FACTOID # 18: Alaska spends more money per capita on elementary and secondary education than any other state.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Croatian War of Independence
Croatian War of Independence
Part of the Yugoslav wars

Vukovar in ruins 1991
Date 1991–1995
Location Croatia
Result Decisive Croatian victory, Independence of Croatia and full control of all its pre-war territory
Territorial
changes
Croatian government gains full control of territory of Croatia
Combatants
Flag of Croatia Croatian military
Flag of Croatia Paramilitary organisations
Flag of the Republic of Serbian Krajina Republic of Serb Krajina Army
Flag of Yugoslavia Yugoslav People's Army
Flag of Republika SrpskaBosnian Serb Army
Flag of Serbia Republic of Serbia
Paramilitary organisations
Commanders
Franjo Tuđman (President of Croatia)
Anton Tus (Chief of Staff of Croatian Army 1991-1992)
Janko Bobetko (Chief of Staff of Croatian Army 1992-1995)
Atif Dudakovic (Commander of fifth Korps of ARBiH 1995
Slobodan Milošević
(President of Serbia)
Milan Martić
(President of Republic of Serb Krajina)
Mile Mrkšić
(Commander in Chief of the Army of Republic of Serb Krajina)
Veljko Kadijević
(Chief of Staff of Yugoslav People's Army)
Casualties
Croatian sources:
  • 10,668 died[1][2]
  • 37,180 wounded[3]
  • 2,915 disappeared[4][5]

International sources: This does not cite any references or sources. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 532 pixelsFull resolution (896 × 596 pixel, file size: 79 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Croatia. ... For the Croatian army from 1944-1945, see Croatian Armed Forces. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Croatia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Serbian_Krajina_(1991). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_SFR_Yugoslavia. ... The Yugoslav Peoples Army (YPA) (Serbo-Croatian: Jugoslovenska narodna armija or Jugoslavenska narodna armija; Serbian and Macedonian: Југословенска народна армија—JHA; Macedonian and Serbian Latin forms: Jugoslovenska narodna armija; Croatian and Bosnian: Jugoslavenska narodna armija—JNA; Slovene: Jugoslovanska ljudska armada—JLA) was the military force of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Republika_Srpska. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Serbia_1991-2004. ... ‹ The template below (Foreignchar) is being considered for deletion. ... The President of Croatia is the head of state. ... Croatian Ground Army (Croatian: Hrvatska kopnena vojska), commonly referred as Croatian Army (Hrvatska vojska) is a branch of the Armed Forces of the Republic of Croatia. ... Janko Bobetko (1919 - 2003) was a Croatian army general and the Croatian armys Chief of the General Staff between 1992 and 1995. ... Croatian Ground Army (Croatian: Hrvatska kopnena vojska), commonly referred as Croatian Army (Hrvatska vojska) is a branch of the Armed Forces of the Republic of Croatia. ... Atif Dudaković (born December 2, 1953 in Bosanska Dubica, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Yugoslavia) is a former general in the Bosnian army, commanding the armys 5th Corps before becoming the general commander of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina army. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Milošević redirects here. ... Not to be confused with Republika Srpska. ... Milan Martić (born 18 November 1954, near Knin, Yugoslavia) is an ethnic Serbian politician from Croatias Serbian minority. ... The borders of the RSK c. ... We dont have an article called Mile Mrkšić Start this article Search for Mile Mrkšić in. ... The borders of the RSK c. ... Veljko Kadijević (Cyrillic: Вељко Кадиjевић) (born November 21, 1925) was the Minister of Defence in the Yugoslav government from 1988 to 1992,[1] which made him de facto commander of Yugoslav Peoples Army during the Ten-Day War and initial stages of Croatian War of Independence. ...

  • 196,000 displaced during the war[6]
Serbian sources:
  • 447,316 displaced[7]

Croatian sources:

UN sources:

  • 300,000 displaced [9]

This article is part of the series on the
History of Croatia The Plitvice Lakes incident of March 1991 (known in Croatian as Plitvice Bloody Easter, Krvavi Uskrs na Plitvicama / Plitvički Krvavi Uskrs) was a clash between security forces of the Republic of Croatia and armed Serb separatists. ... The Borovo Selo killings of 2 May 1991 (known in Croatia as the Borovo Selo massacre, Croatian:Pokolj u Borovom Selu and in Serbia as the Borovo Selo incident, Serbian: Инцидент у Боровом Селу) were one of the bloodiest incidents in the early stages of the breakup of Yugoslavia. ... Combatants Yugoslavia (JNA) Local Serb forces Croatia (HV, police forces, HOS) Commanders Colonel Ratko Mladić (JNA) Strength JNA 9th Corps (Knin): 63 tanks 45 APCs Other units 6th Operational Zone (Several infantry brigades) Map showing the location of Dalmatia, in present day Croatia Battle of Dalmatia (Croatian: Bitka za Dalmaciju... Combatants Yugoslav Peoples Army Serbian paramilitaries Local Serb militias Croatian National Guard Croatian police and militias Croatian Defence Forces (HOS) Commanders Mladen Bratić† Života Panić Blago Zadro† Mile Dedaković Branko Borković Strength Up to 36,000, depending on the phase of the battle Some 2,000 (in Vukovar) Casualties... Ovčara massacre memorial The Vukovar massacre was a war crime that took place between November 18 and November 21, 1991 near the city of Vukovar, a mixed Croat/Serb community in northeastern Croatia. ... Combatants Croatian Army (HV) Yugoslav Army (JNA) Commanders Anton Tus (Chief of Staff of Croatian Army 1991-1992) Various local commanders Veljko Kadijević (Chief of Staff of Yugoslav Peoples Army) Various local commanders Strength  ?  ? Casualties At least 15 dead  ? At least: 250 tanks, 180 Armoured personnel carriers, 100 Self... Combatants Yugoslav Army (JNA), Montenegro Territorial Defence Forces Croatian Army (HV) Commanders Veljko Kadijević (Chief of Staff of Yugoslav Peoples Army) Anton Tus (Chief of Staff of Croatian Army 1991-1992) Janko Bobetko (from 1992) Strength Between 7,500 and 20,000 men [1] Up to 2,000 soldiers... Lovas on the map of Croatia Lovas is a village and seat of municipality in the Vukovar-Srijem county of eastern Croatia, located on the slopes of FruÅ¡ka Gora, a few kilometers south of the main road connecting Vukovar with Ilok. ... The Å iroka Kula massacre was a war crime [1] committed by Croatian Serbs forces on October 13, 1991 (the biggest part of it), during Croatian War of Independence, in a village of Å iroka Kula, located 11 km from Gospić and 3 km from Lički Osik. ... The Gospić massacre was an incident that took place between 16 October-18 October 1991 in the town of Gospić, a mixed Serb/Croat community in the district of Lika in Croatia. ... A monument to victims of massacre in Saborsko One of the identified mass-graves in Saborsko The Saborskom massacre was a war crime [1] committed by Serb-led JNA (mostly consisted of Serbs) and rebel Serbs militia Militia of Republic of Serb Krajina (from neighbouring PlaÅ¡ki [2]) on October... Hrvatska Dubica on the map of Croatia Hrvatska Dubica is a village and a municipality in central Croatia in the Sisak-Moslavina county. ... After the attacking forces of the 5th Yugoslav Peoples Army (JNA) corps (Banja Luka corps) had successfully crossed Sava river into Croatia captured Okučani in western Slavonia it was their primary objective to advance along Pakrac - GrubiÅ¡no Polje route and link up with th 28th partisan division... According to the census of 1991, Å kabrnja was inhabited by 1,953 people in 397 households, and the vast majority of them were Croats, there wasnt a single Serb resident. ... After successful completion of Operation Otkos 10, the first offensive operation of such scale by Croatian army in the homeland war, Croatian troops were in position to retake further territory and neutralize a number of serbian held military positions and fortifications. ... Voćin massacre was a massacre of between 45 and 55 Croatian civilians [1] in the village of Voćin, perpetuated by Serb paramilitary units in December 1991 during the Croatian War of Independence. ... On June 21, 1992, the Croatian army attacked the Serbian Territorial Defense on the Miljevci Plateau near Drnis in front of the eyes of UN peacekeeping force (UNPROFOR). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Combatants Croatia UNPROFOR: - Canadian PPCLI - French armour units Republic of Serbian Krajina Commanders Janko Bobetko, Petar Stipetić Rahim Ademi Colonel Jim Calvin Mile Novaković Strength Over 2,500 soldiers, T-72 tanks, Large numbers of artillery 875 members of the 2nd Battalion Princess Patricias Canadian Light Infantry (PPCLI)  ? Casualties... Combatants Croatia Republic of Serbian Krajina Commanders Croatian Military Command Strength 7,200 soldiers 5000 soldiers Casualties 55 killed, 162 wounded 250 killed, 1,500 POW Operation Flash (Croatian: ) was a brief and successful offensive conducted in the beginning of May 1995 by the the Croatian Army, which removed Serb... The Zagreb rocket attack was a war crime conducted by Serb armed forces that fired ground-to-ground missiles on the Croatian capital of Zagreb. ... Combatants Croatia (HV, HVO) Republika Srpska (VRS) Commanders General Ante Gotovina (HV) Strength Two HV Guard Brigades (4th Motorized, 7th Mechanized) Two HVO Guard Brigades (1st, 3rd Motorized) Other units Units of the 2nd Krajina Corps of the VRS (3 motorized brigades, 5 infantry brigades, 5 light brigades and support... Combatants Croatia (HV) Bosnia and Herzegovina (ABiH) Republic of Serbian Krajina (VSK) Republika Srpska (VRS) Commanders Zvonimir ÄŒervenko (HV) Atif Dudakovic (ABiH) Mile MrkÅ¡ić (VSK) Strength 150,000 soldiers, 350 tanks, 400 artillery pieces, 50 rocket launchers, 50 aircraft and helicopters 40,000 soldiers, 150 tanks, 350 artillery pieces... This does not cite any references or sources. ... An animated series of maps showing the breakup of the second Yugoslavia; The different colors represent the areas of control. ... Combatants  Bosnia and Herzegovina Volunteers from Islamic countries HVO  Croatia Volunteers from Western Europe Republika Srpska  Yugoslavia Various paramilitary units from Serbia and Montenegro Volunteers from Eastern Europe Commanders Alija Izetbegović (President of Bosnia and Herzegovina) Sefer Halilović (Army chief of staff 1992-1993) Rasim Delić (Army chief of Staff... Combatants NATO Republika Srpska Commanders Willy Claes Ratko Mladić Strength 2 F-16C, 1 Mirage aircraft 2 SAMs Casualties 1 Mirage aircraft 2 pilots POW 1 F-16C Undisclosed The 1995 NATO bombing in Bosnia and Herzegovina (code-named by NATO Operation Deliberate Force) was a sustained air campaign conducted... The term Kosovo War or Kosovo Conflict is often used to describe two sequential and at times parallel armed conflicts (a civil war followed by an international war) in the southern Serbian province called Kosovo (officially Kosovo and Metohia), part of the former Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. ... Combatants NATO (USAF, RAF, and other air, maritime and land forces) Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and allied Serb paramilitary and foreign volunteer forces[1] Commanders Wesley Clark (SACEUR), Javier Solana (Secretary General of NATO) Slobodan MiloÅ¡ević (Supreme Commander of the Yugoslav Army), Vojislav Å eÅ¡elj, Dragoljub Ojdanić (Chief of... Combatants FRY army Serbian police UCPMB Commanders Unknown Muhamet Xhemajli Ridvan Chazimi-Leshi† [1] Casualties Unknown Assumed high by authorities Civilian casualties: The PreÅ¡evo Valley conflict [2] was a struggle between the Yugoslav federal government and an Albanian separatist organisation Liberation Army of PreÅ¡evo, MedveÄ‘a and Bujanovac... Image File history File links Croatia,_Historic_Coat_of_Arms. ... This is the history of Croatia. ...

