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Encyclopedia > Crow
Crow
Common Raven (Corvus corax)
Common Raven (Corvus corax)
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Aves
Order: Passeriformes
Family: Corvidae
Genus: Corvus
Linnaeus, 1758
Species

See text. Image File history File links Merge-arrow. ... For other uses, see Crow (disambiguation). ... Look up crow in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (950x647, 78 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Raven paradox Crow User:Josephseagullstalin User:Rabe! List of Italian birds ... Scientific classification redirects here. ... For other uses, see Animal (disambiguation). ... Classes See below Chordates (phylum Chordata) are a group of animals that includes the vertebrates, together with several closely related invertebrates. ... For other uses, see Bird (disambiguation). ... Families Many, see text A passerine is a bird of the giant order Passeriformes. ... Genera many, see article text Corvidae is a family of oscine passerine birds that contains the crows, ravens, rooks, jackdaws, jays, magpies, treepies and nutcrackers (Clayton and Emery 2005, [1]). Collectively its members are called corvids and there are over 120 species. ... For other uses, see Crow (disambiguation). ... Carl Linnaeus, Latinized as Carolus Linnaeus, also known after his ennoblement as  , (May 13, 1707[1] – January 10, 1778), was a Swedish botanist, physician and zoologist[2] who laid the foundations for the modern scheme of nomenclature. ... Year 1758 (MDCCLVIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ...

The true crows are large passerine birds that comprise the genus Corvus in the family Corvidae. Ranging in size from the relatively small pigeon-sized jackdaws (Eurasian and Daurian) to the Common Raven of the Holarctic region and Thick-billed Raven of the highlands of Ethiopia, the 40 or so members of this genus occur on all temperate continents (except South America) and several offshore and oceanic islands (including Hawaii). Families Many, see text A passerine is a bird of the giant order Passeriformes. ... For other uses, see Bird (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Genus (disambiguation). ... Genera many, see article text Corvidae is a family of oscine passerine birds that contains the crows, ravens, rooks, jackdaws, jays, magpies, treepies and nutcrackers (Clayton and Emery 2005, [1]). Collectively its members are called corvids and there are over 120 species. ... Subfamilies see article text Feral Rock Pigeon beside Weiming Lake, Peking University Dove redirects here. ... Binomial name (Linnaeus, 1758) Jackdaw range The Jackdaw (Corvus monedula), sometimes known as the Eurasian Jackdaw or European Jackdaw, is one of the smallest species (34–39 cm in length) in the genus of crows and ravens. ... Binomial name Corvus monedula (Linnaeus, 1758) The Jackdaw (Corvus monedula) is one of the smallest species (34-39 cm in length) in the genus of crows and ravens. ... Binomial name Corvus dauuricus Pallas, 1776 Daurian Jackdaw range The Daurian Jackdaw (Corvus dauuricus) is a member of the crow family of birds. ... Binomial name Corvus corax Linnaeus, 1758 Common Raven range Subspecies The Common Raven (Corvus corax), also known as the Northern Raven, is a large all-black passerine bird in the crow family, with iridescent feathers. ... The Holarctic is a term used by zoologists to define the ecozone covering much of Eurasia and North America, which have often been connected by the Bering land bridge. ... Binomial name Corvus crassirostris Rüppell, 1836 The Thick-billed Raven (Corvus crassirostris), a Corvid from the Horn of Africa, shares with the Common Raven the accolade of the largest in the family (60-64 cm in length) and indeed the largest of the bird order Passeriformes (perching birds). ... Animated, colour-coded map showing the various continents. ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ...


The crow genus makes up a third of the species in the corvid family. Other corvids include rooks and jays. Crows appear to have evolved in Asia from the corvid stock, which had evolved in Australasia. A group of crows is called a "murder."

Flying Crow showing wing-span.

Contents

Systematics

The genus was originally described by Linnaeus in his 18th century work Systema Naturae.[1] The name is derived from the Latin corvus meaning "raven".[2] The type species is the Common Raven (Corvus corax); others named in the same work include the Carrion Crow (C. corone), the Hooded Crow (C. cornix), the Rook (C. frugilegus), and the Jackdaw (C. monedula). Carl Linnaeus, Latinized as Carolus Linnaeus, also known after his ennoblement as  , (May 13, 1707[1] – January 10, 1778), was a Swedish botanist, physician and zoologist[2] who laid the foundations for the modern scheme of nomenclature. ... Cover of the tenth edition of Linnaeuss Systema Naturae (1758). ... Latin was the language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ... A type species fixes the name of a genus (or of a taxon in a rank lower than genus). ... Binomial name Corvus corax Linnaeus, 1758 Common Raven range Subspecies The Common Raven (Corvus corax), also known as the Northern Raven, is a large all-black passerine bird in the crow family, with iridescent feathers. ... Binomial name Corvus corone Linnaeus, 1758 Carrion Crow range Carrion Crow (rear) The Carrion Crow (Corvus corone) is a member of the passerine order of birds and the crow family which is native to western Europe and eastern Asia. ... Binomial name Corvus cornix Linnaeus, 1758 The Hooded Crow Corvus cornix, (48-52 cm in length) is so similar in structure and habits to the Carrion Crow that some authorities consider them to be merely geographical races of one species, however since 2002 the bird has been elevated to full... For other uses, see Rook. ... Binomial name (Linnaeus, 1758) Jackdaw range The Jackdaw (Corvus monedula), sometimes known as the Eurasian Jackdaw or European Jackdaw, is one of the smallest species (34–39 cm in length) in the genus of crows and ravens. ...


