used by local communities to punish minor and petty criminals before the age of large, modern prisons (imprisonment was long unusual as a punishment, rather a method of coercion). ... Look up coup de grâce in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A fat embolism is a type of embolism that is often (but not always) caused by physical trauma. ...


It was, however, possible to survive crucifixion, and there are records of people who did. The historian Josephus, a Judaean who defected to the Roman side during the Jewish uprising of AD66 - 72, describes finding two of his friends crucified. He begged for and was granted their reprieve; one died, the other recovered. Josephus gives no details of the method or duration of crucifixion before their reprieve. A fanciful representation of Flavius Josephus, in an engraving in William Whistons translation of his works Josephus (37 – sometime after 100 CE),[1] who became known, in his capacity as a Roman citizen, as Titus Flavius Josephus,[2] was a 1st-century Jewish historian and apologist of priestly and...


Archaeological evidence for ancient crucifixion

Despite the fact that the ancient Jewish historian Josephus, as well as other sources, refer to the crucifixion of thousands of people by the Romans, there is only a single archaeological discovery of a crucified body dating back to the Roman Empire around the time of Jesus which was discovered in Jerusalem. It is not surprising that there is only one such discovery, because a crucified body was usually left to decay on the cross and therefore would not be preserved. The only reason these archaeological remains were preserved was because family members gave this particular individual a customary burial.


The remains were found accidentally in an ossuary with the crucified man’s name on it, 'Yehohanan, the son of Hagakol'. The ossuary contained a heel with a nail driven through its side, indicating that the heels may have been nailed to the sides of the tree (one on the left side, one on the right side, and not with both feet together in front). The nail had olive wood on it indicating that he was crucified on a cross made of olive wood or on an olive tree. Since olive trees are not very tall, this would suggest that the condemned was crucified at eye level. Additionally, the piece of olive wood was located between the heel and the head of the nail, presumably to keep the condemned from freeing his foot by sliding it over the nail. His legs were found broken, perhaps as a means of hastening his death as described in John 19:31-32. It is thought that, since in Roman times iron was expensive, the nails were removed from the dead body to cut the costs, which would help to explain why only one has been found, as the back of the nail was bent in such a way that it couldn't be removed. Ossuary in Hallstatt (see the article for details). ...


Important references for the ancient practice of crucifixion and an examination of archaeological evidence:

  • Tzaferis, Vassilios. “Crucifixion -- The Archaeological Evidence”, Biblical Archaeology Review 11, February, 1985: 44–53.
  • Zias, Joseph. “The Crucified Man from Giv’at Ha-Mivtar: A Reappraisal”, Israel Exploration Journal 35 (1), 1985: 22–27.
  • Hengel, Martin. Crucifixion (Augsburg Fortress, 1977). ISBN 0-8006-1268-X.

History of crucifixion

Pre-Roman States

Probably originating with the Assyrians and Babylonians, it was used systematically by the Persians in the 6th century BC. Alexander the Great brought it from there to the eastern Mediterranean countries in the 4th century BC, and the Phoenicians introduced it to Rome in the 3rd century BC. It was virtually never used in pre-Hellenic Greece [3]. Crucifixion, in one form or another, was also used by Achaemenid Persia, the Greeks, Carthaginians, Macedonians and from very early times Rome. There is evidence that captured pirates were crucified in the port of Athens around the 7th century BC.[citation needed] Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... The Persian Empire was a series of historical empires that ruled over the Iranian plateau. ...


Some Christian theologians, beginning with Paul of Tarsus writing in Galatians 3:13, have interpreted an allusion to crucifixion in Deuteronomy 21:22-23. This reference is to being hanged from a tree, and may be associated with lynching or traditional hanging. However, ancient Jewish law allowed only 4 methods of execution: stoning, burning, strangulation, and decapitation. Crucifixion was thus forbidden by ancient Jewish law.[18] Theology is literally rational discourse concerning God (Greek θεος, theos, God, + λογος, logos, rational discourse). By extension, it also refers to the study of other religious topics. ... St. ... 68. ... The Epistle to the Galatians is a book of the New Testament. ... Deuteronomy (Greek deuteronomium, second, from to deuteronomium touto, this second law, pronounced ) is the fifth book of the Torah of the Hebrew bible and the Old Testament. ... Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Gay bashing Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Anti-discriminatory Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity Counter-discriminatory Affirmative action Racial...


Alexander the Great is reputed to have executed 2000 survivors from his siege of the Phoenician city of Tyre, as well as the doctor who unsuccessfully treated Alexander's friend Hephaestion. Some historians have also conjectured that Alexander crucified Callisthenes, his official historian and biographer, for objecting to Alexander's adoption of the Persian ceremony of royal adoration. For the film of the same name, see Alexander the Great (1956 film). ... Phoenicia (or Phenicia ,[1] from Biblical Phenice [1]) was an ancient civilization centered in the north of ancient Canaan, with its heartland along the coast of modern day Lebanon and Syria. ... Tyre (Arabic , Phoenician , Hebrew Tzor, Tiberian Hebrew , Akkadian , Greek Týros) is a city in the South Governorate of Lebanon. ... The Stone Lion of Hamedan is said to have been erected by Alexander The Great, upon the death of Hephaestion. ... Callisthenes, or Kallisthenes, ( in Greek) of Olynthus (c. ... Adoration (Latin) is to give homage or worship. ...


In Carthage, crucifixion was an established mode of execution, which could even be imposed on a general for suffering a major defeat. For other uses, see Carthage (disambiguation). ...


Roman Empire

Barbara Hepworth, Construction (Crucifixion): Homage to Mondrian, outside Winchester Cathedral
Barbara Hepworth, Construction (Crucifixion): Homage to Mondrian, outside Winchester Cathedral
Explanation of Construction (Crucifixion): Homage to Mondrian
Explanation of Construction (Crucifixion): Homage to Mondrian

According to some, the custom of crucifixion in Ancient Rome may have developed out of a primitive custom of arbori suspendere, hanging on an arbor infelix (unfortunate tree) dedicated to the gods of the nether world, but Professor William A. Oldfather wrote a detailed study refuting the idea that this punishment involved any form of hanging or was anything other than flogging to death, and the claim that the "arbor infelix" was dedicated to particular gods. Tertullian mentions a first-century A.D. case in which trees were used for crucifixion,[19] but Seneca the Younger earlier used the phrase infelix lignum (unfortunate wood) for the transom ("patibulum") or the whole cross.[20] According to others, the Romans appear to have learned of crucifixion from the Carthaginians.[21] Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (3072x2304, 3176 KB) Suzanne Knights, my photo, xmas 2006 I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (3072x2304, 3176 KB) Suzanne Knights, my photo, xmas 2006 I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Hepworths Family of Man in bronze, 1970, at the Yorkshire Sculpture Park. ... Winchester Cathedral as seen from the Cathedral Close View along the nave of Winchester Cathedral to the west door A plan published in 1911 View of Winchester Cathedral Winchester Cathedral at Winchester in Hampshire is one of the largest cathedrals in England, said to be the second longest, and with... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (3072x2304, 3127 KB) Suzanne Knights, my photo, xmas 2006 I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (3072x2304, 3127 KB) Suzanne Knights, my photo, xmas 2006 I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... Quintus Septimius Florens Tertullianus, anglicised as Tertullian, (ca. ... Bust, traditionally thought to be Seneca, now identified by some as Hesiod. ... For other uses, see Carthage (disambiguation). ...


