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Encyclopedia > Crofting township

A croft is a fenced or enclosed area of land, usually small and arable with a crofter's dwelling thereon. A crofter is one who has tenure and use of the land. Fence dividing paddocks. ... Inclosure (also commonly enclosure), refers to the process of subdivision of common lands for individual ownership. ... In geography, arable land is a form of agricultural land use, meaning land that can be (and is) used for growing crops. ... A dwelling is a structure in which humans or other animals live. ... Tenure commonly refers to academic tenure systems, in which professors (at the university level)—and in some jurisdictions schoolteachers (at primary or secondary school levels)—are granted the right not to be dismissed without cause after an initial probationary period. ...


The word croft is West Germanic in etymology, and is now most familliar in Scotland, where many Highlands and Islands crofters have had their tenure protected by special legislation since 1886. Elsewhere the expression is generally archaic. West Germanic is the largest branch of the Germanic family of languages, including such languages as English, Dutch, and German. ... Motto: Nemo me impune lacessit (English: No one provokes me with impunity) Scotlands location within Europe Scotlands location within the United Kingdom Languages English, Gaelic, Scots Capital Edinburgh Largest city Glasgow First Minister Jack McConnell Area - Total - % water Ranked 2nd UK 78,782 km² 1. ... The Highlands and Islands area is sometimes defined as that to which the Crofters Act of 1886 applied. ... Bold textJAMES CHECKLEY Legislation (or statutory law) is law which has been promulgated (or enacted) by a legislature or other governing body. ... 1886 (MDCCCLXXXVI) is a common year starting on Friday (click on link to calendar) // Events January 18 - Modern field hockey is born with the formation of The Hockey Association in England. ... In language, an archaism is the deliberate use of an older form that has fallen out of current use. ...


The Scottish croft is a small agricultural landholding of a type which has been subject to special legislation in the United Kingdom since 1886. The legislation is largely a response to the complaints and demands of tenant famillies who were victims of the Highland Clearances. The modern crofters or tenants appear very little in evidence before the beginning of the 18th Century. They were tenants at will underneath the tacksman and wadsetters, but practically their tenure was secure enough. The first evidence we can find of small tenants holding directly of the proprietor is in a rental of the estates of Sir D. MacDonald in Skye and North Uist in 1715. Motto: Nemo me impune lacessit (English: No one provokes me with impunity) Scotlands location within Europe Scotlands location within the United Kingdom Languages English, Gaelic, Scots Capital Edinburgh Largest city Glasgow First Minister Jack McConnell Area - Total - % water Ranked 2nd UK 78,782 km² 1. ... Bold textJAMES CHECKLEY Legislation (or statutory law) is law which has been promulgated (or enacted) by a legislature or other governing body. ... 1886 (MDCCCLXXXVI) is a common year starting on Friday (click on link to calendar) // Events January 18 - Modern field hockey is born with the formation of The Hockey Association in England. ... Generic plan of a mediaeval manor; open-field strip farming, some enclosures, triennial crop rotation, demesne and manse, common woodland, pasturage and meadow Manorialism or Seigneurialism describes the organization of rural economy and society in medieval western and parts of central Europe, characterised by the vesting of legal and economic... The Highland Clearances were part of a process of agricultural change throughout the United Kingdom, but the late timing, the lack of legal protection for year-by-year tenants under Scottish law, the abruptness of the change from the clan system in the Scottish Highlands and the brutality of many... A tenant (from the Latin tenere, to hold), in legal contexts, holds real property by some form of title from a landlord. ... (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ... A proprietary colony is a colony in which the king gave land to one or more people called proprietors. ... The Old Man of Storr, Skye The Isle of Skye, usually known simply as Skye (Scottish Gaelic: An t-Eilean Sgiathanach) is the largest and most northerly island in the Inner Hebrides of Scotland. ... Looking along the beach and machair of the spit Corran Aird a Mhòrain. ... // Events July 24 - Spanish treasure fleet of ten ships under admiral Ubilla leave Havana, Cuba for Spain. ...