Painting by Oton Iveković: Crowning of King Tomislav
Early History
Before the Croats
Origins of the Croats
Medieval History
Medieval Croatian state
Kingdom of Croatia
Union with Hungary
Habsburg rule
20th century Croatia
Kingdom of Yugoslavia
Independent State of Croatia
Part of SFR Yugoslavia
Contemporary Croatia
War of independence
Republic of Croatia
This box: view  talk  edit

The Croatian War of Independence was a war in Croatia from 1991 to 1995. Initially, the war was between Croatia and the Yugoslav People's Army (JNA). Later, the conflict turned into fighting between the armed forces of the newly-independent Croatia and the rebelling Serb minority, who proclaimed an autonomous Republic of Serb Krajina. The Serbs were supported by the Yugoslavian National Army and Belgrade. The Croatian side aimed to establish sovereignty for the Republic of Croatia, previously a federal unit in the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. Croatia's rebelling Serbs had wanted to remain a part of Yugoslavia, effectively seeking new boundaries in those parts of Croatia with a Serb majority or significant minority. The war was striking for its brutality and intensity. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1098x682, 294 KB) Summary Oton Ivekovic, Krunidba kralja Tomislava. ... The area known as Croatia today has been inhabited throughout the prehistoric period, ever since the Stone Age. ... The origin of the Croatian tribe before the great migration of the Slavs is uncertain. ... The Croatian people trace their origins to Slavic peoples which moved into the territory of the former Roman provinces Pannonia and Dalmatia between the 7th and 8th centuries, and formed dukedoms. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Medieval Croatian state. ... The official entering of Croatia into personal union with Hungary, becoming part of the Kingdom of Hungary, had several important consequences. ... Following the Battle of Mohács, in 1527 some of the Croatian (and Hungarian) nobles supported Ivan Zapolja, while some preferred suzerainty to the Austrian king Ferdinand of Habsburg. ... Shortly before the end of the Great War, on October 29, 1918, the Croatian Parliament severed relations with Austria-Hungary as the Allied armies defeated those of the Habsburgs. ... Capital Zagreb Language(s) Croatian Religion Roman Catholicism Political structure Puppet-state King  - 1941-1943 Tomislav II Poglavnik  - 1941-1945 Ante Pavelić Legislature None Historical era World War II  - Established April 10, 1941  - Disestablished May 8, 1945 Population  - 1941 est. ... Meeting after the liberation of Zagreb, May 1945. ... For other uses, see War (disambiguation). ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the 1991 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full 1995 Gregorian calendar). ... The Yugoslav Peoples Army (YPA) (Serbo-Croatian: Jugoslovenska narodna armija or Jugoslavenska narodna armija; Serbian and Macedonian: Југословенска народна армија—JHA; Macedonian and Serbian Latin forms: Jugoslovenska narodna armija; Croatian and Bosnian: Jugoslavenska narodna armija—JNA; Slovene: Jugoslovanska ljudska armada—JLA) was the military force of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. ... Serbs (in the Serbian language Срби, Srbi) are a south Slavic people living chiefly in Serbia and Montenegro and Bosnia and Herzegovina. ... Motto Brotherhood and Unity Anthem Hey, Slavs Capital Belgrade Language(s) Serbo-Croatian (spoken throughout the territory), Slovenian, Macedonian, Albanian, Hungarian (all official), and languages of other nationalities. ...


In Croatia the war is referred to as Domovinski rat (Homeland War), and due to its recent history, it is often contracted to just rat (war). In Serbia, the phrase Rat u Hrvatskoj (War in Croatia) is the most common name. (See Nomenclatorial note below.)

Contents

Background - dissent throughout Yugoslavia

The war in Croatia resulted from the rise of nationalism in the 1980s which slowly led to the dissolution of Yugoslavia. A crisis emerged in Yugoslavia with the weakening of the Communist states in Eastern Europe towards the end of the Cold War, as symbolised by the fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989. In Yugoslavia, the national communist party, officially called Alliance or the League of Communists had lost its ideological potency. Yugoslavia (Jugoslavija in the Latin alphabet, Југославија in Cyrillic; English: South Slavia, or literary The Land of South Slavs) describes three political entities that existed one at a time on the Balkan Peninsula in Europe, during most of the 20th century. ... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... SKJ flag in Serbo-Croat, with Latin script SKJ flag in Albanian SKJ flag in Hungarian SKJ flag in Italian SKJ flag in Macedonian SKJ flag in Slovenian League of Communists of Yugoslavia (Savez komunista Jugoslavije), before 1952 the Communist Party of Yugoslavia (Komunistička partija Jugoslavije), was a major...


In the 1980s, Albanian secessionist movements in Kosovo led to repression of the Albanian majority in Serbia's southern province. The more prosperous republics of Slovenia and Croatia wanted to move towards decentralisation and democracy. Serbia's republic, headed by Slobodan Milošević, adhered to centralism and one party rule through the Yugoslav Communist Party. Milošević effectively ended autonomy of Kosovo and Vojvodina autonomous regions. MiloÅ¡ević redirects here. ...


At the same time, the Yugoslav Peoples Army underwent transformation to a Serb controlled and dominated force[citation needed], and army command regions were changed to enable easier command in future wars[citation needed] (with the 1st command region with HQ in Belgrade, which closely resembled the desirable future borders of "Greater Serbia") Greater Serbia is a name for a Serbian nationalist concept. ...


As nationalism based on each republic's individual matters grew, it was apparent that Yugoslavia would soon be replaced by numerous successor states. As Slobodan Milošević rose to power in Serbia, his rhetoric favoured the continued unity of all Serbs in a single state. As Slovenia and Croatia began to seek greater autonomy within the Federation, including confederative status and even full independence, the nationalist ideas started to grow within the ranks of the still-ruling League of Communists. MiloÅ¡ević redirects here. ... A confederation is an association of sovereign states or communities, usually created by treaty but often later adopting a common constitution. ... SKJ flag in Serbo-Croat, with Latin script SKJ flag in Albanian SKJ flag in Hungarian SKJ flag in Italian SKJ flag in Macedonian SKJ flag in Slovenian League of Communists of Yugoslavia (Savez komunista Jugoslavije), before 1952 the Communist Party of Yugoslavia (Komunistička partija Jugoslavije), was a major...


1989 The ascent of Serbia

In March 1989, the crisis in Yugoslavia deepened after the adoption of amendments to the Serbian constitution. This allowed the Serbian republic's government to re-assert effective power over the autonomous provinces of Kosovo and Vojvodina. Before this point, a number of political decisions were legislated from within these provinces. They also had a vote on the Yugoslav federal presidency level (six members from republics and two members from autonomous provinces).[1] Serbia, under president Slobodan Milošević, gained control over three out of eight votes in the Yugoslav presidency[citation needed]. With additional votes from Montenegro and, occasionally, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Serbia was thus able to heavily influence decisions of the federal government[citation needed]. This situation led to objections in other republics and calls for reform of the Yugoslav Federation. For other uses, see Kosovo (disambiguation). ... Vojvodina (red) is one of Serbias two autonomous provinces Capital (and largest city) Novi Sad Official languages Ethnic groups  2. ... MiloÅ¡ević redirects here. ... Motto Brotherhood and Unity Anthem Hey, Slavs Capital Belgrade Language(s) Serbo-Croatian (spoken throughout the territory), Slovenian, Macedonian, Albanian, Hungarian (all official), and languages of other nationalities. ... This article is about the country in Europe. ...


1990 Electoral and constitutional moves

The weakening of the communist regime allowed nationalism to spread its political presence, even within the League of Communists of Yugoslavia (CY). In January 1990, the League of Communists broke up on the lines of the individual republics. At the 14th Extraordinary Congress of the League of Communists of Yugoslavia, on January 20th, 1990, the delegations of the republics could not agree on the main issues in the Yugoslav federation. The Croatian delegation demanded a looser federation, while the Serbian delegation, headed by Milošević, opposed this. As a result, the Slovenian and Croatian delegates left the Congress. This is considered by some to be the beginning of the end of Yugoslavia. SKJ flag in Serbo-Croat, with Latin script SKJ flag in Albanian SKJ flag in Hungarian SKJ flag in Italian SKJ flag in Macedonian SKJ flag in Slovenian League of Communists of Yugoslavia (Savez komunista Jugoslavije), before 1952 the Communist Party of Yugoslavia (Komunistička partija Jugoslavije), was a major... Yugoslavia (Jugoslavija in the Latin alphabet, Југославија in Cyrillic; English: South Slavia, or literary The Land of South Slavs) describes three political entities that existed one at a time on the Balkan Peninsula in Europe, during most of the 20th century. ...


The first free elections were then scheduled a few months later in Croatia and Slovenia. The elections in Croatia were held in April/May, the first round on April 22nd and the second round on May 6th. This article is about the political process. ... First free multi-party elections for Croatian Parliament were held between April 22nd and May 7th 1990. ...


During 1989 a number of political parties had been founded, among them the Croatian Democratic Union (HDZ - Hrvatska Demokratska Zajednica), led by Croatian nationalist Franjo Tuđman. The HDZ based its campaign on an aspiration to independence and on a general anti-Yugoslav rhetoric, fueling the sentiment of Croats that "only the HDZ could protect Croatia from the aspirations of Serbian elements led by Slobodan Milošević towards a Greater Serbia." It topped the poll in the elections (followed by Ivica Račan's reformed communists, Social Democratic Party of Croatia) and formed a new Croatian Government. The Croatian Democratic Union (Croatian: Hrvatska demokratska zajednica, HDZ), is a major Croatian political party. ... ‹ The template below (Foreignchar) is being considered for deletion. ... Greater Serbia is a name for a Serbian nationalist concept. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... The Social Democratic Party of Croatia (Croatian: Socijaldemokratska Partija Hrvatske) is the main social democratic political party in Croatia. ... The Government of the Republic of Croatia (Vlada Republike Hrvatske), commonly abbreviated to Croatian Government (hrvatska Vlada), is the main element of the executive branch of government in Croatia. ...


An important factor to Croatia preserving its pre-war borders was aided by donations from members of the Croatian diaspora. Many future HDZ politicians, including Tuđman, made international visits during the late 1980s and early 1990s in order to garner support from emigrants for the Croatian national cause. However, these early contacts with the Croatian diaspora had already been interpreted by some conservative communist politicians (mostly Serbs) as separatist. This sentiment was further fuelled by some HDZ members' controversial statements and careless rhetoric that was anything but peaceful. For example, one of the most quoted Tuđman's public statements was that "he was glad that his wife was neither Serb nor Jewish"[2]. Additionally, the flood of nationalist iconography, some of it drawn directly from the World War II Croatian nationalist movement responsible for the demise of probably more than 100,000 Serbs did little to ease the tensions[citation needed]. For other uses, see Diaspora (disambiguation). ...


