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Encyclopedia > Criticisms of communist regimes
Part of the Politics series on
Communism

History of communism
Politics is the process by which groups make decisions. ... This article is about communism as a form of society and as a political movement. ... Image File history File links Hammer_and_sickle. ... The History of Communism as a political system began in the middle of the 19th century, as part of a wave of social change in the post-Enlightenment and emerging Industrial Era of the Old World. ...


Schools of communism
Marxism · Leninism
Left communism
Trotskyism · Autonomist Marxism
Eurocommunism · Maoism
Council communism
Anarchist communism
Christian communism
Luxemburgism
Marxism refers to the philosophy and social theory based on Karl Marxs work on one hand, and to the political practice based on Marxist theory on the other hand (namely, parts of the First International during Marxs time, communist parties and later states). ... Vladimir Lenin in 1920 Leninism is a political and economic theory which builds upon Marxism; it is therefore a branch of Marxism. ... Left Communism is a term describing a whole range of communist viewpoints which oppose the political ideas of the Bolsheviks from a position which is asserted to be more authentically Marxist and proletarian than the views held by the Communist International after its first two Congresses. ... Trotskyism is the theory of Marxism as advocated by Leon Trotsky. ... Autonomism, or Autonomist Marxism is a left-wing political movement and theory. ... Eurocommunism was an attempt in the 1970s by various Western European communist parties to develop a theory and practice of social transformation that was more relevant in a Western European democracy. ... Maoism or Mao Zedong Thought (Chinese: 毛泽东思想, pinyin: Máo Zédōng Sīxiǎng), is a variant of Marxism-Leninism derived from the teachings of the Chinese communist Mao Zedong. ... Council communism is a Radical Left movement originating in Germany and the Netherlands in the 1920s. ... Anarchist communism is a form of anarchism that advocates the abolition of the State and capitalism in favor of a horizontal network of voluntary associations through which everyone will be free to satisfy his or her needs. ... Christian communism is a form of religious communism centered around Christianity. ... Luxemburgism (also written Luxembourgism) is a specific revolutionary theory within communism, based on the writings of Rosa Luxemburg. ...


Political Parties
Communist International
World Communist Movement
International Communist Current
Communist Workers International
Fourth International In modern usage, a communist party is a political party which promotes communism, the sociopolitical ideology based on Marxism. ... The first edition of Communist International, journal of the Comintern published in Moscow and Petrograd (now Saint Petersburg) in May 1919. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The International Communist Current is a centralised international left communist organisation with sections throughout the world. ... The Communist Workers International (German: Kommunistische Arbeiter-Internationale, KAI) or Fourth Categories: ... The Fourth International (FI) is Trotskyisms international organization. ...


States
The Soviet Union
People's Republic of China
Cuba · Vietnam
Laos · North Korea
This article is about a form of government in which the state operates under the control of a Communist Party. ...


Related subjects
Socialism
Capitalism · Cold War
Religious communism
New Left · Planned economy
Historical materialism
Marxist philosophy
Left communism
Democratic centralism
Anti-communism
Socialism is a class of ideologies favouring a socio-economic system in which property and the distribution of wealth are subject to social control. ... Capitalism is an economic system in which the means of production are mostly privately owned, and capital is invested in the production, distribution and other trade of goods and services, for profit in a competitive free market. ... For other uses, please see Cold War (disambiguation). ... Religious communism is a term used by some Communists that claim that before communism became associated with atheism, the word communism was mainly used by religious groups. ... The New Left is a term used in political discourse to refer to radical left-wing movements from the 1960s onwards. ... A planned economy most often refers to an economic system that is under comprehensive control and regulation by a government in accordance with a plan of economic development. ... Historical materialism is the methodological approach to the study of society, economics and history which was first articulated by Karl Marx (1818-1883), although Marx himself never used the term. ... See also Marxian economics Marxist philosophy or Marxist theory designs work in philosophy which is strongly influenced by Karl Marxs materialist approach to theory or which is written by Marxists. ... Left Communism is a term describing a whole range of communist viewpoints which oppose the political ideas of the Bolsheviks from a position which is asserted to be more authentically Marxist and proletarian than the views held by the Communist International after its first two Congresses. ... Democratic centralism is the name given to the principles of internal organization used by Leninist political parties, and the term is sometimes used as a synonym for any Leninist policy inside a political party. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ...


