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Encyclopedia > Crown dependency
The Isle of Man is situated in the Irish Sea between Great Britain and Ireland, and the bailiwicks of Jersey and Guersey are situated in the English Channel to the west of the Cotentin
The Isle of Man is situated in the Irish Sea between Great Britain and Ireland, and the bailiwicks of Jersey and Guersey are situated in the English Channel to the west of the Cotentin

Crown dependencies are possessions of The Crown in Right of the United Kingdom, as opposed to overseas territories or colonies of the United Kingdom. They comprise the Channel Island bailiwicks of Jersey and Guernsey and the Isle of Man in the Irish Sea. Image File history File links British_Isles. ... Image File history File links British_Isles. ... Relief map of the Irish Sea. ... The Cotentin Peninsula juts out into the English Channel from Normandy towards England, forming part of the north-west coast of France. ... Throughout the Commonwealth Realms The Crown is an abstract concept which represents the legal authority for the existence of any government. ... A United Kingdom overseas territory (formerly known as a dependent territory or earlier as a crown colony) is a territory that is under the sovereignty and formal control of the United Kingdom but is not part of the United Kingdom proper (almost exclusively Great Britain and Northern Ireland). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This article is about the British dependencies. ... A bailiwick is the area of jurisdiction of a bailiff. ... Relief map of the Irish Sea. ...


None forms part of the United Kingdom, being independently administrated jurisdictions, nor do they form part of the European Union. All three Crown dependencies are members of the British-Irish Council. From 2005, each Crown Dependency has a Chief Minister as head of government. However, as they are possessions of the British Crown they are not sovereign nations in their own right, and the power to pass legislation affecting the islands rests ultimately with the British Parliament. The British–Irish Council (sometimes known as the Council of the Isles) is a body created by the Belfast Agreement (also known as the Good Friday Agreement). ... A Chief Minister is the elected Head of Government of a state of India, a territory of Australia or a British overseas territory that has attained self-government. ... The Head of Government is the chief officer of the executive branch of a government, often presiding over a cabinet. ...


These Crown dependencies, together with the United Kingdom, are collectively known as the British Islands. They are treated as part of the United Kingdom for British nationality law purposes. However they maintain local controls over housing and employment which apply to British citizens without specified connections to that dependency (as well as to non-British citizens). Under the Interpretation Act 1978 of the United Kingdom, the term British Islands refers to the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, together with the Crown Dependencies: the Bailiwicks of Jersey and of Guernsey (which in turn includes the smaller islands of Alderney, Herm and Sark) in the... British nationality law is the law of the United Kingdom concerning British citizenship and other categories of British nationality. ...


Each Island has its own separate international vehicle registration (GBG - Guernsey, GBA - Alderney, GBJ - Jersey, GBM - Isle of Man), internet domain (.gg - Guernsey, .je - Jersey, .im - Isle of Man), and ISO 3166-2 codes, first reserved on behalf of the Universal Postal Union (GGY - Guernsey, JEY - Jersey, IMN - Isle of Man) and then added officially by the International Organization for Standardization on March 29, 2006. This is a list of vehicle country identification codes: Contents: Top - 0–9 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z Note * Non-official Note1  There are other, unofficial codes in common... The following is a list of currently existing Internet Top-level domains (TLDs). ... ISO 3166-2 is the second part of the ISO 3166 standard. ... The Universal Postal Union (UPU, French: Union postale universelle) is an international organization that coordinates postal policies between member nations, and hence the world-wide postal system. ... The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) is an international standard-setting body composed of representatives from various national standards bodies. ... March 29 is the 88th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (89th in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ...

Contents

Crown dependencies

Jersey and Guernsey have their own legal and healthcare systems as well as their own separate immigration policies with "local status" in one bailiwick having no jurisdiction in the other. They exercise bilateral double taxation treaties. Since 1961 the bailiwicks have had separate courts of appeal, but generally the bailiff of each bailiwick has been appointed to serve on the panel of appellate judges for the other bailiwick. Tax treaties exist between many countries on a bilateral basis to prevent double taxation (taxes levied twice on the same income, profit, capital gain, inheritance or other item). ... It has been suggested that Mandate (law) be merged into this article or section. ...


