FACTOID # 9: The bookmobile capital of America is Kentucky.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
 
WHAT'S NEW
RELATED ARTICLES
People who viewed "Cronus" also viewed:
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Cronus
Greek deities
series
Primordial deities
Olympians
Aquatic deities
Chthonic deities
Personified concepts
Other deities
Titans
The Twelve Titans:
Oceanus and Tethys,
Hyperion and Theia,
Coeus and Phoebe,
Cronus and Rhea,
Mnemosyne, Themis,
Crius, Iapetus
Children of Hyperion:
Eos, Helios, Selene
Daughters of Coeus:
Leto and Asteria
Sons of Iapetus:
Atlas, Prometheus,
Epimetheus, Menoetius

Cronus (Ancient Greek Κρόνος, Krónos), also called Cronos or Kronos, was the leader and the youngest of the first generation of Titans, divine descendants of Gaia, the earth, and Uranos, the sky. He overthrew his father, Ouranos, and ruled during the mythological Golden Age, until he was overthrown by his own son and imprisoned in Tartarus [1] or sent to rule the paradise of the Elysian Fields.[2] For other uses, see Chronos (disambiguation). ... Cronus may refer to: Cronus - Was the leader and the youngest of the first generation of Titans in Greek mythology Cronus, the name of the sample company provided with Microsoft Dynamics NAV. Cronus (Stargate), a fictional character in the science fiction television series Stargate SG-1 Cronus is a Titan... The bust of Zeus found at Otricoli (Sala Rotonda, Museo Pio-Clementino, Vatican) Greek mythology is the body of stories belonging to the Ancient Greeks concerning their gods and heroes, the nature of the world and the origins and significance of their own cult and ritual practices. ... The ancient Greeks proposed many different ideas about the primordial gods in their mythology. ... The Twelve Olympians by Monsiau, circa late 18th century. ... The ancient Greeks had a very small number of see gods. ... For other uses, see Chthon (disambiguation). ... For the rock band, see Muse (band). ... Asclepius (Greek , transliterated AsklÄ“piós; Latin Aesculapius) is the demigod of medicine and healing in ancient Greek mythology. ... This article is about the race of Titans in Greek mythology. ... Oceanus, with his wife, Tethys, ruled the seas before Poseidon. ... In Greek mythology, Tethys was a Titaness and sea goddess who was both sister and wife of Oceanus. ... This article is about Hyperion, a Titan in Greek mythology. ... In Greek mythology, Theia (also written Thea or Thia), also called Euryphaessa (wide-shining), was a Titan. ... In Greek mythology, Coeus (also Koios) was the Titan of intelligence. ... Phoebe (pronunced fee-bee) was one of the original Titans, one set of sons and daughters of Uranus and Gaia. ... Rhea (or Ria meaning she who flows) was the Titaness daughter of Uranus and of Gaia. ... Mnemosyne (Greek , IPA in RP and in General American) (sometimes confused with Mneme or compared with Memoria) was the personification of memory in Greek mythology. ... In Greek mythology, Hesiod mentions Themis among the six sons and six daughters—of whom Cronos was one—of Gaia and Ouranos, that is, of Earth with Sky. ... In Greek mythology, Crius was one of the Titans, a son of Uranus and Gaia. ... In Greek mythology Iapetus, or Iapetos, was a Titan, the son of Uranus and Gaia, and father (by an Oceanid named Clymene or Asia) of Atlas, Prometheus, Epimetheus, and Menoetius and through Prometheus and Epimetheus and Atlas an ancestor of the human race. ... Eos, by Evelyn De Morgan (1850 - 1919), 1895 (Columbia Museum of Art, Columbia, SC): for a Pre-Raphaelite painter, Eos was still the classical pagan equivalent of an angel Eos (dawn) was, in Greek Mythology, the Titan goddess of the dawn, who rose from her home at the edge of... For other uses, see Helios (disambiguation). ... This article is about the Greek goddess. ... For other uses, see Leto (disambiguation). ... Asteria in Greek mythology can refer to: // In Greek mythology, Asteria was the sixth Amazon killed by Heracles when he came for Hippolytes girdle. ... Lee Lawries colossal bronze Atlas, Rockefeller Center, New York For the Transformers character see King Atlas (Transformers). ... Prometheus Brings Fire to Mankind, by Heinrich Füger, (1817). ... In Greek mythology, Epimetheus (hindsight, literally hind-thought) was the brother of Prometheus (foresight, literally fore-thought), a pair of Titans who acted as representatives of mankind (Kerenyi 1951, p 207). ... For other uses, see Menoetius. ... Beginning of Homers Odyssey The Ancient Greek language is the historical stage of the Greek language[1] as it existed during the Archaic (9th–6th centuries BC) and Classical (5th–4th centuries BC) periods in Ancient Greece. ... This article is about the race of Titans in Greek mythology. ... For other uses, see Gaia. ... For other uses, see Uranus (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Uranus (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article is about the deity and the place in Greek mythology. ... For other uses, see Elysium (disambiguation). ...


