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Encyclopedia > Crocodile
For differences between alligators and crocodiles see Crocodilia
Crocodile
Fossil range: Late Cretaceous - Recent
Nile Crocodile
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Sauropsida
Order: Crocodilia
Family: Crocodylidae
Cuvier, 1807
Genera

See full taxonomy. Crocodile can refer to any of the following: Crocodile Garments Limited, a textile and garments company in Hong Kong The Crocodile River (Krokodilrivier in Afrikaans), located in South Africa. ... black: range of Crocodilia Families Gavialidae Alligatoridae Crocodylidae Crocodilia is an order of large reptiles that appeared about 84 million years ago in the Late Cretaceous Period (Campanian stage). ... Geography of the US in the Late Cretaceous Period Late Cretaceous (100mya - 65mya) refers to the second half of the Cretaceous Period, named after the famous white chalk cliffs of southern England, which date from this time. ... Download high resolution version (1506x1182, 405 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Binomial name (Laurenti, 1768) The Nile crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus) is one of the 4 species of crocodiles found in Africa, and the second largest species of crocodile. ... Scientific classification redirects here. ... For other uses, see Animal (disambiguation). ... Classes See below Chordates (phylum Chordata) are a group of animals that includes the vertebrates, together with several closely related invertebrates. ... Reptilia redirects here. ... black: range of Crocodilia Families Gavialidae Alligatoridae Crocodylidae Crocodilia is an order of large reptiles that appeared about 84 million years ago in the Late Cretaceous Period (Campanian stage). ... Georges Cuvier Baron Georges Léopold Chrétien Frédéric Dagobert Cuvier (August 23, 1769–May 13, 1832) was a French naturalist and zoologist. ... Year 1807 (MDCCCVII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar). ... Binomial name Range map The slender-snouted crocodile (Crocodylus cataphractus) is a species of crocodile. ... This article needs to be wikified. ... Binomial name Osteolaemus tetraspis Cope, 1861 Range of the Dwarf Crocodile in green Subspecies Wermuth & Mertens (1961) (Schmidt (1919)) Wermuth & Mertens (1961) The Dwarf Crocodile (Osteolaemus tetraspis) is one of the three existing African species of crocodile. ... For other uses, see Crocodile (disambiguation). ...

A crocodile is any species belonging to the family Crocodylidae (sometimes classified instead as the subfamily Crocodylinae). The term can also be used more loosely to include all members of the order Crocodilia: i.e. the true crocodiles, the alligators and caimans (family Alligatoridae) and the gharials (family Gavialidae), or even the Crocodylomorpha which includes prehistoric crocodile relatives and ancestors. Crocodiles are large aquatic reptiles that live throughout the tropics in Africa, Asia, the Americas and Australia. Crocodiles tend to congregate in freshwater habitats like rivers, lakes, wetlands and sometimes in brackish water. They feed mostly on vertebrates like fish, reptiles, and mammals, sometimes on invertebrates like mollusks and crustaceans, depending on species. They are an ancient lineage, and are believed to have changed little since the time of the dinosaurs. They are believed to be 200 million years old whereas dinosaurs became extinct 65 million years ago; crocodiles survived great extinction events.[1] For other uses, see Species (disambiguation). ... The hierarchy of scientific classification In biological classification, family (Latin: familia, plural familiae) is a rank, or a taxon in that rank. ... ... In scientific classification used in biology, the order (Latin: ordo, plural ordines) is a rank between class and family (termed a taxon at that rank). ... black: range of Crocodilia Families Gavialidae Alligatoridae Crocodylidae Crocodilia is an order of large reptiles that appeared about 84 million years ago in the Late Cretaceous Period (Campanian stage). ... For other uses, see Alligator (disambiguation). ... Genera Alligator Caiman Melanosuchus Paleosuchus Alligators and caimans are reptiles closely related to the crocodiles and forming the family Alligatoridae (sometimes regarded instead as the subfamily Alligatorinae). ... Living Genera Alligator Caiman Melanosuchus Paleosuchus Alligators and caimans are reptiles, small species of crocodilians and forming the family Alligatoridae (sometimes regarded instead as the subfamily Alligatorinae). ... Binomial name (Gmelin, 1789) The gharial (Gavialis gangeticus), sometimes called the Indian gharial or gavial, is one of two surviving members of the family Gavialidae, a long-established group of crocodile-like reptiles with long, narrow jaws. ... Binomial name Gavialis gangeticus (Gmelin, 1789) Taxonomy The Gharial (Gavialis gangeticus) is the only surviving member of the family Gavialidae, a long-established group of crocodile-like reptiles with long, narrow jaws. ... Groups see taxonomy The Crocodylomorpha are an important group of archosaurs that include the living crocodilians and their extinct relatives. ... Reptilia redirects here. ... A noontime scene from the Philippines on a day when the Sun is almost directly overhead. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... World map showing the Americas CIA political map of the Americas in an equal-area projection The Americas are the lands of the Western hemisphere or New World, consisting of the continents of North America and South America with their associated islands and regions. ... For other uses, see River (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Lake (disambiguation). ... A subtropical wetland in Florida, USA, with an endangered American Crocodile. ... Brackish water is water that is saltier than fresh water, but not as salty as sea water. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Fish (disambiguation). ... Reptilia redirects here. ... Subclasses & Infraclasses Subclass †Allotheria* Subclass Prototheria Subclass Theria Infraclass †Trituberculata Infraclass Metatheria Infraclass Eutheria For the folk-rock band see The Mammals. ... Thelenota ananas, a sea cucumber (phylum: Echinodermata) An invertebrate is an animal lacking a vertebral column. ... Classes Caudofoveata Aplacophora Polyplacophora Monoplacophora Bivalvia Scaphopoda Gastropoda Cephalopoda † Rostroconchia The mollusks or molluscs are the large and diverse phylum Mollusca, which includes a variety of familiar creatures well-known for their decorative shells or as seafood. ... For the Dutch band, see Crustacean (band). ...