Notable Communists
Karl Marx · Friedrich Engels
Vladimir Lenin · Leon Trotsky
Rosa Luxemburg · Anton Pannekoek
Joseph Stalin · Mao Zedong
Josip Broz Tito · Che Guevara
Fidel Castro · Georg Lukács
Antonio Gramsci · Antonio Negri
Karl Heinrich Marx (May 5, 1818, Trier, Germany – March 14, 1883, London, England) was an immensely influential philosopher from Germany, a political economist, and a socialist revolutionary. ... Friedrich Engels (November 28, 1820, Wuppertal – August 5, 1895, London), a 19th-century German political philosopher, developed communist theory alongside his better-known collaborator, Karl Marx, co-authoring The Communist Manifesto (1848). ... Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov, better known by the name   (b. ...   (Russian: Лев Давидович Троцкий) (Latinized: Lev Davidovič Trokij; also transliterated Leo, Lev, Trotskii, Trotski, Trotskij, Trockij and Trotzky) (November 7, 1879 [O.S. October 26] – August 21, 1940), born Lev Davidovich Bronstein (Лев Давидович Бронштейн), was a Bolshevik revolutionary and Marxist theorist. ... Rosa Luxemburg Rosa Luxemburg (March 5, 1870 or 1871 – January 15, 1919, in Polish Róża Luksemburg) was a Polish-born German Jewish Marxist political theorist, socialist philosopher, and revolutionary. ... Anton Pannekoek Anton Pannekoek (January 2, 1873 – April 28, 1960) was a Dutch astronomer and Marxist theorist. ... Stalin redirects here. ...   (December 26, 1893 – September 9, 1976) (also Mao Tse-Tung in Wade-Giles transliteration) was a Chinese Marxist military and political leader, who led the Chinese Communist Party to victory against the Kuomintang (KMT) in the Chinese Civil War, leading to the establishment of the People’s Republic of China... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Ernesto Guevara de la Serna (June 14, 1928 – October 9, 1967), commonly known as Che Guevara or el Che, was an Argentine-born Marxist revolutionary, political figure, and leader of Cuban and internationalist guerrillas. ... Fidel Alejandro Castro Ruz (born on August 13, 1926) is the current President of Cuba. ... Georg Lukács (April 13, 1885 – June 4, 1971) was a Hungarian Marxist philosopher and literary critic in the tradition of Western Marxism. ... Antonio Gramsci (IPA: ) (January 22, 1891 – April 27, 1937) was an Italian writer, politician and political theorist. ... Antonio Negri (August 1, 1933- ) is a moral and political philosopher, and a former political inmate from Italy. ...

Communism Portal
This box: viewtalkedit

Criticisms of communist regimes have often centered around accusations of human rights violations that occurred in under Communist rule, particularly under the regimes of Joseph Stalin in the Soviet Union and Mao Zedong in the People's Republic of China. Criticisms often attribte deaths due to executions, forced labor camps, and mass starvations to Communist party rule and feature prominently overall in criticisms of communism as an ideology and political movement. Stalin redirects here. ...   (December 26, 1893 – September 9, 1976) (also Mao Tse-Tung in Wade-Giles transliteration) was a Chinese Marxist military and political leader, who led the Chinese Communist Party to victory against the Kuomintang (KMT) in the Chinese Civil War, leading to the establishment of the People’s Republic of China... In modern usage, a communist party is a political party which promotes communism, the sociopolitical ideology based on Marxism. ... This article is on criticisms of communism, a branch of socialism. ...