There is no good systematic approach to the genus at present. Generally, it is assumed that the species from a geographical area are more closely related to each other than to other lineages, but this is not necessarily correct. For example, while the Carrion/Collared/House Crow complex is certainly closely related to each other, the situation is not at all clear regarding the Australian/Melanesian species. Furthermore, as many species are similar in appearance, determining actual range and characteristics can be very difficult, such as in Australia where the five (possibly six) species are almost identical in appearance.


The fossil record of crows is rather dense in Europe, but the relationships among most prehistoric species is not clear. Jackdaw-, crow- and raven-sized forms seem to have existed since long ago and crows were regularly hunted by humans up to the Iron Age, documenting the evolution of the modern taxa. American crows are not as well-documented. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Fossil. ... Iron Age Axe found on Gotland This article is about the archaeological period known as the Iron Age, for the mythological Iron Age see Iron Age (mythology). ...


A surprisingly high number of species have become extinct after human colonization; the loss of one prehistoric Caribbean crow could also have been related to the last ice age's climate changes. In biology and ecology, extinction is the ceasing of existence of a species or group of species. ... This article or section should be merged with Wisconsinan glaciation The Wisconsin (in North America), Weichsel (in Scandinavia), Devensian (in the British Isles) or Würm glaciation (in the Alps) is the most recent period of the Ice Age, and ended some 10,000 Before Present (BP). ...


Species

Common Ravens at the Tower of London
Common Ravens at the Tower of London

Australian and Melanesian species Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1440 × 1080 pixel, file size: 796 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) I, the copyright holder of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1440 × 1080 pixel, file size: 796 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) I, the copyright holder of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... For other uses, see Tower of London (disambiguation) Her Majestys Royal Palace and Fortress, more commonly known as the Tower of London (and historically as The Tower), is a historic monument in central London, on the north bank of the River Thames. ...

New Zealand species Binomial name Vigors & Horsfield, 1827 The Australian Raven (Corvus coronoides) is the largest member of the genus Corvus in Australia. ... Binomial name Corvus tasmanicus Mathews, 1912 The Forest Raven (Corvus tasmanicus) is a large Australian species (50-52 cm in length) that inhabits the island state of Tasmania. ... See also Little Crow (disambiguation) Binomial name Corvus bennetti North, 1901 The Little Crow (Corvus bennetti) is an Australian species of crow, very similar to the Torresian Crow in having white bases to the neck and head feathers (shown when ruffled in strong wind) but slightly smaller (42-48 cm... Binomial name Corvus mellori Mathews, 1912 The Little Raven (Corvus mellori) was only separated in 1967 from the Australian Raven () as a distinct species. ... Binomial name Corvus orru Bonaparte, 1850 Distribution map The Torresian Crow (Corvus orru), also occasionally called the Australian Crow, is about the same size (50-55 cm in length) as the Eurasian Carrion Crow but with a more robust bill and slightly longer legs. ... Binomial name Corvus moneduloides Lesson, 1830 The New Caledonian Crow (Corvus moneduloides) is a moderately sized crow (40 cm in length) similar in size to the House Crow but less slender looking. ... Binomial name Bonaparte, 1850 The Long-billed Crow, Corvus validus, is a crow that ranges in the Northern Moluccas. ... Binomial name Corvus woodfordi (Ogilvie-Grant, 1887) The White-billed Crow, Corvus woodfordi, is a short and stocky forest bird (40-41 cm in length) with a short squared off tail and a relatively large head with a very distinctive deep and curved pale ivory coloured bill with a darker... Binomial name Rothschild, 1904 The Bougainville Crow (Corvus meeki) is a species of bird in the Corvidae family. ... Binomial name Gray, 1859 The Brown-headed Crow (Corvus fuscicapillus) is a species of bird in the Corvidae family. ... Binomial name Corvus tristis Lesson & Garnot, 1827 The Grey Crow (Corvus tristis), formerly known as the Bare-faced Crow, is about the same size (42-45 cm in length) as the Eurasian Carrion Crow (Corvus corone) but has somewhat different proportions and quite atypical feather pigmentation during the juvenile phase... Prehistoric birds are various taxa of birds that became extinct before recorded history, or more precisely, before they could be studied alive by bird scientists. ...

Pacific island species Binomial name Corvus moriorum (Forbes, 1892) The Chatham Islands Raven was native to the Chatham Islands (New Zealand). ... Prehistoric birds are various taxa of birds that became extinct before recorded history, or more precisely, before they could be studied alive by bird scientists. ... Binomial name Corvus antipodum (Forbes, 1893) The New Zealand Raven (Covus antipodum Forbes, 1893) was native to the North Island and South Island of New Zealand. ... Prehistoric birds are various taxa of birds that became extinct before recorded history, or more precisely, before they could be studied alive by bird scientists. ...

Tropical Asian species Binomial name Corvus kubaryi Reichenow, 1885 The Mariana Crow (Corvus kubaryi) is a species of the crow family from the north Pacific. ... Binomial name Corvus hawaiiensis Peale, 1848 Hawaiian Crow range The Hawaiian Crow, Corvus hawaiiensis, also known as ´Alala to the Native Hawaiians, is a species of bird about the size (48-50 cm in length) of the Carrion Crow but with more rounded wings and a much thicker bill. ... Diagram of Extinct in the Wild in relation to other IUCN categories. ... Binomial name Peale, 1848 High-billed Crow range The High-billed Crow, Corvus impluviatus, was a species of crow that was endemic to the island of Maui in the Hawaiian Islands. ... Prehistoric birds are various taxa of birds that became extinct before recorded history, or more precisely, before they could be studied alive by bird scientists. ... Prehistoric birds are various taxa of birds that became extinct before recorded history, or more precisely, before they could be studied alive by bird scientists. ...

