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Encyclopedia > Crown (headgear)

A crown is a symbolic form of headgear worn by a monarch or by a god, for whom the crown is traditionally one of the symbols of power and legitimacy (See Regalia for a broader treatment). Headgear, headwear or headdress is the name given to any element of clothing which is worn on ones head. ... Look up monarch in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article discusses the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...

Contents


Terminology

Three distinct categories of crowns exist in those monarchies that use crowns or state regalia. Places where monarchies maintain rule appear in blue. ...

  1. Coronation crowns - only worn by monarchs at the point of coronation, i.e. installaton by taking possession of the crown;
  2. state or Imperial crowns - crowns worn by monarchs on other state occasions.
    • Similar headgear, worn by nobility and other high ranking people below the ruler, is in English called a coronet. However in many languages the same word is used, e.g. French couronne, German Krone, Dutch kroon;
  3. Consort crowns - crowns worn by Queens consort; these are however not signifying any power vested in her, just of protocollary rank that is, constitutionally, just a courtesy

In Classical antiquity the crown (corona) that was sometimes awarded to people other than rulers, such as triumphal military generals or athletes, was actually a wreath or chaplet, or ribbonlike diadem. Pope John XXIII after being crowned with the 1877 papal tiara. ... Look up monarch in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The coronation of Empress Farah, of Iran in 1967. ... Imperial State Crown of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland It is identical to Queen Victorias coronation crown, with the same jewels, but lighter in weight. ... Queen Elizabeth II wearing the Imperial State Crown An Imperial Crown is usually, through not always, a crown used by a monarch on state occasions other than at the moment of actual coronation, when a special coronation crown is used. ... The Lords and Barons prove their Nobility by hanging their Banners and exposing their Coats-of-arms at the door of the Lodge of the Heralds. ... Coin showing a coronet A coronet is a small crown consisting of ornaments fixed on a metal ring. ... Crown of Queen Elizabeth The Queen Mother. ... King George V of the United Kingdom and his consort, Queen Mary A queen consort is the wife and consort of a reigning king. ... It has been suggested that Greco-Roman be merged into this article or section. ... A General is an officer of high military rank. ... An athlete is a person who has above average physical skills (strength, agility, and endurance) and is thus suitable for physical activities, in particular, contests. ... A wreath is a ring made of flowers, leaves, and sometimes fruits, used as an ornament, hanging on a wall or door, or resting on a table. ... Diadem has a number of different meanings, including the following: A diadem is a type of crown. ...


History

The Mural crown of city walls personifies "Roma" on an Italian postage stamp, 1953.
The Mural crown of city walls personifies "Roma" on an Italian postage stamp, 1953.
Shapur II the Great of Persia. Persian kings throughout Sassanid empire wore more than 100 different Crowns.
Shapur II the Great of Persia. Persian kings throughout Sassanid empire wore more than 100 different Crowns.

The precursor to the crown was the browband called the diadem (see Diadem), which had been worn by the Achaemenid Persian emperors, was adopted by Constantine the Great, and was worn by all subsequent rulers of the later Roman Empire. Mural Crown on Italian postage stamp, 1953 This image of a postage stamp may be copyrighted and/or have other restrictions on its reproduction imposed by the issuing authority. ... Mural Crown on Italian postage stamp, 1953 This image of a postage stamp may be copyrighted and/or have other restrictions on its reproduction imposed by the issuing authority. ... Coat of Arms of Malta includes a Mural Crown The term Mural crown (from Latin corona muralis) as used in Roman antiquity, was a golden crown, or a circle of gold intended to resemble a battlement, bestowed to a soldier who first climbed the wall of a besieged city or... Head of Shapur II, King of Persia, Sasanian dynasty, A.D. 4th century. ... Head of Shapur II, King of Persia, Sasanian dynasty, A.D. 4th century. ... Shapur II was king of Persia (310 - 379). ... The Sassanid Empire or Sassanian Empire (in Persian: Sasanian) is the name used for the forth Iranian dynasty, and the second Persian Empire (226 - 651). ... Diadem has a number of different meanings, including the following: A diadem is a type of crown. ... Achaemenid Empire The Achaemenid Dynasty was a dynasty in the ancient Persian Empire, including Cyrus II the Great, Darius I and Xerxes I. At the height of their power, the Achaemenid rulers of Persia ruled over territories roughly emcompassing some parts of todays Iraq, Egypt, Syria, Jordan, Israel, Lebanon... Constantine. ...