On May 13, 1990, a football game was held in Zagreb between Zagreb's Dinamo team and Belgrade's Crvena Zvezda team. Matches between these two top Yugoslav soccer teams were always high-risk, but in 1990, the game erupted into violence. The day before the match, the ultras of Dinamo Zagreb - Bad Blue Boys and Red Star Belgrade - Delije had already been causing trouble in the streets of Zagreb. Before the ultras of the two respective clubs were given entry to the Maksimir stadium, they were checked for weapons, because of the high risk of the two fan fractions clashing. The match started with both fan groups shouting provocative slogans at each other. Suddenly the Dinamo and Red Star ultras started throwing stones at each other. Nobody knows who threw the first stone. Shortly after that the Red Star ultras started to tear the stadium apart, ruining seats and advertising boards. The Red Star ultras got out of the area which was reserved to them, and attacked and beat up a neutral group of Croats, who were watching the match. Some of the attacked Croats were lying down unconscious, but all these events found place, without a reaction from the militia (Communist-era police) which was mainly Serb controlled. This fuelled the whole situation on the stadium, as the fan fractions of Dinamo began to tear down the fence, to get to the other side of the stadium, so they could help the Croats who were getting physically attacked by the Red Star ultras. First when the Dinamo ultras tore down the fence, the police reacted sending many policemen to prevent the Croats to get to the other side of the stadium. It evolved into a battle between the Croatian Dinamo fans and the Yugoslav police. The Dinamo ultras succeeded in getting over to the other end of the stadium to the Red Star ultras and everything resulted in a clash, ending the game and resulting in over 60 people hurt, including some stabbed, shot and poisoned by tear gas. Dinamo player Zvonimir Boban was angry because he saw a big difference in the way the Croat and Serb ultras were being treated at by the police, and when a policeman hit him, he could not hold his emotions back and kicked the policeman with his feet. Later the police got the situation under control. Zvonimir Boban’s kick was later known as “the kick which started the war”. is the 133rd day of the year (134th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Dinamo Zagreb-Red Star Belgrade riot was one of the biggest ever football riots in history. ... Dinamo is one of the most famous and successful Croatian football clubs. ... For other uses, see Belgrade (disambiguation). ... Logo of Red Star Belgrade Fudbalski Klub Crvena Zvezda (Фудбалски клуб Црвена звезда, commonly known in English as Red Star Belgrade) is one of the two major football teams in Belgrade, the capital city of Serbia and Montenegro. ... Dinamo is a football club from Zagreb, the capital city of Croatia. ... Delije (Serbian Cyrillic: Делије) is the name given to supporters of The Sports Association Red Star Belgrade. ... Location of Zagreb within Croatia Coordinates: , Country RC diocese 1094 Free royal city 1242 Unified 1850 Government  - Mayor Milan Bandić Area [1]  - Total 641. ... Stadion Maksimir (Maksimir Stadium) is a football stadium in the Croatian capital of Zagreb. ... Ultra (sometimes capitalized ULTRA) was the name used by the British for intelligence resulting from decryption of German communications in World War II. The term eventually became the standard designation in both Britain and the United States for all intelligence from high-level cryptanalytic sources. ... This article is about communism as a form of society and as a political movement. ... A riot control agent is a type of lachrymatory agent (or lacrimatory agent). ... Dinamo is the name of several sports clubs in eastern parts of Europe, mostly known for football teams: Dinamo Bucharest Dinamo Kiev Dinamo Minsk Dinamo Moscow Dinamo Tbilisi Dinamo Zagreb This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Zvonimir Boban [] (born October 8, 1968) is a Croatian former football midfielder who played most of his professional career for Serie A club AC Milan and was a member of the Croatia national team, which he captained to third place at the 1998 FIFA World Cup. ...


On May 30, 1990, the new Croatian Parliament held its first session, and President Tuđman announced his manifesto for a new Constitution (ratified at year-end - see below) and a multitude of political, economic and social changes, notably to what extent minority rights (mainly for Serbs and Bosniaks), would be guaranteed. Local Serb politicians opposed the new constitution, on the grounds that the local Serb population would be threatened. Their prime concern was that a new constitution would changed the status of Serbs in Croatia to a 'national minority' rather than a 'constituent nation'. This indeed happened once the Constitution was passed by year-end. is the 150th day of the year (151st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The parliament of Croatia is called Hrvatski Sabor in Croatian - the word sabor means an assembly, a gathering, a congress. ...


In August 1990, an unrecognised referendum was held in regions with a substantial Serb population (which would later become known as the Republic of Serbian Krajina (RSK)) (bordering western Bosnia and Herzegovina) on the question of Serb "sovereignty and autonomy" in Croatia. This was to counter the changes of the constitution. The Croatian government tried to block the referendum by sending police forces to rebelling police stations in Serb populated areas to seize their weapons. Among other incidents, local Serbs from southern hinterland Croatia, mostly around the city of Knin, blocked the roads to the tourist destinations in Dalmatia. This incident is known as the "Log revolution". Years later, during Milan Martić's trial, Milan Babić would claim that he was tricked by Martić into agreeing to the Log Revolution, and that it - as well as the entire war in Croatia - was Martić's responsibility, orchestrated by Belgrade.[3] The Croatian government responded to the blockade of roads by sending special police teams in helicopters to the scene, but they were intercepted by Yugoslav Army fighter jets and forced to turn back to Zagreb. Self-proclaimed Serbian entity in Croatia Republic of Serbian Krajina show in red Capital Knin Government Republic Governors (1990-1995) Milan Babić Goran Hadžić  - Serbian zone of Croatia Milan Martić Historical era Yugoslav wars  - Breakup of Yugoslavia 1990-June 25, 1991  - Creation of SAO Krajina December 21, 1990  - Secession... Knin Knin (Croatia) Knin (Serbian: Книн, Latin and medieval Hungarian: Tinin) is a historical town in the Å ibenik-Knin county of Croatia, located near the source of the river Krka at , in the Dalmatian hinterland, on the railroad Zagreb–Split. ... Dalmatia, highlighted, on a map of Croatia. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Milan Martić (born 18 November 1954, near Knin, Yugoslavia) is an ethnic Serbian politician from Croatias Serbian minority. ... Milan Babić (Милан Бабић; February 26, 1956 – March 5, 2006) was from 1991 to 1995 the first President of the Republic of Serbian Krajina, a largely Serb-populated region that had broken away from Croatia. ... For other uses, see Belgrade (disambiguation). ... The Yugoslav Peoples Army (Jugoslavenska/Jugoslovenska narodna armija, JNA, Slovene Jugoslovanska ljudska armada, JLA) was the army of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia prior to its dissolution. ...


The Serbs within Croatia did not initially seek independence before 1990. On September 30th, 1990, the Serbian National Council declared "the autonomy of the Serbian people on ethnic and historic territories on which they live and which are within the current boundaries of the Republic of Croatia as a federal unit of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia".


Following Tuđman's election and the perception of a threat from the new constitution, Serb nationalists in the Kninska Krajina region began taking armed action against Croatian government officials. Many were forcibly expelled or excluded from the RSK. Croatian government property throughout the region was increasingly controlled by local Serb municipalities or the newly established "Serbian National Council". This would later become the government of the breakaway Republic of Serbian Krajina. It was led by Milan Babić, who later would be convicted for war crimes and would openly show remorse for his role (and testify against other Serb leaders). Kninska Krajina is a geographical region in Croatia. ... Milan Babić (Милан Бабић; February 26, 1956 – March 5, 2006) was from 1991 to 1995 the first President of the Republic of Serbian Krajina, a largely Serb-populated region that had broken away from Croatia. ...


On December 22nd, 1990, the Parliament of Croatia ratified the new constitution, changing the status of Serbs in Croatia to a 'national minority' from a 'constituent nation'. The percentage of those declaring themselves as Serbs, according to the 1991 census, was 12% (78% of the population declared themselves as Croat). This was read as taking away some of the rights from the Serbs granted by the previous Socialist constitution, thereby fuelling extremism among the Serbs of Croatia. is the 356th day of the year (357th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The word Sabor redirects here. ... Socialism is a social and economic system (or the political philosophy advocating such a system) in which the economic means of production are owned and controlled collectively by the people. ...


Consequently, many Serbs began to lose their government jobs in Croatia, particularly after the ratification of the new constitution. This further escalated tensions.[4][5]


Furthermore, Slovenia was also well into its own process towards independence. On December 23rd, 1990 — one day after the new Croatian Constitution was passed — Slovenia held a referendum on independence. This passed with 88% of the vote.


Immediately after the Slovenian referendum and the new Croat constitution, the Yugoslav People's Army (JNA) announced that a new defence doctrine would apply across the country.[citation needed] The Tito-era doctrine of "General People's Defence", in which each republic maintained a Territorial defence force (Teritorijalna obrana or TO), would henceforth be replaced by a centrally-directed system of defence. The republics would lose their role in defence matters and their TOs would be disarmed and subordinated to JNA headquarters in Belgrade. The Yugoslav Peoples Army (Jugoslavenska/Jugoslovenska narodna armija, JNA, Slovene Jugoslovanska ljudska armada, JLA) was the army of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia prior to its dissolution. ... Logo of the Territorial Defense Forces Territorial Defense Forces (Serbo-Croat: Teritorijalna odbrana, Croato-Serbian: Teritorijalna obrana, Slovenian: Teritorialna obramba, Macedonian: Територијална одбрана, abbreviation: TO) were part of the armed forces of the former Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia which roughly corresponded to a military reserve force, an official governmental paramilitary or... Logo of the Territorial Defense Forces Territorial Defense Forces (Serbo-Croat: Teritorijalna odbrana, Croato-Serbian: Teritorijalna obrana, Slovenian: Teritorialna obramba, Macedonian: Територијална одбрана, abbreviation: TO) were part of the armed forces of the former Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia which roughly corresponded to a military reserve force, an official governmental paramilitary or...


1991 Military forces

The Yugoslav People's Army was initially formed during World War II under guerrilla warfare against Axis occupation. The success of the Partisan movement led to the JNA basing much of its operational strategy on guerrilla warfare. Due to the unique political stance of Yugoslavia in Europe, the strategic planners of the Army expected to face an attack by either NATO or Warsaw Pact forces. Expecting to be badly outmatched, the JNA decided to pursue a guerrilla strategy, which would prove disastrous in the upcoming war, since the JNA found itself in a position of an attacker without local civilian support - the very role they intended for invaders of Yugoslavia. The Yugoslav Peoples Army (YPA) (Serbo-Croatian: Jugoslovenska narodna armija or Jugoslavenska narodna armija; Serbian and Macedonian: Југословенска народна армија—JHA; Macedonian and Serbian Latin forms: Jugoslovenska narodna armija; Croatian and Bosnian: Jugoslavenska narodna armija—JNA; Slovene: Jugoslovanska ljudska armada—JLA) was the military force of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... “Guerrilla” redirects here. ... Yugoslav Partisan Flag The Partisans (lat. ... This article is about the military alliance. ... Not to be confused with the Warsaw Convention, which is an agreement about airlines financial liability and the Treaty of Warsaw (1970) between West Germany and the Peoples Republic of Poland. ...


Still, on paper, the JNA looked like a mighty force with 2000 tanks and 300 jet aircraft (all either Soviet or locally produced). However, by 1991, majority of this equipment was over 30 years old: the main T-54/55 tank and the MiG-21 aircraft made up 60% and 40% of the tank force and air-force respectively. By contrast, more modern cheap anti-tank (like AT-5) and anti-aircraft (like SA-14) missiles were abundant, which were designed to destroy much more advanced weaponry. Furthermore, the JNA was a multinational force: the political infighting meant that desertion of men (especially educated cadre from Yugoslavia's more developed northern areas) would ruin the Army's effectiveness. With the retreat of the JNA forces in 1992, JNA units were reorganized as the Army of Serb Krajina, which was a direct heir to JNA organization with little improvement. During 1991, an important role in the Yugo/Serb military assault forces was filled by paramilitary units like Beli Orlovi, Srpski Četnički Pokret, etc. The T-54 and T-55 main battle tanks were the Soviet Unions replacements for the World War II era T-34 tank. ... Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-21 (NATO reporting name Fishbed) is a fighter aircraft, originally built by the Mikoyan and Gurevich Design Bureau in the Soviet Union. ... 9M113 Konkurs missile (AT-5 Spandrel) The 9M113 Konkurs (Russian: ; English: ) SACLOS wire-guided Anti-tank missile of the Soviet Union. ... The 9K34 Strela-3 (Russian 9К34 Стрела-3 - arrow, NATO reporting name SA-14 Gremlin) man-portable air defence missile system (MANPADS) was developed in Soviet Union as a response to the poor performance of the earlier 9K32 Strela-2 (NATO reporting name... Sholder patch of the paramilitary group the White Eagles. ...