Contents

Censorship

Most Communist states practiced censorship of dissent. The level of censorship varied widely between different states and historical periods. The most rigid censorship has been practiced by hardline Stalinist and Maoist regimes, such as the Soviet Union under Stalin (1927-53), China during the Cultural Revolution (1966-76), and North Korea during its entire existence (1948-present).[1] Usually, newly established Communist states maintained or tightened the level of censorship that was present in those countries before the Communists came to power; indeed, the Communists themselves had most often been the targets of this previous censorship. As a result, after coming to power, they argued that they wanted to fight the former ruling class using its own weapons, in order to prevent it from staging a counter-revolution. Censorship is basically the editing, removing, or otherwise changing speech and other forms of human expression. ... Joseph Stalin. ... Maoism or Mao Zedong Thought (Chinese: 毛泽东思想, pinyin: Máo Zédōng SÄ«xiÇŽng), is a variant of Marxism-Leninism derived from the teachings of the Chinese communist Mao Zedong. ... Iosif (usually anglicized as Joseph) Vissarionovich Stalin (Russian: Иосиф Виссарионович Сталин), original name Ioseb Jughashvili (Georgian: იოსებ ჯუღაშვი&#4314... The Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution (Simplified Chinese: , Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: WúchÇŽn JiÄ“jí Wénhuà Dà Gémìng; literally Proletarian Cultural Great Revolution; often abbreviated to 文化大革命 wénhuà dà gémìng, literally Great Cultural Revolution, or even simpler, to 文革 wéngé, Cultural Revolution) in the People...


An extensive network of civilian informants - either volunteers, or those forcibly recruited - was used to collect intelligence for the government and report cases of dissent.[2] Some Communist states classified internal critics of the system as having a mental disease, such as sluggishly progressing schizophrenia - which was only recognized in Communist states - and incarcerated them in mental hospitals.[3] Workers were not allowed to join free trade unions.[4] Several internal uprisings were suppressed by military force, like the Tambov rebellion, the Kronstadt rebellion, and the Tiananmen Square protests of 1989. Those who supply information to enforcers of law or administration. ... Sluggishly progressing schizophrenia was a fifth category of schizophrenia diagnosed by psychiatrists in the Soviet Union. ... A psychiatric hospital (also called a mental hospital or asylum) is a hospital specializing in the treatment of persons with mental illness. ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... The Tambov Rebellion of 1919–1921 was a large peasant rebellion against the Bolsheviks during the Russian Civil War. ... This article is about the events that took place in Russia, 1921. ... The Unknown Rebel - This famous photo, taken by Associated Press photographer Jeff Widener, depicts a lone protester, whose actions halted the progress of a column of advancing tanks until he was pulled into the crowd. ...


The Communist states themselves, as well as their advocates, often argue that censorship and similar restrictions are unfortunate but necessary. They argue that, especially during the Cold War, Communist states have been assaulted by capitalist propaganda from outside and infiltrated by the intelligence agencies of powerful capitalist nations, such as the CIA. In this view, restrictions and suppression of dissent were defensive measures against subversion. For other uses, please see Cold War (disambiguation). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The CIA Seal The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is an American intelligence agency, responsible for obtaining and analyzing information about foreign governments, corporations, and individuals, and reporting such information to the various branches of the U.S. Government. ...


Some have argued that, while censorship was practiced in Communist states, the extent of this censorship has been greatly exaggerated in the West. Albert Szymanski, for instance, in his comprehensive study entitled Human Rights in the Soviet Union, draws a comparison between the treatment of anti-Communist dissidents in the Soviet Union after Stalin's death and the treatment of anti-capitalist dissidents in the United States during the age of McCarthyism, concluding that "on the whole, it appears that the level of repression in the Soviet Union in the 1955 to 1980 period was at approximately the same level as in the US during the McCarthy years (1947-56)."[5] Amnesty International estimated the number of political prisoners in the Soviet Union in 1979 at a little over 400.[6] Senator Joseph McCarthy McCarthyism is the term describing a period of intense anti-Communist suspicion in the United States that lasted roughly from the late 1940s to the late 1950s. ... Amnesty International (commonly known as Amnesty or AI) is an non-governmental membership organization with the stated purpose of campaigning for internationally recognized human rights. ... This page refers to the year 1979. ...