Contents

Description

Crocodiles, like dinosaurs, have the abdominal ribs modified into gastralia
Crocodiles, like dinosaurs, have the abdominal ribs modified into gastralia

Crocodiles are among the more biologically complex reptiles despite their prehistoric look. Unlike other reptiles, they have a diaphragm, cerebral cortex and four-chambered heart. Their external morphology on the other hand is a sign of their aquatic and predatory lifestyle. A crocodile’s physical traits allow it to be a successful predator. They have a streamlined body that enables them to swim swiftly. Crocodiles also tuck their feet to their sides while swimming, which makes them faster by decreasing water resistance. They have webbed feet which, although not used to propel the animal through the water, allow it to make fast turns and sudden moves in the water or initiate swimming. Webbed feet are an advantage in shallower water where the animals sometimes move around by walking. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 416 pixelsFull resolution (1004 × 522 pixel, file size: 190 KB, MIME type: image/png) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Crocodile ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 416 pixelsFull resolution (1004 × 522 pixel, file size: 190 KB, MIME type: image/png) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Crocodile ... Crocodiles have the abdominal ribs modified into gastralia Gastralia (singular gastralium) are dermal bones today found in the ventral body wall of crocodilians and Sphenodon. ... For other types of diaphragm, see Diaphragm. ... For other uses, see Cortex. ... The heart and lungs, from an older edition of Grays Anatomy. ... This snapping turtle is trying to make a meal of a Canada goose, but the goose is too wary. ...


Crocodiles have a palatal flap, a rigid tissue at the back of the mouth that blocks the entry of water. The palate has a special path from the nostril to the glottis that bypasses the mouth. The nostrils are closed during submergence. Like other archosaurs, crocodilians are diapsid, although their post-temporal fenestrae are reduced. The walls of the braincase are bony but they lack supratemporal and postfrontal bones.[1] Clades Crurotarsi Aetosauria Crocodilia (crocodiles) Phytosauria Rauisuchia Ornithodira Aves (birds) Dinosauria Pterosauria Archosaurs (Greek for ruling lizards) are a group of diapsid reptiles that is represented today by birds and crocodiles and which also included the dinosaurs. ... Groups See Text Diapsids (two arches) are a group of tetrapod animals that developed two holes (temporal fenestra) in each side of their skulls, about 300 million years ago during the late Carboniferous period. ...


Crocodilian scales have pores that are believed to be sensory, analagous to the lateral line in fishes. They are particularly seen on their upper and lower jaws. Another possibility is that they are secretory, as they produce an oily substance that appears to flush mud off.[1] In fish, the lateral line is a sense organ used to detect movement in the surrounding water. ...


Crocodiles are very fast over short distances, even out of water. They have extremely powerful jaws capable of biting down with immense force, by far the strongest bite of any animal. The crocodile's bite force is more than 5,000 pounds per square inch,[2] compared to just 335 psi for a rottweiler, 400 psi for a large great white shark, or 800 to 1,000 psi for a hyena. They have sharp teeth for tearing and holding onto flesh, but cannot open their mouth if it is held closed. Since crocodiles feed by grabbing and holding onto their prey, they have evolved powerful muscles that close the jaws and hold them shut. The jaws are opened, however, by a very weak set of muscles. Crocodiles can thus be subdued for study or transport by taping their jaws or holding their jaws shut with large rubber bands cut from automobile inner tubes. All crocodiles have sharp and powerful claws. They have limited lateral movement in their neck, so on land, physical protection can be found by just getting even a small tree between the crocodile's jaws and oneself. This article is about the dog breed. ... Binomial name (Linnaeus, 1758) Range (in blue) For other uses, see Great White (disambiguation). ... This article is about the species of animal. ... A roll of silver duct tape. ... This article is about the common household item. ... Firestone tire This article is about pneumatic tires. ...


Age

There is no reliable way of measuring crocodile age, although several techniques are used to derive a reasonable guess. The most common method is to measure lamellar growth rings in bones and teeth - each ring corresponds to a change in growth rate which typically occurs once a year between dry and wet seasons.[3] Bearing these inaccuracies in mind, the oldest crocodilians appear to be the largest species. C. porosus is estimated to live around 70 years on average, and there is limited evidence that some individuals may exceed 100 years. One of the oldest crocodiles recorded died in a zoo in Russia. A male freshwater crocodile at the Australia Zoo is estimated to be 130 years old. He was rescued from the wild by Bob Irwin and Steve Irwin after being shot twice by hunters. As a result of the shootings, this crocodile (known affectionately as "Mr. Freshy") has lost his right eye.[4] Sign near entrace to the zoo Crocodile show in the Crocoseum at Australia Zoo Aviary at the Australia Zoo Harriet, the second oldest tortoise ever authenticated, lived at Australia Zoo Australia Zoo is located in the Australian state of Queensland on the Sunshine Coast near Beerwah/Glass House Mountains. ... Bob Irwin (born c. ... For the rugby league footballer of the same name, see Steve Irwin (rugby league). ...


