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Encyclopedia > Crown Estate

In the United Kingdom, the Crown Estate is a property portfolio associated with the monarchy. Historically the possession of monarchs, it has evolved into a unique institution which transfers its income to the Exchequer, that is to the national government. This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... In finance, a portfolio is a collection of investments held by an institution or a private individual. ... This article is about the monarchy of the United Kingdom, one of sixteen that share a common monarch; for information about this constitutional relationship, see Commonwealth realm; for information on the reigning monarch, see Elizabeth II. For information about other Commonwealth realm monarchies, as well as other relevant articles, see... // This is a list of the monarchs of England, Scotland, Ireland, Great Britain and the United Kingdom, that is, the monarchs on the thrones of some of the various kingdoms that have existed in the British Isles, namely: The Kingdom of Scotland, from 843 up to 1707; The Kingdom of... The Exchequer was (and in some cases still is) a part of the governments of England (latterly to include Wales, Scotland and Ireland) that was responsible for the management and collection of revenues. ...


The Crown Estate is one of the largest property owners in the United Kingdom with a portfolio worth over £7 billion ($14.35 billion) as of 2007.[1] The majority of the estate by value is urban, including a large number of properties in central London, but the estate also owns 110,000 hectares of agricultural land and forest, and more than 55% of the UK’s foreshore, and retains various other traditional holdings and rights. The holdings include Ascot Racecourse and the Israeli embassy in London.[1] “GBP” redirects here. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... The foreshore, also called the intertidal or littoral zone, is that part of a beach that lies between average high tide and average low tide. ... Ascot Racecourse is a racecourse, located in the village of Ascot in the English county of Berkshire used for thoroughbred horse racing. ... A diplomatic mission is a group of people from one nation state present in another nation state to represent the sending state in the receiving State. ...

Contents

History

Crown land in England

The history of the Crown lands in England between the reigns of William I and Queen Anne was one of continuous alienation. For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... William I of England (c. ... Anne (6 February 1665 – 1 August 1714) became Queen of England, Scotland and Ireland on 8 March 1702, succeeding William III and II. Her Roman Catholic father, James II and VII, was forcibly deposed in 1688; her brother-in-law and her sister then became joint monarchs as William III... Title is a legal term for an owners interest in a piece of property. ...


When William I died, the land he had acquired by right of conquest was still largely intact. But his successors granted large estates to the nobles and barons who supplied them with men and arms. The Crown lands were augmented as well as depleted over the centuries: Edward I extended his possessions into Wales, and James VI & I had his own Crown lands in Scotland which were ultimately combined with the Crown lands of England and Wales. However, the disposals outweighed the acquisitions: at the time of the Restoration in 1660 the total revenue arising from Crown lands was estimated to be £263,598. By the end of the reign of William III (1689–1702), however, it was reduced to some £6,000. Edward I (17 June 1239 – 7 July 1307), popularly known as Longshanks[1], also as Edward the Lawgiver because of his legal reforms, and as Hammer of the Scots,[2] achieved fame as the monarch who conquered Wales and who tried to do the same to Scotland. ... This article is about the country. ... James VI and I (19 June 1566 – 27 March 1625) was King of Scots as James VI, and King of England and King of Ireland as James I. He ruled in Scotland as James VI from 24 July 1567, when he was only one year old, succeeding his mother Mary... This article is about the country. ... King Charles II, the first monarch to rule after the English Restoration. ... William III of England (The Hague, 14 November 1650 – Kensington Palace, 8 March 1702; also known as William II of Scotland and William III of Orange) was a Dutch aristocrat and a Protestant Prince of Orange from his birth, Stadtholder of the main provinces of the Dutch Republic from 28...


Before the reign of William III all the revenues of the kingdom were bestowed on the monarch for the general expenses of government. These revenues were of two kinds:

  • the Hereditary Revenues, derived principally from the Crown lands, feudal rights (commuted for the hereditary excise duties in 1660), profits of the Post Office, with licences, &c
  • the Temporary Revenues derived from taxes granted to the King for a term of years or for life.