Both anti-Communists and Communists have criticized the personality cults of many leaders of Communist states, and the hereditary leadership of North Korea. The dissenting communist Milovan Djilas and others have also argued that a powerful new class of party bureaucrats emerged under Communist Party rule, and exploited the rest of the population. A Czech proverb observed, "Under capitalism, man exploits man; under Communism, it's the other way around." (see also nomenklatura) Adolf Hitler built a strong cult of personality, based on the Führerprinzip. ... Milovan Đilas Milovan Đilas (1911-1995) was a Communist politician and theorist in Yugoslavia. ... The new class is a term to describe the privileged ruling class of bureaucrats and Communist party functionaries which typically arises in a Stalinist communist state. ... The nomenklatura were a small, élite subset of the general population of Party members in the Soviet Union, having more authority and claiming higher privileges as precisely the same kind of ruling class which Communist doctrine denounced in the Capitalist West. ...


Oppression versus Freedom

Each side in the debate between communism and capitalism claims to offer "freedom" while accusing the other side of being a "tyranny". One way of looking at this question would be to look at the freedoms under a system of liberal democracy and communism. The Soviet Union, an example of a communist state, abridged such liberties as the freedom of speech, freedom of religion, freedom of the press and sometimes equality before the law. Communist critics, on the other hand, argue that freedoms in these "bourgeois democracies" are not egalitarian, and that in reality, they are only available to be enforced for the economically powerful. This article or section is missing references or citation of sources. ... This article is about communism as a form of society and as a political movement. ... Freedom of speech is enshrined in the United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights and is granted formal recognition by the laws of most nations. ... It has been suggested that Religious toleration be merged into this article or section. ... Freedom of the press (or press freedom) is the guarantee by a government of free public press for its citizens and their associations, extended to members of news gathering organizations, and their published reporting. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Egalitarianism is the moral doctrine that equality ought to prevail among some group along some dimension. ...


Emigration from Communist States

Critics argue that emigration from Communist States is evidence of dissatisfaction within those regimes. Between 1950 and 1961 2.75 million East Germans moved to West Germany. During the Hungarian Revolution of 1956 around 200,000 people moved to Austria as the Hungarian-Austrian border temporarily opened. From 1948 to 1953 hundreds of thousands of North Koreans moved to the South, stopped only when emigration was clamped down after the Korean War. After the Chinese conquest of Tibet, Chinese demographers estimated 90,000 Tibetans moved into exile. In Cuba 50,000 members of the middle class left between 1959-1961 after Fidel Castro seized power. An even larger exodus occurred during the Mariel Boatlift, and many Cubans continue attempts to emigrate to the U.S. as of 2006. After the communist victory in Vietnam over a million people left by sea, the Boat People during the 1970s and 1980s. Another large group of refugees left Cambodia and Laos, the latter lost most of its educated elite and 10% of its population.[citation needed] This article is about a form of government in which the state operates under the control of a Communist Party. ... 1950 (MCML) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1961 (MCMLXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (the link is to a full 1961 calendar). ... 1956 (MCMLVI) was a leap year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1948 (MCMXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (the link is to a full 1948 calendar). ... 1953 (MCMLIII) was a common year starting on Thursday. ... North Korea, officially the Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea (DPRK; Korean: Chosŏn Minjujuŭi Inmin Konghwaguk; Hangul: 조선민주주의인민공화국; Hanja: 朝鮮民主主義人民共和國), is a country in eastern Asia... Combatants UN combatants: Republic of Korea United States United Kingdom Canada Communist combatants: Democratic People’s Republic of Korea People’s Republic of China Soviet Union Commanders Syngman Rhee Chung Il Kwon Douglas MacArthur Mark W. Clark Matthew Ridgway Kim Il-sung Choi Yong-kun Peng Dehuai Strength Note: All... This article is becoming very long. ... 1959 (MCMLIX) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1961 (MCMLXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (the link is to a full 1961 calendar). ... Fidel Alejandro Castro Ruz (born on August 13, 1926) is the current President of Cuba. ... Cuban refugees arriving in crowded boats during the Mariel Boatlift crisis. ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


Restrictions on emigration from Communist states received extensive publicity. The Berlin wall was one of the most famous examples of this, but North Korea still imposes a total ban on emigration (reported on PBS's program Frontline) and Cuba's restrictions are routinely criticized by the Cuban-American community. During the Berlin Wall's existence, sixty thousand people unsuccessfully attempted to emigrate illegally from East Germany and received jail terms for attempting to "flee the Republic"; there were around five thousand successful escapes into West Berlin; and 239 people were killed trying to cross.[7] It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Immigration. ... East German construction workers building the Berlin Wall, 20 November 1961. ... A frontline is a line of confrontation in an armed conflict, most often a war. ... A Cuban-American is a resident of the United States or a United States citizen whose ancestry can be traced to Cuba. ... GDR redirects here. ...