In the Christian tradition of Byzantine and European cultures, where ecclesiastical sanction authenticates monarchic power, when a new monarch assumes the throne in a coronation ceremony, the crown is placed on the new monarch's head by a religious official. Some, though not all early Holy Roman Emperors travelled to Rome at some point in their careers to be crowned by the pope. Napoleon, according to legend, surprised Pius VII when he reached out and crowned himself, although in reality this order of ceremony had been pre-arranged: see Coronation. Byzantine Empire (Greek: Βυζαντινή Αυτοκρατορία) is the term conventionally used since the 19th century to describe the Greek-speaking Roman Empire during the Middle Ages, centered at its capital in Constantinople. ... This article is about the continent. ... The coronation of Empress Farah, of Iran in 1967. ... The Holy Roman Emperor was, with some variation, the ruler of the Holy Roman Empire, the predecessor of modern Germany, during its existence from the 10th century until its collapse in 1806. ... For other uses, see Napoleon (disambiguation). ... Pius VII, né Giorgio Barnaba Luigi Chiaramonti, (August 14, 1740 - August 20, 1823) was Pope from March 14, 1800 to August 20, 1823. ... The coronation of Empress Farah, of Iran in 1967. ...


The corona radiata, the "radiant crown" known best on the Statue of Liberty, and perhaps worn by the Helios that was the Colossus of Rhodes, was worn by pagan Roman emperors, part of the cult of Sol Invictus. It was referred to as "the chaplet studded with sunbeams” by Lucian, about 180 AD (in Alexander the false prophet). Statue of Liberty and Liberty Island Liberty Enlightening the World, known more commonly as the Statue of Liberty, is a statue given to the United States by France in the late 19th century, standing at Liberty Island in the mouth of the Hudson River in New York Harbor as a... Helios in Greek In earlier Greek mythology, the sun was personified as a deity called Hêlios (Greek for the sun), whom Homer equates with the sun Titan, Hyperion. ... This drawing of Colossus of Rhodes, which illustrated The Grolier Societys 1911 Book of Knowledge, is probably fanciful, as it is unlikely that the statue stood astride the harbour mouth. ... Coin of Emperor Probus, circa 280, with Sol Invictus riding a quadriga, with legend SOLI INVICTO, to the undefeated Sun. Sol Invictus (the unconquered sun) or, more fully, Deus Sol Invictus (the unconquered sun god) was a religious title applied to three distinct divinities during the later Roman Empire. ... Lucian Lucian of Samosata (Greek, Λουκιανὸς Σαμοσατεύς, Latin, Lucianus; c. ...

Queen Elizabeth II, wearing the lightweight Imperial State Crown manufactured for her father King George VI's coronation in 1937.
Queen Elizabeth II, wearing the lightweight Imperial State Crown manufactured for her father King George VI's coronation in 1937.

Today, only the British Monarchy continues this tradition as the sole remaining anointed and crowned monarch, though many monarchies retain a crown as a national symbol in heraldry. The French Crown Jewels were sold in 1885 on the orders of the Third French Republic, with only a token number, with their precious stones replaced by glass, held on to for historic reasons and displayed by the Louvre. The Spanish Crown Jewels were destroyed in a major fire in the eighteenth century while the Irish Crown Jewels (actually merely the Sovereign's insignia of the Most Illustrious Order of St Patrick) were stolen from Dublin Castle in 1907. © Cecil Beaton / Camera Press. ... © Cecil Beaton / Camera Press. ... The Imperial State Crown is one of the British Crown Jewels. ... This article describes the British monarchy from the perspective of the United Kingdom. ... Crown Jewels of France, on display at the Louvre The French Crown Jewels were the crowns, orbs, diadems and jewels that were the symbol of royalty and which were worn by many Kings and Queens of France. ... 1885 (MDCCCLXXXV) is a common year starting on Thursday. ... The French Third Republic, (in French, Troisième Republique, sometimes written as IIIème Republique) (1870/75-1940/46), was the governing body of France between the Second French Empire and the Fourth Republic. ... I.M. Peis Louvre Pyramid: one of the entrances to the galleries lies below the glass pyramid. ... (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ... The so-called Irish Crown Jewels were heavily-jewelled insignia of the Most Illustrious Order of St Patrick. ... The Most Illustrious Order of Saint Patrick is an order of chivalry associated with Ireland. ... Dublin Castle. ...