Size

Large Saltwater Crocodile in captivity in Australia
Large Saltwater Crocodile in captivity in Australia

Size greatly varies between species, from the dwarf crocodile to the enormous saltwater crocodile. Species of Palaeosuchus and Osteolaemus grow to an adult size of just 1 to 1.5 m. Larger species can reach over 5m (16 ft) long and weigh well over 1200 kg (2,640 lb). Crocodilians show pronounced sexual dimorphism with males growing much larger and more rapidly than females.[1] Despite their large adult size, crocodiles start their life at around 20 cm (8 inches) long. The largest species of crocodile is the saltwater crocodile, found in northern Australia and throughout south-east Asia. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1792x1200, 551 KB) Summary Picture of a rather large and beautiful Crocodile, taken outside Cairns Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1792x1200, 551 KB) Summary Picture of a rather large and beautiful Crocodile, taken outside Cairns Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free... Binomial name (Schneider, 1801) Range of the Saltwater Crocodile in black The Saltwater or Estuarine Crocodile (Crocodylus porosus) is the largest of all living crocodilians and reptiles. ... Binomial name Cope, 1861 Range of the Dwarf Crocodile in green Subspecies Wermuth & Mertens (1961) (Schmidt (1919)) Wermuth & Mertens (1961) The Dwarf Crocodile (Osteolaemus tetraspis) is one of the three existing African species of crocodile. ... Binomial name (Schneider, 1801) Range of the Saltwater Crocodile in black The Saltwater or Estuarine Crocodile (Crocodylus porosus) is the largest of all living crocodilians and reptiles. ... Binomial name (Schneider, 1801) Range of the Saltwater Crocodile in black The Saltwater or Estuarine Crocodile (Crocodylus porosus) is the largest of all living crocodilians and reptiles. ... Location of Southeast Asia Southeast Asia is a subregion of Asia. ...


The largest recorded crocodile is a giant saltwater crocodile measured at 8.6 meters (28.2 feet) and 1352 kg weight (2870 lb) shot in Australia, Queensland in 1957 A "replica" of this crocodile has been made as a tourist attraction.[5] The largest living crocodile known is a 7.1 m (25.3 ft) long saltwater crocodile, in Orissa, India. It lives in Bhitarkanika Wildlife Sanctuary and in June 2006, was entered in the Guinness Book of World Records.[6] For other uses, see Queensland (disambiguation). ... Binomial name (Schneider, 1801) Range of the Saltwater Crocodile in black The Saltwater or Estuarine Crocodile (Crocodylus porosus) is the largest of all living crocodilians and reptiles. ... , Orissa   (Oriya: ଓଡ଼ିଶା), is a state situated on the east coast of India. ... The Bhitarkanika Mangroves are a mangrove wetland in Indias Orissa state. ...


The other two larger certifiable records are both of 6.2 m crocodiles. The first crocodile was shot in the Mary River in the Northern Territory of Australia in 1974 by poachers and measured by wildlife rangers. The second crocodile was killed in 1983 in the Fly River, Papua New Guinea. In this latter crocodile it was actually the skin that was measured by zoologist Jerome Montague, and as skins are known to underestimate the size of the actual animal, it is possible this crocodile was at least another 10 cm longer. For similar terms, see Northern Territories (disambiguation) Slogan or Nickname: The Territory, The NT, The Top End Motto(s): none Other Australian states and territories Capital Darwin Government Constitutional monarchy Administrator Ted Egan Chief Minister Clare Martin (ALP) Federal representation  - House seats 2  - Senate seats 2 Gross Territorial Product (2004... The Fly (named after a British naval ship) is the longest river of the island of New Guinea. ...

Sweetheart, a large saltwater crocodile that attacked boats
Sweetheart, a large saltwater crocodile that attacked boats

The largest crocodile ever held in captivity is an Estuarine/Siamese hybrid named Yai (Thai: ใหญ่, meaning big) (born 10 June, 1972) at the famous Samutprakarn Crocodile Farm and Zoo, Thailand. This animal measures 6 m (19 feet) in length and weighs 1,114.27 kg (2,450 lb.). Image File history File links Sweetheart. ... Image File history File links Sweetheart. ... is the 161st day of the year (162nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Samutprakarn Crocodile Farm and Zoo is an internationally renowned crocodile zoo in Thailand. ...