Eurasian and North African species Binomial name (Horsfield, 1822) The Slender-billed Crow (Corvus enca) is a species of bird in the Corvidae family. ... Binomial name (Bonaparte, 1853) The Piping Crow (Corvus typicus) is a species of bird in the Corvidae family. ... Binomial name Corvus unicolor (Rothschild & Hartert, 1900) Synonyms Corvus enca unicolor Gazzola unicolor The Banggai Crow, Corvus unicolor is a member of the crow family. ... In biology and ecology, extinction is the ceasing of existence of a species or group of species. ... Binomial name Büttikofer, 1894 The Flores Crow (Corvus florensis) is a species of bird in the Corvidae family. ... Binomial name Corvus torquatus Lesson, 1830 The Collared Crow (Corvus torquatus) is about the same size or slightly larger (52-55 cm in length) than the Carrion Crow with proportionately slightly longer wings, tail and bill. ... Binomial name Corvus dauuricus Pallas, 1776 Daurian Jackdaw range The Daurian Jackdaw (Corvus dauuricus) is a member of the crow family of birds. ... Binomial name Corvus splendens Vieillot, 1817 The House Crow (Corvus splendens) is a common Asian bird native to India, Pakistan, Ceylon, Maldives and Laccadive Islands, South West Thailand and coastal southern Iran. ... Binomial name Corvus macrorhynchos Johann Georg Wagler, 1827 The Jungle Crow is extremely variable in both its overall size (46-59 cm in length) and body proportions across the large geographical region that it covers. ... Binomial name Corvus macrorhynchos Wagler, 1827 The Jungle Crow (Corvus macrorhynchos) is a very widespread Asian species of crow. ...

  • Brown-necked Raven C. ruficollis
  • Somali Crow or Dwarf Raven C. edithae
  • Fan-tailed Raven C. rhipidurus
  • Jackdaw C. monedula
  • Rook C. frugilegus
  • Hooded Crow C. cornix
    • Mesopotamian Crow, C. (c.) capellanus
  • Carrion Crow C. corone
    • Carrion Crow (Eastern subspecies) C. (c.) orientalis
  • Corvus larteti (fossil: Late Miocene of France, or C Europe?)
  • Corvus pliocaenus (fossil: Late Pliocene –? Early Pleistocene of SW Europe)
  • Corvus antecorax (fossil: Late Pliocene/Early – Late Pleistocene of Europe; may be subspecies of Corvus corax
  • Corvus betfianus (fossil)
  • Corvus praecorax (fossil)
  • Corvus simionescui (fossil)
  • Corvus fossilis (fossil)
  • Corvus moravicus (fossil)
  • Corvus hungaricus (fossil)

Holarctic species Binomial name Corvus ruficollis Lesson, 1830 The Brown-necked Raven (Corvus ruficollis) is a larger bird (52-56 cm in length) than the Carrion Crow though not as large as the Common Raven. ... Binomial name Corvus edithae The Somali Crow or Dwarf Raven, Corvus edithae is approximately the size (44-46 cm in length) of the Carrion Crow, Corvus corone but with longer bill and somewhat more brownish cast to the feathers especially when worn. ... Binomial name Corvus rhipidurus The Fan-tailed Raven (Corvus rhipidurus) is like the Chihuahuan Raven one of the smaller species (47 cm in length), in fact it is about the same size as a Carrion Crow but with a much thicker bill, shorter tail and much larger wings. ... Binomial name (Linnaeus, 1758) Jackdaw range The Jackdaw (Corvus monedula), sometimes known as the Eurasian Jackdaw or European Jackdaw, is one of the smallest species (34–39 cm in length) in the genus of crows and ravens. ... For other uses, see Rook. ... Binomial name Corvus cornix Linnaeus, 1758 The Hooded Crow Corvus cornix, (48-52 cm in length) is so similar in structure and habits to the Carrion Crow that some authorities consider them to be merely geographical races of one species, however since 2002 the bird has been elevated to full... Binomial name Corvus corone Linnaeus, 1758 Carrion Crow range Carrion Crow (rear) The Carrion Crow (Corvus corone) is a member of the passerine order of birds and the crow family which is native to western Europe and eastern Asia. ... For other uses, see Fossil (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Fossil (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Fossil (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Corvus corax Linnaeus, 1758 The Common Raven (Corvus corax) is a large black bird in the crow family, with iridescent feathers. ... For other uses, see Fossil (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Fossil (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Fossil (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Fossil (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Fossil (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Fossil (disambiguation). ...

North and Central American species Binomial name Corvus corax Linnaeus, 1758 Common Raven range Subspecies The Common Raven (Corvus corax), also known as the Northern Raven, is a large all-black passerine bird in the crow family, with iridescent feathers. ... Morph Corvus corax varius morpha leucophaeus Synonyms Corvus leucophaeus Vieillot, 1817 Corvus leucomelas Wagler, 1827 The Pied Raven (Corvus corax varius morpha leucophaeus) was a color morph of the North Atlantic subspecies of the Common Raven which was only found on the Faroe Islands and has disappeared since the mid... In biology and ecology, extinction is the ceasing of existence of a species or group of species. ...