Responses

The Berlin Wall was constructed in 1961 to stop emigration from East to West Berlin. In the last phase of the wall´s development, the "death strip" between fence and concrete wall gave guards a clear shot at would-be escapees from the East.

Restrictions to emigration have been in force in many countries Szymanski considered capitalist prior to the late 19th century. France, Spain and Portugal even limited their citizens' travel to their own colonies.[8] The various German principalities allowed only emigration to slavic lands in the east prior to the 18th century, and many of them banned emigration altogether from the 18th century to the mid-19th. Austrian authorities did not allow commoners to move beyond the empire's borders before the 1850s. While most European states relaxed or even completely eliminated their restrictions on emigration by the early 20th century - largely due to their population explosion - there were some exceptions. Romania, Serbia, and, most notably, Tsarist Russia still required their citizens to obtain official permission for emigration up to World War I. During the war, all European countries re-introduced strict restrictions on migration, either temporarily or permanently.[9] Critics find fault with this logic, noting that future non-Communist nations (as in parts of the Austrian Empire and Germany) located in the above areas did not have similar stringent emigration policies during the Cold War while Communist nations did. Image File history File links Berlin_Wall_graffiti&death_strip. ... Image File history File links Berlin_Wall_graffiti&death_strip. ... East German construction workers building the Berlin Wall, 20 November 1961. ... East Berlin was the name given to the eastern part of Berlin between 1949 and 1990. ... Boroughs of West Berlin West Berlin was the name given to the western part of Berlin between 1949 and 1990. ... Motto: none Anthem: Bože pravde (English: God of Justice) Capital Belgrade Largest city Belgrade Official language(s) Serbian1 Government Republic  - President Boris Tadić  - Prime Minister Vojislav KoÅ¡tunica Formation and independence    - Formation of Serbia 814   - Formation of the Serbian Empire 1345   - Independence from the Ottoman Empire July 13, 1878... Росси́йская Импе́рия, (also Imperial Russia) covers the period of Russian history from the expansion of Russia under Peter the Great into the Russian Empire stretching from the Baltic to the Pacific Ocean, to... Combatants Allied Powers: France Italy Russia Serbia United Kingdom United States Central Powers: Austria-Hungary Bulgaria Germany Ottoman Empire Commanders Ferdinand Foch Georges Clemenceau Victor Emmanuel III Luigi Cadorna Nicholas II Aleksei Brusilov Herbert Henry Asquith Douglas Haig John Jellicoe Woodrow Wilson John Pershing Wilhelm II Paul von Hindenburg Reinhard... For other uses, please see Cold War (disambiguation). ...


The restrictions imposed by Communist states on the emigration of their citizens were no more intense than such restrictions that had been imposed by capitalist (or otherwise non-Communist) countries in the past. In Poland, for example, the Communist government maintained the same emigration laws that had been in force in capitalist Poland from 1936.[10] However, Communist states (particularly East Germany, Cuba, Vietnam and North Korea) did regulate emigration to a greater degree than most Western capitalist countries in the post-World War II period. The reason given for this was that they needed as much labour as possible for post-war reconstruction and economic development.[11] They did not deny that better standards of living existed in other countries, but argued that they were in the process of catching up, however 60 years after World War II North Korea and Cuba have only gone backwards, while East Germany has accepted the capitalist ideals of the West, for the most part. 1936 (MCMXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... GDR redirects here. ... Combatants Major Allied powers: United Kingdom Soviet Union United States Republic of China and others Major Axis powers: Nazi Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Harry Truman Chiang Kai-Shek Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tojo Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead... Combatants Major Allied powers: United Kingdom Soviet Union United States Republic of China and others Major Axis powers: Nazi Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Harry Truman Chiang Kai-Shek Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tojo Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead...