Another huge captive specimen was a salt water crocodile named Gomek. Gomek was captured by George Craig in Papua New Guinea and sold to St. Augustine Alligator Farm in Florida, USA. Gomek died of heart disease in February 1997. When he died, he was 5.5 m long - as confirmed by St. Augustine Alligator Farm - and probably between 70 and 80 years old. Binomial name Crocodylus porosus (Schneider, 1801) The saltwater or estuarine crocodile (Crocodylus porosus) is the largest of all existing reptiles, and is often said to be the most dangerous to humans. ... Gomek was captured by George Craig in Papua New Guinea. ... This article is about the U.S. State of Florida. ... Motto: (traditional) In God We Trust (official, 1956–present) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City Official language(s) None at the federal level; English de facto Government Federal Republic  - President George W. Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence - Declared - Recognized...


Yet another enormous crocodile, named Gustave by the Africans who have seen him, is responsible for over 300 human deaths, and allegedly ate an entire hippopotamus. He also stars in a film, titled Primeval. The crocodile's length is said to be anywhere between 20-30 feet long. He lives along the Ruzizi River in Africa. Gustave is estimated to be a 6m long, over one-ton[1] crocodile residing on a river-island near Lake Tanganyika in Burundi, Africa. ... The Ruzizi River flows from Lake Kivu to Lake Tanganyika in Central Africa. ...


Wildlife experts, however, argue that the largest crocodile so far found in the Bhitarkanika was almost 25 feet (7.62 m) long, which could be traced from the skull preserved by the Kanika Royal Family. The crocodile was shot near Dhamara in 1926 and later its skull was preserved by the then Kanika King. Crocodile experts estimate the animal at about 7.62 m long since the size of the skull was measured one seventh of the total length of the body.

A statue of Saint Theodore of Amasea treading on a crocodile (Venice, Italy)
A statue of Saint Theodore of Amasea treading on a crocodile (Venice, Italy)

Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 430 × 599 pixelsFull resolution‎ (568 × 791 pixels, file size: 62 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 430 × 599 pixelsFull resolution‎ (568 × 791 pixels, file size: 62 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Saint Theodore of Amasea (Amasenus, now Amasya, Turkey) is one of the Greek military saints of the 4th century, the earlier patron saint of Venice, now outshone there by Saint Mark, but still represented atop one of the two Byzantine columns standing in the Piazzetta of the Piazza San Marco... For other uses, see Venice (disambiguation). ...

Etymology

The English word crocodile comes from the Ancient Greek κροκόδīλος (krokódīlos) "lizard", used in the phrase ho krokódīlos ho potámios, "the lizard of the [Nile] river"[1] to refer to crocodiles in our current English sense. Beginning of Homers Odyssey The Ancient Greek language is the historical stage of the Greek language[1] as it existed during the Archaic (9th–6th centuries BC) and Classical (5th–4th centuries BC) periods in Ancient Greece. ...


There are several variant Greek forms of the word attested, including the later form κροκόδειλος (krokódeilos)[2] found cited in many English reference works[3]. In the Koine Greek of Roman times, krokódīlos and krokódeilos would have been pronounced identically, and either or both may be the source of the Latinized form crocodīlus used by the ancient Romans. Koine redirects here. ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... Classical Latin is the language used by the principal exponents of that language in what is usually regarded as classical Latin literature. ... Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ...


Krokódīlos/krokódeilos itself is described in reference sources as a corruption of krokē ("pebbly"), and drīlos/dreilos supposedly meaning "worm" although attested only as "(man with circumcized) penis"[4]. It is unclear how well supported this analysis is. The meaning of krokē is explained as describing the skin texture of lizards (or crocodiles) in most sources, but is alternately claimed to refer to a supposed habit of (lizards or crocodiles) basking on pebbly ground[5].


The form crocodrillus is attested in Medieval Latin[6]. It is not clear whether this is a medieval corruption or derives from alternate Greco-Latin forms (late Greek korkodrillos and korkodrillion are attested[7]). Medieval Latin was the form of Latin used in the Middle Ages, primarily as a medium of scholarly exchange and as the liturgical language of the medieval Roman Catholic Church, but also as a language of science, literature, law, and administration. ...


A (further) corrupted form cocodrille is found in Old French and was borrowed into Middle English as cocodril(le). The Modern English form crocodile was adapted directly from the Classical Latin crocodīlus in the 16th Century, replacing the earlier form. Old French was the Romance dialect continuum spoken in territories corresponding roughly to the northern half of modern France and parts of modern Belgium and Switzerland from around 1000 to 1300. ... Middle English is the name given by historical linguistics to the diverse forms of the English language spoken between the Norman invasion of 1066 and the mid-to-late 15th century, when the Chancery Standard, a form of London-based English, began to become widespread, a process aided by the... Note: This page or section contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ...


The use of -y- in the scientific name Crocodylus (and forms derived from it) is a corruption introduced by Laurenti (1768). This article needs to be wikified. ... Josephus Nicolaus Laurenti (December 4, 1735 - February 17, 1805) was an Austrian naturalist. ...


Biology and behaviour

Crocodiles are ambush hunters, waiting for fish or land animals to come close, then rushing out to attack. As cold-blooded predators, they are lethargic, therefore survive long periods without food, and rarely need to actively go hunting. Despite their slow appearance, crocodiles are top predators in their environment, and various species have been observed attacking and killing sharks.[7] A famous exception is the Egyptian Plover which is said to enjoy a symbiotic relationship with the crocodile. According to unauthenticated reports, the plover feeds on parasites that infest the crocodile's mouth and the reptile will open its jaws and allow the bird to enter to clean out the mouth (Richford and Mead 2003). This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ... For other uses, see Shark (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Pluvianus aegyptius (Linnaeus, 1758) The Egyptian Plover, Pluvianus aegyptius, is a wader in the pratincole and courser family, Glareolidae. ... Common Clownfish (Amphiprion ocellaris) in their Magnificent Sea Anemone (Heteractis magnifica) home. ...