By contrast to this force, the Croatian Army was in an even worse state. At the early stage of the war, lack of military units meant that the Croatian police force would take much of the brunt of fighting - eventually the police would form the core of the new military force - initially named "Zbor Narodne Garde" (ZNG), later "Hrvatska Vojska" (HV) - that was formed in 1990, but not really developed until 1993. Weaponry was always lacking and many units were formed either unarmed or with WW2-era rifles. The Croatian Army had just a handful of tanks (even older WW2 veterans like the T-34) and it's air-force was even worse: a few old Antonov An-2 biplane crop-dusters were converted to drop makeshift bombs. The army was, however, highly motivated, and was formed into local fighting units - so people from a village would defend their own village - which meant they were fairly effective in their home grounds. In August 1991, the Croat Army had fewer than 20 brigades, which would grow to 60 by the end of the year through general mobilization which was called in October. Seizing of JNA's barracks in the Battle of the barracks would slightly alleviate the problem of equipment shortage. Local volunteers and organizations like HOS were formed early on to ease the problem of lack of units, but were later integrated into the regular army. Croatian Ground Army (Croatian: Hrvatska kopnena vojska), commonly referred as Croatian Army (Hrvatska vojska) is a branch of the Armed Forces of the Republic of Croatia. ... The Croatian National Guard (Croatian: Zbor Narodne Garde, ZNG) was the name of the first modern Croatian military force. ... Emblem of the Ground Army The Croatian Ground Army (Croatian: Hrvatska kopnena vojska), commonly referred to as the Croatian Army (Hrvatska vojska) is a branch of the Armed Forces of the Republic of Croatia. ... The T-34 is a Soviet medium tank first produced in 1940. ... Antonov An-2. ... In military science a brigade is a military unit that is part of a division and includes regiments (where that level exists), or (in modern armies) is composed of several battalions (typically two to four) and directly attached supporting units. ... Combatants Croatian Army (HV) Yugoslav Army (JNA) Commanders Anton Tus (Chief of Staff of Croatian Army 1991-1992) Various local commanders Veljko Kadijević (Chief of Staff of Yugoslav Peoples Army) Various local commanders Strength  ?  ? Casualties At least 15 dead  ? At least: 250 tanks, 180 Armoured personnel carriers, 100 Self... The Croatian Defence Forces (Croatian Hrvatska obrambene snage or HOS) was one of the first armed forces assembled by the Croats during the Croatian Homeland War and the War in Bosnia and Herzegovina. ...


By 1995, the Croatian Army would develop into an effective fighting force - probably the best in the region - centered on the elite "Guard Brigades" (eight) and less effective "Home Defence Regiments" and regular brigades. This organization meant that in later campaigns, the Croatian army would pursue a variant of blitzkrieg with Guard brigades taking the role of punching holes in the enemy lines, while other units simply held the front and completed the encirclement of enemy units. This article is about the military term. ...


1991 Preparations, followed by war

One of the first buildings destroyed was the water tower in Vukovar
One of the first buildings destroyed was the water tower in Vukovar

Ethnic hatred grew and various incidents fueled the propaganda machines on both sides, thereby causing even more hatred. The conflict soon escalated into armed incidents in the rebel-led areas. The Plitvice Lakes incident in late March 1991 was one of the more notable acts at the time. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (960 × 1280 pixel, file size: 670 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Description: Wasserturm in Vukovar - Der Wasserturm wurde in den serbisch-kroatischen Kämpfen 1991 zerstört. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (960 × 1280 pixel, file size: 670 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Description: Wasserturm in Vukovar - Der Wasserturm wurde in den serbisch-kroatischen Kämpfen 1991 zerstört. ... Vukovars main street Vukovar Vukovar (Serbian: Вуковар, Croatian: Vukovar, Hungarian: Vukovár) is a city and municipality in eastern Croatia, and the biggest river port in Croatia located at the confluence of the Vuka river into the Danube. ... Ethnic hatred, inter-ethnic hatred, racial hatred, or ethnic tension refers to sentiments and acts of prejudice and hostility towards an ethnic group in various degrees. ... For other uses, see Propaganda (disambiguation). ... The Plitvice Lakes incident of March 1991 (known in Croatian as Plitvice Bloody Easter, Krvavi Uskrs na Plitvicama / Plitvički Krvavi Uskrs) was a clash between security forces of the Republic of Croatia and armed Serb separatists. ...


In April 1991, the Serbs within Croatia began to make serious moves to secede from Croatia. It is a matter of debate to what extent this move was locally motivated and to what degree Milošević-led Serb government gave the push to self-declare. In any event, the Republic of Serbian Krajina was declared—which the Croatian government saw as a rebellion. This is often seen as the beginning of the Croatian War of Independence. It started in areas that had a substantial Serb population. Self-proclaimed Serbian entity in Croatia Republic of Serbian Krajina show in red Capital Knin Government Republic Governors (1990-1995) Milan Babić Goran Hadžić  - Serbian zone of Croatia Milan Martić Historical era Yugoslav wars  - Breakup of Yugoslavia 1990-June 25, 1991  - Creation of SAO Krajina December 21, 1990  - Secession...


The Croatian Ministry of the Interior consequently started arming an increasing amount of special police forces, and this led into the building of a real army. On April 9th, 1991, Croatian President Tuđman ordered the special police forces to be renamed Zbor Narodne Garde ("People's Guard"), marking the creation of a separate military of Croatia. Special police is a term which can mean a number of things in different countries. ... is the 99th day of the year (100th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the 1991 Gregorian calendar). ... ‹ The template below (Foreignchar) is being considered for deletion. ... For the Croatian army from 1944-1945, see Croatian Armed Forces. ...


Meanwhile, the federal army, the Yugoslav People's Army (JNA) and the local Territorial Defense Forces remained led by the nominally Federal government under Milošević. On occasion, the JNA sided with the local Croat Serb forces, intervening against the Croatian police units. The Yugoslav Peoples Army (YPA) (Serbo-Croatian: Jugoslovenska narodna armija or Jugoslavenska narodna armija; Serbian and Macedonian: Југословенска народна армија—JHA; Macedonian and Serbian Latin forms: Jugoslovenska narodna armija; Croatian and Bosnian: Jugoslavenska narodna armija—JNA; Slovene: Jugoslovanska ljudska armada—JLA) was the military force of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. ... Logo of the Territorial Defense Forces Territorial Defense Forces (Serbo-Croat: Teritorijalna odbrana, Croato-Serbian: Teritorijalna obrana, Slovenian: Teritorialna obramba, Macedonian: Територијална одбрана, abbreviation: TO) were part of the armed forces of the former Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia which roughly corresponded to a military reserve force, an official governmental paramilitary or...


On May 19 1991, Croatian authorities held a referendum on independence with an option of remaining in Yugoslavia as a looser union. Serb local authorities issued calls for a boycott, which were largely followed by Croatian Serbs, so the referendum was passed with 94.17% in favor. Croatia declared independence and "razdruženje" (departnerising) from Yugoslavia on June 25th, 1991, but the European Commission urged them to place a three-month moratorium on the decision. Croatia thereby agreed to freeze its independence declaration for three months, helping to calm tensions a little.-1... Look up Boycott in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... is the 176th day of the year (177th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Berlaymont, the Commissions seat The European Commission (formally the Commission of the European Communities) is the executive branch of the European Union. ... The Brioni Agreement is a document signed on the Brioni (Brijuni) islands (near Pula, Croatia) on July 7th 1991 by representatives of the Republic of Slovenia and the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia under the political sponsorship of the European Community. ...

Map of the strategic offensive plan of the Yugoslav People's Army (JNA) in Croatia, 1991. The JNA was unable to advance as far as it had hoped due to Croatian resistance and problems with mobilization.
Map of the strategic offensive plan of the Yugoslav People's Army (JNA) in Croatia, 1991. The JNA was unable to advance as far as it had hoped due to Croatian resistance and problems with mobilization.

One month after the declaration of independence, Serbian forces held about a quarter of the country, mostly those with a predominantly ethnic Serbian population. They had obvious superiority in weaponry and equipment. The military strategy of the Serbian forces partly consisted of extensive shelling, at times irrespective of civilians. As the war progressed, the cities of Dubrovnik, Šibenik, Zadar, Karlovac, Sisak, Slavonski Brod, Osijek, Vinkovci and Vukovar all came under attack by the Serbian forces. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (663x711, 140 KB)Strategic offensive plan of the Yugoslav Peoples Army in Croatia, 1991 From Balkan Battlegrounds, 2002 This image is a work of a Central Intelligence Agency employee, taken or made during the course of an employees official... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (663x711, 140 KB)Strategic offensive plan of the Yugoslav Peoples Army in Croatia, 1991 From Balkan Battlegrounds, 2002 This image is a work of a Central Intelligence Agency employee, taken or made during the course of an employees official... The Yugoslav Peoples Army (YPA) (Serbo-Croatian: Jugoslovenska narodna armija or Jugoslavenska narodna armija; Serbian and Macedonian: Југословенска народна армија—JHA; Macedonian and Serbian Latin forms: Jugoslovenska narodna armija; Croatian and Bosnian: Jugoslavenska narodna armija—JNA; Slovene: Jugoslovanska ljudska armada—JLA) was the military force of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. ... Shells of WWI. From left to right: 90 mm fragmentation shell - 120 mm pig iron incendiary shell 77/14 model - 75 mm high explosive shell model 16 - 75 mm fragmentation shell A shell is a payload-carrying projectile, which, as opposed to a bullet, contains an explosive or other filling... Nickname: 1995 map of Dubrovnik The location of Dubrovnik within Croatia Coordinates: , Country County Government  - Mayor Dubravka Å uica (HDZ) Area  - City 143. ... Šibenik Šibenik (Italian: Sebenico) is a historic town in Croatia, population 52,654 (2001), located in central Dalmatia where the Krka river flows into the Adriatic Sea. ... For other uses, see Zadar (disambiguation). ... Karlovac (Croatia) Karlovac municipality within Karlovac county Karlovac Karlovac (German: Karlstadt or Carlstadt, Hungarian: Károlyváros and sometimes in Croatian, Marinograd) is a city and municipality in central Croatia. ... Sisak on the map of Croatia Sisak (German: Sissek, Hungarian: Sziszek, Italian: Siscia) is a city in central Croatia. ... Slavonski Brod is the sixth largest city in Croatia, with a population of 64,612 in 2001. ... Osijek (pronounced: []) is the fourth largest city in Croatia with a population of 114,616 in 2001. ... [[Image: Vinkovci (Croatia) |250px|none|]] Coordinates: Country  Croatia County Vukovar-Srijem Government  - Mayor Mladen Karlić (HDZ) Elevation 90 m (295. ... Vukovars main street Vukovar Vukovar (Serbian: Вуковар, Croatian: Vukovar, Hungarian: Vukovár) is a city and municipality in eastern Croatia, and the biggest river port in Croatia located at the confluence of the Vuka river into the Danube. ...


The UN imposed a weapons embargo, which affected JNA-backed Serb forces, but heavily hurt the young Croatian army. This forced Croatian elements to start smuggling weapons over its borders. A large number of weapons came via Hungary through a secret agreement with the Hungarian government[citation needed]. For delayed access after publication, see Embargo (academic publishing). ...


In June/July, the short armed conflict in Slovenia came to a speedy and fairly peaceful conclusion, partly because of the ethnic homogeneity of the Slovene population. During this war, a great number of Croatian and Slovenian soldiers refused to fight and started to escape from the JNA. Combatants Slovenia Territorial Defence SFR Yugoslavia Yugoslav Peoples Army Commanders Janez Janša Veljko Kadijević Strength 16,000 Territorial Defence, 10,000 police 35,200 Yugoslav National Army personnel Casualties 18 killed, 182 wounded (official casualties) 44 killed, 146 wounded 5,000 prisoners (Slovenian Estimates) The Ten-Day War...


In July, in an attempt to salvage what remained of the country minus Slovenia, the JNA forces found itself involved in operations against predominantly-Croat areas - such as the Dalmatian coastal areas in the Battle of Dalmatia. Full-scale war erupted in August. Like in Slovenia, when Croatians had refused to fight, with the start of military operations in Croatia, Albanians, Macedonians and Bosnians started to desert the JNA in mass. After this, an estimated 90% of JNA's soldiers were Serbs[citation needed] and the Yugoslav army was seen to be a de facto Serbian army. Combatants Yugoslavia (JNA) Local Serb forces Croatia (HV, police forces, HOS) Commanders Colonel Ratko Mladić (JNA) Strength JNA 9th Corps (Knin): 63 tanks 45 APCs Other units 6th Operational Zone (Several infantry brigades) Map showing the location of Dalmatia, in present day Croatia Battle of Dalmatia (Croatian: Bitka za Dalmaciju... For other uses, see August (disambiguation). ... The Yugoslav Peoples Army (Jugoslavenska/Jugoslovenska narodna armija, JNA, Slovene Jugoslovanska ljudska armada, JLA) was the army of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia prior to its dissolution. ... De facto is a Latin expression that means in fact or in practice. It is commonly used as opposed to de jure (meaning by law) when referring to matters of law or governance or technique (such as standards), that are found in the common experience as created or developed without...