Crucifixion was used for slaves, rebels, pirates and especially-despised enemies and criminals. Therefore crucifixion was considered a most shameful and disgraceful way to die. Condemned Roman citizens were usually exempt from crucifixion (like feudal nobles from hanging, dying more honorably by decapitation) except for major crimes against the state, such as high treason. Slave redirects here. ... This article is about maritime piracy. ... For other uses, see Treason (disambiguation) or Traitor (disambiguation). ...


Notorious mass crucifixions followed the Third Servile War (the slave rebellion under Spartacus), the Roman Civil War, and the destruction of Jerusalem. Josephus tells a story of the Romans crucifying people along the walls of Jerusalem. He also says that the Roman soldiers would amuse themselves by crucifying criminals in different positions. In Roman-style crucifixion, the condemned took days to die slowly from suffocation — caused by the condemned's blood-supply slowly draining away to a quantity insufficient to supply the required oxygen to vital organs. The dead body was left up for vultures and other birds to consume. Combatants Army of escaped slaves Roman Republic Commanders Crixus †, Oenomaus †, Spartacus † , Castus †, Gannicus † Gaius Claudius Glaber, Publius Varinius, Gnaeus Clodianus, Lucius Gellius Publicola, Gaius Cassius Longinus, Gnaeus Manlius, Marcus Licinius Crassus, Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus, Marcus Terentius Varro Lucullus, Lucius Quinctius, Gnaeus Tremellius Scrofa Strength 120,000 escaped slaves and gladiators... This article is about the historical figure. ... There were several Roman civil wars, especially during the time of the late Republic. ... For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). ... Orders Falconiformes (Fam. ...


The goal of Roman crucifixion was not just to kill the criminal, but also to mutilate and dishonour the body of the condemned. In ancient tradition, an honourable death required burial; leaving a body on the cross, so as to mutilate it and prevent its burial, was a grave dishonour.


Under ancient Roman penal practice, crucifixion was also a means of exhibiting the criminal’s low social status. It was the most dishonourable death imaginable, originally reserved for slaves, hence still called "supplicium servile" by Seneca, later extended to provincial freedmen of obscure station ('humiles'). The citizen class of Roman society were almost never subject to capital punishments; instead, they were fined or exiled. Josephus mentions Jews of high rank who were crucified, but this was to point out that their status had been taken away from them. Control of one’s own body was vital in the ancient world. Capital punishment took away control over one’s own body, thereby implying a loss of status and honour. The Romans often broke the prisoner's legs to hasten death and usually forbade burial. Seneca may refer to: Roman figures (any links to Seneca in Roman pages should be relinked to one of these two) Marcus (or Lucius) Annaeus Seneca also called rhetor, Roman orator and father of Seneca the philosopher and dramatist. ... Capital punishment, or the death penalty, is the execution of a convicted criminal by the state as punishment for crimes known as capital crimes or capital offences. ...


A cruel prelude was scourging, which would cause the condemned to lose a large amount of blood, and approach a state of shock. The convict then usually had to carry the horizontal beam (patibulum in Latin) to the place of execution, but not necessarily the whole cross. Crucifixion was typically carried out by specialized teams, consisting of a commanding centurion and four soldiers. When it was done in an established place of execution, the vertical beam (stipes) could even be permanently embedded in the ground. The condemned was usually stripped naked - all the New Testament gospels, dated to around the same time as Josephus, describe soldiers gambling for the robes of Jesus. (Matthew 27:35, Mark 15:24, Luke 23:34, John 19:23-25) Whipping on a post Flagellation is the act of whipping (Latin flagellum, whip) the human body. ... This article is about the medical condition. ... The patibulum is the cross-bar of a crucifix, the portion that the wrists are nailed or more commonly tied to as a means of suspending the criminal. ... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... Centurion can mean: In the military: Centurion (Roman army), a professional officer of the Roman army who commanded a large amount of men. ... This article is about the Christian scriptures. ... Gospel, from the Old English good tidings is a calque of Greek () used in the New Testament (see Etymology below). ...


The 'nails' were tapered iron spikes approximately 5 to 7 inch (13 to 18 cm) long, with a square shaft 3/8 inch (1 cm) across. In some cases, the nails were gathered afterwards and used as healing amulets.


Emperor Constantine, the first Emperor thought to receive a Christian baptism, abolished crucifixion in the Roman Empire at the end of his reign. Constantine. ... This article is about the Christian religious act of Baptism. ...


Crucifixion in the Qur'an

The Qur'an mentions crucifixion several times. In Surah 7:124, Firaun (the Pharaoh of the Exodus) says that he will crucify his chief wizards. Also, Surah 12:41 mentions Prophet Yusuf (Joseph) saying that the king (the current ruler of the land he was stranded in) would crucify one of his prisoners. The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ... See also: Sura (disambiguation). ... Firaun was a pharaoh of ancient Egypt whose narrative relationship with Moses is recounted in the Quran. ... Yusuf (Arabic: يوسف, also Yousef, Yousuf, Yusef, or Yosef) is a prophet in the Quran, the holy scriptures of Islam. ...

'And the wizards fell down prostrate, crying: "We believe in the Lord of the Worlds, The Lord of Musa and Harun". Firaun said: "Ye believe in Him before I give you leave! Lo! this is the plot that ye have plotted in the city that ye may drive its people hence. But ye shall come to know! Surely I shall have your hands and feet cut off upon alternate sides. Then I shall crucify you every one."' Surah 7:120-124
'O my two fellow-prisoners! As for one of you, he will pour out wine for his lord to drink; and as for the other, he will be crucified so that the birds will eat from his head. Thus is the case judged concerning which ye did inquire.' Surah 12:41

This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Harun, or Haroon, was a prophet in the Quran. ...