Of the Communist states, only Albania and North Korea ever imposed a blanket ban on emigration. From most other Communist states, legal emigration was always possible, though often so difficult that attempted emigrants would risk their lives in order to emigrate. Some of these states relaxed emigration laws significantly from the 1960s onwards. Tens of thousands of Soviet citizens emigrated legally every year during the 1970s.[12]


Imperialism

The Communist states were founded on a policy of militant anti-imperialism. Lenin believed imperialism to be "the highest stage of capitalism" and, in 1917, he declared the unconditional right of self-determination and secession for the national minorities of Russia. Later, during the Cold War, Communist states gave military assistance and in some cases intervened directly on behalf of national liberation movements that were fighting for independence from colonial empires, particularly in Asia and Africa. Anti-imperialism, strictly speaking, is a term that may be applied to any idea or movement opposed to some form of imperialism. ... Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov, better known by the name   (b. ... Imperialism is a policy of extending control or authority over foreign entities as a means of acquisition and/or maintenance of empires. ... 1917 (MCMXVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar. ... Wars of national liberation were those conflicts fought by indigenous military groups against an imperial power in an attempt to remove that powers influence. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Colony. ... World map showing the location of Asia. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa. ...


However, critics have accused the Soviet Union and the People's Republic of China of being imperialistic themselves, and have therefore concluded that their foreign policy was hypocritical (sometimes imperialist and sometimes anti-imperialist, depending on their interests in a given situation). Specifically, the Soviet Union attacked and re-integrated the newly independent nations of Armenia, Georgia and Azerbaijan in the aftermath of the Russian Civil War.[13] Stalin conquered the Baltic states in World War II and created satellite states in Central and Eastern Europe. After the revolution, China re-conquered Tibet, which had been part of the previous Chinese empire in the Qing dynasty. Soviet forces intervened on 3 occasions against anti-Soviet uprisings or governments in other countries: the 1956 Hungarian Revolution, the Prague Spring, and the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan. Look up Hypocrisy in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Combatants Red Army (Bolsheviks) German Empire? White Army (Monarchists, SRs, Anti-Communists) Commanders Leon Trotsky, Mikhail Tukhachevsky, Semyon Budyonny Lavr Kornilov, Alexander Kolchak, Anton Denikin, Pyotr Wrangel The Russian Civil War was fought from 1917 to 1922. ... Baltic states and the Baltic Sea The Baltic states or the Baltic countries is a term which nowadays refers to three countries in Northern Europe: Estonia Latvia Lithuania Prior to World War II, Finland was sometimes considered, particularly by the Soviet Union, a fourth Baltic state. ... Satellite state is a political term that refers to a country which is formally independent but which is primarily subject to the domination of another, larger power. ... Central Europe is the region lying between the variously and vaguely defined areas of Eastern and Western Europe. ... Eastern Europe is the eastern region of Europe variably defined. ... This article is becoming very long. ... China is the worlds oldest continuous major civilization, with written records dating back about 3,500 years and with 5,000 years being commonly used by Chinese as the age of their civilization. ... The Qing Dynasty (Chinese: ; Pinyin: Qīng cháo; Wade-Giles: Ching chao; Manchu: daicing gurun), occasionally known as the Manchu Dynasty, is a Chinese term for the Empire of the Great Qing (Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: dàqīngguó), founded by the Manchu clan Aisin Gioro, in what... Combatants Soviet Union ÁVH Hungarian government, various nationalist militias Commanders Yuri Andropov Pál Maléter, Béla Király, Gergely Pongrátz, József Dudás Strength 150,000 troops, 6,000 tanks 100,000+ demonstrators (some later armed), unknown number of soldiers Casualties 720 killed according to official... People in a café watch Soviet tanks roll past The Prague Spring (Czech: Pražské jaro, Slovak: Pražská jar, Russian: пражская весна) was a period of political liberalization in Czechoslovakia starting January 5, 1968 when Alexander Dubček came to power, and running until August 20 of that year when the... A Soviet soldier on guard in Afghanistan in 1988. ...