Bailiwick of Guernsey

Main article: Politics of Guernsey

The Bailiwick of Guernsey includes the Island of Guernsey, the Island of Sark, the Island of Alderney, Herm and the other islands. The parliament is the States of Guernsey. For the garment with this name, see guernsey. ... Flag of Sark The location of the Channel Islands in Europe An aerial view of Sark Sark (French: Sercq; Sercquiais: Sèr) is a small island in the English Channel. ... Capital St Anne Status Part of Guernsey, Crown dependency of the UK Official language(s) English Head of Government Sir Norman Browse Population 2,400 Currency Pound sterling (GBP). ... This article is about the island. ... The States of Guernsey (French: États de Guernesey) is the parliament of the Bailiwick of Guernsey. ...


Within the Bailiwick of Guernsey, autonomy is exercised by Sark, a feudal (but democratising) state under the Seigneur, whose legislature is called the Chief Pleas, and by Alderney, whose legislature is also called the States, under an elected President. Flag of Sark The location of the Channel Islands in Europe An aerial view of Sark Sark (French: Sercq; Sercquiais: Sèr) is a small island in the English Channel. ... The Seigneur of Sark is the head of the feudal government of the Isle of Sark. ... Capital St Anne Status Part of Guernsey, Crown dependency of the UK Official language(s) English Head of Government Sir Norman Browse Population 2,400 Currency Pound sterling (GBP). ...


Guernsey issues its own coins and banknotes:

These circulate freely in both bailiwicks alongside UK coinage and English and Scottish banknotes. They are not legal tender within the UK, but are often accepted anyway. The Guernsey pound (currency code GGP) is the currency used in Guernsey. ... The British Crown Dependency of the Bailiwick of Guernsey has its own currency, the Guernsey pound, which is linked to the Pound Sterling. ... ISO 4217 Code GBP User(s) United Kingdom, Crown Dependencies Inflation 3. ... Legal tender or forced tender is payment that cannot be refused in settlement of a debt denominated in the same currency by virtue of law. ...


There are few political parties: candidates generally stand for election as independents. A political party is a political organization subscribing to a certain ideology or formed around very special issues. ...


Bailiwick of Jersey

Main article: Jersey

The Bailiwick of Jersey consists of the Island of Jersey and its uninhabited dependencies.


The parliament is the States of Jersey. The States of Jersey Law 2005 [1] introduced the post of Chief Minister of Jersey, abolished the Bailiff's power of dissent to a resolution of the States and the Lieutenant Governor's power of veto over a resolution of the States, established that any Order in Council or Act of the United Kingdom that it is proposed may apply to Jersey shall be referred to the States in order that the States may signify their views on it. The States of Jersey (French: États de Jersey) is the parliament of Jersey. ... The Chief Minister of Jersey (French: Premier Ministre de Jersey) is the head of government of Jersey. ...


Jersey issues its own coins and banknotes:

These circulate freely in both bailiwicks alongside UK coinage and English and Scottish banknotes. They are not legal tender within the UK. British banknotes are the banknotes of the United Kingdom and British Islands, denominated in pounds sterling (GBP). ... The British Crown Dependency of Jersey has its own currency, the Jersey pound, which is linked to the Pound Sterling. ... Legal tender or forced tender is payment that cannot be refused in settlement of a debt denominated in the same currency by virtue of law. ...


There are few political parties as candidates generally stand for election as independents (but see List of political parties in Jersey). A political party is a political organization subscribing to a certain ideology or formed around very special issues. ... Political parties in Jersey lists political parties in Jersey. ...