As a result of his association with the bountiful and virtuous Golden Age, Cronus was worshipped as a harvest deity, overseeing crops such as grains, nature, agriculture, and the progression of time in relation to humans in general. He was usually depicted with a sickle, which he used to harvest crops and which was also the weapon he used to castrate and depose Ouranos. In Athens, on the twelfth day of every month (Hekatombaion), a festival called Kronia was held in honor of Cronus to celebrate the harvest. Cronus was also identified in classical antiquity with the Roman deity Saturn. Look up Harvest in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is about the term Deity in the context of mysticism and theology. ... Using a sickle A sickle is a curved, hand-held agricultural tool typically used for harvesting grain crops before the advent of modern harvesting machinery. ... Castration, gelding, neutering, orchiectomy or orchidectomy is any action, surgical or otherwise, by which a biological male loses use of the testes. ... For other uses, see Athens (disambiguation). ... The Attic calendar is the calendar that was in use in ancient Attica, the ancestral territory of the Athenian polis. ... In Athens, on the twelfth day of the month of (Hekatombaion), a festival called Kronia was held in honor of Cronus, a god of agriculture, and to celebrate the harvest. ... Classical antiquity is a broad term for a long period of cultural history centered on the Mediterranean Sea, which begins roughly with the earliest-recorded Greek poetry of Homer (7th century BC), and continues through the rise of Christianity and the fall of the Western Roman Empire (5th century AD... A head of Minerva found in the ruins of the Roman baths in Bath Roman mythology, the mythological beliefs of the people of Ancient Rome, can be considered as having two parts. ... Saturnus, Caravaggio, 16th c. ...


The etymology of the name is obscure. It may be related to "horned", suggesting a possible connection with the ancient Indian demon Kroni or the Levantine deity El. In the Alexandrian and Renaissance periods there was some confusion with the word χρόνος, Chronos, meaning time. Kroni is a mythical figure found in Ayyavazhi mythology. ... Ä’l (אל) is a Northwest Semitic word and name translated into English as either god or God or left untranslated as El, depending on the context. ... This article is about the European Renaissance of the 14th-17th centuries. ... This article is about the concept of time. ...