Japan

Crucifixion was used in Japan before and during the Tokugawa Shogunate. It was called Haritsuke in Japanese. The condemned—usually a sentenced criminal—was hoisted upon a T-shaped cross. Then, executioners finished him off with spear thrusts. The body was left to hang for a time before burial. The Tokugawa shogunate or Tokugawa bakufu (徳川幕府) (also known as the Edo bakufu) was a feudal military dictatorship of Japan established in 1603 by Tokugawa Ieyasu and ruled by the shoguns of the Tokugawa family until 1868. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


In 1597, twenty-six Christians were nailed to crosses at Nagasaki, Japan. Among those executed were Paul Miki and Pedro Bautista, a Spanish Franciscan who had worked about ten years in the Philippines. The executions marked the beginning of a long history of persecution of Christianity in Japan, which continued until the United States of America and other Allies defeated Japan at war in 1945, ending World War II. [4] The acclaimed historical novel "Silence" by Japanese author Shusaku Endo gives an account of these 17th century Christian persecutions based upon the oral histories of contemporary Kakure Kirishitan communities. For other uses, see Christian (disambiguation). ... Megane-bashi (Spectacles Bridge) Nagasaki   listen? (長崎市; -shi, literally long peninsula) is the capital and the largest city of Nagasaki Prefecture located at the south-western coast of Kyushu, Japan. ... Paul Miki is a saint of the Roman Catholic Church. ... Pedro Bautista was a Roman Catholic saint and martyr who died in Japan. ... The Order of Friars Minor and other Franciscan movements are disciples of Saint Francis of Assisi. ... Motto: (traditional) In God We Trust (official, 1956–present) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City Official language(s) None at the federal level; English de facto Government Federal Republic  - President George W. Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence - Declared - Recognized... Look up ally in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Silence ) is a 1966 novel by Japanese author Shusaku Endo. ... Shusaku Endō (遠藤 周作 Endō Shusaku, March 27, 1923 - September 29, 1996) was a renowned 20th Century Japanese author who wrote from a unique perspective of being a Roman Catholic Japanese. ... Kakure Kirishitan (隠れキリシタン, Japanese for Hidden Christian) is a modern term for a member of a sect of Japanese Roman Catholicism that went underground after the Shimabara Rebellion in the 1630s. ...


Crucifixion as punishment in modern times

Sudan

In the Fiftieth Session of the UN Commission on Human Rights (1994), local bishops reported several cases of crucifixion of Christian priests. Sudan's Penal Code, based upon the government's interpretation of Shari'a, provides for execution by crucifixion. The sentence has been passed as recently as 2002, when 88 people were condemned.[5] Sharia ( Arabic شريعة also Sharia, Shariah or Syariah) is traditional Islamic law. ...


Yemen

As of 2000, Yemen provides for non-lethal crucifixion of criminals, though this punishment is apparently reserved for those also condemned to death.[6]


Other

During World War I, there were persistent rumors that German soldiers had crucified a Canadian soldier on a tree or barn door with bayonets or combat knives. The event was initially reported in 1915 by Private George Barrie of the 1st Canadian Division. It is generally believed to be an Allied propaganda invention;[citation needed] however, a 2002 programme for Channel 4's Secret History identified the soldier as a Harry Band, which has given arguable credibility to the story.[22] “The Great War ” redirects here. ... For other uses, see bayonet (disambiguation). ... The Canadian Corps - 1st Canadian Division – World War I Formed in August of 1914, the 1st Canadian Division was initially made up from Provisional Battalions that were named after their Province of origin but these Provisional titles were dropped before the Division arrived in Britain on October 14, 1914. ... Secret History was a long running British television documentary series. ...


In 2002, an alleged joyrider was found crucified to a fence in Northern Ireland. Despite the severity of his wounds he survived the attack. The incident was reported by the Guardian. This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Northern Ireland (Irish: , Ulster Scots: Norlin Airlann) is a constituent country of the United Kingdom lying in the northeast of the island of Ireland, covering 5,459 square miles (14,139 km², about a sixth of the islands total area). ...


Crucifixion as a devotional practice

Devotional crucifixion in San Fernando, Pampanga, Philippines, easter 2006
Devotional crucifixion in San Fernando, Pampanga, Philippines, easter 2006

Since at least the mid-1800s, a group of Catholic flagellants in New Mexico called Hermanos de Luz ('Brothers of Light') have annually conducted reenactments of Jesus Christ's crucifixion during Holy Week, in which a penitent is tied—but not nailed—to a cross. The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... The Flagellants were a 13th and 14th century Christian movement. ... Capital Santa Fe Largest city Albuquerque Largest metro area Albuquerque metropolitan area Area  Ranked 5th  - Total 121,665 sq mi (315,194 km²)  - Width 342 miles (550 km)  - Length 370 miles (595 km)  - % water 0. ... For the 1958 novel of the same name by Louis Aragon, see La Semaine Sainte. ...


Some very devout Catholics are voluntarily, non-lethally crucified for a limited time on Good Friday, to imitate the suffering of Jesus Christ. A notable example is the ceremonial re-enactment that has been performed yearly in the town of Iztapalapa, on the outskirts of Mexico City, since 1833. [7] Good Friday, also called Holy Friday or Great Friday, is the Friday preceding Easter Sunday. ... Iztapalapa is one of the 16 delegaciones (boroughs) into which Mexicos Federal District is divided. ... Nickname: Location of Mexico City Coordinates: , Country Federal entity Boroughs The 16 delegaciones Founded c. ...


Devotional crucifixions are also common in the Philippines, even driving nails through the hands. One man named Rolando del Campo vowed to be crucified every Good Friday for 15 years if God would carry his wife through a difficult childbirth. (There is a video of the crucifixion here.) In San Pedro Cutud, devotee Ruben Enaje has been crucified 21 times, as of 2007, during Passion Week celebrations. [8] [9] San Pedro Cutud is a town in Pampanga province in the Philippines, approximately 70 kilometers north of Manila. ... Holy Week is the Christian week from Holy Monday through Easter (Resurrection) Sunday. ...


In many cases the person portraying Jesus is first subjected to flagellation and wears a crown of thorns. Sometimes there is a whole passion play, sometimes only the mortification of the flesh. Whipping on a post Flagellation is the act of whipping (Latin flagellum, whip) the human body. ... For other uses, see Crown of Thorns (disambiguation). ... A Passion play is a dramatic presentation depicting the suffering and death of Jesus. ...