Isle of Man

Main articles: Isle of Man and History of the Isle of Man

The Isle of Man's Tynwald claims to be the world's oldest parliament in continuous existence, dating back to 979. (However it does not claim to be the oldest parliament, as Iceland's Althing dates back to 930.) It consists of a popularly elected House of Keys and an indirectly elected Legislative Council, which may sit separately or jointly to consider pieces of legislation, which, when passed into law, are known as 'Acts of Tynwald'. Candidates often stand for election as independents, rather than being selected by political parties. There is a Council of Ministers headed by a Chief Minister. The history of the Isle of Man falls naturally into four periods. ... Tynwald (Tinvaal in Manx) is the bicameral legislature of the Isle of Man (Ellan Vannin). ... A parliament is a legislature, especially in those countries whose system of government is based on the Westminster system modelled after that of the United Kingdom. ... The Althing (Modern Icelandic Alþingi; Old Norse Alþing) is the national parliament: literally, the all-thing (or General Assembly) of Iceland. ... The House of Keys is the directly elected lower Branch of Tynwald the Parliament of the Isle of Man, the other of the two Branches being the Legislative Council. ... The Legislative Council of the Isle of Man is the upper Branch of Tynwald, the Manx legislature. ... Acts of Tynwald are legislative enactments of Tynwald, the parliament of the Isle of Man. ... A political party is a political organization subscribing to a certain ideology or formed around very special issues. ... The Chief Minister of the Isle of Man is the Executive Member of the Isle of Mans parliament; Tynwald. ...


The Isle of Man issues its own coins and banknotes, which circulate freely alongside UK coinage and English and Scottish banknotes. The Government of the Isle of Man mints its own Pound sterling coins. ...


Isle of Man Post issues its own stamps and makes significant revenue from the sale of special issues to collectors. Isle of Man Post (Post Ellan Vannin in Manx, formerly the Isle of Man Post Office) operates postal delivery and post office counter services on the Isle of Man. ...


Relationship with the Crown

In each Crown Dependency, the British monarch is represented by a Lieutenant Governor, but this post is largely ceremonial. In 2005, it was decided in the Isle of Man to replace the Lieutenant Governor with a Crown Commissioner, but this decision was later revoked. A Lieutenant Governor is a government official who is the subordinate or deputy of a Governor or Governor-General. ... Crown Commissioner (or Barrantagh y Chrooin in Manx Gaelic) is a relatively new title which may replace the title of Lieutenant Governor of the Isle of Man. ...


Channel Islands

The Channel Islands are part of the territory annexed by the Duchy of Normandy in 933 from the Duchy of Brittany. This territory was added to the grant of land given in settlement by the King of France in 911 to the Viking raiders who had sailed up the Seine almost to the walls of Paris. The Duchy of Normandy stems from the Viking invasions of France in the 8th century. ... The Duchy of Brittany was an independent state from 841 to 1532. ...


William the Conqueror, Duke of Normandy, claimed the title King of England in 1066 following the death of Edward the Confessor and secured the claim through the Norman conquest of England. This is a list of British monarchs, that is, the monarchs on the thrones of some of the various kingdoms that have existed on, or incorporated, the island of Great Britain, namely: England (united with Wales from 1536) up to 1707; Scotland up to 1707; The Kingdom of Great Britain... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Bayeux Tapestry depicting events leading to the Battle of Hastings The Norman conquest of England was the invasion of the Kingdom of England by William the Conqueror (Duke of Normandy), in 1066 at the Battle of Hastings and the subsequent Norman control of England. ...


Subsequent marriages between Kings of England and French nobles meant that Kings of England had title to more French lands than the King of France. When the King of France asserted his feudal right of patronage, the then King of England, King John, fearing he would be imprisoned should he attend, failed to fulfil his obligation. John deer hunting, from a manuscript in the British Library. ...


In 1204 the title and lands of the Duchy of Normandy and his other French possessions was stripped from King John by the King of France. The Channel Islands remained loyal to the 'rightful' Duke, the King of England. Flag of Normandy Normandy (in French: Normandie, and in Norman: Normaundie) is a geographical region in northern France. ...


In retaliation King John laid claim upon the title King of France. Many subsequent English kings fought successive campaigns against the King of France. These campaigns became known as the Hundred Years war. British monarchs finally abandoned the claim to the French throne in 1801. This article is in need of attention. ... The English claims to the French throne have a long and rather complex history between the 1340s and the 1800s. ...