After the Revolution of 1688, Parliament retained under its own control the greater part of the Temporary Revenues, and relieved the Sovereign of the cost of the naval and military services and the burden of the National Debt. During the reigns of William III, Anne, George I and George II the Sovereign remained responsible for the maintenance of the Civil Government and for the support of the Royal Household and dignity, being allowed for these purposes the Hereditary Revenues and certain taxes. The Glorious Revolution, also called the Revolution of 1688, was the overthrow of King James II of England (VII of Scotland) in 1688 by a union of Parliamentarians and the Dutch stadtholder William III of Orange-Nassau (William of Orange), who as a result ascended the English throne as William... A body now called the English Parliament first arose during the thirteenth century, referred to variously as colloquium and parliamentum. It shared most of the powers typical of representative institutions in medieval and early modern Europe, and was arranged from the fourteenth century in a bicameral manner, with a House... Government debt (public debt, national debt) is money owed by government, at any level (central government, federal government, national government, municipal government, local government, regional government). ... George I King of Great Britain and Ireland George I (George Ludwig von Guelph-dEste) (28 May 1660–11 June 1727) was Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg (Hanover) from 23 January 1698, and King of Great Britain and King of Ireland from 1 August 1714, until his death. ... George II King of Great Britain and Ireland George II (George Augustus) (10 November 1683–25 October 1760) was King of Great Britain and Ireland, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg (Hanover) and Archtreasurer and Prince-Elector of the Holy Roman Empire from 11 June 1727 until his death. ...


On George III's accession, he ended hereditary revenues of Crown lands when he surrendered the Crown Estate to Parliament in return for a fixed civil list payment - the income retained from the Duchy of Lancaster.[2] The King surrendered to Parliamentary control the hereditary excise duties, post office revenues, and ‘the small branches’ of Hereditary Revenue including rents of the Crown lands in England, (which amounted to about £11,000) and was granted a Civil List annuity of £800,000 for the support of his household and the expenses of Civil Government, subject to the payment of certain annuities to members of the royal family. Although the King had retained large Hereditary Revenues, his income proved insufficient for his charged expenses because he used the privilege to reward supporters with bribes and gifts.[3] Debts amounting to over £3 million over the course of George's reign were paid by Parliament, and the Civil List annuity was then increased from time to time.[4] Crown land is a designated area belonging to the Crown, the equivalent of an entailed estate that passed with the monarchy and could not be alienated from it. ... The Parliament of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is the supreme legislative institution in the United Kingdom and British overseas territories (it alone has parliamentary sovereignty). ... A civil list is a list of individuals to whom money is paid by the government. ... A not-so-nice duchy. ... A civil list is a list of individuals to whom money is paid by the government. ...


Every succeeding Sovereign has renewed the arrangement made between George III and Parliament and the practice has long been reckoned among those constitutional conventions which it would be very hard to end.[5]


Crown land in Ireland

In 1793 George III surrendered the Hereditary Revenues of Ireland, and was granted a Civil List annuity for certain expenses of Irish civil government.


As in Scotland, the Crown lands in Ireland comprised a miscellany of feudal dues, land acquired for forts, and forfeitures especially after 1688. In the early 1830s the Crown Estate resumed possession of land in Ballykilcine following the insanity of the head lessee. The occupational sub-lessees were seven years in arrear with their rent and the result was the Ballykilcine ‘removals’ – free emigration to the new world in 1846. There is evidence of Crown Estate public work schemes to employ the more distressed in improving drainage etc[6]. In 1854 a select committee of the House of Lords concluded that the small estates in Ireland should be sold [7]. 7,000 acres (28 km²) were subsequently sold for circa. £25,000 at auction and £10,000 by private treaty: a major disinvestment, with reinvestment in Great Britain.


From 1 April 1923, as regards the Republic of Ireland, Irish land revenues have been collected and administered by the Irish Government. At the time of handover to the Republic, quit rents totalled £23,418 and rent from property £1,191. The estates handed over mostly comprised foreshore. The Government (Irish: ) [ral̪ˠt̪ˠəs̪ˠ n̪ˠə heːɼən̪ˠ] is the cabinet that exercises executive authority in the Republic of Ireland. ... Quit rent or Quit-rent is a form of levy or land tax imposed on freehold or leased land by a higher landowning authority, usually government or its assigns. ...


Crown land in Scotland

The hereditary land revenues of the Crown in Scotland, formerly under the management of the Barons of the Exchequer, were transferred to the Commissioners of Woods, Forests, Land Revenues, Works and Buildings and their successors under the Crown Lands (Scotland) Acts of 1832, 1833 and 1835. These holdings mainly comprised former ecclesiastical land (following the abolition of the episcopacy in 1689) in Caithness and Orkney, and ancient royal possession in Stirling and Edinburgh, and feudal dues. There was virtually no urban property. Most of the present Scottish Estate excepting foreshore and salmon fishing has been due to inward investment. This article is about the country. ... The Court of Exchequer was formerly a distinct part of the court system in Scotland. ... The Commission of Woods, Forests, and Land Revenues was established in the United Kingdom in 1810 by merging the former offices of Surveyor General of Woods, Forests, Parks, and Chases and Surveyor General of the Land Revenue of the Crown into a three-man commission. ...