Special headgear to designate rulers dates back to pre-history, and is found in many separate civilizations around the globe. Commonly, rare and precious materials are incorporated into the crown, but that is only essential for the notion of crown jewels. Gold and precious jewels are common in western and oriental crowns. In the Native American civilizations of the Pre-Columbian New World, rare feathers, such as that of the quetzal, often decorated crowns; so too in Polynesia (e.g. Hawaii). General Name, Symbol, Number gold, Au, 79 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 11, 6, d Appearance metallic yellow Atomic mass 196. ... A selection of gemstone pebbles made by tumbling rough rock with abrasive grit, in a rotating drum. ... A Hupa man, 1923 The term indigenous peoples of the Americas encompasses the inhabitants of the Americas before the arrival of the first European explorers in the late 15th century, as well as many present-day ethnic groups who identify themselves with those historical peoples. ... The term Pre-Columbian is used to refer to the cultures of the New World in the era before significant European influence. ... Carte dAmérique, Guillaume Delisle, c. ... Two feathers A white feather Feathers are one of the epidermal growths that form the distinctive outer covering, or plumage, on birds. ... Species Ref: ITIS 553589 Quetzals are beautifully colored birds of the trogon family found in tropical regions of the Central Americas. ...

  • Coronation is often combined with other rituals, such as enthronement (the throne is as much a symbol of monarchy as the crown) and anointing (again religious sanction, the only defining act in the Biblical tradition of Israel).

In other cultures no crown is used in the equivalent of coronation, but the head may still be otherwise symbolically adorned, as a royal tikka in the Hindu tradition of India. The coronation of Empress Farah, of Iran in 1967. ... Tikka is a line of hunting rifles manufactured by Finnish firearms manufacturer SAKO. External links http://www. ...


As an emblem

Pope John XXIII (1958-1963) wearing his own Triple Tiara, given to him on his election as pope.
Pope John XXIII (1958-1963) wearing his own Triple Tiara, given to him on his election as pope.
Crown of Flowers, William-Adolphe Bouguereau, 1884
Crown of Flowers, William-Adolphe Bouguereau, 1884

A Crown is often an emblem of the monarchy, a monarch's government, or items endorsed by it; see The Crown. A specific type of crown (or coronet for lower ranks of peerage) is employed in heraldry under strict rules. Indeed some monarchies never had a physical crown, just a heraldic representation, as in the constitutional kingdom of Belgium, where no coronation ever took place; the royal installation is done by a solemn oath in parliament, wearing a military uniform: the King is not acknowledged as by divine right, but assumes the only hereditary public office in the service of the law; so he in turn will swear in all members of "his" federal government. enhanced, cleaned image of [[Pope Paul VI] - no copyright issues File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... enhanced, cleaned image of [[Pope Paul VI] - no copyright issues File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Adolphe-William Bouguereau (1825-1905) Painting, Crown of Flowers, 1884. ... Adolphe-William Bouguereau (1825-1905) Painting, Crown of Flowers, 1884. ... An emblem consists of a pictorial image, abstract or representational, that epitomizes a concept - often a concept of a moral truth or an allegory. ... The Crown is a term which is used to separate the government authority and property of the state in a kingdom from any personal influence and private assets held by the current Monarch. ... Coin showing a coronet A coronet is a small crown consisting of ornaments fixed on a metal ring. ... Heraldry is the science and art of designing, displaying, describing and recording coats of arms and badges, as well as the formal ceremonies and laws that regulate the use and inheritance of arms. ...