The Parliament of the United Kingdom created the Crofters' Act, 1886, after the Highland Land League had gained seats in that parliament. The government was then Liberal, with William Gladstone as Prime Minister. Another Crofters' Act was created in 1993 (the Crofters' (Scotland) Act, 1993). The earlier Act established the first Crofting Commission, but its responsibilities were quite different from those of the newer Crofting Commission created in 1955. The Commission is based in Inverness. The Houses of Parliament, seen over Westminster Bridge The Parliament of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is the supreme legislative institution in the United Kingdom and British overseas territories (it alone has parliamentary sovereignty). ... The Crofters Holdings (Scotland) Act, 1886, created legal definitions of crofting parish and crofter, granted security of tenure to crofters and produced the first Crofters Commisssion, a land court which ruled on disputes between landlords and crofters. ... The first Highland Land League emerged as a distinct political force in Scotland during the 1880s, with its power base in the countrys Highlands and Islands. ... In the United Kingdom each of the electoral areas or divisions called constituencies elects one or more members to a parliament or assembly. ... The Liberal Party was one of the two major British political parties from the early 19th century until the 1920s, and a third party of varying strength and importance up to 1988, when it merged with the Social Democratic Party (the SDP) to form a new party which would become... William Ewart Gladstone (29 December 1809–19 May 1898) was a British Liberal Party statesman and Prime Minister (1868–1874, 1880–1885, 1886 and 1892–1894). ... Sir Robert Walpole, the first Prime Minister of the United Kingdom. ... 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar and marked the Beginning of the International Decade to Combat Racism and Racial Discrimination (1993-2003). ... 1955 (MCMLV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Inverness (Inbhir Nis in Scottish Gaelic) is the only city in the Scottish Highlands. ...


Crofts held subject to the provisions of the Crofters' Acts are in the administrative counties of Shetland, Orkney, Caithness, Sutherland, Ross-shire, Inverness-shire and Argyll, in the north of Scotland. An administrative county is an administrative area in the British Isles. ... The Shetland Islands, also called Shetland (archaically spelled Zetland) formerly called Hjaltland, comprise one of 32 council areas of Scotland. ... The Orkney Islands form one of 32 unitary council regions in Scotland, and are a Lieutenancy Area. ... Caithness (Gallaibh in Gaelic) is a traditional county and former administrative county within the Highland area of Scotland. ... Sutherland (Cataibh in Gaelic) is a traditional county which is now within the Highland local government area of Scotland. ... Ross-shire (Siorrachd Rois in Gaelic), or simply Ross, is a traditional county of Scotland bordering on Sutherland, Cromartyshire (of which it contains many enclaves), Inverness-shire and on an exclave of Nairnshire. ... Inverness-shire (Siorrachd Inbhir Nis in Gaelic) is one of the traditional counties of Scotland. ... Argyll, archaically Argyle (Airthir-Ghaidheal in Gaelic, translated as [the] East Gael, or [the] East Irish), sometimes called Argyllshire, is a traditional county of Scotland. ...


Under the 1886 legislation (the Crofters' Holdings (Scotland) Act) protected crofters are also members of a crofters' township, consisting of tenants of neighbouring crofts with a shared right to use common pasture. The Crofters Holdings (Scotland) Act, 1886, created legal definitions of crofting parish and crofter, granted security of tenure to crofters and produced the first Crofters Commisssion, a land court which ruled on disputes between landlords and crofters. ... In the Highlands and Islands of Scotland a crofting township means a group of agricultural smallholdings (each with its own few hectares of pasture and arable land) holding in common a substantial tract of unimproved upland grazing, which can range from a hundred to a few thousand hectares. ... In England and Wales, a common is a piece of land over which other people -- often neighbouring landowners -- could exercise one of a number of traditional rights, such as allowing their cattle to graze upon it. ... Pastureland Pasture is land with lush herbaceous vegetation cover used for grazing of ungulates as part of a farm or ranch. ...


Since 1976 it has been legally possible for a crofter to acquire title to his croft, thus becoming an owner-occupier. 1976 (MCMLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Thursday (the link is to a full 1976 calendar). ...


See also

19th century Cottages in the small hamlet of Crafton, Buckinghamshire In modern usage, a cottage is a dwelling, typically in a non-urban location (although there are cottage-style dwellings in cities). ...

External links

  • Scottish Crofting Foundation
  • Crofters Commission

References

  • This article incorporates text from “Dwelly’s [Scottish] Gaelic Dictionary” (1911) (Croitear)

 
 

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