Tropical African species Binomial name Corvus brachyrhynchos Brehm, 1822 American Crow range The American Crow (Corvus brachyrhynchos) is slightly smaller than the European Carrion Crow in overall size (39-49 cm in length) and also has a proportionately smaller bill. ... Corvus Corax redirects here. ... Binomial name Corvus cryptoleucus Couch, 1854 The Chihuahuan Raven (Corvus cryptoleucus), formerly known as the American White-necked Raven, has the proportions of a Common Raven with a heavy bill, but is about the same size as a Carrion Crow, or slightly larger (44-51 cm in length) than the... Binomial name Corvus ossifragus Wilson, 1812 The Fish Crow (Corvus ossifragus) is superficially very similar to the American Crow but is smaller (36-41 cm in length) and has a more silky smooth plumage by comparison. ... Binomial name Corvus caurinus Baird, 1858 The Northwestern Crow (Corvus caurinus) is very similar to the more western forms of the American Crow (Corvus brachyrhynchos) but it is slightly smaller (33-41 cm in length) and has proportinately smaller feet with a slightly more slender bill. ... Binomial name Corvus imparatus Peters, 1929 The Tamaulipas Crow (Corvus imparatus) is a relatively small (34-38 cm in length) and sleek looking crow with very glossy plumage which is very soft and silky looking. ... Binomial name Corvus sinaloae Davis, 1958 The Sinaloan Crow or Sinaloa Crow (Corvus sinaloae) is a crow native to western Mexico. ... Binomial name Corvus jamaicensis The Jamaican Crow, Corvus jamaicensis is a comparatively small crow species (35-38cm in length). ... Binomial name Corvus leucognaphalus Daudin, 1800 The White-necked Crow, Corvus leucognaphalus, is the largest (42-46 cm in length) of the four West Indian Crow species. ... Binomial name Corvus palmarum Württemberg, 1835 The Palm Crow (Corvus palmarum) is a relatively small black bird in the crow family that occurs mostly on the large Caribbean island of Hispaniola, itself divided into the two countries of Dominican Republic and Haiti. ... Binomial name Corvus nasicus Temminck,, 1826 The Cuban Crow, Corvus nasicus, is one of four fascinating species of crow that occur on a few key islands in the West Indies. ... Prehistoric birds are various taxa of birds that became extinct before recorded history, or more precisely, before they could be studied alive by bird scientists. ... For other uses, see Fossil (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Fossil (disambiguation). ...

  • Cape Crow C. capensis
  • Pied Crow C. albus
  • Somali Crow or Dwarf Raven C. edithae
  • Thick-billed Raven C. crassirostris
  • White-necked Raven C. albicollis

In addition to the prehistoric forms listed above, some extinct chronosubspecies have been described. These are featured under the respective species accounts. Binomial name Corvus capensis Lichtenstein, 1823 The Cape Crow or Black Crow (Corvus capensis) is slightly larger (48-50 cm in length) than the Carrion Crow and is completely black with a slight gloss of purple in the feathers. ... Binomial name Statius Muller, 1776 The Pied Crow (Corvus albus) is a widely distributed African bird species in the crow genus. ... Binomial name Corvus edithae The Somali Crow or Dwarf Raven, Corvus edithae is approximately the size (44-46 cm in length) of the Carrion Crow, Corvus corone but with longer bill and somewhat more brownish cast to the feathers especially when worn. ... Binomial name Corvus crassirostris Rüppell, 1836 The Thick-billed Raven (Corvus crassirostris), a Corvid from the Horn of Africa, shares with the Common Raven the accolade of the largest in the family (60-64 cm in length) and indeed the largest of the bird order Passeriformes (perching birds). ... Binomial name Corvus albicollis Latham, 1790 The White-necked Raven, Corvus albicollis, is somewhat smaller (50-54 cm in length) than the Common Raven or indeed its nearest relative, the Thick-billed Raven . ... A chronospecies is a species which which changes physically, morphologically, genetically, and/or behaviorally over time on an evolutionary scale such that the originating species and the species it becomes could not be classified as the same species had they existed at the same point in time. ...


Crows and Humans

Certain species have been considered pests; the Common Raven, Australian Raven and Carrion Crow have all been known to kill weak lambs as well as eating freshly dead corpses probably killed by other means. Rooks have been blamed for eating grain in the UK and Brown-necked Raven for raiding date crops in desert countries.[3] Binomial name Corvus corax Linnaeus, 1758 Common Raven range Subspecies The Common Raven (Corvus corax), also known as the Northern Raven, is a large all-black passerine bird in the crow family, with iridescent feathers. ... Binomial name Vigors & Horsfield, 1827 The Australian Raven (Corvus coronoides) is the largest member of the genus Corvus in Australia. ... Binomial name Corvus corone Linnaeus, 1758 Carrion Crow range Carrion Crow (rear) The Carrion Crow (Corvus corone) is a member of the passerine order of birds and the crow family which is native to western Europe and eastern Asia. ... For other uses, see Rook. ... Binomial name Corvus ruficollis Lesson, 1830 The Brown-necked Raven (Corvus ruficollis) is a larger bird (52-56 cm in length) than the Carrion Crow though not as large as the Common Raven. ...


