FACTOID # 23: Wisconsin has more metal fabricators per capita than any other state.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Croatian Spring

The Croatian Spring (Hrvatsko proljeće, also called masovni pokret or MASPOK, for "mass movement") was a political movement from the early 1970s that called for greater rights for Croatia which was then part of Yugoslavia as well as democratic and economic reforms. The 1970s decade refers to the years from 1970 to 1979, inclusive. ... Capital Belgrade Language(s) Serbo-Croatian, Serbian, Croatian, Slovenian, Macedonian Government Socialist republic President  - 1945 - 1953 Ivan Ribar  - 1991 Stjepan Mesić Prime Minister  - 1945 - 1963 Josip Broz Tito  - 1989 - 1991 Ante Marković Historical era Cold War  - Proclamation November 29, 1943  - UN membership October 24, 1945  - Constitution February 21, 1974  - Secessions...


The movement was set in motion when a group of influential Croatian poets and linguists published a Declaration on the Name and Position of the Croatian Literary Language in 1967. After 1968 the patriotic goals of that document morphed into a generic Croatian movement for more rights for Croatia which received grassroots support, especially amongst many student organizations which actively started to voice their support for the cause. 1967 (MCMLXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar (the link is to a full 1967 calendar). ... 1968 (MCMLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Monday. ...


Among the main demands were greater civil rights for Croatian citizens; the right to take pride in one's history was prominently featured. This irritated Tito's communist government which, though not banning nationalist feelings, did not parade them around, as wounds from the Second World War were still fresh.


Some in the movement also voiced demands for the decentralization of the economy, which would have allowed the republic to keep more of the profits made from tourism within Croatia. On average, over 50% of all foreign currency that entered Yugoslavia came through Croatia, but Croatia itself kept only 7% of it. An independent National Bank of Croatia would have allowed for a fairer distribution of profits. By waiving the right to use the federal bank of Yugoslavia, the republic would also have to waive its right to use the federal fund for underdeveloped regions. However, Croatia used 16.5% of the money from the federal fund between 1965 and 1970, while Serbia(mostly for colonization of Kosovo) used 46.6%. Concerns were also raised about the monopoly of the Yugoslav Investment Bank and the Bank for Foreign Trade from Belgrade on all foreign investments and trade. The term national bank has several meanings: especially in developing countries, a bank owned by the state an ordinary private bank which operates nationally (as opposed to regionally or locally or even internationally) In the past, the term national bank has been used synonymously with central bank, but it is... Anthem Serbia() on the European continent() Capital (and largest city) Belgrade Official languages Serbian language 1 Recognised regional languages Hungarian, Croatian, Slovak, Romanian, Rusyn 2 Albanian, English 3 Government Parliamentary republic  -  President Boris Tadić  -  Prime Minister Vojislav KoÅ¡tunica Establishment  -  Formation 8th century   -  Independence c. ... Belgrade (Serbian:  ) is the capital and the largest city of Serbia. ...


The Croatians also protested against general economic issues such as the increased economic emigration into Western Europe. They objected that the Yugoslav government did too little to curb such trends. Among the issues raised was the fact the Yugoslav People's Army sent people for mandatory military service into other republics rather than leaving them in the one they originated from. A memorial statue in Hanko, Finland, commemorating the thousands of emigrants who left the country to start a new life in the United States Emigration is the act of nolan muir the phenomenon of leaving ones native country to settle abroad. ... The Yugoslav Peoples Army (YPA) (Serbian and Macedonian: Југословенска народна армија - JHA; Macedonian and Serbian Latin forms: Jugoslovenska narodna armija; Croatian and Bosnian: Jugoslavenska narodna armija - JNA; Slovene: Jugoslovanska ljudska armada - JLA) was the military force of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. ... Conscription is a general term for forced labor demanded by some established authority, e. ...


There were also attempts to bring the notion of including Herzegovina into Croatia to the attention of the authorities (similar to the Banovina of Croatia that existed within the Kingdom of Yugoslavia from 1939 to 1941), but this was far from anything that the movement leaders were proposing. In fact, such red herrings were often used to denounce the demands related to decentralization and autonomy as expansionist and ultimately separatist. Herzegovina (natively Hercegovina/Херцеговина) is a historical region in the Dinaric Alps that composes the southern part of present-day Bosnia and Herzegovina. ... The Banovina of Croatia (1939-1941). ... Motto: One nation, one king, one country Anthem: Medley of Bože pravde, Lijepa naÅ¡a domovino, and Naprej zastava slave Capital Belgrade Language(s) Serbo-Croato-Slovenian (see: Serbo-Croat and Slovenian) [1] Government Value specified for government_type does not comply King  - 1918-1921 Peter I  - 1921-1934 Alexander... 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full year calendar). ... For the movie, see 1941 (film). ... Look up red herring in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


The movement organized demonstrations in 1971 and thousands of Zagreb students publicly protested. 1971 (MCMLXXI) was a common year starting on Friday. ... Zagreb (pronounced ) is the capital and the largest city of Croatia. ...