Governance

Previous officials responsible for managing what is now the Crown Estate were:

The Crown Estate now is a public corporate body run on commercial lines by the Crown Estate Commissioners under the provisions of the Crown Estate Act, 1961. It has a property portfolio of buildings, shoreline, seabed, forestry, agricultural and common land worth almost £6 billion, generating revenue of around £190 million for HM Treasury every year[8]. For example, it owns much of Regent Street in London. The post of Surveyor General of Woods, Forests, Parks and Chases was an office under the English (later the United Kingdom) Crown, charged with the management of Crown lands. ... The post of Surveyor General of the Land Revenues of the Crown was an office under the English (later the United Kingdom) Crown, charged with the management of Crown lands. ... The Commission of Woods, Forests, and Land Revenues was established in the United Kingdom in 1810 by merging the former offices of Surveyor General of Woods, Forests, Parks, and Chases and Surveyor General of the Land Revenue of the Crown into a three-man commission. ... The Commission of Woods, Forests, and Land Revenues was established in the United Kingdom in 1810 by merging the former offices of Surveyor General of Woods, Forests, Parks, and Chases and Surveyor General of the Land Revenue of the Crown into a three-man commission. ... The Commissioners of Woods, Forests and Land Revenues were officials under the United Kingdom Crown, charged with the management of Crown lands. ... The Commissioners of Crown Lands were charged with the management of United Kingdom Crown lands. ... In English Law (and as a result, throughout the Commonwealth Realms), body corporate is the legal term for a corporation. ... The seabed (also sea floor, seafloor, or ocean floor) is the bottom of the ocean. ... Common land, or just common, is frequently used to describe a parcel of land, usually near the centre of towns and villages, which is thought to be owned in common by all the members of the community. ... The new eastern entrance to HM Treasury HM Treasury, in full Her Majestys Treasury, informally The Treasury, is the United Kingdom government department responsible for developing and executing the UK Governments financial and economic policy. ... The Quadrant at the bottom of Regent Street. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ...


The First Commissioner and Chairman is part-time. The Second Commissioner is the Chief Executive.


References

  1. ^ a b New York Times, "Windows Opening on the Royal Family’s Wealth", July 15, 2007
  2. ^ Virginia Water, UK official website, "The Crown Estate"
  3. ^ The Guardian, "The royal family and the public purse", March 6, 2000
  4. ^ A Student's Manual of English Constitutional History by Dudley Julius Medley, pg. 501, 1902
  5. ^ ’The Civil List and the Hereditary Revenues of the Crown’
  6. ^ Commissioners' Report for 1853 p601 and 1855 p42 & 43
  7. ^ Commissioners' Report for 1855 p47
  8. ^ Crown Estate report and accounts, 2006
  • R.B. Pugh: The Crown Estate – an Historical Essay, London, The Crown Estate, 1960
  • Annual Reports of Commissioners of Woods & Forests 1811, 1853 and 1855
  • G. Percival (recte G. Percival Best): The Civil List and the Hereditary Revenues of the Crown, The Fortnightly Review, London, March 1901
  • Crown Estate report and accounts, 2006, London, the Crown Estate.
  • Crown Estate publication scheme: website consulted January 2007

See also

This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Deer crossing the Long Walk to Windsor Castle Windsor Great Park (locally referred to simply as the Great Park) is a large deer park and Crown Estate of 5,000 acres, to the south of the town of Windsor on the border of Berkshire and Surrey in England. ... Sir Christopher Howes KCVO, CB, FRICS, FRIBA, DLitt, MPhil, BSc (born 30 January 1942) is a leading British chartered surveyor, property manager, and business man. ...

External links

  • Official site

  Results from FactBites:
 
Crown land - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (745 words)
Crown land is a designated land belonging to the Crown, the equivalent of an entailed estate that passed with the monarchy and could not be alienated from it.
Among the largest Crown lands in the 16th and 17th centuries were the territories of Grodno, Malbork and Wielkorządy with Niepołomice in the Crown of the Polish Kingdom, and Mohylew and Sambor on Lithuania.
Crown lands were reformed in 1775, lessening the abuse of szlachta, and the Great Sejm of 1788-1792 decided to put them on sale, to raise funds for reforms (and modern army).
Crown - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (500 words)
The Crown, a term used to separate the government authority and property of the government from the personal influence and private assets held by the current Monarch of a kingdom.
Crown Estate, the property held by the Monarch in the United Kingdom
Crown of the Polish Kingdom, the territories of the Kingdom of Poland
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