For pictures of San Pedro Crucifixions see http://www.pbase.com/cmanaginged/crucifixion.


The Crucifixion of Christ is one of the most important parts of of any Passion Play, or Mystery Play, production. The story critically leads the audience through death to resurrection, the dividing of the resurrected into 'sheep' (the good, destined for heaven) and 'goats' (sinners, destined for hell), and to God and Christ in Glory. A typical account is in the York Waggon Plays performed by the Guilds of York, currently every four years. (next production summer 2010). This mediaeval set of plays includes two that depict Christ's Death (1) The Crucifixion (Christ is put on the cross) and (2) the Death of Christ. The second of these was traditionally played by the Butchers' Gild as the butchers took on a supplementary role in civic life as the city's executioners. For pictures of the 2006 production, see http://www.yorkbutchersgild.co.uk


Crucifixion in popular culture

Crucifixion (Corpus Hypercubus) by Salvador Dalí.
Crucifixion (Corpus Hypercubus) by Salvador Dalí.

The cover art of Tupac Shakur's album The Don Killuminati: The 7 Day Theory features an image of Tupac being crucified on a cross. However, he states that the image is not a mockery of Christ, but how he's being "crucified" by the media. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (726x1139, 128 KB)Crucifixion (Hypercubic Body) by Salvador Dali. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (726x1139, 128 KB)Crucifixion (Hypercubic Body) by Salvador Dali. ... Salvador Domingo Felipe Jacinto Dalí i Domènech, 1st Marquis of Púbol (May 11, 1904 – January 23, 1989), was a Spanish surrealist painter of Catalan descent born in Figueres, Catalonia (Spain). ... Tupac Amaru Shakur (June 16, 1971 – September 13, 1996), also known by his stage names 2Pac, Makaveli, or simply as Pac, was an American artist renowned for his rap music, movie roles, poetry, and his social activism. ... Makaveli: The Don Killuminati: 7 Day Theory was the final album recorded before Tupac Shakurs death. ...


In the music video for "Hate Me Now" by Nas featuring Puff Daddy, Nas is seen being crucified. I am. ... For other uses, see Nas (disambiguation). ... Sean John Combs (born November 4, 1969 aka P. Diddy, Puff Daddy, Sean Puffy Combs) is an American record producer and CEO and founder of Bad Boy Entertainment, one of the driving forces in hip hop in the mid to late 1990s. ... For other uses, see Nas (disambiguation). ...


One of Sevendust's songs in their album Seasons is called Crucified. The only reference to crucifixion in the song is the lyrics "I've been crucified, and noone seems to care" and "The first time I knew you lied, I ended up crucified" It is possible that the latter lyric could refer to Judas "selling out" Christ. Sevendust is an American alternative metal band from Atlanta, Georgia. ... This article is about divisions of a year. ... Judas (Greek: Ιούδας) is the anglicized Greek rendering of the Hebrew name Yehudah (Hebrew: יְהוּדָה), also rendered in English as Judah. ...


In the music video for "Until It Sleeps" by Metallica, Kirk Hammett was briefly shown crucified in the video. Until it Sleeps is the 4th song from Metallicas 1996 album Load, and is written by James Hetfield and Lars Ulrich. ... Metallica is a Grammy Award-winning American heavy metal/thrash metal band formed in 1981[1] and has become one of the most commercially successful musical acts of recent decades. ... Kirk Lee Hammett (born on November 18, 1962) is the lead guitarist in the band Metallica. ...


Carnehan in The Man Who Would Be King and Joe Harmon in A Town Like Alice both survive crucifixion. For other uses, see The Man Who Would Be King (disambiguation). ... A Town Like Alice (U.S. title: The Legacy) is a novel by the English author Nevil Shute. ...


"Big Bill Shelley" (played by David Carradine) in the movie Boxcar Bertha, was crucified on the side of a train freight car near the end of the movie. David Carradine (born John Arthur Carradine on December 8, 1936 in Hollywood, California) is an American actor. ... Boxcar Bertha (1972), one of acclaimed director Martin Scorseses earliest films, is an extremely loose adaptation of Sister of the Road, the fictionalized autobiography of radical and transient Bertha Thompson as written by physician Dr. Ben L. Reitman (Ben Reitman). ...


Crucifixion was featured in the comedy film Monty Python's Life of Brian (1979). In one of the more memorable scenes at the end of the film, the viewer is reminded to "always look on the bright side of life" by singers hanging from crosses. Monty Pythons Life of Brian is a 1979 comedy written and performed by the Monty Python comedy team. ... The 1991 reissue of Always Look on the Bright Side of Life Always Look On The Bright Side Of Life is a popular song written by Eric Idle which originally featured in the 1979 film Monty Pythons Life of Brian and has gone on to become a common singalong...


Characters played by Arnold Schwarzenegger are crucified both in Conan the Barbarian (1982) and in End of Days (1999). Also, in the latter movie a priest is crucified to the ceiling of a hospital room. Arnold Alois Schwarzenegger (German pronunciation IPA: ) (born July 30, 1947) is an Austrian-born American bodybuilder, actor, and politician, currently serving as the 38th Governor of the U.S. state of California. ... This article is about the 1982 film. ... End of Days is a 1999 action/horror film starring Arnold Schwarzenegger and directed by Peter Hyams. ...


The movie Cyborg has multiple scenes of crucifixion. Cyborg is a 1989 action/sci-fi film directed by Albert Pyun. ...


The movie Men Behind the Sun features mass crucifixion in a scene in which innocent victims are used for various cruel experiments. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


The movie Spartacus depicts mass crucifixions along the Appian Way. Spartacus is a 1960 film directed by Stanley Kubrick and based on the novel of the same name by Howard Fast about the historical life of Spartacus and the Third Servile War. ... The path of the Via Appia and of the Via Appia Traiana. ...


The opening scene of the movie Exorcist: The Beginning features a crowd of upside down-crucifixions, mirroring the crucifixion of Saint Peter. Categories: Movie stubs | 2004 films | Horror films | Exorcism ... St Peter redirects here. ...


In 1991, Army of Lovers released a single describing voluntary crucifixions as expressions of religious devotion in the Philippines. "Crucified" performed well on the DMR club charts, but controversial lyrics ("I'm crucified, crucified like my Savior; saint-like behavior, a lifetime I pray") precluded widespread radio play.