Many large crocodilians swallow stones (called gastroliths or stomach stones) and they are believed to be of use in acting as ballast to balance their body. Other suggestions have been made that they may have a function similar to that of grit in birds, which is in crushing food.[1]


Salt glands are present in the tongues of most crocodylids and they have a pore opening on the surface of the tongue. They appear to be similar to those in marine turtles, however these seem to be absent in Alligatoridae.[1]


Crocodilians can produce sounds during distress and in aggressive displays. They can also hear well and the tympanic membranes are concealed by flat flaps that may be raised or lowered by muscles.[1]

Crocodile farm in Mexico
Crocodile farm in Mexico

Crocodiles eat fish, birds, mammals and occasionally smaller crocodiles. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2048 × 1536 pixels, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2048 × 1536 pixels, file size: 1. ...


Crocodiles are protected in many parts of the world, but they also are farmed commercially. Their hide is tanned and used to make leather goods such as shoes and handbags, whilst crocodile meat is also considered a delicacy. The most commonly farmed species are the Saltwater and Nile crocodiles, while a hybrid of the Saltwater and the rare Siamese crocodile is also bred in Asian farms. Farming has resulted in an increase in the Saltwater crocodile population in Australia, as eggs are usually harvested from the wild, so landowners have an incentive to conserve crocodile habitat. This article is about the terms most basic meaning; a purse is also a race track term. ... Siamese could refer to: A Siamese cat Siamese twins The Thai language Someone or something from Thailand This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...


Crocodiles are more closely related to birds and dinosaurs than to most animals classified as reptiles, the three being included in the group Archosauria ('ruling reptiles'). See Crocodilia for more information. Groups Pterosauria Crocodylia (crocodiles) Dinosauria    Aves (birds) Archosaurs (Greek for ruling reptiles) are a group of diapsid reptiles that first appeared during the late Permian (roughly 250 million years ago). ... black: range of Crocodilia Families Gavialidae Alligatoridae Crocodylidae Crocodilia is an order of large reptiles that appeared about 84 million years ago in the Late Cretaceous Period (Campanian stage). ...


Crocodile embryos do not have sex chromosomes, and unlike humans sex is not determined genetically. Sex is determined by temperature, with males produced at around 31.6 degrees celsius, and females produced at slightly lower and higher temperatures. The average incubation period is around 80 days, and also is dependent upon temperature.[8]


It has been observed that crocodiles may possess a form of homing instinct. Three rogue saltwater crocodiles were relocated 400 kilometres by helicopter in northern Australia but had returned to their original locations within three weeks, based on data obtained from tracking devices attached to the reptiles.[9] For other uses, see Helicopter (disambiguation). ...


The land speed record for a crocodile is 17 km/m (11 mph) measured in a galloping Australian freshwater crocodile. [10] Maximum speed varies from species to species. Certain types of crocodiles can indeed gallop, including Cuban crocodiles, New Guinea crocodiles, African dwarf crocodiles and even smaller Nile crocodiles. For most species, the fastest they can move is a kind of "belly run", where the body moves in a snake-like fashion, limbs splayed out to either side paddling away frantically while the tail whips to and fro. Crocodiles can reach speeds of 10 or 11 km/h (around 7 mph) when they "belly run", and often faster if they're slipping down muddy tidal riverbanks. It is possible for a human to outrun a crocodile; the best way to do so is to run in a straight line rather than zig-zagging back and forth. Another form of locomotion is the "high walk" where the body is raised clear off the ground. Binomial name Crocodylus johnstoni (Krefft, 1873) Range of the Freshwater Crocodile in black The Freshwater Crocodile also known as Johnstons Crocodile or Freshies are found in the northern regions of Australia. ... Binomial name Cope, 1861 Range of the Dwarf Crocodile in green Subspecies Wermuth & Mertens (1961) (Schmidt (1919)) Wermuth & Mertens (1961) The Dwarf Crocodile (Osteolaemus tetraspis) is one of the three existing African species of crocodile. ...

Siamese Crocodile sleeping with its mouth open to pant.
Siamese Crocodile sleeping with its mouth open to pant.

Crocodiles do not have sweat glands, so they release heat through their mouths. Consequently, they often sleep with their mouth open and may even pant like a dog.[11] [[MBold textsgsd g sdds gddgasItalic textgasdgItalic textadgLink titlesglink titlesfglink titlef Headline text s Headline text dg d sgd dssdedia:Example. ...