At no time since or before did the Channel Islands form part of the Kingdom of England, and no subsequent order was given to bring them into a union as was done subsequently between the Kingdoms of Scotland and England, and with the Kingdom of Ireland in 1801. Feudal responsibilities remain to the nominal Duke, even though the King of England has subsequently given up claim to the title.


A unique constitutional position has arisen as successive monarchs have confirmed the liberties and privileges of the Bailiwicks, often referring to the so-called Constitutions of King John, a legendary document supposed to have been granted by King John in the aftermath of 1204. Governments of the Bailiwicks have generally tried to avoid testing the limits of the unwritten constitution by avoiding conflict with British governments.


Following the restoration of King Charles II, who had spent part of his exile in the Island of Jersey, the Channel Islands were further given the right to set their own customs duties, referred to by the Jersey Legal French term as impôts. This official stone which marks the inauguration of a municipal office in 1999 bears the names of the Connétable and the Procureurs du Bien Public of Saint Helier. ...


Isle of Man

In the Isle of Man the British monarch is Lord of Mann, a title variously held by Norse, Scots and English kings and nobles (the English nobles in feudality to the English Crown) until it was revested into the British Crown in 1765. The title 'Lord' is today used irrespective of the gender of the person who holds it. The Lord of Mann is the current ruler of the Isle of Man. ... The current Lord of Mann is Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. ... Roland pledges his fealty to Charlemagne; from a manuscript of a chanson de geste. ...


Relationship with the UK

The British Government is solely responsible for defence and international representation, although each island has responsibility for its own customs and immigration. Until 2001, the Home Office had responsibility for the Crown Dependencies, but this was transferred to the Lord Chancellor's Department, now replaced by the Department for Constitutional Affairs. The modern concept of Small Office and Home Office or SoHo , or Small or Home Office deals with the category of business which can be from 1 to 10 workers. ... The Department for Constitutional Affairs (DCA) is a United Kingdom government department. ...


All 'insular' legislation has to receive the approval of the 'Queen in Council', in effect, the Privy Council in London, with a UK minister being the Privy Councillor with responsibility for the Crown Dependencies. Her Majestys Most Honourable Privy Council is a body of advisors to the British Sovereign. ...


Acts of the British Parliament do not usually apply to the Channel Islands and the Isle of Man, unless explicitly stated, and even this is increasingly rare. When deemed advisable, Acts of Parliament may be extended to the Islands by means of an 'Order in Council', and normally the agreement of their administrations would be sought first. An example of this was the Television Act 1954, which was extended to the Channel Islands, so as to create a local ITV franchise, known as Channel Television. Westminster retains the right to legislate for the Islands against their will as a last resort, but this is also rarely exercised, and may according to legal opinion from the Attorney-General of Jersey have fallen into desuetude — although this argument was not accepted by the Department for Constitutional Affairs (The Marine etc Broadcasting Offences Act 1967 was one recent piece of legislation extended to the Isle of Man against the wishes of the Manx Parliament). The Parliament of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is the supreme legislative institution in the United Kingdom and British overseas territories (it alone has parliamentary sovereignty). ... An Order-in-Council is a type of legislation in the United Kingdom and in the Commonwealth of Nations which is formally made in the name of the Queen by the Privy Council (Queen-in-Council), or the Governor-General in a Commonwealth realm or Governor by the Executive Council... The Television Act 1954 was a British law which permitted the creation of the first commercial television network in the United Kingdom, ITV. Royal Assent was given to the Act on 30 July 1954. ... It has been suggested that Channel 3 (UK) be merged into this article or section. ... The current Channel TV ident Channel Television (CTV) is a British television station which has served as an Independent Television (ITV), contractor to the Channel Islands since 1962. ... In law, desuetude (from the French word désuet, outdated) is a doctrine that causes statutes, similar legislation, or legal principles to lapse and become unenforceable by a long habit of non-enforcement or lapse of time; it is what happens to unrepealed laws when they become obsolete. ...