Contents

In Greek mythology and early myths

In ancient Greek myths, Cronus envied the power of his father, the ruler of the universe, Ouranos. Ouranos drew the enmity of Cronus' mother, Gaia, when he hid the gigantic youngest children of Gaia, the hundred-armed Hecatonchires and one-eyed Cyclops, in Tartarus, so that they would not see the light. Gaia created a great sickle and gathered together Cronus and his brothers to persuade them to kill Ouranos. Only Cronus was willing to do the deed, so Gaia gave him the sickle and placed him in ambush. When Ouranos met with Gaia, Cronus attacked him with the sickle by cutting off his genitals, castrating him and casting the severed member into the sea. From the blood (or, by a few accounts, semen) that spilled out from Ouranos and fell upon the earth, the Gigantes, Erinyes, and Meliae were produced. From the member that was cast into the sea, Aphrodite later emerged.[3] For this, Ouranos threatened vengeance and called his sons titenes (according to Hesiod meaning "straining ones," the source of the word "titan", but this etymology is disputed) for overstepping their boundaries and daring to commit such an act. For other uses, see Uranus (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Gaia. ... The Hecatonchires, or Hekatonkheires, were three gargantuan figures of an archaic stage of Greek mythology. ... This page is about the mythical creature. ... This article is about the deity and the place in Greek mythology. ... Using a sickle A sickle is a curved, hand-held agricultural tool typically used for harvesting grain crops before the advent of modern harvesting machinery. ... Castration (also referred as: gelding, neutering, orchiectomy, orchidectomy, and oophorectomy) is any action, surgical, chemical, or otherwise, by which a male loses the functions of the testes or a female loses the functions of the ovaries. ... For other uses, see Blood (disambiguation). ... Horse semen being collected for breeding purposes. ... Gigantomachia: Dionysos attacking a Gigante, Attic red-figure pelike, ca. ... Two Furies, from an ancient vase. ... In Greek mythology, the Meliae were nymphs of the manna-ash tree. ... The Birth of Venus, (detail) by Sandro Botticelli, 1485 For other uses, see Aphrodite (disambiguation). ...

Saturn Devouring His Son: oil mural transferred to canvas by Francisco Goya, c. 1819-1823 (Museo del Prado, Madrid)

In an alternate version of this myth, a more benevolent Cronus overthrew the wicked serpentine Titan Ophion. In doing so, he released the world from bondage and for a time ruled it justly. Download high resolution version (618x1112, 89 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (618x1112, 89 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Saturn Devouring His Son is the name given to a painting by Spanish artist Francisco Goya. ... Goya redirects here. ... Bold text The Museo del Prado is a famous museum and art gallery located in Madrid; the capital of Spain. ... This article is about the Spanish capital. ... In Greek mythology, Ophion (serpent), also called Ophioneus ruled the world with Eurynome before the two of them were cast down by Cronus and Rhea, according to some sources. ...


After dispatching Ouranos, Cronus re-imprisoned the Hecatonchires, the Gigantes, and the Cyclopes and set the dragon Campe to guard them. He and Rhea took the throne of the world as king and queen. This period of Cronus' rule was called the Golden Age, as the people of the time had no need for laws or rules; everyone did the right thing, and immorality was absent. The Hecatonchires, or Hekatonkheires, were three gargantuan figures of an archaic stage of Greek mythology. ... Gigantomachia: Dionysos attacking a Gigante, Attic red-figure pelike, ca. ... This page is about the mythical creature. ... A female monster in Greek mythology, Campe (crooked) guarded the Hecatonchires and Cyclopes in Tartarus after Cronus imprisoned them there; she was killed by Zeus when he rescued his uncles for help in the Titanomachy. ... Rhea (or Ria meaning she who flows) was the Titaness daughter of Uranus and of Gaia. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Cronus learned from Gaia and Ouranos that he was destined to be overcome by his own son, just as he had overthrown his father. As a result, although he sired the gods Demeter, Hera, Hades, Hestia, and Poseidon by Rhea, he swallowed them all as soon as they were born to preempt the prophecy. When the sixth child was born, Zeus, Rhea sought Gaia to devise a plan to save them and to eventually get retribution on Cronus for his acts against his father and children. Rhea secretly gave birth to Zeus in Crete, and handed Cronus a stone wrapped in swaddling clothes, also known as the Omphalos Stone, which he promptly swallowed, thinking that it was his son. This article is about the grain goddess Demeter. ... For other uses, see Hera (disambiguation). ... Hades, Greek god of the underworld, enthroned, with his bird-headed staff, on a red-figure Apulian vase made in the 4th century BC. For other uses, see Hades (disambiguation). ... In Greek mythology, virginal Hestia,(Roman name, Vesta) daughter of Cronus and Rhea, (ancient Greek ) is the goddess of the hearth, of the right ordering of domesticity and the family, who received the first offering at every sacrifice in the household. ... Neptune reigns in the city of Bristol. ... For other uses, see Zeus (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Crete (disambiguation). ... The Omphalos in Delphi An omphalos is a religious stone artifact in the ancient world. ...


