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Encyclopedia > Croesus

Croesus (IPA pronunciation: [ˈkɹisəs], CREE-sus) was the king of Lydia from 560/561 BC until his defeat by the Persians in about 547 BC. The English name Croesus come from the Latin transliteration of the Greek Κροῖσος, in Arabic and Persian قارون, Qârun. Croesus was renowned for his wealth and in Greek and Persian cultures his name became a synonymous for wealthy men; in English, expressions such as "rich as Croesus" or "richer than Croesus" are used to indicate great wealth. Image File history File links Croesus. ... Image File history File links Croesus. ... The International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) is a system of phonetic notation devised by linguists to accurately and uniquely represent each of the wide variety of sounds (phones or phonemes) used in spoken human language. ... Look up monarch in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Lydia is a historic region of western Anatolia, congruent with Turkeys modern provinces of Ä°zmir and Manisa. ... The Persian Empire was a series of historical empires that ruled over the Iranian plateau and beyond. ... Latin was the language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ... Transliteration is a mapping from one system of writing into another. ... The Arabic language (Arabic: ‎ transliterated: ), or simply Arabic (Arabic: ‎ transliterated: ), is the largest member of the Semitic branch of the Afro-Asiatic language family (classification: South Central Semitic) and is closely related to Hebrew and Aramaic. ... Persian is an Indo-European language spoken in Iran, Afghanistan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, Bahrain, Iraq, Azerbaijan, Armenia, Georgia, Southern Russia, neighboring countries, and elsewhere. ...


Born in 626 BC, Croesus was friendlier to the Greeks than his father had been, giving refuge at one point to the Athenian statesman Solon. It was said that Adrastus exiled himself to Lydia after accidentally killing his brother. King Croesus welcomed him but then Adrastus accidentally killed Croesus' son, Atys. (Adrastus then committed suicide.) Athens (Greek: Αθήνα, Athína IPA: ) is the capital of Greece and one of the most famous cities in the world, named after goddess Athena. ... Solon Solon (Greek: Σόλων, ca. ... In Greek mythology, Adrastus, or Adrastos (he who stands his ground, son of Talaus) was one of the three kings at Argos, along with Iphis and Amphiaraus, who was married to Adrastus sister Eriphyle. ... Atys was the son of Croesus, a king of Lydia. ...

Croesus' uneasy relations with the Greeks obscures the larger fact that he was their last bastion of the Ionian Greeks against the increasing Persian power in Anatolia. Croesus allied himself with Amasis II of Egypt and Nabonidus of Babylonia, while preparing a campaign against Cyrus the Great of Persia in 547 BC. Before starting his campaign he turned to Delphi oracle to inquire about the fate of his campaign. The Pythia answered, with typical ambiguity: "If Croesus crossed the Halys, a great empire shall be brought down"–one of the most famous oracular statements from Delphi. Ionia (Greek Ιωνία; see also List of traditional Greek place names) was an ancient region of southwestern coastal Anatolia (now in Turkey) on the Aegean Sea. ... Amasis II (also Ahmose or Ah-mes) was a pharaoh (570 - 526 BC) of the 26th dynasty, the successor of Wahibre. ... Nabonidus (Akkadian Nabû-nāʾid) was the last King of Babylon, who reigned from 556 BC to 539 BC. His reign was characterized by his lack of interest in the politics and religion of his kingdom, preferring instead to study the older temples and antiquities in his region. ... Babylonia, named for its capital city, Babylon, was an ancient state in the south part of Mesopotamia (in modern Iraq), combining the territories of Sumer and Akkad. ... Cyrus the Great (Old Persian: KuruÅ¡[1], modern Persian: کوروش, Kourosh; ca. ... The amphitheatre, seen from above. ... An oracle is a person or agency considered to be a source of wise counsel or prophetic opinion; an infallible authority, usually spiritual in nature. ... The Pythia was the priestess presiding over the Oracle of Apollo at Delphi, located on the slopes of Mount Parnassus. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...

Croesus, now feeling secure, launched his campaign into the Persian Empire. He was intercepted near the Halys River in central Anatolia and an inconclusive battle was fought. As was usual in those days, the armies would disband for winter and Croesus did accordingly. Cyrus did not and he attacked Croesus in Sardis, capturing him. It became clear that the powerful empire Croesus was about to destroy was his own. In the Aeneid, Halys is a Trojan who defends Aeneas camp from a Rutullian attack. ... Asia Minor lies east of the Bosporus, between the Black Sea and the Mediterranean. ... Sardis, (also Sardes) the capital of the ancient kingdom of Lydia, the seat of a conventus under the Roman Empire, and the metropolis of the province Lydia in later Roman and Byzantine times, was situated in the middle Hermus valley, at the foot of Mt. ...