In August 1991, the border city of Vukovar came under siege and the Battle of Vukovar began. Serbian troops eventually completely surrounded the city. The Croat population of Vukovar, Croatian troops including the 204th Vukovar Brigade, entrenched themselves within Vukovar and held their ground against a large number of JNA's elite Armoured and Mechanized brigades, as well as many Serb paramilitary units. A certain number of ethnic Croatian civilians had taken shelter inside the city. Other elements of the civilian population fled the areas of armed conflict en masse: generally speaking, Croats moved away from the Bosnian and Serbian border, while the Serbs moved towards it. Vukovars main street Vukovar Vukovar (Serbian: Вуковар, Croatian: Vukovar, Hungarian: Vukovár) is a city and municipality in eastern Croatia, and the biggest river port in Croatia located at the confluence of the Vuka river into the Danube. ... Combatants Yugoslav Peoples Army Serbian paramilitaries Local Serb militias Croatian National Guard Croatian police and militias Croatian Defence Forces (HOS) Commanders Mladen Bratić† Života Panić Blago Zadro† Mile Dedaković Branko Borković Strength Up to 36,000, depending on the phase of the battle Some 2,000 (in Vukovar) Casualties...


There is evidence of extreme hardship imposed on the population at the time.[6] Some estimates include 220,000 Croats and 300,000 Serbs were internally displaced for the duration of the war in Croatia. However at the peak of fighting in late 1991, around 550,000 people temporarily became refugees on the Croatian side. The 1991 census data and the 1993 RSK data for the territory of Krajina differ by some 102,000 Serbs and 135,000 Croats. In many places, large amounts of civilians were forced out by the military. This was labelled as ethnic cleansing, a term whose meaning at the time ranged from eviction to cold murder. It was at this time that the term "ethnic cleansing" first entered the English lexicon. Tailor in Labuje IDP camp in Uganda An internally displaced person (IDP) is someone who has been forced to leave their home for reasons such as religious or political persecution, war or natural disaster, but has not crossed an international border. ... Self-proclaimed Serbian entity in Croatia Republic of Serbian Krajina show in red Capital Knin Government Republic Governors (1990-1995) Milan Babić Goran Hadžić  - Serbian zone of Croatia Milan Martić Historical era Yugoslav wars  - Breakup of Yugoslavia 1990-June 25, 1991  - Creation of SAO Krajina December 21, 1990  - Secession... For the video game, see Ethnic Cleansing (computer game). ...

Croatian standard tank T-55
Croatian standard tank T-55

President Tuđman made a speech on October 5, 1991 that called upon the whole population to mobilize and defend against what he deemed "Greater-Serbian imperialism" pursued by the Serb-led JNA, Serbian paramilitary formations and rebelled Serbs' forces. On October 7th, an explosion occurred within the main government building in Zagreb while Tuđman, Mesić and Marković were present. The explosion destroyed several rooms of Banski dvori, but failed to kill any of the leaders. The government claimed that it was caused by a JNA air raid. Apparently, the Croatian army received information from Bihać (BiH) JNA airfield the day before, about a top secret air mission being prepared for the next day, but these were not taken seriously due to lack of details.[7] The JNA denied the responsibility and in turn claimed that the explosion was set up by the Croatian government itself. It is claimed by some that the few embassies and consulates in Zagreb at the time had withdrawn some of their staff for that day—suggesting that there was prior information about a pending air attack or bomb. The next day, the Croatian Parliament cut off all remaining ties with Yugoslavia. October 8 is now called Independence day in Croatia. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 556 pixelsFull resolution (1440 × 1000 pixel, file size: 548 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 556 pixelsFull resolution (1440 × 1000 pixel, file size: 548 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... The T-54 and T-55 tank series was the Soviet Unions front-line main battle tank from 1947 until 1962, and remains in service throughout the world to this day, especially by former client states of the Soviet Union. ... This article describes military mobilization. ... This does not cite its references or sources. ... Location of Zagreb within Croatia Coordinates: , Country RC diocese 1094 Free royal city 1242 Unified 1850 Government  - Mayor Milan Bandić Area [1]  - Total 641. ... Stjepan Stipe Mesić (born December 24, 1934) is a Croatian politician. ... Ante Marković (born November 25, 1924 in Konjic, Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes (now Bosnia and Herzegovina) was the last prime minister of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. ... Banski dvori is a name for the historical building on the west side of St. ... Municipality of Bosnia and Herzegovina General Information Entity {{{entity}}} Land area 900 km2 Population (est. ... BIH may mean: Benign intracranial hypertension Bihari language (ISO 639 alpha-3, bih) the ISO 3-letter country code for the European country Bosnia and Herzegovina. ... is the 281st day of the year (282nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Independence Day (disambiguation). ...


The bombing of the government and the Siege of Dubrovnik that started in October were contributing factors to EU sanctions against Serbia. Combatants Yugoslav Army (JNA), Montenegro Territorial Defence Forces Croatian Army (HV) Commanders Veljko Kadijević (Chief of Staff of Yugoslav Peoples Army) Anton Tus (Chief of Staff of Croatian Army 1991-1992) Janko Bobetko (from 1992) Strength Between 7,500 and 20,000 men [1] Up to 2,000 soldiers...

Croatian house destroyed as a part of Ethnic Cleansing
Croatian house destroyed as a part of Ethnic Cleansing

The situation for Croats in Vukovar over October and early November became ever more desperate. Towards the end of the battle, an increasing number of Croat civilians in hospitals and shelters marked with a red cross were hit by Serb forces. As of 2006, three former Yugoslav army officers are on trial for a massacre at the International War Crimes Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia ICTY in The Hague.[8] Veselin Šljivančanin, Mile Mrkšić, and Miroslav Radić deny the charges of murder, torture, and persecution. Prosecutors say that after the capture of Vukovar, the Yugoslav Army (JNA) handed over several hundred Croats to rebel Serbian forces. Of these, at least 264 (including injured soldiers, women, children and the elderly) were murdered and buried in mass graves in the neighbourhood of Ovcara on the outskirts of Vukovar. The city's mayor Slavko Dokmanović was also brought to trial at the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia, but committed suicide in 1998 in captivity before proceedings began. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixels Full resolution (2816 × 2112 pixel, file size: 255 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Croatian War of Independence Metadata... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixels Full resolution (2816 × 2112 pixel, file size: 255 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Croatian War of Independence Metadata... The International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia is a body of the United Nations established to prosecute war crimes in the former Yugoslavia. ... Veselin Å ljivančanin in 1992 Veselin Å ljivančanin (born June 13, 1953 in Pavez, the municipality of Žabljak, Montenegro, Yugoslavia) is a former officer of the Yugoslav Peoples Army (JNA). ... We dont have an article called Mile MrkÅ¡ić Start this article Search for Mile MrkÅ¡ić in. ... Slavko Dokmanović (born December 14, 1949 in Croatia) is a Croatian Serb who was charged with grave breaches of the Geneva Conventions, violation of the customs of war and crimes against humanity by the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia (ICTY) for his actions in the Vukovar massacre while...

Breakthrough of JNA through Eastern Slavonia
Breakthrough of JNA through Eastern Slavonia

On November 18, 1991, Vukovar fell to the Serbs after a three-month siege and Vukovar massacre took place, while survivors were transported in prison camps, majority ending up in Sremska Mitrovica prison camp. The town of Vukovar was almost completely destroyed. The sustained focus on a siege facilitated the attraction of heavy international media attention. Many international journalists were present at the time in or near Vukovar, as was the UN peace mediator, Cyrus Vance (former US President Carter's Secretary of State).[9] Ironically this siege, despite its brutality, contributed to the beginning of a resolution to the war towards year-end (see below). Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1214x900, 312 KB)Military operations in eastern Slavonia, September 1991 - January 1992 From Balkan Battlegrounds, 2002 This image is a work of a Central Intelligence Agency employee, taken or made during the course of an employees official duties. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1214x900, 312 KB)Military operations in eastern Slavonia, September 1991 - January 1992 From Balkan Battlegrounds, 2002 This image is a work of a Central Intelligence Agency employee, taken or made during the course of an employees official duties. ... Vukovars main street Vukovar Vukovar (Serbian: Вуковар, Croatian: Vukovar, Hungarian: Vukovár) is a city and municipality in eastern Croatia, and the biggest river port in Croatia located at the confluence of the Vuka river into the Danube. ... Ovčara massacre memorial The Vukovar massacre was a war crime that took place between November 18 and November 21, 1991 near the city of Vukovar, a mixed Croat/Serb community in northeastern Croatia. ... Sremska Mitrovica prison camp (also called Sremska Mitrovica concentration camp by survivors), were two facilities in Sremska Mitrovica, Vojvodina (Serbia, former SFRJ, then FRY) where non-Serb (mostly Croatian) prisoners of war and civilians were kept by Serbian authorities. ...


Allegedly, said the Croat authorities at the time, the Vukovar surrender was an attempt to prevent further devastation of Dubrovnik and other cities.


On December 19, 1991, during the heaviest fighting of the war, the Serbian Autonomous Regions in Krajina and western Slavonia officially declared themselves as the Republic of Serbian Krajina. Coat of arms Slavonia (Croatian: Slavonija) is a geographical and historical region in eastern Croatia. ... Self-proclaimed Serbian entity in Croatia Republic of Serbian Krajina show in red Capital Knin Government Republic Governors (1990-1995) Milan Babić Goran Hadžić  - Serbian zone of Croatia Milan Martić Historical era Yugoslav wars  - Breakup of Yugoslavia 1990-June 25, 1991  - Creation of SAO Krajina December 21, 1990  - Secession...


In early November 1991 the Croatian army begun a successful counterattack in Western Slavonia, marking a turning point of the war. the Operation Otkos 10, lasting from October 31 to November 4, 1991, resulted in Croatia recapturing 300 km² in areas from mountain Bilogora to mountain Papuk. Further advances were made in the second half of December - Operation Orkan 91 - but at that point a lasting cease-fire was about to be signed (in January 1992). After the attacking forces of the 5th Yugoslav Peoples Army (JNA) corps (Banja Luka corps) had successfully crossed Sava river into Croatia captured Okučani in western Slavonia it was their primary objective to advance along Pakrac - GrubiÅ¡no Polje route and link up with th 28th partisan division... Papuk is the largest mountain in Slavonia, eastern Croatia. ... After successful completion of Operation Otkos 10, the first offensive operation of such scale by Croatian army in the homeland war, Croatian troops were in position to retake further territory and neutralize a number of serbian held military positions and fortifications. ...


In six months, 10,000 people had died, hundreds of thousands had fled, and tens of thousands of homes had been destroyed.


In late 1991, all Croatian democratic parties gathered together to form a government of national unity and to confront the Yugoslav Army and Serbian paramilitaries.


Ceasefires were frequently signed, intermediated by foreign diplomats, but also frequently broken. This was part of the tactics on both sides. The Croatians lost much territory, but profited by being able to expand the Croatian Army—from the seven brigades it had at the time of the first cease-fire—to the 64 brigades it had at the time the last one was signed.


1992 A ceasefire finally holds

Serbian soldiers in Croatia holding a captured flag

The final UN-sponsored ceasefire, the twentieth one, came in January 1992. Already in December 1991, after this series of unsuccessful cease-fires, the United Nations deployed a protection force in Serbian-held Croatia. The United Nations Protection Force was deployed to supervise and maintain the agreement. 1992 January 7, JNA pilot Emir Šišić shot down a European Community helicopter in Croatia, killing five truce observers. Croatia was officially recognised by European community on 15 January 1992. The JNA, the federal army progressively to withdraw from Croatia—even Krajina—although Serb paramilitary groups clearly retained the upper hand in the newly occupied territories. Image File history File links Hrvatska_srbi. ... Image File history File links Hrvatska_srbi. ... Pocket badge of the UNPROFOR The United Nations Protection Force, UNPROFOR, were the primary UN peacekeeping troops in Croatia and in Bosnia and Herzegovina during the Yugoslav wars. ... Emir Å iÅ¡ić (born March 17th, 1963 in Živinice near Tuzla, Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia) is former pilot of Yugoslav Peoples Army, sentenced for shooting down European Community helicopter over village Novi Marof near Varaždin on January 7, 1992 during war in Croatia, killing five truce observers. ...


The warring parties mostly moved to entrenched positions as The Yugoslav People's Army soon retreated from Croatia into Bosnia and Herzegovina where war was just about to start.