Hunting

In the United States it is legal to hunt crows in all states usually from around August to the end of March and anytime if they are causing a nuisance or health hazard. There is no bag limit when taken during the "crow hunting season." According to the US Code of Federal Regulations, crows may be taken (i.e., shot) without a permit in certain circumstances. USFWS 50 CFR 21.43 (Depredation order for blackbirds, cowbirds, grackles, crows and magpies) states that a Federal permit is not required to control these birds "when found committing or about to commit depredations upon ornamental or shade trees, agricultural crops, livestock, or wildlife, or when concentrated in such numbers and manner as to constitute a health hazard or other nuisance," provided

  • that none of the birds killed or their parts are sold or offered for sale,
  • that anyone exercising the privileges granted by this section shall permit any Federal or State game agent free and unrestricted access over the premises where the operations have been or are conducted and will provide them with whatever information required by the officer, and
  • that nothing in the section authorizes the killing of such birds contrary to any State laws and that the person needs to possess whatever permit as may be required by the State.

In the UK, the crow is considered a pest and under certain conditions can be shot under a number of general licenses issued by DEFRA. The Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (Defra) is the United Kingdom government department responsible for environmental protection, food production and standards, agriculture, fisheries and rural communities. ...


In Australia it is illegal to kill native birds.[citation needed]


Evolution

Further information: Corvidae

They appear to have evolved in central Asia and radiated out into North America, Africa, Europe, and Australia. Genera many, see article text Corvidae is a family of oscine passerine birds that contains the crows, ravens, rooks, jackdaws, jays, magpies, treepies and nutcrackers (Clayton and Emery 2005, [1]). Collectively its members are called corvids and there are over 120 species. ... This article is about biological evolution. ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... North American redirects here. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ...


The latest evidence appears to point towards an Australasian origin for the early family (Corvidae) though the branch that would produce the modern groups such as jays, magpies and large predominantly black Corvus. Crows had left Australasia and were now developing in Asia. Corvus has since re-entered Australia (relatively recently) and produced five species with one recognized sub-species. For the Latin alphabet letter, see J. Genera Aphelocoma Cyanocitta Cyanocorax Garrulus Gymnorhinus Perisoreus Jay is a common name for several species of medium sized, usually colorful and noisy passerine or perching birds in the family Corvidae, or crow family, closely allied to the magpies (the names jay and magpie... Genera Pica Urocissa Cyanopica Cissa The magpies are medium to large, often colorful and noisy passerine birds in the crow family, Corvidae. ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ...


Behavior

Calls

Corvus brachyrhynchos call Image File history File links Corvus_brachyrhynchos_call. ...

Call of Corvus brachyrhynchos (American Crow)
Problems listening to the file? See media help.

Crows make a wide variety of calls or vocalizations. Whether the crows' system of communication constitutes a language is a topic of debate and study. Crows have also been observed to respond to calls of other species; this behavior is presumably learned because it varies regionally. Crows' vocalizations are complex and poorly understood. Some of the many vocalizations that crows make are a "caw", usually echoed back and forth between birds, a series of "caws" in discrete units, counting out numbers, a long caw followed by a series of short caws (usually made when a bird takes off from a perch), an echo-like "eh-aw" sound, and more. These vocalizations vary by species, and within each species vary regionally. In many species, the pattern and number of the numerical vocalizations have been observed to change in response to events in the surroundings (i.e. arrival or departure of crows). Crows can hear sound frequencies lower than those that humans can hear, which complicates the study of their vocalizations. Binomial name Corvus brachyrhynchos Brehm, 1822 American Crow range The American Crow (Corvus brachyrhynchos) is slightly smaller than the European Carrion Crow in overall size (39-49 cm in length) and also has a proportionately smaller bill. ...


Loud, throaty "caw-aw-ah"'s are usually used to indicate hunger or to mark territory. When defending a nest site or food, crows will usually enlarge their crest feathers and hunch their shoulders to increase their size. Softer, gurgling sounds have also been observed as a sort of beckoning call, or a call of affection. These noises are emitted from within the throat of the bird, much like a cat's purring.


Intelligence

Crow searching food from punctured garbage bag
Crow searching food from punctured garbage bag

As a group, the crows show remarkable examples of intelligence, and Aesop's fable of The Crow and the Pitcher shows that humans have long viewed the crow as an intelligent animal. Crows and ravens often score very highly on intelligence tests. Certain species top the avian IQ scale. Crows in the northwestern U.S. (a blend[verification needed] of Corvus brachyrhynchos and Corvus caurinus) show modest linguistic capabilities and the ability to relay information over great distances, live in complex, hierarchic societies involving hundreds of individuals with various "occupations", and have an intense rivalry with the area's less socially advanced ravens[citation needed]. Wild hooded crows in Israel have learned to use bread crumbs for bait-fishing. Crows will engage in a kind of mid-air jousting, or air-"chicken" to establish pecking order. One species, the New Caledonian Crow, has recently been intensively studied because of its ability to manufacture and use its own tools in the day-to-day search for food, including dropping seeds into a heavy trafficked street and waiting for a car to crush them open[4]. On October 5, 2007, researchers from the University of Oxford, England presented data acquired by mounting tiny video cameras on the tails of New Caledonian Crows. It turned out that they use a larger variety of tools than previously known, plucking, smoothing and bending twigs and grass stems to procure a variety of foodstuffs[5]. Crows in Queensland Australia have learned how to eat the toxic cane toad by flipping the cane toad on its back and violently stabbing the throat where the skin is thinner, allowing the crow to access the non-toxic innards; their long beaks ensure that all of the innards can be removed.[citation needed] Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (3007x2004, 3288 KB) Summary Crow searching food from wastebag. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (3007x2004, 3288 KB) Summary Crow searching food from wastebag. ... Nofootnotes|date=February 2008}} Aesop, as conceived by Diego Velázquez Aesop, as depicted in the Nuremberg Chronicle by Hartmann Schedel in 1493. ... The Crow and the Pitcher is a fable ascribed to the slave Aesop. ... For other uses, see Species (disambiguation). ... The level of intelligence in birds, as a scientific inquiry, has not been as thoroughly researched as similar questions regarding primates and other mammals. ... Joust redirects here. ... The game of chicken (also referred to as playing chicken) is a game in which two players engage in an activity that will result in serious harm unless one of them backs down. ... Binomial name Corvus moneduloides Lesson, 1830 The New Caledonian Crow (Corvus moneduloides) is a moderately sized crow (40 cm in length) similar in size to the House Crow but less slender looking. ... This article is about the instrument. ... For other uses, see 5th October (Serbia). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... The University of Oxford (informally Oxford University), located in the city of Oxford, England, is the oldest university in the English-speaking world. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... Binomial name (Linnaeus, 1758) Distribution of the Cane Toad. ...