Three Croatian linguists, Stjepan Babić, Božidar Finka and Milan Moguš, published a spelling and grammar textbook in 1971 called Hrvatski pravopis (Croatian Orthography), rather than the accepted Srpskohrvatski (Serbo-Croatian). It was summarily banned and burned. However, one copy survived and found its way to London where it was printed and published. 1971 (MCMLXXI) was a common year starting on Friday. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ...


The Yugoslav leadership interpreted the whole affair as a restoration of Croatian nationalism, dismissed the movement as chauvinistic and had the police suppress the demonstrators. Many student activists were detained in December 1971 and some were even sentenced to years of prison. Some estimate that up to two thousand people were criminally prosecuted for participation in these events. Among those arrested at this time were future president of Croatia Franjo Tuđman and dissident journalist Bruno Bušić. Eugène Delacroixs Liberty Leading the People, symbolising French nationalism during the July Revolution. ... Chauvinism is extreme and unreasoning partisanship on behalf of a group to which one belongs, especially when the partisanship includes malice and hatred towards a rival group. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Bruno Ante BuÅ¡ić was a Croatian writer and critic of Yugoslav communism. ...


The leadership of the Croatian Communist Party, Vladimir Bakarić, Milka Planinc and others were keen on punishing the dissidents. In January 1972 they expelled and imprisoned several members of the Communist student organizations and members of the Communist Party itself, mostly university professors and the like. However, some of the high-ranked members of the Communist Party from Croatia such as Savka Dabčević-Kučar and Miko Tripalo also supported these ideas, so the government could not sweep it all under the rug. Croatian Communist Party (Croatian Komunistička Partija Hrvatske, KPH) also known as the Croatian League of Communists (Croatian Savez Komunista Hrvatske, SKH) was the Croatian branch of the Communist Party of Yugoslavia (KPJ). ... Savka Dabčević-Kučar (born December 6, 1923, Korčula, Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes) was a Croatian politician. ... Ante Miko Tripalo was a Croatian and Yugoslav politician. ...


In 1974, a new federal constitution was ratified that gave more autonomy to the individual republics, thereby basically fulfilling the main goals of the 1971 movement. One of the provisions of the new constitution was that each republic officially had the option to declare independence from the federation, an option which most of them would use twenty years later. 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday. ...


Several student leaders from the Croatian Spring later emerged as influential political figures after the collapse of communism. Ivan Zvonimir-Čičak became the leader of the Croatian Helsinki Committee for Human Rights. Dražen Budiša became the leader of the Croatian Social Liberal Party. Savka Dabčević-Kučar and Miko Tripalo became founding members of the new Croatian People's Party. Helsinki Committees for Human Rights exist in many European countries (the OSCE region) as volunteer, non-profit organizations devoted to human rights and presumably named after the Helsinki Accords. ... Dražen BudiÅ¡a (born July 25, 1948 in DrniÅ¡) is a Croatian politician who used to be leading opposition figure in the early 1990s. ... Croatian Social Liberal Party (Croatian: Hrvatska socijalno liberalna stranka, HSLS) is a liberal party in Croatia. ... The Croatian Peoples Party _ Liberal Democrats (Croatian Hrvatska narodna stranka _ Liberalni Demokrati; HNS) a liberal party in Croatia. ...


The fourth edition of the Babić-Finka-Moguš Hrvatski pravopis is used today as a standard definition of the Croatian language. Croatian (hrvatski jezik) is a South Slavic language which is used primarily by the inhabitants of Croatia and Croats in Bosnia and Herzegovina and parts of the Croatian diaspora. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Croatian Spring - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (846 words)
The Croatian Spring (Hrvatsko proljeće, also called masovni pokret or MASPOK, for "mass movement") was a political movement from the early 1970s that called for greater rights for Croatia which was then part of Yugoslavia.
The Croatians also protested against general economic issues such as the increased economic emigration into Western Europe, and that the government did too little to curb such trends.
Three Croatian linguists (Stjepan Babić, Božidar Finka and Milan Moguš) published a spelling and grammar textbook in 1971 called Hrvatski pravopis (note hrvatski–Croatian rather than srpskohrvatski–Serbo-Croatian or similar) which was summarily banned and all copies burned.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m