Rhea kept Zeus hidden in a cave on Mount Ida, Crete. According to some versions of the story, he was then raised by a goat named Amalthea, while a company of Kouretes, armored male dancers, shouted and clapped their hands to make enough noise to mask the baby's cries from Cronus. Other versions of the myth have Zeus raised by the nymph Adamanthea, who hid Zeus by dangling him by a rope from a tree so that he was suspended between the earth, the sea, and the sky, all of which were ruled by his father, Cronus. Still other versions of the tale say that Zeus was raised by his grandmother, Gaia. Mount Ida, known variously as Idha, Ídhi, Idi and now Psiloritis, is a mountain in Crete. ... Infancy of Zeus by Jacob Jordaens, c. ... The Korybantes, called the Kurbantes in Phrygia, were the crested dancers who worshipped the Phrygian goddess Cybele with drumming and dancing. ... A nymph in Greek mythology, Adamanthea helped raise the infant Zeus to hide him from his father, Cronus. ...


Once he had grown up, Zeus used a poison given to him by Gaia to force Cronus (Kronos or Kronus) to disgorge the contents of his stomach in reverse order: first the stone, which was set down at Pytho under the glens of Mount Parnassus to be a sign to mortal men, then the goat, and then his two brothers and three sisters. In other versions of the tale, Metis gave Cronus an emetic to force him to disgorge the children, or Zeus cut Cronus' stomach open. After freeing his siblings, Zeus released the Gigantes, the Hecatonchires, and the Cyclopes, who forged for him his thunderbolts. In a vast war called the Titanomachy, Zeus and his brothers and sisters, with the help of the Gigantes, Hecatonchires, and Cyclopes, overthrew Cronus and the other Titans. Afterwards, many of the Titans were confined in Tartarus. Some Titans were not banished to Tartarus. Cronus, Epimetheus, Menoetius, Oceanus and Prometheus are examples of Titans who were not imprisoned in Tartarus following the Titanomachy. Gaia bore the monster Typhon to claim revenge for the imprisoned Titans, though Zeus was victorious. Accounts of the fate of Cronus after the Titanomachy differ. In Homeric and other texts he is imprisoned with the other Titans in Tartarus. In Orphic poems, he is imprisoned for eternity in the cave of Nyx. Pindar describes his release from Tartarus, where he is made King of Elysium by Zeus. Mount Parnassus is a mountain of barren limestone in central Greece that towers above Delphi, north of the Gulf of Corinth, and offers scenic views of the surrounding olive groves and countryside. ... In Greek mythology, Metis (wisdom or wise counsel) was a Titaness who was the first great spouse of Zeus, indeed his equal (Hesiod, Theogony 896) and the mother of Athena. ... Vomiting (or emesis) is the forceful expulsion of the contents of ones stomach through the mouth. ... In Greek mythology, the Titanomachy, or War of the Titans (Greek: Τιτανομαχία), was the eleven-year series of battles fought between the two races of deities long before the existence of mankind: the Titans, fighting from Mount Othrys, and the Olympians, who would come to reign on Mount Olympus. ... This article is about the deity and the place in Greek mythology. ... This article is about the deity and the place in Greek mythology. ... In Greek mythology, the Titanomachy, or War of the Titans (Greek: Τιτανομαχία), was the eleven-year series of battles fought between the two races of deities long before the existence of mankind: the Titans, fighting from Mount Othrys, and the Olympians, who would come to reign on Mount Olympus. ... Zeus darting his lightning at Typhon, Chalcidian black-figured hydria, ca. ... This article is about the Greek poet Homer and the works attributed to him. ...


Other children Cronus is reputed to have fathered include Chiron, by Philyra, and Eris, by Nyx (according to one of the ancient Scholia). Chiron and Achilles In Greek mythology, Chiron (hand) — sometimes transliterated Cheiron or rarely Kiron — was held as the superlative centaur among his brethren. ... In Greek mythology, Philyra was an Oceanid, a daughter of Oceanus and Tethys. ... Eris (ca. ... In Greek mythology, Nyx (, Nox in Roman translation) was the primordial goddess of the night. ...