Croatia became a member of the United Nations on May 22, 1992. This was conditional on Croatia having amended its constitution to protect minority groups and human rights.


Armed conflict in Croatia continued intermittently at a small scale. There were several smaller operations undertaken by the Croatian forces, in order to relieve the siege of Dubrovnik, and other Croatian cities (Šibenik, Zadar and Gospić) from sporadic Serb shelling attacks that wasn't prevented even by the presence of the UN troops (for example, Osijek, the third biggest city in Croatia, lived under a constant official bombing alert until mid-1993, while Šibenik, one of the larger coastal tourist centres, received a shell or two almost every week, especially during late spring and summer). A partial list includes:

A Serb tank destroyed by the Croatian Army on the road to Drniš
A Serb tank destroyed by the Croatian Army on the road to Drniš
  • at the Miljevci plateau (between Krka and Drniš), June 21-22 1992
  • in the Dubrovnik hinterland:
    • Operation Tigar, July 1 - July 13, 1992
    • at Konavle, September 20 - September 24, 1992
    • at Vlaštica, September 22 - September 25, 1992
    • what followed was the withdrawal of JNA from Konavle and Prevlaka, September 30 - October 20, 1992
  • at the Križ hill near Bibinje and Zadar

Also, Slavonski Brod and Županja were often shelled from Serb-held parts of Bosnia. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... On June 21 1992, the Croatian army attacked the Serbian Territorial Defense on the Miljevci Plateau near Drnis in front of the eyes of UN protection force UNPROFOR. There were 40 members of the Serbian Territorial Defense killed, several wounded and imprisoned and the only Serbian village in this area... Skradinski buk Krka is a river in Croatias Dalmatia region, with length circa 73 km; famous for its numerous waterfalls. ... DrniÅ¡ is a town in Croatia, located in inland Dalmatia at halfway between Å ibenik and Knin. ... Konavle municipality within Dubrovnik-Neretva County Konavle (Italian: ) is a small region and municipality located southeast of Dubrovnik, Croatia. ... The Prevlaka Peninsula is a small peninsula at the entrance to the Bay of Kotor. ... Slavonski Brod is the sixth largest city in Croatia, with a population of 64,612 in 2001. ... Županja is a city in eastern Slavonia, Croatia, located 254 km east of Zagreb. ...


1993 Further Croatian military advances

Intermittent armed conflict in Croatia continued in 1993 at a smaller scale than in 1991 and 1992. There were more successful operations by Croatian forces, to recover territory and relieve Croatian cities (e.g. Zadar and Gospić) from Serb shelling attacks, but between the 1992 ceasefire and 1995s Croatian offensives, fighting was limited and total effective military action in those three and a half years was only about two weeks.[10]


In early 1993, there were three notable operations:

While most of these above operations were a relative success for the Croatian government, the unsuccessful Operation Medak pocket in 1993 damaged the international reputation of Croatia. This led the Croatian army to undertaking no offensive action during the subsequent 12 months. The ICTY later investigated Croatian officers Janko Bobetko, Rahim Ademi, Mirko Norac and others for the alleged crimes committed during this operation. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Year 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1993 Gregorian calendar). ... Combatants Croatia UNPROFOR: - Canadian PPCLI - French armour units Republic of Serbian Krajina Commanders Janko Bobetko, Petar Stipetić Rahim Ademi Colonel Jim Calvin Mile Novaković Strength Over 2,500 soldiers, T-72 tanks, Large numbers of artillery 875 members of the 2nd Battalion Princess Patricias Canadian Light Infantry (PPCLI)  ? Casualties... Combatants Croatia UNPROFOR: - Canadian PPCLI - French armour units Republic of Serbian Krajina Commanders Janko Bobetko, Petar Stipetić Rahim Ademi Colonel Jim Calvin Mile Novaković Strength Over 2,500 soldiers, T-72 tanks, Large numbers of artillery 875 members of the 2nd Battalion Princess Patricias Canadian Light Infantry (PPCLI)  ? Casualties... Janko Bobetko (1919 - 2003) was a Croatian army general and the Croatian armys Chief of the General Staff between 1992 and 1995. ... Rahim Ademi (born January 30, 1954) is Croatian Army general of Kosovo-Albanian origin. ... Mirko Norac as duke of Sinjska alka Mirko Norac (born September 19, 1967 in Otok, municipality of Sinj, Croatia) is former general of Croatian Army and a convicted war criminal. ...


There were many UN resolutions that required Croatia to retreat to previous positions and that Croatia must restrain from military operations. Some Croat elements felt aggrieved, as no such resolutions had prevented the Serbian forces from attacking Croatia in the earlier stages of the war (when the disturbances were considered national, not international). In October 1993, the United Nations Security Council affirmed for the first time that the United Nations Protected Areas were an integral part of the Republic of Croatia. “Security Council” redirects here. ...


The UNPROFOR troops mostly did nothing but observed during the 1992-1995 period. However they served to mark the borders set up by the war. They thereby failed to provide refugees with much chance of returning to their previous homes. Estimates of the effectiveness of the Krajina governments in removing its Croat population go as high as 98% of Croats that had been living in Krajina.


During 1992 and 1993, an estimated 225,000 Croats, including refugees from Bosnia and Herzegovina and others from Serbia settled in Croatia. A notable number of Bosniaks also fled to Croatia (which was the largest initial destination for Bosniaks). Croatian volunteers and some conscripted soldiers participated in the war in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Some of President Tuđman's closest associates, notably Gojko Šušak and Ivić Pašalić, were from Croat-dominated Herzegovina, and aimed to help the Croats in Bosnia and Herzegovina, financially and otherwise. Combatants  Bosnia and Herzegovina Volunteers from Islamic countries HVO  Croatia Volunteers from Western Europe Republika Srpska  Yugoslavia Various paramilitary units from Serbia and Montenegro Volunteers from Eastern Europe Commanders Alija Izetbegović (President of Bosnia and Herzegovina) Sefer Halilović (Army chief of staff 1992-1993) Rasim Delić (Army chief of Staff... Gojko Å uÅ¡ak (April 16, 1945 – May 3, 1998) was Croatian Minister of Defence from 1991 to 1998 and President Franjo TuÄ‘mans closest associate and confidant. ... Ivić PaÅ¡alić (b. ... This article is about the geographic area of Herzegovina. ...


During the same period, Croatia also accepted 280,000 Bosniak refugees from the Bosnian War. The large number of refugees was significantly straining Croatian economy and infrastructure. U.S. Ambassador to Croatia Peter Galbraith tried to put the amount of Muslim refugees in Croatia into proper perspective in an interview on November 8, 1993. He said the situation would be the equivalent of the U.S.A. taking in 30,000,000 refugees.[11] Peter Woodard Galbraith (born December 31, 1950) A.B., M.A., J.D. is a former United States diplomat. ...


On February 18, 1993 Croatian authorities signed the Daruvar Agreement with local Serb leaders in Western Slavonia. The Agreement was kept secret and was working towards normalizing life for the locals on the battlefield line. However, the Knin authorities learned of the deal and arrested the Serbian leaders responsible for it.[10] It was widely believed that the Serb leaders there were also willing to accept peaceful reintegration into Croatia.


In 1993, the Croats and Bosniaks then turned against each other, just as each was fighting with the Bosnian Serbs. Franjo Tuđman participated in the peace talks between the Croats of Bosnia and Herzegovina and the Bosniaks, which resulted in the Washington Agreement of 1994. This led to the dismantling of the statelet of Herzeg-Bosnia and reduced the number of warring parties in Bosnia to two. Language(s) Bosnian Religion(s) Predominantly Islam Related ethnic groups Slavs (South Slavs) The Bosniaks or Bosniacs[1] (Bosnian: BoÅ¡njaci, IPA: ) are a South Slavic people, living mainly in Bosnia and Herzegovina (Bosnia) and the Sandžak region of Serbia and Montenegro, with a smaller autochthonous population also present... Year 1994 (MCMXCIV) The year 1994 was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal by the United Nations. ... Coat of Arms of Herzeg-Bosnia Flag of Herzeg-Bosnia The Croatian Republic of Herzeg-Bosnia (locally Hrvatska Republika Herceg-Bosna) was an unrecognized entity in present day Bosnia and Herzegovina existing between 1991 and 1994 as a result of secessionist politics during the Bosnian War. ...


1994 Erosion of support for Krajina

In March 1994, the Krajina authorities signed a cease-fire.


In late 1994, the Croatian Army intervened several times in Bosnia: November 1-3 in the operation "Cincar" near Kupres, and November 29 - December 24 in the operation "Winter 94" near Dinara and Livno. These operations were undertaken in order to detract from the siege of the Bihać region and to approach RSK capital Knin from the north, de facto encircling it on three sides. This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... Dinara is one of the more prominent mountains located on the border of Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina. ... Municipality of Bosnia and Herzegovina General Information Entity Federation Canton 10 Land area 994 km² Population (2003 census) 32,454 Population density Coordinates Area code +387 34 Mayor Luka ÄŒelan (HDZ) Website http://www. ... Municipality of Bosnia and Herzegovina General Information Entity {{{entity}}} Land area 900 km2 Population (est. ...


During this time, unsuccessful negotiations were under way between Croatian and RSK governments mediated by the UN. The disputes included opening the Serb-occupied part of the Zagreb-Slavonski Brod highway near Okučani to through traffic, as well as the putative status of majority Serbian areas within Croatia. Repeated failures on these two issues would serve as triggers for the two Croatian offensives in 1995. Highway Brotherhood and Unity (Serbian: Братство и јединство, Croatian/Bosnian: Bratstvo i jedinstvo, Slovenian: Bratstvo in enotnost, Macedonian: Братство и единство) stretched across former Yugoslavia, from the Austrian border in the northwest, near Triglav, via Ljubljana, Zagreb, Belgrade, Skopje to Gevgelija on the Greek border in the southeast. ... Okučani on the map of Croatia Okučani is a small town in western Slavonia, Croatia. ...


1995 and the End of war

Map of Operation Flash
Map of Operation Flash

In early May 1995, violence again exploded. RSK lost the support of Belgrade, partly in response to international pressure. At the same time, the Croatian army took back the whole of previously occupied territory in western Slavonia during Operation Flash. As retaliation, Serb forces attacked Zagreb with rockets, killing 7 and wounding over 175 civilians. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (896x697, 231 KB)Map of Operation Flash, May 1995 From Balkan Battlegrounds, 2002 This image is a work of a Central Intelligence Agency employee, taken or made during the course of an employees official duties. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (896x697, 231 KB)Map of Operation Flash, May 1995 From Balkan Battlegrounds, 2002 This image is a work of a Central Intelligence Agency employee, taken or made during the course of an employees official duties. ... Coat of arms Slavonia (Croatian: Slavonija) is a geographical and historical region in eastern Croatia. ... Combatants Croatia Republic of Serbian Krajina Commanders Croatian Military Command Strength 7,200 soldiers 5000 soldiers Casualties 55 killed, 162 wounded 250 killed, 1,500 POW Operation Flash (Croatian: ) was a brief and successful offensive conducted in the beginning of May 1995 by the the Croatian Army, which removed Serb... The Zagreb rocket attack was a war crime conducted by Serb armed forces that fired ground-to-ground missiles on the Croatian capital of Zagreb. ...