Color and society

Extra-specific uses of color in crow societies

Many crow species are all black. Most of their natural enemies, the raptors or "falconiformes", soar high above the trees, and hunt primarily on bright, sunny days when contrast between light and shadow is greatest.[citation needed] Crows usually hunt in groups of other crows, called murders. Crows take advantage of this by maneuvering themselves through the dappled shades of the trees, where their black color renders them effectively invisible to their enemies above[citation needed], in order to set up complex ambush attacks[citation needed]. It is perhaps here where we find the greatest difference between ravens and crows- ravens tend to soar high in the air as raptors do. Fledglings are much duller than adults in appearance. Orders Accipitriformes     Cathartidae     Pandionidae     Accipitridae     Sagittariidae Falconiformes     Falconidae A bird of prey or raptor is a bird that hunts its food, especially one that preys on mammals or other birds. ... Families Accipitridae Pandionidae Falconidae Sagittariidae The order Falconiformes is a group of about 290 species of birds that include the diurnal birds of prey. ... For other uses, see Raven (disambiguation). ...


While hawks tend to be the primary daytime predators of crows, their most deadly predators, in many areas, are the owls that hunt by night[citation needed]. Crows also will often mob owls much more fiercely when they find them in daylight than the hawks and other raptors[citation needed]. Frequently crows appear to "play" with hawks, taking turns "counting coup" while escorting the raptor out of their territory. Their attacks on owls, on the other hand, possess a definite serious quality.[citation needed] Counting coup was a battle practice of Native Americans of the Great Plains. ...


Intra-specific uses of color in crow societies

Even in species characterized by being all black, one will still occasionally find variations, most of which appear to result from varying degrees of albinism, such as: Albino redirects here. ...

  • an otherwise all-black crow stunningly contrasted by a full set of brilliant, pure-white primary feathers.
  • complete covering in varying shades of grey (generally tending toward the darker side).
  • blue or red, rather than swarthy eyes (blue being more common than red).
  • Some combination of the above

The treatment of these rare individuals may vary from group to group, even within the same species. For example, one such individual may receive special treatment, attention, or care from the others in its group[citation needed], while another group of the same species might exile such individuals, forcing them to fend for themselves.[citation needed] The reason for such behaviors, and why these behaviors vary as they do, is unknown.


Tradition, mythology and folklore

See also Raven in mythology and Cultural depictions of ravens.
The Twa Corbies by Arthur Rackham
The Twa Corbies by Arthur Rackham
Crow on a branch, Maruyama Kyo (1733–1795)
Crow on a branch, Maruyama Kyo (1733–1795)

Crows, and especially ravens, often feature in European legends or mythology as portents or harbingers of doom or death, because of their dark plumage, unnerving calls, and tendency to eat carrion. They are commonly thought to circle above scenes of death such as battles. The Child ballad The Three Ravens depicts three ravens discussing whether they can eat a dead knight, but finds that his hawk, his hound, and his true love prevent them; in the parody version The Twa Corbies, these guards have already forgotten the dead man, and the ravens can eat their fill. Their depiction of evil has also led to some exaggeration of their appetite. In modern films such as Pirates of the Caribbean: Dead Man's Chest, Damien: Omen II and Exorcist: The Beginning, crows are shown tearing out people's eyes while they are still alive. Crows have never been known for this behavior due to their high preference for carrion. Image File history File links Merge-arrow. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Raven in mythology. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Ravens in popular culture. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Raven in mythology. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1391x1888, 290 KB) Other versions no. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1391x1888, 290 KB) Other versions no. ... An illustration from Alices Adventures in Wonderland Arthur Rackham (September 19, 1867 – September 6, 1939) was a prolific English book illustrator. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (624x1924, 277 KB) Please see the file description page for further information. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (624x1924, 277 KB) Please see the file description page for further information. ... For other uses, see Raven (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Legend (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Mythology (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Omen (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Death (disambiguation). ... An American Black Vulture feeding on squirrel carrion For other uses, see Carrion (disambiguation). ... For the surname Battle, see Battle (surname). ... The Child Ballads are a collection of 305 ballads from England and Scotland, and their American variants, collected by Francis James Child. ... The Twa Corbies, Illustration by Arthur Rackham to Some British Ballads The Three Ravens (Roud 5) is a folk ballad, printed in the song book Melismata[1] compiled by Thomas Ravenscroft and published in 1611, but it is perhaps older than that. ... Categories: Movie stubs | 2004 films | Horror films | Exorcism ...