Cronos is again mentioned in the Sibylline Oracles, particularly book three, which makes Cronos, 'Titan' and Iapetus, the three sons of Ouranos and Gaia, each to receive a third division of the Earth, and Cronos is made king over all. After the death of Ouranos, Titan's sons attempt to destroy Cronos' and Rhea's male offspring as soon as they are born, but at Dodona, Rhea secretly bears her sons Zeus, Poseidon and Hades and sends them to Phrygia to be raised in the care of three Cretans. Upon learning this, sixty of Titan's men then imprison Cronos and Rhea, causing the sons of Cronos to declare and fight the first of all wars against them. This account mentions nothing about Cronos either killing his father or attempting to kill any of his children. The surviving Sibylline Oracles are not the famous Sibylline Books of Roman history, which were lost not once, but twice, and thus there is very little knowledge of the actual contents. ... In Greek mythology Iapetus, or Iapetos, was a Titan, the son of Uranus and Gaia, and father (by an Oceanid named Clymene or Asia) of Atlas, Prometheus, Epimetheus, and Menoetius and through Prometheus and Epimetheus and Atlas an ancestor of the human race. ... For other uses, see Dodona (disambiguation). ... In antiquity, Phrygia (Greek: ) was a kingdom in the west central part of the Anatolia. ...


The Phoenician Cronus

The account ascribed by Eusebius to the semi-legendary pre-Trojan War Phoenician historian, Sanchuniathon, indicates that Cronus was originally a Canaanite ruler who founded Byblos and was subsequently deified. This version gives his alternate name as Elus or Ilus, and states that in the 32nd year of his reign, he emasculated, slew and deified his father Epigeius or Autochthon "whom they afterwards called Uranus". It further states that after ships were invented, Cronos, visiting the 'inhabitable world', bequeathed Attica to his own daughter Athena, and Egypt to Thoth the son of Misor and inventor of writing[4]. Eusebius is the name of several significant historical people: Pope Eusebius - Pope in AD 309 - 310. ... The fall of Troy, by Johann Georg Trautmann (1713–1769). ... Phoenicia (or Phenicia ,[1] from Biblical Phenice [1]) was an ancient civilization centered in the north of ancient Canaan, with its heartland along the coast of modern day Lebanon and Syria. ... Sanchuniathon or Sanchoniathon or Sanchoniatho is the purported Phoenician author of three works in Phoenician, surviving only in partial paraphrase and summary of a Greek translation by Philo of Byblos. ... Map of Canaan For other uses, see Canaan (disambiguation). ... The ruins of the Crusader castle in Byblos. ... Attica (in Greek: Αττική, Attike; see also List of traditional Greek place names) is a periphery (subdivision) in Greece, containing Athens, the capital of Greece. ... For other uses, see Athena (disambiguation). ... Thoth (Ramesseum, Luxor) Thoth (his Greek name derived from the Egyptian *, written by Egyptians as ) was considered one of the most important deities of the Egyptian pantheon, often depicted with the head of an ibis. ... According to the traditions of the Phoenician legends, Misor was the child of the Phoenician gods Amynus and Magus. ...


In Roman mythology and later culture

Main article: Saturn (mythology)