The States of Jersey Law 2005 established that all Acts of the United Kingdom and Orders in Council are to be referred to the States and gave greater freedom of action to Jersey in international affairs.


In recent years, with the development of finance industries and the increasing inter-dependence of the modern world, the Islands have been more active in international relations, concluding treaties and signing conventions with other states separately from the UK. Such treaties are typically on matters such as tax, finance, environment, trade and other questions except defence and international representation. The UK has in recent years, however, agreed to the Channel Islands negotiating directly with the French government on topics such as French nuclear activities in the region as this is a matter on which the UK government holds a view so at odds with the views of the governments of the Bailiwicks that it felt unable to continue to represent the Islands itself[citation needed]. Core of a small nuclear reactor used for research. ...


However, the constitutional and cultural proximity of the Islands to the UK means that there are shared institutions and organisations. The BBC has local radio stations and television programmes in the Channel Islands, though not the Isle of Man, and while the Islands took over responsibility for their own post and telecommunications, they continue to participate in the UK telephone numbering plan and the Islands have adapted their postcode systems to be compatible with the UK. The British Broadcasting Corporation, usually known as the BBC (and also informally known as the Beeb or Auntie) is the largest broadcasting corporation in the world in terms of audience numbers, employing 26,000 staff in the United Kingdom alone and with a budget of more than GB£4 billion... The UK telephone numbering plan, also known as the National Numbering Plan, is regulated by the Office of Communications (Ofcom), which replaced the Office of Telecommunications (Oftel) in 2003. ... UK and Australian postal codes are known as postcodes. ...


Relationship with the EU

Although they are not part of the European Union, having decided not to join when the UK joined, the Crown dependencies have a complicated relationship with the EU, governed by Article 299(6)(c) of the Treaty establishing the European Community: Two parts of the Treaty of Rome deal with special relationships: Article 299 which sets out the territories to which the treaty applies, supplemented by the accession treaties; and Articles 182-188 and Annex II on association with the non-European countries and territories which have special relations with the... The European Community (EC), more important of two European Communities, was originally founded on March 25, 1957 by the signing of the Treaty of Rome under the name of European Economic Community. ...

this Treaty shall apply to the Channel Islands and the Isle of Man only to the extent necessary to ensure the implementation of the arrangements for those islands set out in the Treaty concerning the accession of new Member States to the European Economic Community and to the European Atomic Energy Community signed on 22 January 1972.;

and by Protocol 3 to the UK's Act of Accession to the Community. In international law and international relations, a protocol is a treaty or international agreement that supplements a previous treaty or international agreement. ...


See also

The European microstates are a handful of very small sovereign states on the European continent and the surrounding islands. ... This is a list of topics related to the United Kingdom. ...

External links

  • States of Jersey
  • States of Guernsey
  • Isle of Man Government
  • UK Department of Constitutional Affairs

  Results from FactBites:
 
Crown dependency (626 words)
Crown dependencies are possessions of the British Crown, as opposed to overseas territories or colonies.
In the Isle of Man the British monarch is Lord of Mann, a title variously held by Norse, Scots and English kings until it passed to the British monarch in 1765.
Until 2001, the Home Office had responsibility for the Crown Dependencies, but this was transferred to the Lord Chancellor's Department, now called the Department of Constitutional Affairs.
The Crown - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (940 words)
Crown servants may not sit as Members of Parliament and this is used as a way of allowing MPs to retire before their time—they are awarded a sinecure job which is that of a Crown Servant and thus disbarred as an MP (see resignation from the British House of Commons).
In practice, in the vast majority of cases, the powers of the Crown outside the United Kingdom are not exercised by the Monarch personally, but rather by a Governor-General, Governor, or Lieutenant Governor (as the case may be), on the advice of the ministers of the local federal/national, state or provincial government.
The rights which the Crown possesses in right of a Canadian province are exercised by the province's lieutenant-governor (e.g., Lieutenant-Governor of British Columbia), not the Canadian governor general, and such rights are exercised under the advice of the provincial ministers (not the federal ministers).
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