  • Costume headgear imitating a monarch's crown is also called a crown. Such costume crowns may be worn by actors portraying a monarch, people at costume parties, or ritual "monarchs" such as the king of a Carnival krewe, or the person who found the trinket in a king cake.
  • The Eastern Orthodox marriage service has a section called the crowning, wherein the bride and groom are crowned as "king" and "queen" of their future household. In Greek weddings, the crowns are usually made of flowers (synthetic or real) and are kept by the couple as a reminder of their special day. In Slavic weddings, the crowns are usually made of metal and designed to resemble a monarch's crown, and a parish usually owns one set to use for all the couples that are married there since these are much more expensive than Greek-style crowns.
  • Children, mainly girls, sometimes connect flowers together in a chain, and wear the wreath as if it were a crown (illustration, left).
  • Crowns are also often used as symbols of religious status or veneration, by divinities (or their representation such as a statue) or by their representatives, e.g. the black crown of the Karmapa Lama, sometimes used a model for wider use by devotees.
  • A Crown of thorns is believed to have been placed on the head of Jesus before his crucifixion and has become a common symbol of martyrdom. Rapper Kanye West raised controversy when he appeared on the February 2006 cover of Rolling Stone wearing a crown of thorns. So did Madonna when she wore one on the opening night of her World Tour in May 2006[1]

The heraldic symbol of three crowns, referring to the three evangelical Magi (wise men), traditionally called kings, is believed thus to have become the symbol of the Swedish kingdom, but is also fits the historical (personal, dynastic) Kalmar Union (1397-1520) with Denmark (actually the senior partner) and Norway. Yarkand ladies summer fashions. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Swabian-Alemannic carnival clowns in Wolfach, Germany A carnival is a public celebration or parade combining some elements of a circus and public street party, generally during the Carnival Season. ... A Krewe is an organization that puts on a parade and or a ball for the Carnival season. ... A king cake (sometimes rendered as kingcake) is a type of cake associated with Carnival traditions. ... Eastern Orthodoxy (also called Greek Orthodoxy and Russian Orthodoxy) is a Christian tradition which represents the majority of Eastern Christianity. ... A wreath is a ring made of flowers, leaves, and sometimes fruits, used as an ornament, hanging on a wall or door, or resting on a table. ... The Karmapa is the title given to the head of the Karma Kagyu (Bka rgyud), one of the four major schools of Tibetan Buddhism. ... In Christianity, the Crown of Thorns, one of the instruments of the Passion, was the woven chaplet of thorn branches worn by Jesus before his crucifixion. ... Jesus (8-2 BC/BCE — 29-36 AD/CE),[1] also known as Jesus of Nazareth, is the central figure of Christianity. ... Artistic depiction of the crucifixion of Jesus. ... Kanye Omari West is a Grammy Award-winning producer/rapper born on June 8, 1977, in Atlanta, Georgia. ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... // History John Lennon - RS 1 (November 9, 1967)How I Won the War Film Still Founded in San Francisco in 1967 by Jann Wenner (who is still editor and publisher) and music critic Ralph J. Gleason, Rolling Stone was initially identified with and reported on the hippie counterculture of the... The Magi in traditional dress: breeches, capes, and Phrygian caps. ...


Numismatics

Because one or more crown, alone or as part of a more elaborate design, often appear on coins, several monetary denominations came to be known as 'a crown' or the equivalent word in the local language.


This persists in the case of the national currencies of the Scandinavian currencies.


See also

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Crowns
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European & World Crowns