According to urban legends,[23] a Japanese department store confused Western imagery and displayed a crucified Santa Claus as part of its Christmas decorations. A typical depiction of Santa Claus. ...


Robert Cenedella actually painted a crucified Santa Claus as a protest against Christmas commercialization, displayed in the window of New York's Art Students League in December 1997.


The song "The Ballad of John and Yoko" was banned by several US radio stations, due to Lennon's use of the word "Christ" and the phrase "They're gonna crucify me" in the lyric. In fact, the song's working title was "The Ballad of John and Yoko (They're Going to Crucify Me)". Tori Amos's early hit single "Crucify" was also dropped in numerous locations because of its imagery.[citation needed] The Ballad of John and Yoko is a Beatles song written by John Lennon. ... Tori Amos (born Myra Ellen Amos on August 22, 1963) is an American pianist and singer-songwriter. ... Crucify is a song written and performed by Tori Amos from her album Little Earthquakes. ...


Multiple Marilyn Manson videos such as "I Don't Like The Drugs But The Drugs Like Me" and "Coma White" feature crucifixion imagery, often oddly staged in surreal modern or near modern day settings. Marilyn Manson is a rock band based in Los Angeles, California. ...


The song "Auf Achse" by Scottish band Franz Ferdinand describes the crucifixion. Auf Achse is a song about unrequited love by the band Franz Ferdinand, from the album Franz Ferdinand. ... Franz Ferdinand are an award winning rock band, from Glasgow, Scotland. ...


Singer Madonna opened her concerts during her 2006 tour with a mock crucifixion, complete with a Crown of Thorns. This caused considerable controversy, especially when she did so at a concert near Vatican City in 2006. [10] This article is about the American entertainer. ... For other uses, see Crown of Thorns (disambiguation). ...


Norwegian black metal band Gorgoroth had several people on stage affixed to crosses to give the appearance of crucifixion at a now infamous concert in Krakow, and repeated this act in the music video for 'Carving a Giant'. This article is about the black metal band. ... This article needs cleanup. ...


In the 2006 movie, The Nativity Story, there is a brief scene in which several men are crucified. The Nativity Story, previously titled Nativity, is a 2006 film starring Keisha Castle-Hughes, the Oscar-nominated actress of The Whale Rider and Shohreh Aghdashloo, the Oscar-nominated supporting actress of House of Sand and Fog. ...


The music video for the Nine Inch Nails hit single "Closer" features a controversial scene in which a live monkey is tied to a cross in a mock crucifixion. Nine Inch Nails (abbreviated as NIN) is an American industrial rock band, founded in 1988 by Trent Reznor in Cleveland, Ohio. ... Look up closer in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


The FPS game Unreal features crucified Nalis multiple times. However, there is a twist, as Nalis have four arms, so the crosses have two crosspieces in an X-shape. For other uses, see Unreal (disambiguation). ...


Professional wrestling

A mock crucifixion was staged by Extreme Championship Wrestling wrestlers Raven and The Sandman in 1996. In this mock crucifixion, Raven tied Sandman to a cross and placed a crown of barbed wire on Sandman's head. ECW and Raven subsequently apologized for the incident, although Raven has also stated that the crucifixion was not a mockery of Christ, but a mockery of the beliefs of The Sandman in which he was merely using an iconic image of Christianity. Kurt Angle was present when this event occurred. This article is about the independent promotion from 1992-2001. ... For the video game, see Pro Wrestling (video game). ... Scott Levy (born September 8, 1964) is an American professional wrestler, better known by his ring name, Raven. ... James (Jim) Fullington (born June 16, 1963) better known by his ring name The Sandman, is an American professional wrestler, best known for his career with Extreme Championship Wrestling (ECW), where he was dubbed The Hardcore Icon. ... Typical modern agricultural barbed wire. ... Kurt Steven Angle (born December 9, 1968) is an American professional wrestler and former Olympic amateur wrestler. ...


On a 1998 edition of WWF Monday Night RAW, The Undertaker handcuffed Stone Cold Steve Austin, crucifix-style, to a large version of the Undertaker's symbol, a combination of a shovel, pick, and sickle which resembled a cross. This caused announcer Jim Ross to proclaim 'Austin has been crucified!' The commentary was later edited to say 'Austin has been tied to the Undertaker's symbol!' in response to complaints from fans. WWE Raw is the Monday night professional wrestling television program for World Wrestling Entertainment (WWE) and is the primary broadcast of the RAW brand. ... For the Combichrist song, see Everybody Hates You Mark Calaway (born March 24, 1965[2][3]) is an American professional wrestler, better known by the ring name The Undertaker. ... Steven James Williams (born Steven Anderson on December 18, 1964)[2] better known by his ring name Stone Cold Steve Austin, is an American actor and former professional wrestler. ... Information in this article or section has not been verified against sources and may not be reliable. ...


Anime series

Rukia Kuchiki's crucifixion-like pre-execution stance. Screencap from episode 54.

In the anime Bleach, when the Shinigami Rukia Kuchiki is about to be executed at the Sogyoku Hill, she's restrained in a position that is very similar to crucifixion. Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Rukia Kuchiki ) is a fictional character and protagonist in the anime and manga series Bleach created by Tite Kubo. ... BLEACH redirects here. ... Rukia Kuchiki ) is a fictional character and protagonist in the anime and manga series Bleach created by Tite Kubo. ...

Sailor Mercury is crucified on a crystal cross. Screencap from episode 74.
Sailor Mercury is crucified on a crystal cross. Screencap from episode 74.

In the Sailor Moon R series, the Inner Senshi are captured by Rubeus and crucified on rock crystal crosses inside of his space ship. Also in Sailor Moon S, during Chibiusa's nightmare, Hotaru Tomoe is bound on a cross with skeletal arms and hands. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Ami Mizuno Ami Mizuno (水野 亜美 Mizuno Ami) is a Sailor Senshi, one of the central characters in the metaseries known as Sailor Moon. ... The anime series logo, which translates to Pretty Soldier Sailor Moon R Sailor Moon R is the shortened title of Pretty Soldier Sailor Moon R ), the second major story arc and series in the Sailor Moon anime. ... This article is about the third story arc of Sailor Moon. ... Chibiusa or Rini in the English versions), is one of the central characters in the Sailor Moon metaseries. ... Hotaru Tomoe ) is one of the central characters in the Sailor Moon metaseries. ...