Danger to humans

Main article: Crocodile attacks

The larger species of crocodiles are very dangerous to humans. The main danger that crocodiles pose is not their ability to run after a person but their ability to strike before the person can react. The Saltwater and Nile Crocodiles are the most dangerous, killing hundreds of people each year in parts of south-east Asia and Africa. Mugger crocodiles and possibly the endangered Black Caiman, are also very dangerous to humans. American alligators are less aggressive and rarely assault humans without provocation. The most deaths in a single crocodile attack incident may have occurred during the Battle of Ramree Island, on February 19, 1945, in Burma. Nine hundred soldiers of an Imperial Japanese Army unit, in an attempt to retreat from the Royal Navy and rejoin a larger battalion of the Japanese infantry, crossed through ten miles of mangrove swamps which contained Saltwater Crocodiles. Twenty Japanese soldiers were captured alive by the British, and almost five hundred are known to have escaped Ramree. Many of the remainder may have been eaten by the crocodiles, although gunfire from the British troops was undoubtedly a contributory factor. Nile crocodile Crocodile attacks of people are not uncommon in places where crocodiles are native. ... For other uses, see Species (disambiguation). ... Binomial name (Schneider, 1801) Range of the Saltwater Crocodile in black The Saltwater or Estuarine Crocodile (Crocodylus porosus) is the largest of all living crocodilians and reptiles. ... Binomial name (Laurenti, 1768) The Nile crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus) is one of the 4 species of crocodiles found in Africa, and the second largest species of crocodile. ... Location of Southeast Asia Southeast Asia is a subregion of Asia. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... Binomial name Crocodylus palustris Lesson, 1831 Distribution of Crocodylus palustris The Mugger Crocodile (Crocodylus palustris), also called the Iranian, Marsh, or Persian Crocodile (in Persian گاندو Gandu), is found throughout the Indian subcontinent and the surrounding countries (India, Pakistan; in Pakistans coastal regions of the Makran and delta marshlands of... Binomial name Melanosuchus niger Spix, 1825 The Black Caiman (Melanosuchus niger) is a threatened species, related to alligators. ... restoring version with Binomial name (Daudin, 1801) American Alligator range map The American Alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) is one of the two living species of Alligator, a genus within the family Alligatoridae. ... The Battle of Ramree Island was fought for six weeks during January and February 1945, as part of the British Fourteenth Army 1944/45 offensive on the Southern Front of the Burma Campaign during World War II. Ramree Island lies off the Burma coast and was captured along with the... The Imperial Japanese Army (IJA) (Kyūjitai: 大日本帝國陸軍, Shinjitai: , Romaji: Dai-Nippon Teikoku Rikugun), or more officially Army of the Greater Japanese Empire was the official ground based armed force of Imperial Japan from 1867 to 1945. ... This article is about the navy of the United Kingdom. ... Infantry of the Royal Irish Rifles during the Battle of the Somme in World War I Infantry or footmen are very highly disciplined and trained soldiers who fight primarily with small arms(rifles), but are trained to use everything from their bare hands to missle systems in order to neutralize... Mangrove swamps are a characteristic for the tropical and subtropical coasts. ...


Taxonomy of the Crocodylidae

Crocodile farming in Australia.
Crocodile farming in Australia.
A bask of crocodiles
A bask of crocodiles
American Crocodlile at La Manzanilla, Jalisco, Mexico
American Crocodlile at La Manzanilla, Jalisco, Mexico

Most species are grouped into the genus Crocodylus. The rhree other living genera of this family are both monotypic: Mecistops and Osteolaemus. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1792x1200, 548 KB) Summary Picture of Crocodile farm outside Cairns, Australia. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1792x1200, 548 KB) Summary Picture of Crocodile farm outside Cairns, Australia. ... Image File history File links Crocadiles. ... Image File history File links Crocadiles. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1858x2323, 1877 KB) Summary Phylum : Chordata - Class : Reptilia - Order : Crocodilia - Species : Crocodylus acutus Crocodylus acutus, american crocodile, cocodrilo americano, crocodile d´Amérique, cocodrilo de rio, lagarto amarillo, american saltwater crocodile. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1858x2323, 1877 KB) Summary Phylum : Chordata - Class : Reptilia - Order : Crocodilia - Species : Crocodylus acutus Crocodylus acutus, american crocodile, cocodrilo americano, crocodile d´Amérique, cocodrilo de rio, lagarto amarillo, american saltwater crocodile. ... La Manzanilla is a small Mexican town of approximately 1,000 inhabitants who work in fishing, local palapa restaurants, small hotels, and grocery stores. ... For other uses, see Genus (disambiguation). ... Monotypic is an adjective, that refers to a taxonomic group with only one type: in botany it means that a taxon has only one species; Ginkgo is a monotypic genus, while Ginkgoaceae is a monotypic family. ... Binomial name Range map The slender-snouted crocodile (Crocodylus cataphractus) is a species of crocodile. ... Binomial name Osteolaemus tetraspis Cope, 1861 Range of the Dwarf Crocodile in green Subspecies Wermuth & Mertens (1961) (Schmidt (1919)) Wermuth & Mertens (1961) The Dwarf Crocodile (Osteolaemus tetraspis) is one of the three existing African species of crocodile. ...