Crown of Bavaria | Crown of Christian IV (Denmark) | Crown of Christian V (Denmark) | Crown of Charlemagne (France) | Crown of Empress Eugenie (France) | Crown of Frederick I (Prussia) | Crown of Louis XV (France) | Crown of Napoleon (France) | Crown of Elisabeta (Romania) | Crown of Maria (Romania) | Crown of Wilhelm II (Prussia) | Crown of St. Stephen (Hungary) | Crown of St. Wenceslas (Czech lands) | Crown of the Polish Kingdom (Poland) | Kiani Crown (Persia) | Imperial Crown of Austria | Imperial Crown of Brazil | Imperial Crown of the Holy Roman Empire | Imperial Crown of Mexico | Imperial Crown of Russia | Iron Crown of Lombardy | Monomakh's Cap (Muscovy) | Royal Crown of Serbia | Steel Crown of Romania | Pahlavi Crown (Iran) | Papal Tiara Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Wikimedia Commons logo by Reid Beels The Wikimedia Commons (also called Commons or Wikicommons) is a repository of free content images, sound and other multimedia files. ... Coin showing a coronet A coronet is a small crown consisting of ornaments fixed on a metal ring. ... This article is about a type of crown called a diadem; for alternate meanings, see Diadem. ... Pickelhaube of a Swedish Royal Guard soldier For the band, see Helmet A helmet (a 15th century loan from Middle French, a diminutive of Frankish helm, from Proto-Germanic *khelmaz, PIE *kelmo- a cover) is a form of protective clothing worn on the head and usually made of metal or... Beauty pageant tiara A tiara (from Persian تاره tara borrowed by Latin as tiara) is a form of crown. ... 16th century Papal Tiara, the oldest surviving tiara in the papal collection. ... Crown jewels are those that belong to the sovereign and pass to the next sovereign to symbolize the right to rule. ... List of Royal Crowns // British Imperial Crown of India Imperial State Crown St. ... Image File history File links Imperial Crown of Austria License:from German language version of Wikipedia. ... This article needs to be wikified. ... The Danish Crown Jewels are kept at Rosenborg Castle. ... The Crown of Charlemagne was the ancient coronation crown of Kings of France. ... The consort crown of Empress Eugénie of France The Crown of Empress Eugénie was the consort crown of Eugénie de Montijo, the empress consort of Emperor Napoleon III of France. ... The Crown of Frederick I was made by the Court Jewellers for King Frederick I of Prussia in 1701, who was crowned in Königsberg. ... The Crown of Louis XV is the sole surviving crown from the French ancien regime among the French Crown Jewels. ... Coronation crown of Napoleon I sometimes called the Charlemagne Crown after the original crown of that name destroyed during the French Revolution. ... The Crown of Queen Elisabeta The Crown of Queen Elisabeta was made at the Arsenalul Armatei from gold. ... The Crown of Queen Maria Queen Maria in 1922 This crown is made of gold. ... Hohenzollern crown of Wilhelm II as King of Prussia The Crown of Wilhelm II, also known as the Hohenzollern Crown, is the 1888 crown made for Kaiser Wilhelm II of Germany in his role as King of Prussia. ... The Holy Crown of Hungary, also known as the Crown of St. ... Crown of Saint Wenceslas is the part of Czech crown jewels (also called Czech treasure) made in 1347. ... Hilt of Szczerbiec Only survived original part of Polish Crown Jewels from times of Piast dynasty is ceremonial sword - Szczerbiec. ... The Kiani Crown (see also Kayani) was the traditional coronation crown in the Iranian Crown Jewels which was used during the Qajar dynasty (1796–1925). ... Crown of the Austrian Empire The Crown of the Empire of Austria (de: Österreichische Kaiserkrone or Krone des Kaisertums Österreich) was originally the personal crown of emperor Rudolf II. It is therefore also known as the Crown of Rudolf II, or the Crown of the Austrian Empire. ... The Imperial Crown of Brazil (Crown of Dom Pedro II) is currently kept on display at the Brazilian Imperial Museum in the city of Petrópolis Emperor Pedro II, wearing several elements of the regalia, and crowned with the Imperial Crown of Brazil, here portrayed arriving to deliver the Speech... Etching of the Crown of the Holy Roman Empire by Johann Adam Delsenbach The Imperial Crown (in German: Reichskrone), is the crown of the Kings and Emperors of the Holy Roman Empire since the Late Middle Ages. ... The Imperial Crown of Mexico was the crown created for Emperor Maximalian of the Second Mexican Empire, who reigned from 1864-67. ... The Imperial Crown of Russia is the crown that was used to crown Emperors of Russia until the abolition of the monarchy in 1917. ... The Iron Crown of Lombardy (Corona Ferrea) is both a reliquary and one of the most ancient royal insignia of Europe. ... Monomakhs Cap (Шапка Мономаха in Russian) is one of the symbols of Russian autocracy, the crown of Russian grand princes and tsars. ... Serbian Royal Regalia. ... The Steel Crown Portrait of H.M. King Ferdinand I wearing The Steel Crown in The Coronation of King Ferdinand I and Queen Maria in 1922 The Steel Crown of King Carol I of Romania is made at the Arsenalul Armatei in Bucharest from the steel of a gun captured... The Pahlavi coronation. ... 16th century Papal Tiara, the oldest surviving tiara in the papal collection. ...