In the short clips Mazin saga, Sayaka Yumi's robot Aphrodite is tied up to a crucifix and is finally rescued by other Go Nagai robots. Sayaka Yumi was the heroine of the fictional manga and anime Mazinger Z. She was a bit hot-tempered and tomboyish, and had a habit of clashing with the storys hero, Kouji Kabuto even though she had a romantic interest in him. ... The Birth of Venus, (detail) by Sandro Botticelli, 1485 For other uses, see Aphrodite (disambiguation). ...


In Naruto, Kakashi is on a capital T cross in Itachi's illusion and is stabbed with a sword instead of a spear. Also in Naruto, a young boy's father is murdered on a wooden cross. Serialized in Weekly Shonen Jump Shonen Jump BANZAI! Shonen Jump Weekly Comic Original run November 1999 – Ongoing No. ... This article needs to be wikified. ...


At the end of the cultural festival arc of School Rumble S2, Kenji Harima was tied up on a cross and nailed on the ceiling while everyone was celebrating the end of the festival as punishment for sleeping in the bed used for his class play. Serialized in Shonen Magazine Original run 2002 – Ongoing Volumes 18 Ch 248[1] TV anime Director Shinji Takamatsu Studio Studio Comet Licensor Funimation Entertainment Tokyopop Network TV Tokyo Original run October 10, 2004 – April 5, 2005 Episodes 26 OVA: School Rumble - First Term Extra スクールランブル 一学期補習 Director Shinji Takamatsu Studio Studio Comet... Kenji Harima ) is a fictional character in the anime/manga series School Rumble and its male protagonist. ...


Near the end of Neon Genesis Evangelion, the Mass-Production Evangelions fall to earth in cruciform poses, as well as the angel Lilith crucified in Terminal Dogma Original run October 4, 1995 – March 27, 1996 No. ... This article is about the demon Lilith. ...


In one episode of Samurai Champloo, two of the main characters narrowly escape crucifixion for unknowingly using fake passports at a checkpoint. Original run May 20, 2004 – March 19, 2005 Episodes 26 (approx. ...


In episode 3 of Macross Plus, as Myung Fang Lone attempts to deactivate the Virturoid Idol Sharon Apple, she is caught in coils of audio/video cables before being suspended in mid-air in a crucifix-like stance. Macross Plus ) is a four-episode anime OVA and theatrical movie in the Macross series. ... Myung Fang Lone is a fictional character in the Macross universe. ... Sharon Apple is the main antagonist of the anime, Macross Plus. ...


Crucifixion-type imagery is employed in several of the popular Final Fantasy games, including the 7th, 8th, and 10th installments of the series. This article is about the Final Fantasy franchise. ...


In Higurashi no Naku Koro ni Satoko is stabbed with a knife by Shion while chained to a cross. Serialized in Gangan Powered (Onikakushi-hen & Tsumihoroboshi-hen) Gangan WING (Watanagashi-hen & Meakashi-hen) GFantasy (Tatarigoroshi-hen & Yoigoshi-hen) Gangan (Himatsubushi-hen) Comp Ace (Onisarashi-hen & Utsutsukowashi-hen) Original run March 2006 – Volumes 14 Light novel Author Ryukishi07 Artist Yutori Hōjō, Mimori, Jirō Suzuki, Karin Suzuragi, Yoshiki Tonogai Publisher...


In One Piece, Luffy finds Roronoa Zoro tied to a wooden cross while being held prisoner by the Navy. Serialized in Weekly Shonen Jump Shonen Jump Original run August 4, 1996 – (ongoing) Volumes 47 volumes with 479 chapters TV anime Director Konosuke Uda Munehisa Sakai Studio Toei Animation Network Fuji TV GMA 7 Original run October 20, 1999 – (ongoing) Episodes Japanese: 332 of 334 (current) English: 112 of 113... Monkey D. Luffy in Sanjis clothing Monkey D. Luffy (モンキー・D・ルフィ Monkī D Rufi) is the main character of the anime and manga One Piece. ... Roronoa Zoro )is a fictional character in the anime and manga series One Piece by Eiichiro Oda. ...


Crucifixion of Jesus in cinema

Movies dating back to the days of the silent films have depicted the crucifixion of Jesus. Most of these follow the traditional (and often inaccurate) pattern established by medieval and Renaissance artists, though there have been several notable exceptions. In The Passover Plot (1976) the two thieves aren't shown to either side of Jesus but instead one is on a cross behind and facing him while the other is on a cross in front of and facing away from him. Ben-Hur (1959) may be the first Biblical movie to show the nails being driven through the wrists rather than the palms. Jesus is one of the first movies to show Jesus carrying just the crossbeam to Calvary rather than the entire cross. The Last Temptation of Christ is the first movie to show Jesus naked on the cross.[citation needed] In The Gospel of John (2003), Jesus' feet are shown being nailed through the ankle to each side of the upright portion of the cross. In The Passion of the Christ (2004), the crucifixion scene depicts Jesus's hands being impaled, and the centurions dislocating his shoulder in order to impale his right hand, and impaling his feet, and then turning the cross over to block the nails from coming out. A silent film is a film which has no accompanying soundtrack. ... The Passover Plot (ISBN 1852308362) is the name of a controversial, best-selling book (©1965), by British Biblical scholar Hugh J. Schonfield. ... Ben-Hur is a 1959 epic film directed by William Wyler, and is the third version of Lew Wallaces novel, Ben-Hur: A Tale of the Christ (1880). ... Jesus (sometimes called The Jesus Film), is a feature-length motion picture released in 1979 that depicts the life of Jesus Christ according to the Gospel of Luke in the Bible. ... The Last Temptation of Christ, (in Greek O Teleutaios Peirasmos, Ο Τελευταίος Πειρασμός) also published as The Last Temptation, is a novel written by Nikos Kazantzakis, first published in 1951. ... The Gospel of John is a 2003 movie that is the story of Jesus life as recounted by the Gospel of John. ... This article is about the film. ...


Other

In 2000, British artist Sebastian Horsley had himself nailed to a cross in the Philippines in order to gain inspiration for an art project of his. Sebastian Horsley (born 1962) is a London writer and artist best known for having undergone a voluntary crucifixion. ...