According to Herodotus, Croesus was placed upon a great pyre by Cyrus' orders, for Cyrus wanted to see if any of the heavenly powers would appear to save him from being burned alive. The pile was set ablaze, and as Cyrus watched he saw Croesus mutter a word, Solon. He asked the interpreters to find out why he said this word with such resignation and agony. The interpreters returned the answer that Solon had warned Croesus of the fickleness of good fortune. This touched Cyrus, who realized that he and Croesus were much the same man, and he bade the servants to quench the blazing fire as quickly as they could. They tried to do this, but the flames were not to be mastered. According to the story, Croesus called out to Apollo and prayed to him. The sky had been clear and the day without a breath of wind, but soon dark clouds gathered and a storm with rain of such violence that the flames were speedily extinguished. Cyrus, convinced by this that Croesus was a good man, made Croesus an advisor who served Cyrus well and later Cyrus's son by Cassandane, Cambyses. Bust of Herodotus at Naples Herodotus of Halicarnassus (Greek: , Herodotos) was a historian who lived in the 5th century BC (484 BC-ca. ... A pyre is a structure, such as a mound of wood, for burning a body as part of a funeral rite. ... Burning of two sodomites at the stake outside Zürich, 1482 (Spiezer Schilling) Execution by burning has a long history as a method of punishment for crimes such as treason and for other unpopular acts such as heresy and the practice of witchcraft. ... Solon Solon (Greek: Σόλων, ca. ... Lycian Apollo, early Imperial Roman copy of a fourth century Greek original (Louvre Museum) In Greek and Roman mythology, Apollo (ancient Greek , Apóllōn; or Ἀπέλλων, Apellōn), the ideal of the kouros, was the archer-god of medicine and healing and also a bringer of death-dealing plague; as... Cambyses (or Cambese) is the Greek version of the name of several monarchs of Achaemenid line of ancient Persia. ...

It is not known when exactly Croesus died, although it is traditionally dated 546 BC, after Cyrus' conquest. In the Nabonidus Chronicle it is said that Cyrus "marched against the country Lydia, killed its king (Croesus), took his possessions, put there a garrison of his own." However, it should be noted that the cuneiform word that is thought to represent "Lydia" is damaged, and its interpretation is doubtful. Nabonidus Chronicle, British Museum, London The Nabonidus Chronicle records the events during the rule of the last king of Babylonia (King Nabonidus) before the Persian king Cyrus conquered the kingdom in October 539 BCE. However the Chronicles are currently damaged, leaving many blanks and spaces (or lacunas) throughout the script. ... For people named Garrison, see Garrison (disambiguation) Garrison House, built by William Damm in 1675 at Dover, New Hampshire Garrison (from the French garnison, itself from the verb garnir, to equip) is the collective term for the body of troops stationed in a particular location, originally to guard it, but... The cuneiform script is one of the earliest known forms of written expression. ...

See also: Qarun Treasure

The Qârun Treasure (the treasure of Croesus) is a mythical treasure in the Persian literature belonging to the proverbial wealthy King Croesus of Lydia. ...

External links

  • Herodotus' account of Croesus (from the Perseus Project): see 1.6-94; contains links Croesus was the son of Alyattes II and continued the conquest of Ionian cities of Asia Minor that his father had began to both English and Greek versions
  • An in-depth account of Croesus' life, by Carlos Parada
  • Livius, Croesus by Jona Lendering

  Results from FactBites:
Croesus, Greek Mythology Link - www.maicar.com (5505 words)
Croesus, some assert, had prepared himself for this day of utter defeat; and being determined to escape slavery he had built a pyre, which he mounted together with his wife and daughters, when the Persians were about to sack the city.
Croesus, they say, laughed at him and at his answers, which he thought to be the natural answers of a barbarian from Scythia.
Croesus is said to have offered Pittacus as much riches from his treasury as he wished to take, but Pittacus refused the gift, saying that he already had twice as much as he wished.
Croesus - LoveToKnow 1911 (377 words)
After the overthrow of the Median empire (549 B.C.) Croesus found himself confronted by the rising power of Cyrus, and along with Nabonidos of Babylon took measures to resist it.
But the coalition was defeated by the rapid movements of Cyrus and the treachery of Eurybatus of Ephesus, who fled to Persia with the gold that had been entrusted to him, and betrayed the plans of the confederates.
Fortified with the Delphic oracles Croesus marched to the frontier of his empire, but after some initial successes fortune turned against him and he was forced to retreat to Sardis.
  More results at FactBites »



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