Map of Operation Storm
Map of Operation Storm

In August 1995, Croatia started Operation Storm and quickly overran most of the RSK, except for a small strip near the Serbian border. In just four days, approximately 150-200,000 Serbs fled, mostly to Serbia and Bosnia according to ICTY.
Rebelled Serbs sources (Kovačević, Sekulić, Vrcelj, documents of HQ of Civili Protection of RSK, Supreme Council of Defense) have confirmed that evacuation of Serbs was organized and planned beforehand.
According to Amnesty International, the operation led to the ethnic cleansing of over 200,000 Croatian Serbs.[12].
The BBC noted 200,000 Serb refugees at one point.[13][14]
The nature of this exodus is still disputed among Serbs and Croats: the former tend to claim the ethnic cleansing was planned by the Croatian government, while the latter pinpoint Tuđman's promise not to attack civilians and attribute the cases of killing of the Serb civilians that remained to revenge by groups and individuals outside of the Croatian Army's control. However the real number of refugees is difficult to establish because according to many sources the number of refugees exceeds the population that lived in these parts of Croatia. In support of this, they point to interviews conducted with American General Robert Brown, French philosopher Alain Finkelkraut and American writer Roy Gutman. These are said to have defended the Croat government by clarifying the extent of ethnic cleansing, and arguing that any war crimes or ethnic cleansing were committed outside of control by Croatian officials at the time. Later some Croatian officers were indicted for war crimes during operations at this time. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (896x1273, 354 KB)Map of Operation Storm, 1995 From Balkan Battlegrounds, 2002 This image is a work of a Central Intelligence Agency employee, taken or made during the course of an employees official duties. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (896x1273, 354 KB)Map of Operation Storm, 1995 From Balkan Battlegrounds, 2002 This image is a work of a Central Intelligence Agency employee, taken or made during the course of an employees official duties. ... Year 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full 1995 Gregorian calendar). ... Combatants Croatia (HV) Bosnia and Herzegovina (ABiH) Republic of Serbian Krajina (VSK) Republika Srpska (VRS) Commanders Zvonimir ÄŒervenko (HV) Atif Dudakovic (ABiH) Mile MrkÅ¡ić (VSK) Strength 150,000 soldiers, 350 tanks, 400 artillery pieces, 50 rocket launchers, 50 aircraft and helicopters 40,000 soldiers, 150 tanks, 350 artillery pieces... For the video game, see Ethnic Cleansing (computer game). ...


The Croatian army proceeded to fight Serbs in Bosnia alongside the Bosniaks, but further advances were prevented by U.S. diplomatic intervention. Had the Croat army occupied the second largest Bosnian town of Banja Luka, near the Croat border, the refugee crisis would have become intolerable. Probably tens of thousands of people would likely have tried to flee further east through the narrow Posavina corridor, towards eastern Bosnia and Serbia. Overall, the 2001 census is said to show 380,032 fewer Serbs in Croatia compared to the census of 1991. Some Serb interests say however that this figure is an underestimate. For other uses of terms redirecting here, see US (disambiguation), USA (disambiguation), and United States (disambiguation) Motto In God We Trust(since 1956) (From Many, One; Latin, traditional) Anthem The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City National language English (de facto)1 Demonym American... Municipality of Bosnia and Herzegovina General Information Entity Republika Srpska Land area 15,000km² Population (1991 census) 195,139 230,000 Population density 126,8/km2 Coordinates Area code +387 51 Mayor Dragoljub Davidović (SNSD) Website http://www. ...


A few months later, the war ended with the negotiation of the Dayton Agreement (in Dayton, Ohio). This was later signed in Paris in December 1995. The General Framework Agreement for Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina, also known as the Dayton Agreement, Dayton Accords, Paris Protocol or Dayton-Paris Agreement, is the peace agreement reached at the Wright-Patterson Air Force Base near Dayton, Ohio in November 1995, and formally signed in Paris on December 14... : Gem City : Birthplace of Aviation United States Ohio Montgomery 56. ... Year 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full 1995 Gregorian calendar). ...


1989-1995 The World Stood Apart

While on the one hand, crisis emerged in Yugoslavia with the weakening of the Communism in Eastern Europe and the rise of nationalism, on the other the world stood by as developments unfolded. Yet the Western press was full of warnings of impending tragedy in the Balkans right from the start. As the war unfolded in Croatia there were many warnings that this was a prelude for much worse ethnic conflict in Bosnia and Kosovo. Image File history File links Question_book-3. ...


The role of the international community in the war would become a matter of much controversy. Many commentators today condemn the lack of international interest in the war at the time. However they had other matters on their mind. The war developed at a time when the attention of the USA and the world was on Iraq, and the Gulf War in 1991, along with a sharp rise in oil prices and a slowdown in the growth of the world economy. Thereafter it was if the rising influence of nationalist and separatist ideologies found their counterpart in Western and Russian policies of laissez-faire. This was not unique to the Balkans, the European nations refused to intervene for example in Rwanda despite culminating in blatant ethnic cleansing on an even worse scale in 1994.


At first in 1989-91, the international community tried to deny the problem and tended to support the Yugoslav government. The UN imposed a weapons trade embargo for all former Yugoslav republics. It placed the seceding republics in an inferior position, as they had no control over the Yugoslav weaponry which was by and large controlled by the Serb forces.


Official recognition of the new states of Slovenia and Croatia and of the status of the SFR Yugoslavia became a controversial issue at the time for foreign governments.


By mid-December 1991, other newly formed states such as Lithuania, Latvia, and Ukraine, recognized Croatia's and Slovenia's independence. Meanwhile Croatia and Slovenia recognized each other (the Vatican also recognised Catholic Croatia - with recognition even coming from Iceland.


Then, between December 19 and December 23, several other European countries, including Germany, Sweden and Italy announced their recognition of Croatia's (and Slovenia's) independence. The European Union as a whole recognized the independence of the two breakaway republics on January 15, 1992. Year 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar). ...


Each of the major foreign governments acted somewhat differently.

United Kingdom

Particular attention has been focused on the John Major-led government of the UK for insisting on policies of strict non-intervention. Some historians today see this as helping support the "might is right" powers of the time.

Germany

Nearby western European countries were mostly responsive to the demands of the Croatians, notably Germany. Helmut Kohl's government of Germany might have been ready to take more affirmative action if it had not been occupied with its own borders, and if it didn't face such resistance elsewhere in the European Union.

Russia

The Eastern countries, e.g. Russia and Greece, were old Serbian allies. They opposed recognition of Croatia. If anything, Boris Yeltsin's government was a moderating influence. However the large changes occurring in Russia at the time were one reason that put the Western nations on their guard, afraid of taking any military action that might have provoked a wider conflict. That fear was no longer so present in 1999, but in the early 1990s it was not so easy to decipher how Russia might react.

United States

The USA was among the more conservative forces in the west, like the United Kingdom (with John Major as Prime Minister) in insisting for non-intervention at first. The administration was led by George Bush as President until end-1992. Matters changed with Bill Clinton, who took a more aggressive stance on the issue and played a more forceful intervention role. In 1995 the US, using the latest Predator and other tracking devices, thoroughly observed the movements of the Croatian Army and Gotovina's forces in preparation for Operation Storm. Successive US Secretaries of State Lawrence Eagleburger and Warren Christopher strongly criticised the moves of Germany and others arguing that this would escalate the war. Seal of the United States Department of State. ... Lawrence Sidney Eagleburger (born August 1, 1930), is an American statesman and diplomat who served as The United States Secretary of State under President George H. W. Bush. ... Warren Minor Christopher (born October 27, 1925) is an American diplomat and lawyer. ...


Timeline of major events

Date Event
31 March 1991 Plitvice Lakes incident
2 May 1991 Borovo Selo killings
September 1991 Battle of Vukovar begins
14 - 19 September 1991 Main part of the Battle of the barracks
1 October 1991 Start of the Siege of Dubrovnik
5 October 1991 Croatia commences general mobilization
7 October 1991 JNA bombs Croatian government
10 October 1991 Lovas massacre
16 - 18 October 1991 Gospić massacre
20 October 1991 Baćin massacre
31 October 1991 - 4 November 1991 Operation Otkos 10
18 November 1991 Battle of Vukovar ends, Vukovar massacre
18 November 1991 Škabrnja massacre
12 December 1991 - 3 January 1992 Operation Orkan 91
13 December 1991 Voćin massacre
21 June 1992 Miljevci plateau battle
22 January 1993 Operation Maslenica
9 - 17 September 1993 Operation Medak Pocket
1 - 3 May 1995 Operation Flash
2 - 3 May 1995 Zagreb rocket attack
4 - 7 August 1995 Operation Storm

Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the 1991 Gregorian calendar). ... The Plitvice Lakes incident of March 1991 (known in Croatian as Plitvice Bloody Easter, Krvavi Uskrs na Plitvicama / Plitvički Krvavi Uskrs) was a clash between security forces of the Republic of Croatia and armed Serb separatists. ... The Borovo Selo killings of 2 May 1991 (known in Croatia as the Borovo Selo massacre, Croatian:Pokolj u Borovom Selu and in Serbia as the Borovo Selo incident, Serbian: Инцидент у Боровом Селу) were one of the bloodiest incidents in the early stages of the breakup of Yugoslavia. ... Combatants Yugoslav Peoples Army Serbian paramilitaries Local Serb militias Croatian National Guard Croatian police and militias Croatian Defence Forces (HOS) Commanders Mladen Bratić† Života Panić Blago Zadro† Mile Dedaković Branko Borković Strength Up to 36,000, depending on the phase of the battle Some 2,000 (in Vukovar) Casualties... Combatants Croatian Army (HV) Yugoslav Army (JNA) Commanders Anton Tus (Chief of Staff of Croatian Army 1991-1992) Various local commanders Veljko Kadijević (Chief of Staff of Yugoslav Peoples Army) Various local commanders Strength  ?  ? Casualties At least 15 dead  ? At least: 250 tanks, 180 Armoured personnel carriers, 100 Self... Combatants Yugoslav Army (JNA), Montenegro Territorial Defence Forces Croatian Army (HV) Commanders Veljko Kadijević (Chief of Staff of Yugoslav Peoples Army) Anton Tus (Chief of Staff of Croatian Army 1991-1992) Janko Bobetko (from 1992) Strength Between 7,500 and 20,000 men [1] Up to 2,000 soldiers... Lovas on the map of Croatia Lovas is a village and seat of municipality in the Vukovar-Srijem county of eastern Croatia, located on the slopes of FruÅ¡ka Gora, a few kilometers south of the main road connecting Vukovar with Ilok. ... The Gospić massacre was an incident that took place between 16 October-18 October 1991 in the town of Gospić, a mixed Serb/Croat community in the district of Lika in Croatia. ... Hrvatska Dubica on the map of Croatia Hrvatska Dubica is a village and a municipality in central Croatia in the Sisak-Moslavina county. ... After the attacking forces of the 5th Yugoslav Peoples Army (JNA) corps (Banja Luka corps) had successfully crossed Sava river into Croatia captured Okučani in western Slavonia it was their primary objective to advance along Pakrac - GrubiÅ¡no Polje route and link up with th 28th partisan division... Combatants Yugoslav Peoples Army Serbian paramilitaries Local Serb militias Croatian National Guard Croatian police and militias Croatian Defence Forces (HOS) Commanders Mladen Bratić† Života Panić Blago Zadro† Mile Dedaković Branko Borković Strength Up to 36,000, depending on the phase of the battle Some 2,000 (in Vukovar) Casualties... Ovčara massacre memorial The Vukovar massacre was a war crime that took place between November 18 and November 21, 1991 near the city of Vukovar, a mixed Croat/Serb community in northeastern Croatia. ... According to the census of 1991, Å kabrnja was inhabited by 1,953 people in 397 households, and the vast majority of them were Croats, there wasnt a single Serb resident. ... Year 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar). ... After successful completion of Operation Otkos 10, the first offensive operation of such scale by Croatian army in the homeland war, Croatian troops were in position to retake further territory and neutralize a number of serbian held military positions and fortifications. ... Voćin massacre was a massacre of between 45 and 55 Croatian civilians [1] in the village of Voćin, perpetuated by Serb paramilitary units in December 1991 during the Croatian War of Independence. ... On June 21 1992, the Croatian army attacked the Serbian Territorial Defense on the Miljevci Plateau near Drnis in front of the eyes of UN protection force UNPROFOR. There were 40 members of the Serbian Territorial Defense killed, several wounded and imprisoned and the only Serbian village in this area... Year 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1993 Gregorian calendar). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Combatants Croatia UNPROFOR: - Canadian PPCLI - French armour units Republic of Serbian Krajina Commanders Janko Bobetko, Petar Stipetić Rahim Ademi Colonel Jim Calvin Mile Novaković Strength Over 2,500 soldiers, T-72 tanks, Large numbers of artillery 875 members of the 2nd Battalion Princess Patricias Canadian Light Infantry (PPCLI)  ? Casualties... Year 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full 1995 Gregorian calendar). ... Combatants Croatia Republic of Serbian Krajina Commanders Croatian Military Command Strength 7,200 soldiers 5000 soldiers Casualties 55 killed, 162 wounded 250 killed, 1,500 POW Operation Flash (Croatian: ) was a brief and successful offensive conducted in the beginning of May 1995 by the the Croatian Army, which removed Serb... The Zagreb rocket attack was a war crime conducted by Serb armed forces that fired ground-to-ground missiles on the Croatian capital of Zagreb. ... Combatants Croatia (HV) Bosnia and Herzegovina (ABiH) Republic of Serbian Krajina (VSK) Republika Srpska (VRS) Commanders Zvonimir ÄŒervenko (HV) Atif Dudakovic (ABiH) Mile MrkÅ¡ić (VSK) Strength 150,000 soldiers, 350 tanks, 400 artillery pieces, 50 rocket launchers, 50 aircraft and helicopters 40,000 soldiers, 150 tanks, 350 artillery pieces...