Some of the extinct relatives of true crocodiles, members of the larger group Crocodylomorpha, were herbivorous. Genera Australosuchus Baru Kambara Mekosuchus Pallimnarchus Quinkana Triphosuchus A Mekosuchine crocodiles are an extinct group of crocodiles from Australia and the South Pacific. ... This article needs to be wikified. ... Binomial name Crocodylus acutus (Cuvier, 1807) The American Crocodile (Crocodylus acutus) is one of the 4 species of New World crocodile and the most wide-spread in range. ... Binomial name (Cuvier, 1807) The American Crocodile is one of the four species of New World crocodile and the most wide-spread in range. ... Binomial name Crocodylus intermedius Graves, 1819 The Orinoco Crocodile Crocodylus intermedius is a crocodilian found in freshwater in northern South America, in particular the Orinoco river. ... Binomial name Crocodylus intermedius Graves, 1819 The Orinoco Crocodile Crocodylus intermedius is a crocodilian found in freshwater in northern South America, in particular the Orinoco river. ... Binomial name Crocodylus johnstoni (Krefft, 1873) Range of the Freshwater Crocodile in black The Freshwater Crocodile also known as Johnstons Crocodile or Freshies are found in the northern regions of Australia. ... Binomial name Crocodylus mindorensis Schmidt, 1935 The Philippine crocodile (Crocodylus mindorensis) is a crocodile found only in the Philippines. ... Binomial name Schmidt, 1935 The Philippine crocodile (Crocodylus mindorensis) is a crocodile found only in the Philippines. ... Binomial name Crocodylus moreletii The Morelets Crocodile, or Mexican crocodile (Crocodylus moreletii), is a small crocodile from Central America. ... Binomial name Crocodylus moreletii Morelet’s Crocodile Crocodylus moreletii at Bristol Zoo, England The Morelets Crocodile, or Mexican crocodile (Crocodylus moreletii), is a small crocodile from Belize, Guatemala and Mexico, in Central America. ... Binomial name Crocodylus niloticus (Laurenti, 1768) The Nile crocodile is the largest African crocodile and the top predator in its range, which covers most of Africa south of the Sahara, and the islands of Madagascar and Comoros. ... Binomial name (Laurenti, 1768) The Nile crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus) is one of the 4 species of crocodiles found in Africa, and the second largest species of crocodile. ... Binomial name Crocodylus novaeguineae The New Guinea Crocodile (Crocodylus novaeguineae) is a small species of crocodile found on the island of New Guinea. ... Binomial name Crocodylus novaeguineae The New Guinea Crocodile (Crocodylus novaeguineae) is a small species of crocodile found on the island of New Guinea. ... Binomial name Crocodylus palustris Lesson, 1831 Distribution of Crocodylus palustris The Mugger Crocodile (Crocodylus palustris), also called the Iranian, Marsh, or Persian Crocodile (in Persian گاندو Gandu), is found throughout the Indian subcontinent and the surrounding countries (India, Pakistan; in Pakistans coastal regions of the Makran and delta marshlands of... Binomial name Crocodylus palustris Lesson, 1831 Distribution of Crocodylus palustris The Mugger Crocodile (Crocodylus palustris), also called the Iranian, Marsh, or Persian Crocodile (in Persian گاندو Gandu), is found throughout the Indian subcontinent and the surrounding countries (India, Pakistan; in Pakistans coastal regions of the Makran and delta marshlands of... Binomial name Crocodylus niloticus (Schneider, 1801) The Saltwater or Estuarine Crocodile (Crocodylus porosus) is the largest of all living reptiles, and is often said to be the most dangerous to humans. ... Binomial name (Schneider, 1801) Range of the Saltwater Crocodile in black The Saltwater or Estuarine Crocodile (Crocodylus porosus) is the largest of all living crocodilians and reptiles. ... Binomial name Crocodylus rhombifer Cuvier, 1807 The Cuban crocodile (Crocodylus rhombifer) is a small species (8 feet average length) native only to Cubas Zapata Swamp, and highly endangered, though it formerly ranged throughout the Caribbean, possibly even into Florida. ... Binomial name Crocodylus rhombiferCuvier, 1807 The Cuban crocodile (Crocodylus rhombifer) is a small species (8 feet average length) native only to Cubas Zapata Swamp, and highly endangered, though it formerly ranged throughout the Caribbean, possibly even into Florida. ... Binomial name Crocodylus siamensis Schneider, 1801 The Siamese crocodile (Crocodylus siamensis) is a freshwater crocodile native to Borneo, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Thailand, and Vietnam. ... [[MBold textsgsd g sdds gddgasItalic textgasdgItalic textadgLink titlesglink titlesfglink titlef Headline text s Headline text dg d sgd dssdedia:Example. ... Binomial name Range map The slender-snouted crocodile (Crocodylus cataphractus) is a species of crocodile. ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... This article needs to be wikified. ... Binomial name Range map The slender-snouted crocodile (Crocodylus cataphractus) is a species of crocodile. ... Binomial name Osteolaemus tetraspis Cope, 1861 Range of the Dwarf Crocodile in green Subspecies Wermuth & Mertens (1961) (Schmidt (1919)) Wermuth & Mertens (1961) The Dwarf Crocodile (Osteolaemus tetraspis) is one of the three existing African species of crocodile. ... Binomial name Osteolaemus tetraspis Cope, 1861 Range of the Dwarf Crocodile in green Subspecies Wermuth & Mertens (1961) (Schmidt (1919)) Wermuth & Mertens (1961) The Dwarf Crocodile (Osteolaemus tetraspis) is one of the three existing African species of crocodile. ... Binomial name Cope, 1861 Range of the Dwarf Crocodile in green Subspecies Wermuth & Mertens (1961) (Schmidt (1919)) Wermuth & Mertens (1961) The Dwarf Crocodile (Osteolaemus tetraspis) is one of the three existing African species of crocodile. ... Groups see taxonomy The Crocodylomorpha are an important group of archosaurs that include the living crocodilians and their extinct relatives. ...