In the Epic of Gilgamesh, the Chaldean myth, the character Utnapishtim releases a dove and a raven to find land, however, the dove merely circles and returns. Only then does Utnapishtim send forth the raven, who does not return. Utnapishtim extrapolates from this that the raven has found land, which is why it hasn't returned. This would seem to indicate some acknowledgement of crow intelligence, which may have been apparent even in ancient times, and to some might imply that the higher intelligence of crows, when compared to other birds, is striking enough that it was known even then. The Epic of Gilgamesh is an epic poem from Babylonia and is among the earliest known literary works. ... Chaldean mythology, also called Chaldaic mythology, is the collective name given to Sumerian, Assyrian and Babylonian mythologies, although Chaldea did not comprehend the whole territory inhabited by those peoples. ... In the Epic of Gilgamesh, Utnapishtim (also known as the Sumerian character Ziusudra) is the wise king of the Sumerian city state of Shuruppak who, along with his wife, whose name was not mentioned in the story, survived a great flood sent by Enlil to drown every living thing on... Subfamilies see article text Feral Rock Pigeon beside Weiming Lake, Peking University Dove redirects here. ...


In occult circles, distinctions are sometimes made between crows and ravens. In mythology and folklore as a whole, crows tend to be symbolic more of the spiritual aspect of death, or the transition of the spirit into the afterlife, whereas ravens tend more often to be associated with the negative (physical) aspect of death. However, few if any individual mythologies or folklores make such a distinction, and there are ample exceptions. Another reason for this distinction is that while crows are typically highly social animals, ravens don't seem to congregate in large numbers anywhere but: For other uses, see Occult (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Afterlife (disambiguation). ...

  1. Near carrion where they meet seemingly by chance, or
  2. At cemeteries, where large numbers sometimes live together, even though carrion there is no more available (and probably less attainable) than any road or field.[citation needed]

Amongst Neopagans, crows are often thought to be highly psychic[citation needed] and are associated with the element of ether or spirit, rather than the element of air as with most other birds.[citation needed] This may in part be due to the long-standing occult tradition of associating the color black with "the abyss" of infinite knowledge (see akasha), or perhaps also to the more modern occult belief that wearing the "color" black aids in psychic ability, as it absorbs more electromagnetic energy, since surfaces appear black by absorbing all frequencies in the visible spectrum, reflecting no color. Castle Ashby Graveyard Northamptonshire A cemetery is a place in which dead bodies and cremated remains are buried. ... Neopaganism (sometimes Neo-Paganism, meaning New Paganism) is a heterogeneous group of religions which attempt to revive ancient, mainly European pre-Christian religions. ... Edgar Cayce (1877 – 1945) was one of the best-known American psychics of the 20th century and made many highly publicized predictions. ... Hinduism (Tattva) and Buddhism (MahābhÅ«ta) Vayu / Pavan — Air / Wind Agni/Tejas — Fire Akasha — Aether Prithvi / Bhumi — Earth Ap / Jala — Water Chinese (Wu Xing) Japanese (Godai) Earth (地) | Water (æ°´) | Fire (火) | Air / Wind (風) | Void / Sky / Heaven (空) Bön Māori According to ancient and medieval science, Aether (Greek αἰθήρ, aithÄ“r[1... Akasha is the Hindi/Sanskrit word meaning aether in both its elemental and mythological senses. ... Psychic ability has many types. ... This box:      Electromagnetism is the physics of the electromagnetic field: a field which exerts a force on particles that possess the property of electric charge, and is in turn affected by the presence and motion of those particles. ... Visible light redirects here. ...



Compendium of Materia Medica states that crows are kind birds that feed their old and weakened parents; this is often cited as a fine example of filial piety. The Compendium of Materia Medica (Chinese: 本草綱目; pinyin: Běncǎo Gāngmù) is a pharmaceutical text written by Li Shizhen (1518-1593 AD) during the Ming Dynasty of China. ... Filial piety is extended into the afterlife. ...


In Chinese mythology, they believed that the world at one time had ten suns that were caused by 10 crows. The effect was devastating to the crops and nature, so they sent in their greatest archer Houyi to shoot down 9 crows and spare only one. Also Chinese people believe that crows mean bad luck, probably due to the colour black. Having a "crow beak" is a symbolic expression that one is being a jinx. Chinese mythology is a collection of cultural history, folktales, and religions that have been passed down in oral or written form. ... This article or section needs copy editing for grammar, style, cohesion, tone and/or spelling. ... For other uses, see Jinx (disambiguation). ...


Gods and goddesses associated with crows and ravens

Shani seated on a crow.