See also

Virovitica-Karlovac-Karlobag line The Virovitica-Karlovac-Karlobag line is a hypothetical geographic line often used to describe the extent of Greater Serbia. ... The Memorandum of the Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts was a draft document produced by a committee of the Serbian Academy from 1985 to 1986. ...

Nomenclatorial note

The 1991 - 1995 war in Croatia is variously called:

  • Homeland War – a direct translation of Croatian Domovinski rat
  • Patriotic War – a stylistically different translation, reminiscent of the fact that the 1991-95 conflict was as defining for Croatia as 1812 and 1941-45 wars were for Russia and USSR
  • War of Independence & War in Croatia – generic terms
  • Civil war in Croatia – a direct translation of Serbian and Croatian Građanski rat u Hrvatskoj
Croatian War of Independence Memorial
Croatian War of Independence Memorial

Type of war: Two conflicting views exist as to whether the war was a civil or an international war. Since neither Croatia or Yugoslavia declared war on each other, a prevailing view in Serbia was that it was a civil war between Croats and Serbs in Croatia. By contrast, the prevailing view in Croatia is that the war was a war of aggression from Yugoslavia against Croatia, supported by local Serbs. The ICTY (in its indictments) characterized the war to have been civil war until October 8, 1991, when Croatia declared independence, and international war after that date, since another country, Yugoslavia, held its troops (JNA) there. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixels Full resolution (2816 × 2112 pixel, file size: 241 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Croatian War of Independence Metadata... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixels Full resolution (2816 × 2112 pixel, file size: 241 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Croatian War of Independence Metadata... In international law, a war of aggression is generally considered to be any war for which the purpose is not to repel an invasion, or respond to an attack on the territory of a sovereign nation. ...


Status of local Serbs: The standard definition of the term to rebel means: to refuse allegiance to and oppose by force an established government or ruling authority.[10] Since the "government or authority" was the elected Croatian parliament, Croatian Serbs were thus rebels that started an armed revolt. Look up rebellion in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... First free multi-party elections for Croatian Parliament were held between April 22nd and May 7th 1990. ... This article is about revolution in the sense of a drastic change. ...


Casualties notes

^ Serbian sources:

  • 447,316 displaced:
    • 120,000 displaced in 1991-1993[11]
    • 250,000 displaced after Operation Storm

^ Croatian sources: Combatants Croatia (HV) Bosnia and Herzegovina (ABiH) Republic of Serbian Krajina (VSK) Republika Srpska (VRS) Commanders Zvonimir ÄŒervenko (HV) Atif Dudakovic (ABiH) Mile MrkÅ¡ić (VSK) Strength 150,000 soldiers, 350 tanks, 400 artillery pieces, 50 rocket launchers, 50 aircraft and helicopters 40,000 soldiers, 150 tanks, 350 artillery pieces...

^ International sources: Combatants Croatia (HV) Bosnia and Herzegovina (ABiH) Republic of Serbian Krajina (VSK) Republika Srpska (VRS) Commanders Zvonimir ÄŒervenko (HV) Atif Dudakovic (ABiH) Mile MrkÅ¡ić (VSK) Strength 150,000 soldiers, 350 tanks, 400 artillery pieces, 50 rocket launchers, 50 aircraft and helicopters 40,000 soldiers, 150 tanks, 350 artillery pieces...

Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Amnesty international Amnesty International (commonly known as Amnesty or AI) is an international non-governmental organization which defines its mission as to undertake research and action focused on preventing and ending grave abuses of the rights to physical and mental integrity, freedom of conscience... Combatants Croatia (HV) Bosnia and Herzegovina (ABiH) Republic of Serbian Krajina (VSK) Republika Srpska (VRS) Commanders Zvonimir Červenko (HV) Atif Dudakovic (ABiH) Mile Mrkšić (VSK) Strength 150,000 soldiers, 350 tanks, 400 artillery pieces, 50 rocket launchers, 50 aircraft and helicopters 40,000 soldiers, 150 tanks, 350 artillery pieces... For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ... Combatants Croatia (HV) Bosnia and Herzegovina (ABiH) Republic of Serbian Krajina (VSK) Republika Srpska (VRS) Commanders Zvonimir Červenko (HV) Atif Dudakovic (ABiH) Mile Mrkšić (VSK) Strength 150,000 soldiers, 350 tanks, 400 artillery pieces, 50 rocket launchers, 50 aircraft and helicopters 40,000 soldiers, 150 tanks, 350 artillery pieces... UN and U.N. redirect here. ... Combatants Croatia (HV) Bosnia and Herzegovina (ABiH) Republic of Serbian Krajina (VSK) Republika Srpska (VRS) Commanders Zvonimir Červenko (HV) Atif Dudakovic (ABiH) Mile Mrkšić (VSK) Strength 150,000 soldiers, 350 tanks, 400 artillery pieces, 50 rocket launchers, 50 aircraft and helicopters 40,000 soldiers, 150 tanks, 350 artillery pieces... The International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia is a body of the United Nations established to prosecute war crimes in the former Yugoslavia. ... Combatants Croatia (HV) Bosnia and Herzegovina (ABiH) Republic of Serbian Krajina (VSK) Republika Srpska (VRS) Commanders Zvonimir Červenko (HV) Atif Dudakovic (ABiH) Mile Mrkšić (VSK) Strength 150,000 soldiers, 350 tanks, 400 artillery pieces, 50 rocket launchers, 50 aircraft and helicopters 40,000 soldiers, 150 tanks, 350 artillery pieces...

References

  1. ^ A Country Study: Yugoslavia (Former): Political Innovation and the 1974 Constitution (chapter 4). The Library of Congress.
  2. ^ (Serbian)"Dr Franjo Tuđman, 1992-1999", Miloš Vasić, Vreme, December 18, 1999
  3. ^ IWPR news report: Martic "Provoked" Croatian Conflict
  4. ^ Second Class citizens:The Serbs of Croatia (HRW annual Report). Human Rights Watch (1999-03-01).
  5. ^ Legalno je braniti se (Croatian). Fokus magazine (2007-01-16).
  6. ^ Blaskovich, Jerry (1997). Anatomy Of Deceit, Realities Of War In Croatia, New York: Dunhill Publishing. ISBN 0-935016-24-4.
  7. ^ Martin Špegelj: "Memories of a Soldier" ("Uspomene Vojnika"), Zagreb 2nd edition
  8. ^ SENSE
  9. ^ GenocideWatch.org
  10. ^ a b (Croatian) War in Croatia 1991-95, Part II
  11. ^ Jerry Blaskovich, Anatomy of Deceit: An American Physician's First-hand Encounter With The Realities Of The War In Croatia
  12. ^ Croatia: Operation "Storm" - still no justice ten years on by Amnesty International
  13. ^ "Evicted Serbs remember Storm", Matt Prodger, BBC News
  14. ^ "Croatia marks Storm anniversary", BBC News, 5 August 2005.

Human Rights Watch Banner Human Rights Watch is a United States-based international non-government organization that conducts research and advocacy on human rights. ... This article is about the year. ... is the 60th day of the year (61st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 16th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Literature

  • Barić, Nikica: Srpska pobuna u Hrvatskoj 1990.-1995., Golden marketing. Tehnička knjiga, Zagreb, 2005.
  • Silber, Laura and Little, Allan (1997). Yugoslavia : Death of a Nation. Penguin. ISBN 0-14-026263-6. Accompanies the BBC series of the same title/
  • Zimmermann, Warren, ed. (1999). War in the Balkans: A Foreign Affairs Reader, Council on Foreign Relations Press (June). ISBN 0-87609-260-1.
  • RSK, Vrhovni savjet odbrane, Knin, 4. avgust 1995., 16.45 časova, Broj 2-3113-1/95. Faksimil ovog dokumenta objavljen je u/The faximile of this document was published in: Rade Bulat "Srbi nepoželjni u Hrvatskoj", Naš glas (Zagreb), br. 8.-9., septembar 1995., p. 90.-96. (faksimil je objavljen na stranici 93./the faximile is on the page 93.).

Vrhovni savjet odbrane RSK (The Supreme Council of Defense of Republic of Serb Krajina) brought a decision 4. August 1995 in 16.45. This decision was signed by Milan Martić and later verified in Glavni štab SVK (Headquarters of Republic of Serb Krajina Army) in 17.20.

  • RSK, Republički štab Civilne zaštite, Broj: Pov. 01-82/95., Knin, 02.08.1995., HDA, Dokumentacija RSK, kut. 265
  • RSK, Republički štab Civilne zaštite, Broj: Pov. 01-83/95., Knin, 02.08.1995., Pripreme za evakuaciju materijalnih, kulturnih i drugih dobara (The preparations for the evacuation of material, cultural and other goods), HDA, Dokumentacija RSK, kut. 265
  • Drago Kovačević, "Kavez - Krajina u dogovorenom ratu", Beograd 2003., p. 93.-94.

(Note: Drago Kovačević was during the existence of so-called RSK the minister of informing and the mayor of Knin, the capitol of self-proclaimed state)

  • Milisav Sekulić, "Knin je pao u Beogradu", Bad Vilbel 2001., p. 171.-246., p. 179.

(Note: Milisav Sekulić was a high military officer of "Srpska vojska Krajine" (Republic of Serb Krajina Army). Book review

  • Marko Vrcelj, "Rat za Srpsku Krajinu 1991-95", Beograd 2002., p. 212.-222.

Media

  • Harrison's Flowers (2000), directed by Elie Chouraqui. When a Newsweek photojournalist disappears in war-torn Vukovar, his wife travels to find him.
  • The Death of Yugoslavia (1995). A BBC series with extensive interviews of prominent Croat and Serb protagonists.
  • Truth, director unknown. A Serbian-produced documentary with a brief history of the war from a Serb point of view, while examining in detail atrocities committed against Serbs.
  • Hrvatska Ljubavi Moja Jakov Sedlar, movie by Jakov Sedlar showing accounts by Jews and American officials about the Oluja and the war as a whole.
  • ER. The character of Dr. Luka Kovac, played by Goran Visnjic, who first appeared on the series in 1999 and is still a main character as of 2007, lost his wife and children in the war. They were killed when a grenade shell hit their house.

Harrisons flowers is a 2000 filmed in Spain // Tagline Plot Outline Harrison Lloyd is a Pulitzer-winning photojournalist. ... Élie Chouraqui (born July 3, 1950) is a French film director and scriptwriter. ... The Newsweek logo Newsweek is a weekly news magazine published in New York City and distributed throughout the United States and internationally. ... This article lacks information on the importance of the subject matter. ... For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ... ER is an Emmy-winning American serial medical drama created by novelist Michael Crichton and set primarily in the emergency room of fictional County General Hospital in Cook County, Chicago, Illinois. ... Dr. Luka Kovac is a fictional medical doctor from the television series ER. He is portrayed by Goran Visnjic. ... Goran Višnjić (born on September 9, 1972) is a Croatian actor. ... This article is about the year. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:

  Results from FactBites:
 
Croatian War of Independence - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2824 words)
Croatian War of Independence (Croatian: Domovinski rat (Homeland war)), was a war in Croatia from 1991 to 1995, between the democratically elected Croatian government and Croatian Serbs, backed up by Serbia-controlled Yugoslav People's Army.
The Croatians lost much territory, but profitted by being able to expand the Croatian Army from the seven brigades it had at the time of the first cease-fire to the 64 brigades it had at the time the last one was signed.
The warring parties mostly moved to entrenched positions as the United Nations Protection Force was deployed to supervise and maintain the agreement.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m