English, Scottish & British Crowns (by chronology)

Crown of Scotland | St. Edward's Crown | Crown of Mary of Modena | State Crown of George I | Crown of Frederick, Prince of Wales | Coronation Crown of George IV | Crown of Queen Adelaide | Imperial State Crown | Small diamond crown of Queen Victoria | Crown of Queen Alexandra | Crown of George, Prince of Wales | Crown of Queen Mary | Imperial Crown of India | Crown of Queen Elizabeth | Crown of Charles, Prince of Wales The Crown of Scotland first worn by King James V in 1540. ... St. ... The Crown of Mary of Modena was the consort crown of Mary of Modena, Queen Consort of King James II of England (who was also James II of Ireland and James VII of Scotland). ... When George I became King of Great Britain and King of Ireland in 1714 it was decided to replace the previous state crown (ie, the crown worn to open parliament) first created for King Charles II in the 1660s by a new crown, as the old one was judged weak... The Crown of Frederick, Prince of Wales is a crown manufactured in 1728 for Frederick, Prince of Wales, Heir Apparent of King George II of England. ... Categories: Possible copyright violations ... The Crown of Queen Adelaide was the consort crown of Adelaide of Saxe-Meiningen, wife and Queen consort of King William IV of the United Kingdom. ... The Imperial State Crown is one of the British Crown Jewels. ... Queen Victoria, wearing her small diamond crown in 1887. ... Queen Alexandra wearing her crown, minus its arches, as a circlet, circa her coronation in 1902 The Crown of Queen Alexandra was the consort crown of Alexandra of Denmark, the Queen Consort of King Edward VII of the United Kingdom. ... The Crown of George, Prince of Wales, manufactured in 1901-1902, is a single-arched silver-gilt crown made for the then Prince of Wales (the future King George V) to wear at the coronation of his father, King Edward VII. It was worn by Georges son, Edward, Prince... Queen Mary, in a 1935 Silver Jubilee picture, wearing her crown, minus its arches, as a circlet. ... Artists painting of the Imperial Crown of India The Imperial Crown of India is a part of the British Crown Jewels. ... The Crown of Queen Elizabeth is the platinum crown manufactured for, and worn by, Elizabeth Bowes-Lyon, the queen consort of King George VI of the United Kingdom at their coronation in Westminster Abbey in 1937. ... Crown of Charles, Prince of Wales The Crown of Charles, Prince of Wales was the crown used by Charles, Prince of Wales at his investiture as Prince of Wales in 1969. ...


See also: Coronation | Crown Jewels | Heir Apparent | Heir Presumptive | King | Monarchy | Queen | Regalia | Royal Family

  Results from FactBites:
 
Crown (headgear) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1048 words)
A crown is a symbolic form of headgear worn by a monarch or by a god, for whom the crown is traditionally one of the symbols of power and legitimacy (See Regalia for a broader treatment).
Such costume crowns may be worn by actors portraying a monarch, people at costume parties, or ritual "monarchs" such as the king of a Carnival krewe, or the person who found the trinket in a king cake.
Crowns are also often used as symbols of religious status or veneration, by divinities (or their representation such as a statue) or by their representatives, e.g.
Night vision goggle headgear - United States Patent 4,703,879 (6704 words)
The temporal strip (18) and crown strip (20) include free ends which are directed toward the posterior of the cranium (22) and are connected by straps (36, 46, 48) to a webbed pad (38) which engages the occipital protuberance to prevent forward rotation of the headgear (10) due to the weight of the goggle (12).
The headgear of claim 10 wherein said pad is generally rectangular in shape, the second strap means is connected adjacent a top corner thereof, and further including chin strap means engagable with the chin of the wearer and fastened to a bottom corner of said pad.
The cranial headgear of claim 29 wherein said temporal strip is formed in a circular shape conforming generally to a human cranium, and said crown strip includes a compound curved area also conforming generally to the curvature of the cranium.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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