A very incomplete list includes the eponymous Pacific Northwest Native figures Raven and Crow, the ravens Hugin and Munin, who accompany the Norse god Odin, the Celtic goddesses the Mórrígan and/or the Badb (sometimes considered separate from Mórrígan), and Shani, a Hindu god who travels astride a crow. In Buddhism, the Dharmapala (protector of the Dharma) Mahakala is represented by a crow in one of his physical/earthly forms. Avalokiteśvara/Chenrezig, who is reincarnated on Earth as the Dalai Lama, is often closely associated with the crow because it is said that when the first Dalai Lama was born, robbers attacked the family home. The parents fled and were unable to get to the infant Lama in time. When they returned the next morning expecting the worst, they found their home untouched, and a pair of crows were caring for the Dalai Lama. It is believed that crows heralded the birth of the First, Seventh, Eighth, Twelfth and Fourteenth Lamas, the latter being the current Dalai Lama, Tenzin Gyatso. Crows are mentioned often in Buddhism, especially Tibetan disciplines. In Greek mythology, it was believed that when the crows gave bad news to the goddess Athena, she flew into a rage, and cursed their feathers to be black. Myths in India: In Hinduism, it is believed that people who died will take food and offerings through a variety of crows called "Bali kākka". Every year people whose parents or relatives died will offer food to crows as well as cows on the Shradha day. A battle between crows and owls is said to have inspired the final bloody night of the Mahabharatha war. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (974x1222, 162 KB) This work is copyrighted and unlicensed. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (974x1222, 162 KB) This work is copyrighted and unlicensed. ... The Pacific Northwest from space The Pacific Northwest, abbreviated PNW, or PacNW is a region in the northwest of North America. ... For other uses, see Native Americans (disambiguation). ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... Huginn and Muninn sit on Odins shoulders in this illustration from an 18th century Icelandic manuscript. ... Norse, Viking or Scandinavian mythology comprises the indigenous pre-Christian religion, beliefs and legends of the Scandinavian peoples, including those who settled on Iceland, where most of the written sources for Norse mythology were assembled. ... This is the article about the chief god in North Germanic tradition; for other uses see Odin (disambiguation). ... The nature and functions of these ancient gods can be deduced from their names, the location of their inscriptions, their iconography, the Roman gods they are equated with, and similar figures from later bodies of Celtic mythology. ... The Mórrígan (great queen) or Morrígan (terror or phantom queen) (aka Morrígu, Mórríghan, Mór-Ríogain) is a figure from Irish mythology widely considered to be a goddess or former goddess. ... In Irish mythology, the Badb ( crow in Old Irish; modern Irish Badhbh means vulture or carrion-crow) was a goddess of war who took the form of a crow, and was thus sometimes known as Badb Catha (battle crow). ... For other uses, see Shani (disambiguation). ... This article discusses the adherents of Hinduism. ... Buddhism is a Dharmic religion and philosophy[1] with between 230 to 500 million adherents worldwide. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... AvalokiteÅ›vara holding a lotus flower. ... In Mahayana Buddhism, Avalokitesvara or Avalokiteshvara is a bodhisattva who embodies the compassion of all Buddhas. ... This article is about the Dalai Lama lineage. ... Tenzin Gyatso is the fourteenth and current Dalai Lama. ...


Virus

The American crow is very susceptible to the West Nile virus, a disease just recently introduced in North America. American crows usually die within one week of acquiring the disease with only very few surviving exposure. Crows are so affected by the disease that their deaths are now serving as an indicator of the West Nile Virus’ activity in an area. West Nile virus (or WNV) is a virus of the family Flaviviridae; part of the Japanese encephalitis (JE) antigenic complex of viruses, it is found in both tropical and temperate regions. ...


See also

Genera many, see article text Corvidae is a family of oscine passerine birds that contains the crows, ravens, rooks, jackdaws, jays, magpies, treepies and nutcrackers (Clayton and Emery 2005, [1]). Collectively its members are called corvids and there are over 120 species. ... Scarecrows in a rice paddy in Japan For other uses, see Scarecrow (disambiguation). ... To eat boiled crow is to be proven wrong after having strongly expressed ones opinion. ... In Greek mythology, Ischys Ισχυς was the son of Elatus and Hippea, and also the lover of Coronis. ... 1 Aspinall Street, Mytholmroyd, West Yorkshire, where Ted Hughes was born. ... Crow Possibly Ted Hughes most important work, a collection of biblical-themed surreal poems based around the mythological creature of Crow, which came to Hughes while influenced by the American artist Leonard Baskin, whose work involved reproductions of dismembered body parts. ... Binomial name Cyanocorax caerulus , Azure jay (cyanocorax caerulus) - is a bird passeriform of the family of the (corvídeos), with approximately 40 cm, of blue general coloration and black in the head, in the front part of the neck and in the superior of the chest. ...

References

  1. ^ (Latin) Linnaeus, C (1758). Systema naturae per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata.. Holmiae. (Laurentii Salvii)., 824. 
  2. ^ Simpson, D.P. (1979). Cassell's Latin Dictionary, 5, London: Cassell Ltd., 883. ISBN 0-304-52257-0. 
  3. ^ Goodwin D. (1983). Crows of the World. Queensland University Press, St Lucia, Qld. ISBN 0-7022-1015-3. 
  4. ^ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Most_Extreme#Season_1
  5. ^ Discovery News Top Stories : Discovery Channel
  • Gill, B. J. (2003): Osteometry and 1: 43-58. doi:10.1017/S1477201903001019 (HTML abstract)
  • Worthy, Trevor H. & Holdaway, Richard N. (2002): The lost world of the Moa: Prehistoric Life of New Zealand. Indiana University Press, Bloomington. ISBN 0-253-34034-9.

Carl Linnaeus, Latinized as Carolus Linnaeus, also known after his ennoblement as  , (May 13, 1707[1] – January 10, 1778), was a Swedish botanist, physician and zoologist[2] who laid the foundations for the modern scheme of nomenclature. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ...

External links

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Crows and Ravens (1083 words)
The bases of the feathers of the crows are white, while those of the ravens are grey, although this characteristic is perhaps only of benefit if birds are held in the hand or if discarded feathers are found.
Crows and ravens are found throughout Australia, in all habitat types, with the exception of the more arid areas of Western Australia.
One concern with the possible establishment of the House Crow in Australia, is its record as a pest of crops.
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