Crocodile products

Crocodile leather wallets from Bangkok Crocodile Farm
Crocodile leather wallets from Bangkok Crocodile Farm

Crocodile leather can be made into goods such as wallets, briefcases, purses, handbags, belts, hats, and shoes. Image File history File links Crocrodile_wallets. ... Image File history File links Crocrodile_wallets. ...


Crocodile is consumed in some countries, such as Australia, Ethiopia, Thailand, South Africa and also Cuba (in pickled form); it can also be found in specialty restaurants in some parts of the United States. The meat is white and its nutritional composition compares favourably with that of other meats. It tends to have a slightly higher cholesterol level than other meats. Crocodile meat has a delicate flavour; some describe it as a cross between chicken and crab. Crocodile meat can be complemented by the use of marinades. Cuts of meat include backstrap and tail fillet.


Crocodile oil has been used for centuries as a natural healing skin balm.


References

  1. ^ a b c d e f g Grigg, Gordon and Gans, Carl (1993) Morphology And Physiology Of The Crocodylia, in Fauna of Australia Vol 2A Amphibia and Reptilia, chapter 40, pages 326-336. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra. PDF
  2. ^ National Geographic documentary; "Bite Force", Brady Barr.
  3. ^ Britton Adam. Crocodilian Biology Database, FAQ. "How long do crocodiles live for?". Retrieved 9/11/2006.
  4. ^ profile of Mr Freshy at Australia Zoo website, accessed 1 February 2007
  5. ^ Saltwater Crocodile, Saltwater Crocodile Profile, Facts, Information, Photos, Pictures, Sounds, Habitats, Reports, News - National Geographic
  6. ^ "Orissa crocodile recognised as world's largest", Reuters, 2006-06-16. Retrieved on 2006-06-18. 
  7. ^ Saltwater Crocodile, Saltwater Crocodile Profile, Facts, Information, Photos, Pictures, Sounds, Habitats, Reports, News - National Geographic
  8. ^ Britton, Adam. Estuarine Crocodile: Crocodylus porosus. Crocodilians: Natural History Conservation: Crocodiles, Caimans, Alligators, Gharials. Retrieved 4 January 2007.
  9. ^ Read MA, Grigg GC, Irwin SR, Shanahan D, Franklin CE (2007) Satellite Tracking Reveals Long Distance Coastal Travel and Homing by Translocated Estuarine Crocodiles, Crocodylus porosus. PLoS ONE 2(9): e949. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0000949
  10. ^ Britton, Adam. Crocodilian Biology Database FAQ, "How fast can a crocodile run?". Retrieved on 2008-02-02.
  11. ^ Anitai, Stefan. 14 Amazing Facts About Crocodiles - Living dinosaurs. Softpedia. Retrieved on 2008-04-01.

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Further reading

  • Iskandar, DT (2000). Turtles and Crocodiles of Insular Southeast Asia and New Guinea. ITB, Bandung.
  • Crocodilian Biology Database, FAQ. "How long do crocodiles live for?" Adam Britton. [8]
  • Crocodilian Biology Database, FAQ. "How fast can a crocodile run?" Adam Britton. [9]
  • Richford, Andrew S., and Christopher J. Mead (2003). "Pratincoles and Coursers", in Christopher Perrins (Ed.): Firefly Encyclopedia of Birds. Firefly Books, 252–253. ISBN 1-55297-777-3. 

Professor Christopher Miles Chris Perrins, FRS is a British biologist. ...

See also

Wikispecies has information related to:
Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Wikiversity
At Wikiversity, you can learn about:
Crocodile

Image File history File links Wikispecies-logo. ... Wikispecies is a wiki-based online project supported by the Wikimedia Foundation that aims to create a comprehensive free content catalogue of all species (including animalia, plantae, fungi, bacteria, archaea, and protista). ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Wikiversity logo Wikiversity is a Wikimedia Foundation beta project[1], devoted to learning materials and activities, located at www. ... Nile crocodile Crocodile attacks of people are not uncommon in places where crocodiles are native. ... This article needs cleanup. ... Genera Australosuchus Baru Kambara Mekosuchus Pallimnarchus Quinkana Triphosuchus A Mekosuchine crocodiles are an extinct group of crocodiles from Australia and the South Pacific. ... Crocodiles in sewers or canals is a well-known myth that has perpetuated through history. ... Crocodile Hunter redirects here. ... For the rugby league footballer of the same name, see Steve Irwin (rugby league). ... Gustave is estimated to be a 6m long, over one-ton[1] crocodile residing on a river-island near Lake Tanganyika in Burundi, Africa. ... Crocodillin is an antibacterial substance found in crocodile blood. ...

External links

  • Crocodilian Online
  • Crocodilian Biology Database
  • Crocodile Attacks in Australia
  • BBC news finds powerful agent in crocodile blood

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