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Encyclopedia > Croft (land)
The Shetland Crofthouse Museum, with peat stacked out front.
The Shetland Crofthouse Museum, with peat stacked out front.

A croft is a fenced or enclosed area of land, usually small and arable with a crofter's dwelling thereon. A crofter is one who has tenure and use of the land. Image File history File linksMetadata Shetland_crofthouse_museum. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Shetland_crofthouse_museum. ... Fence dividing paddocks. ... Inclosure (also commonly enclosure), refers to the process of subdivision of common lands for individual ownership. ... In geography, arable land is a form of agricultural land use, meaning land that can be (and is) used for growing crops. ... A dwelling is a structure in which humans or other animals live. ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ...


The word croft is West Germanic in etymology, and is now most familiar in Scotland, where many Highlands and Islands crofters have had their tenure protected by special legislation since 1886. Elsewhere the expression is generally archaic. Essentially similar positions have been the medieval villein and the Scandinavian torpare. West Germanic is the largest branch of the Germanic family of languages, including such languages as English, Dutch, and German. ... Motto: (Latin for No one provokes me with impunity)1 Anthem: Multiple unofficial anthems Capital Edinburgh Largest city Glasgow Official language(s) English, Gaelic, Scots 2 Government Constitutional monarchy  - Queen of the UK Queen Elizabeth II  - Prime Minister of the UK Tony Blair MP  - First Minister Jack McConnell MSP Unification... The Highlands and Islands area is sometimes defined as that to which the Crofters Act of 1886 applied. ... Legislation (or statutory law) is law which has been promulgated (or enacted) by a legislature or other governing body. ... 1886 (MDCCCLXXXVI) is a common year starting on Friday (click on link to calendar) // Events January 18 - Modern field hockey is born with the formation of The Hockey Association in England. ... In language, an archaism is the deliberate use of an older form that has fallen out of current use. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times. ... A villein is, in the feudal system, a member of the class of serfs tied to the land, distinguished from those in actual slavery, but restricted by law from exercising the rights of a free man. ... In Scandinavian languages torp means a living dwelling, such as hut, cottage, and often in rural countryside, a smallish, leased farm cultivated by the inhabitants of the hut, see crofter and villein; or, in placenames hamlet, smaller group of houses than a full village. ...


The Scottish croft is a small agricultural landholding of a type which has been subject to special legislation in the United Kingdom since 1886. The legislation is largely a response to the complaints and demands of tenant families who were victims of the Highland Clearances. The modern crofters or tenants appear very little in evidence before the beginning of the 18th Century. They were tenants at will underneath the tacksman and wadsetters, but practically their tenure was secure enough. The first evidence we can find of small tenants holding directly of the proprietor is in a rental of the estates of Sir D. MacDonald in Skye and North Uist in 1715. Motto: (Latin for No one provokes me with impunity)1 Anthem: Multiple unofficial anthems Capital Edinburgh Largest city Glasgow Official language(s) English, Gaelic, Scots 2 Government Constitutional monarchy  - Queen of the UK Queen Elizabeth II  - Prime Minister of the UK Tony Blair MP  - First Minister Jack McConnell MSP Unification... Legislation (or statutory law) is law which has been promulgated (or enacted) by a legislature or other governing body. ... 1886 (MDCCCLXXXVI) is a common year starting on Friday (click on link to calendar) // Events January 18 - Modern field hockey is born with the formation of The Hockey Association in England. ... Generic plan of a mediaeval manor; open-field strip farming, some enclosures, triennial crop rotation, demesne and manse, common woodland, pasturage and meadow Manorialism or Seigneurialism is the organization of rural economy and society in medieval western and parts of central Europe, characterised by the vesting of legal and economic... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... A tenant (from the Latin tenere, to hold), in legal contexts, holds real property by some form of title from a landlord. ... (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ... A proprietary colony is a colony in which the king gave land to one or more people called proprietors. ... The Old Man of Storr, Skye The Isle of Skye, usually known simply as Skye (Scottish Gaelic: An t-Eilean Sgiathanach) is the largest and most northerly island in the Inner Hebrides of Scotland. ... Looking along the beach and machair of the spit Corran Aird a Mhòrain. ... // Events July 24 - Spanish treasure fleet of ten ships under admiral Ubilla leave Havana, Cuba for Spain. ...


The Parliament of the United Kingdom created the Crofters' Act, 1886, after the Highland Land League had gained seats in that parliament. The government was then Liberal, with William Gladstone as Prime Minister. Another Crofters' Act was created in 1993 (the Crofters' (Scotland) Act, 1993). The earlier Act established the first Crofting Commission, but its responsibilities were quite different from those of the newer Crofting Commission created in 1955. The Commission is based in Inverness. The Houses of Parliament, seen over Westminster Bridge The Parliament of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is the supreme legislative body in the United Kingdom and British overseas territories. ... The Crofters Holdings (Scotland) Act, 1886, created legal definitions of crofting parish and crofter, granted security of tenure to crofters and produced the first Crofters Commisssion, a land court which ruled on disputes between landlords and crofters. ... The first Highland Land League emerged as a distinct political force in Scotland during the 1880s, with its power base in the countrys Highlands and Islands. ... In the United Kingdom each of the electoral areas or divisions called constituencies elects one or more members to a parliament or assembly. ... This article is about the historic Liberal Party. ... William Ewart Gladstone (29 December 1809 – 19 May 1898) was a British Liberal Party statesman and Prime Minister (1868–1874, 1880–1885, 1886 and 1892–1894). ... A prime minister is the most senior minister of a cabinet in the executive branch of government in a parliamentary system. ... 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar and marked the Beginning of the International Decade to Combat Racism and Racial Discrimination (1993-2003). ... 1955 (MCMLV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Inverness (Inbhir Nis in Scottish Gaelic) is the only city in the Highland council area and the Highlands of Scotland. ...