While the Greeks considered Cronus a force of chaos along with disorder, believing that the Olympian gods had brought an era of peace and order by seizing power from the crude and malicious Titans, the Romans had a more positive view of the deity. Although the Roman deity Saturn was conflated heavily with Cronus, the Romans favored Saturn much more than the Greeks did Cronus. While Cronus was considered a cruel and tempestuous deity to the Greeks, his nature under Roman influence became more innocuous, with his association with the Golden Age eventually causing him to become the god of "human time", i.e., calendars, seasons, and harvests—not to be confused with Chronos, the unrelated embodiment of time in general. While the Greeks largely neglected Cronus, considering him a mere intermediary stage between Ouranos and Zeus, he was a larger aspect of Roman mythology and religion; Saturnalia was a festival dedicated in his honor, and at least one temple to Saturn existed in the early Roman Kingdom. Saturnus, Caravaggio, 16th c. ... Image File history File links Broom_icon. ... Saturnus, Caravaggio, 16th c. ... For other uses, see Chronos (disambiguation). ... The term Roman religion may refer to: Ancient Roman religion Imperial cult (Ancient Rome), Sol Invictus Mithraism Roman Christianity Category: ... For other uses, see Saturnalia (disambiguation). ... The now ruined Temple of Saturn (Latin: Templum Saturni or Aedes Saturnus) stands at the western end of the Forum Romanum in Rome and represents the oldest surviving foundation within that area, having been established in circa 498 BCE. The present ruins represent the third incarnation of the Temple of... The ancient quarters of Rome. ...


Owing to the abundance of isolated cities in ancient and classic times, numerous myths were developed and adopted to the local regions. As technology allowed cultures of common descent to rejoin, people made accommodations to create a unified pantheon or understanding of the universe.


As a result of Cronus' importance to the Romans, his Roman variant, Saturn, has had a large influence on Western culture. In accordance with the Near Eastern tradition, the seventh day of the Judaeo-Christian week was also called in Latin Dies Saturni ("Day of Saturn"), which in turn was adapted and became the source of the English word Saturday. In astronomy, the planet Saturn is named after the Roman deity. It is the seventh and outermost of the seven heavenly objects that are visible with the naked eye. For this articles equivalent regarding the East, see Eastern culture. ... For other uses, see Latins and Latin (disambiguation). ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... For other uses, see Astronomy (disambiguation). ... Atmospheric characteristics Atmospheric pressure 140 kPa Hydrogen >93% Helium >5% Methane 0. ... It has been suggested that Classical Planets be merged into this article or section. ...


See also

Roman bronze bust, the so-called Pseudo-Seneca, now identified by some as possibly Hesiod Hesiod (Hesiodos, ) was an early Greek poet and rhapsode, who presumably lived around 700 BC. Hesiod and Homer, with whom Hesiod is often paired, have been considered the earliest Greek poets whose work has survived... Theogony (Greek: Θεογονία, theogonia = the birth of God(s)) is a poem by Hesiod describing the origins and genealogies of the gods of the ancient Greeks, composed circa 700 BC. The title of the work comes from the Greek words for god and seed. // Hesiods Theogony is a large-scale... Roman bronze bust, the so-called Pseudo-Seneca, now identified by some as possibly Hesiod Hesiod (Hesiodos, ) was an early Greek poet and rhapsode, who presumably lived around 700 BC. Hesiod and Homer, with whom Hesiod is often paired, have been considered the earliest Greek poets whose work has survived...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Kronos
  • Cronus in classical literature, a collection of source texts confirming most of the statements in this article.

References

  1. ^ Homer's Iliad & Hesiod's Theogony
  2. ^ Pindar's Odes
  3. ^ Gibson, M. (1977)Gods, Men & Monsters First Edition Italy: Eurobook Limited
  4. ^ Eusebius of Caesarea: Praeparatio Evangelica Book 1, Chapter 10

  Results from FactBites:
 
Cronus (608 words)
Cronus, the son of Uranus and Gaia and the youngest of the twelve Titans.
The Romans compared Cronus with their Saturn, who was to the Romans a corn god.
In art, Cronus was depicted carrying a sickle used to gather the harvest, but this was also the weapon he used to castrate his father.
Science Fair Projects - Cronus (925 words)
Cronus sired several children by Rhea: Demeter, Hera, Hades, Hestia, and Poseidon, but swallowed them all as soon as they were born, since he had learned from Gaia and Uranus that he was destined to be overcome by his own son as he had overthrown his own father.
Since Cronus ruled over the earth, the heavens, and the sea, she hid him by dangling him on a rope from a tree so he was suspended between earth, sea, and sky and thus, invisible to his father.
Cronus and the Titans were confined in Tartarus, a dank misty gloomy place at the deepest point in the Earth.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m