Famous crucifixions

  • Jesus of Nazareth, the best-known case of crucifixion, was condemned to crucifixion[24](most likely in AD 30 or 33) by Pontius Pilate, the Roman governor of Judea. According to the New Testament, this was at the instigation of the Jewish leaders, who were scandalized at his claim to be the Messiah.
  • The rebel slaves of the Third Servile War: Between 73 BC and 71 BC a band of slaves, eventually numbering about 120,000, under the (at least partial) leadership of Spartacus were in open revolt against the Roman republic. The rebellion was eventually crushed, and while Spartacus himself most likely died in the final battle of the revolt, approximately 6,000 of his followers were crucified along the 200 km road between Capua and Rome, as a warning to any other would-be rebels.
  • Saint Peter, Christian apostle: according to tradition, Peter was crucified upside down at his own request (hence the Cross of St. Peter), as he did not feel worthy to die the same way as Jesus (for he had denied him three times previously). Note that upside-down crucifixion would not result in death from asphyxiation.
  • Saint Andrew, Christian apostle: according to tradition, crucified on an X-shaped cross, hence the name St. Andrew's Cross
  • Simeon of Jerusalem, 2nd Bishop of Jerusalem, crucified either 106 or 107
  • Little Saint Hugh of Lincoln was an English boy whose disappearance in 1255 prompted a blood libel against the local Jews. A Jewish man was tortured until he confessed to killing the child. The story of Little Saint Hugh became well known through medieval ballad poetry.
  • Archbishop Joachim of Nizhny Novgorod: reportedly crucified upside down, on the Royal Doors of the Cathedral in Sevastopol, Ukrainian SSR in 1920
  • Wilgefortis was venerated as a saint and represented as a crucified woman, however her legend comes from a misinterpretation of the full-clothed crucifix of Lucca.

This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ... Hebrew (Natzrat or Natzeret) Arabic الناصرة (an-Nāṣira) Government City District North Population 64,800[1] Metropolitan Area: 185,000 (2006) Jurisdiction 14 200 dunams (14. ... Pilate redirects here. ... Combatants Army of escaped slaves Roman Republic Commanders Crixus †, Oenomaus †, Spartacus † , Castus †, Gannicus † Gaius Claudius Glaber, Publius Varinius, Gnaeus Clodianus, Lucius Gellius Publicola, Gaius Cassius Longinus, Gnaeus Manlius, Marcus Licinius Crassus, Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus, Marcus Terentius Varro Lucullus, Lucius Quinctius, Gnaeus Tremellius Scrofa Strength 120,000 escaped slaves and gladiators... This article is about the historical figure. ... This article is about the state which existed from the 6th century BC to the 1st century BC. For the state which existed in the 18th century, see Roman Republic (18th century). ... St Peter redirects here. ... A Cross of St. ... Saint Andrew (Greek: Ανδρέας, Andreas), called in the Orthodox tradition Protocletos, or the First-called, is a Christian Apostle and the elder brother of Saint Peter. ... ... Simeon of Jerusalem, son of Cleophas was the leader of the church of Jerusalem, sometimes called the Jewish Christians, and according to most Christian traditions the second Bishop of Jerusalem. ... The Orthodox Patriarch of Jerusalem is the head bishop of the Orthodox Church of Jerusalem, ranking fourth of nine patriarchs in the Eastern Orthodox Church. ... Hugh of Lincoln (1247 - August, 1255) was an English boy, whose disappearance prompted a blood libel with ramifications that reach until today. ... Nizhny Novgorod (Russian: ), colloquially shortened as Nizhny, is the fourth largest city in Russia, ranking after Moscow, St. ... Location Map of Ukraine with Sevastopol highlighted. ... State motto: Ukrainian: Пролетарі всіх країн, єднайтеся! Translation: Workers of the world, unite! Capital Kiev Official language Ukrainian and Russian Established In the USSR:  - Since  - Until December 25, 1917 December 30, 1922 August 24, 1991 Area  - Total  - Water (%) Ranked 3rd in the USSR 603,700 km² negligible Population  - Total   - Density Ranked 2nd in the... Wilgefortis is a saint, known as Uncumber in England. ... Fresco of the Translation of the Volto Santo, San Frediano, Lucca The Holy Face of Lucca (Volto Santo di Lucca) is the venerated wooden corpus of a crucifix, located in the free-standing octagonal Carrara marble chapel (the tempietto or little temple), which was built by the famous Early Renaissance...

See also

Asphyxia is a condition of severely deficient supply of oxygen to the body. ... For other uses, see Atonement (disambiguation). ... Capital punishment, or the death penalty, is the execution of a convicted criminal by the state as punishment for crimes known as capital crimes or capital offences. ... The Crucifix, a cross with corpus, a symbol used in Catholicism in contrast with some other Christian communions, which use only a cross. ... Crucifixion eclipse refers to a three-hour period of darkness that was reported by the synoptic gospels of the Christian Bible to have occurred during the Crucifixion of Jesus. ... Hanging is the suspension of a person by a ligature, usually a cord wrapped around the neck, causing death. ... For other uses, see impale. ... For other uses, see Torture (disambiguation). ... Jan Hus burned at the stake Execution by burning has a long history as a method of punishment for crimes such as treason, heresy and witchcraft (burning, however, was actually less common than hanging, pressing, or drowning as a punishment for witchcraft). ... Justus Lipsius:De cruce, p. ...

References

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Crucifixion
  • This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain.

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Encyclopædia Britannica, the eleventh edition The Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition (1910–1911) is perhaps the most famous edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ...