Crofts held subject to the provisions of the Crofters' Acts are in the administrative counties of Shetland, Orkney, Caithness, Sutherland, Ross-shire, Inverness-shire and Argyll, in the north of Scotland. An administrative county is an administrative area in the British Isles. ... The Shetland Islands, also called Shetland (archaically spelled Zetland) formerly called Hjaltland, comprise one of 32 council areas of Scotland. ... Flag of Orkney (unofficial). ... Caithness (Gallaibh in Gaelic)[1] is a committee area of Highland Council, Scotland; a lieutenancy area; and a registration county, Caithness was formerly a district within the Highland region from 1975 to 1996 and a local government county with its own county council from 1890 to 1975. ... Sutherland (Cataibh in Gaelic) is a traditional county which is now within the Highland local government area of Scotland. ... Ross-shire (Siorrachd Rois in Gaelic), or simply Ross, is a traditional county of Scotland bordering on Sutherland, Cromartyshire (of which it contains many enclaves), Inverness-shire and on an exclave of Nairnshire. ... Inverness-shire (Siorrachd Inbhir Nis in Gaelic) is one of the traditional counties of Scotland. ... Argyll, archaically Argyle (Airthir-Ghaidheal in Gaelic, translated as [the] East Gael, or [the] East Irish), sometimes called Argyllshire, is a traditional county of Scotland. ...


Under the 1886 legislation (the Crofters' Holdings (Scotland) Act) protected crofters are also members of a crofters' township, consisting of tenants of neighbouring crofts with a shared right to use common pasture. The Crofters Holdings (Scotland) Act, 1886, created legal definitions of crofting parish and crofter, granted security of tenure to crofters and produced the first Crofters Commisssion, a land court which ruled on disputes between landlords and crofters. ... In the Highlands and Islands of Scotland a crofting township means a group of agricultural smallholdings (each with its own few hectares of pasture and arable land) holding in common a substantial tract of unimproved upland grazing, which can range from a hundred to a few thousand hectares. ... In England and Wales, a common is a piece of land over which other people -- often neighbouring landowners -- could exercise one of a number of traditional rights, such as allowing their cattle to graze upon it. ... Pastureland Pasture is land with lush herbaceous vegetation cover used for grazing of ungulates as part of a farm or ranch. ...


Since 1976 it has been legally possible for a crofter to acquire title to his croft, thus becoming an owner-occupier. 1976 (MCMLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Thursday. ...


Cyber-crofting is a term coined and used since 2001 by residents of the Scottish Highland village of Clashnessie. It refers to the incorporation of web-based income-generation into the classic range of crofting activities which can include, but is not limited to: fishing, agriculture, keeping cattle or sheep, jobbing building, bus-driving, caretaking and cleaning. This combination of different activities is characteristic of many permanent residents of the Highlands and is not limited to those working land that has been officially designated as a croft. Clashnessie is a small crofting community on the North-West coast of Scotland; specifically in the Sutherland area of Assynt. ... The Scottish Highlands are the mountainous regions of Scotland north and west of the Highland Boundary Fault. ...


See also

A villein is, in the feudal system, a member of the class of serfs tied to the land, distinguished from those in actual slavery, but restricted by law from exercising the rights of a free man. ... 19th century Cottages in the small hamlet of Crafton, Buckinghamshire In modern usage, a cottage is a dwelling, typically in a non-urban location (although there are cottage-style dwellings in cities). ... In Scandinavian languages torp means a living dwelling, such as hut, cottage, and often in rural countryside, a smallish, leased farm cultivated by the inhabitants of the hut, see crofter and villein; or, in placenames hamlet, smaller group of houses than a full village. ... The Scottish Crofting Foundation (SCF), formerly called the Scottish Crofters Union (SCU), is an organisation of crofting communities in the highlands and islands of Scotland. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ...

External links

  • Scottish Crofting Foundation
  • Crofters Commission

Dale Croft. Digital artist - *[1]


References

  • This article incorporates text from “Dwelly’s [Scottish] Gaelic Dictionary” (1911) (Croitear)

  Results from FactBites:
 
DRAFT LAND REFORM (SCOTLAND) BILL: Consultation Paper : page 8 (3566 words)
Land management professionals suggested that account needed to be taken of issues such as severance, disturbance and reductions in the value of the remainder of a holding.
The body which is entitled to exercise the crofting community right to buy must comply with similar requirements regarding structure and organisation as apply to a body entitled to exercise the community right to buy and must be representative of the crofting community (section 78).
Crofting community bodies may be required to include other land in the area to be purchased if the landowner asks for this to be done and Ministers determine that it would be in the public interest to do so (section 86).
New Page 1 (651 words)
Crofting, as the term is used within the Counties of Argyll, Inverness, Ross and Cromarty, Sutherland, Caithness, Orkney and Shetland (the crofting counties) is entirely " a creature of statute ".
These were probably attempts by the landlords to develop fisheries and the term croft again was adapted for use in that it met the criteria of a definite area arable in nature, and with exact boundaries and no rights in common to any other land.
Crofting thus arose out of the necessity of an advancing society to specialise and is essentially analogous or comparable to the way in which the owners of mines, factories and other enterprises found it necessary or expedient to build houses for their workforce.
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