Notes

  1. ^ "The first recorded instances of crucifixion are found in Persia, where it was believed that since the earth was sacred, the burial of the body of a notorious criminal would desecrate the ground. The birds above and the dogs below would dispose of the remains."
    Smith, Damian Barry, The Trauma of the Cross: How the Followers of Jesus Came to Understand the Crucifixion, p. 14. Paulist Press: Mahwah, New Jersey, 1999.
  2. ^ Crucifixion
  3. ^ Seneca the Younger wrote: "I see crosses there, not just of one kind but made in many different ways: some have their victims with head down to the ground; some impale their private parts; others stretch out their arms on the gibbet" (Dialogue "To Marcia on Consolation", 6.20.3).
  4. ^ Crucifixion in the Ancient World
  5. ^ Annales 2:32.2
  6. ^ Annales 15:60.1
  7. ^ Jewish War V.II
  8. ^ Mishna, Shabbath 6.10, quoted in Crucifixion in Antiquity
  9. ^ Josephus, Wars of the Jews, 5.11.1
  10. ^ Seneca, Dialogue "To Marcia on Consolation", in Moral Essays, 6.20.3, trans. John W. Basore, The Loeb Classical Library (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1946) 2:69
  11. ^ "The ... oldest depiction of a crucifixion ... was uncovered by archaeologists more than a century ago on the Palatine Hill in Rome. It is a second-century graffiti scratched into a wall that was part of the imperial palace complex. It includes a caption - not by a Christian, but by someone taunting and deriding Christians and the crucifixions they underwent. It shows crude stick-figures of a boy reverencing his "God," who has the head of a jackass and is upon a cross with arms spread wide and with hands nailed to the crossbeam. Here we have a Roman sketch of a Roman crucifixion, and it is in the traditional cross shape" (Clayton F. Bower, Jr: Cross or Torture Stake?). Some second-century writers took it for granted that a crucified person would have his or her arms stretched out, not connected to a single stake: Lucian speaks of Prometheus as crucified "above the ravine with his hands outstretched" and explains that the letter T (the Greek letter tau) was looked upon as an unlucky letter or sign (similar to the way the number thirteen is looked upon today as an unlucky number), saying that the letter got its "evil significance" because of the "evil instrument" which had that shape, an instrument which tyrants hung men on (ibidem).
  12. ^ Epistle of Barnabas, Chapter 9. The document no doubt belongs to the end of the first or beginning of the second century.[1]
  13. ^ "The very form of the cross, too, has five extremities, two in length, two in breadth, and one in the middle, on which [last] the person rests who is fixed by the nails" (Irenaeus (c. 130–202), Adversus Haereses II, xxiv, 4[2]).
  14. ^ Liddell and Scott on χείρ. Cf. The Science of the Crucifixion.
  15. ^ Wynne-Jones, Jonathan. "Why the BBC thinks Christ did not die this way", Daily Telegraph, 16 March 2008. Retrieved on 2008-03-16. 
  16. ^ The Cross
  17. ^ John 19:31-32
  18. ^ See Mishnah, Sanhedrin 7:1, translated in Jacob Neusner, The Mishnah: A New Translation 591 (1988), supra note 8, at 595-96 (indicating that court ordered execution by stoning, burning, decapitation, or strangulation only)
  19. ^ Apologia, IX, 1
  20. ^ After quoting a poem by Maecenas that speaks of preferring life to death even when life is burdened with all the disadvantages of old age or even with acute torture ("vel acuta si sedeam cruce"), Seneca disagrees with the sentiment, saying death would be better for a crucified person hanging from the patibulum: "I should deem him most despicable had he wished to live to the point of crucifixion ... Is it worth so much to weigh down upon one's own wound, and hang stretched out from a patibulum? ... Is anyone found who, after being fastened to that accursed wood, already weakened, already deformed, swelling with ugly weals on shoulders and chest, with many reasons for dying even before getting to the cross, would wish to prolong a life-breath that is about to experience so many torments?" ("Contemptissimum putarem, si vivere vellet usque ad crucem ... Est tanti vulnus suum premere et patibulo pendere districtum ... Invenitur, qui velit adactus ad illud infelix lignum, iam debilis, iam pravus et in foedum scapularum ac pectoris tuber elisus, cui multae moriendi causae etiam citra crucem fuerant, trahere animam tot tormenta tracturam?" - [http://www.thelatinlibrary.com/sen/seneca.ep17-18.shtml Letter 101, 12-14)
  21. ^ The Physical Death Of Jesus Christ, Study by The Mayo Clinic
  22. ^ "The Crucified Soldier". Secret History. Channel 4. 2002-07-04. No. 5, season 9.
  23. ^ Legend: A Japanese department store once created a Christmas display featuring a smiling Santa Claus nailed to a cross, Snopes.
  24. ^ That this was the manner of his death is not only recounted in the four first-century canonical Gospels, but it is referred to repeatedly, as something well known, in the earlier letters of Saint Paul, for instance five times in his First Letter to the Corinthians, written in AD 57 (1:13, 1:18, 1:23, 2:2, 2:8). Pilate was the Roman governor at the time, and he is explicitly linked with the condemnation of Jesus not only by the Gospels but also by Tacitus, Annals', 15.44.

Bust, traditionally thought to be Seneca, now identified by some as Hesiod. ... For other uses, see Lucian (disambiguation). ... The Epistle of Barnabas is a Greek treatise with some features of an epistle containing twenty-one chapters, preserved complete in the 4th century Codex Sinaiticus where it appears at the end of the New Testament. ... Saint Irenaeus (Greek: Ειρηναίος), (b. ... On the Detection and Overthrow of the So-Called Gnosis, commonly called Against Heresies (Latin: Adversus haereses), is a five volume work written by St. ... This article deals with The Daily Telegraph in Britain, see The Daily Telegraph (Australia) for the Australian publication The Daily Telegraph is a British broadsheet newspaper founded in 1855. ... is the 75th day of the year (76th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 75th day of the year (76th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Gaius or Cilnius Maecenas (70 - 8 BC) was a confidant and political advisor to Augustus Caesar, as well as an important sponsor of young poets. ... This article is about the British television station. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... is the 185th day of the year (186th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Snopes, also known as the Urban Legends Reference Pages, is a website dedicated to determining the truth about many urban legends, Internet rumors, email forwards, and other such stories of uncertain or questionable origin. ... Paul of Tarsus (b. ... For other uses, see Tacitus (disambiguation). ...

External links

  • Orthodox Christian Icons of the Crucifixion
  • The death of Jesus at WikiChristian
  • New Scientist article on cause of death in crucifixion.
  • "Forensic and Clinical Knowledge of the Practice of Crucifixion" by Dr. Frederick Zugibe
  • About the Shroud of Turin
  • Jesus's death on the cross, from a medical perspective
  • "Crucifixion in antiquity - The Anthropological evidence" By Joe Zias
  • Jewish Encyclopedia: Crucifixion
  • Crucifixion in Ancient Egypt at Islamic-Awareness.org
  • Crucifixion of Joachim of Nizhny-Novgorod
  • The Crucifixion of Christ

  Results from FactBites:
 
Crucifixion (968 words)
Crucifixion sometimes began with a scourging or flogging of the victim’s back.
Ultimately, the mechanism of death in crucifixion was suffocation.
The crucifixion accounts of Jesus Christ are in entire agreement with the customs and practices of the Romans in that period.
Cross - LoveToKnow 1911 (3882 words)
In such a case, after the scourging at the stake, the criminal was made to carry a gibbet, formed of two transverse bars of wood, to the place of execution, and he was then fastened to it by iron nails driven through the outstretched arms and through the ankles.
It is not quite clear which of these two plans was followed in the case of the crucifixion of Christ, but the more general opinion has been that He was nailed to the cross on the ground, and that it was then lifted into position.
In the earliest pictures of the Crucifixion the feet are shown as separately nailed to the cross, but at a later period they are crossed, and a single nail fixes them.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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