Loss of life

The most severe accusations made against Communist states is that they were responsible for over one hundred millions deaths. The vast majority of these deaths are held to have occurred under the regimes of Joseph Stalin in the Soviet Union and Mao Zedong in China. As such, most critics focus on those two regimes in particular, though others have claimed that all Communist states were responsible for some numbers of unjust deaths. These deaths generally fall under two categories: Stalin redirects here. ...   (December 26, 1893 – September 9, 1976) (also Mao Tse-Tung in Wade-Giles transliteration) was a Chinese Marxist military and political leader, who led the Chinese Communist Party to victory against the Kuomintang (KMT) in the Chinese Civil War, leading to the establishment of the People’s Republic of China...

  1. Executions of people who had received the death penalty for various charges, or deaths that occurred in prison.
  2. Deaths that were not caused directly by the government (the people in question were not executed and did not die in prison), but are considered to be the deliberate or accidental results of certain government policies. Most of the claimed victims of Communist states fall under this category, and it is this category that is usually the subject of controversy.

Most Communist states held the death penalty as a legal form of punishment for most of their existence, with a few exceptions (e.g. the Soviet Union abolished it from 1947 to 1950 [14][15]). Critics argue that many, perhaps most, of the convicted prisoners executed by Communist states were not criminals, but political dissidents. Stalin's Great Purge in the late 1930s (roughly 1936-38) is given as the most prominent example of this.[16] Capital punishment, or the death penalty, is the execution of a convicted criminal by the State as punishment for crimes known as capital crimes or capital offenses. ... The Great Purge (Russian: , transliterated Bolshaya chistka) is the name given to campaigns of political repression and persecution in the Soviet Union orchestrated by Joseph Stalin during the late 1930s. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


A number of Communist states also held forced labour as a legal form of punishment for certain periods of time, and, again, critics argue that the majority of those sentenced to forced labour camps - such as the Gulag - were sent there for political rather than criminal reasons. Some of the Gulag camps were located in very harsh environments, such as Siberia, which resulted in the death of a significant fraction of their inmates before they could complete their prison terms. Officially, the Gulag was shut down in 1960. Unfree labour is a generic or collective term for forms of work, especially in modern or early modern history, in which adults and/or children are employed without wages, or for a minimal wage. ... Gulag ( , Russian: ) is an acronym for Главное Управление Исправительно—Трудовых Лагерей и колоний, Glavnoye Upravleniye Ispravitelno-trudovykh Lagerey i kolonii, The Chief Directorate [or Administration] of Corrective Labour Camps and Colonies of the NKVD. Anne Applebaum, in her book Gulag: A History, explains: Literally, the word GULAG is an acronym, meaning Glavnoe Upravlenie Lagerei, or Main Camp... Siberian Federal District (dark red) and the broadest definition of Siberia (red) Udachnaya pipe Siberia (Russian: , Sibir; Tatar: ) is a vast region of Russia constituting almost all of Northern Asia. ... 1960 (MCMLX) was a leap year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1960 calendar). ...


With regard to deaths not caused directly by government orders, critics usually point to famine and war as the immediate causes of what they see as unjust deaths in Communist states. The Holodomor and the Great Leap Forward are considered to have been man-made famines. These two events alone killed a majority of the people seen as victims of Communist states by nearly all estimates. A famine is a social and economic crisis that is commonly accompanied by widespread malnutrition, starvation, epidemic disease and increased mortality. ... The United States detonated an atomic bomb over Nagasaki on August 9, 1945. ... Child victim of the Holodomor The Ukrainian famine (1932-1933) or Holodomor was one of the largest national catastrophes of the Ukrainian nation in modern history with direct loss of human life in the range of millions (estimates vary). ... Propaganda poster of the Great Leap Forward. ...


Estimated Total Deaths

Many historians have attempted to give estimates of the total number of people killed by a certain Communist state, or by all Communist states put together. The question is complicated by the lack of hard data and by biases of those offering death toll estimates.


The number of people killed under Joseph Stalin's regime in the Soviet Union has been estimated as between 3.5 and 8 million by G. Ponton[17], 6.6 million by V. V. Tsaplin[18], 9.5 million by Alec Nove[19], 20 million by The Black Book of Communism[20], 50 million by Norman Davies[21], and 61 million by R. J. Rummel[22]. The Black Book of Communism: Crimes, Terror, Repression is a book authored by several European academics and senior researchers from CNRS, and edited by Dr. Stéphane Courtois. ... Prof. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


The number of people killed under Mao Zedong's regime in the People's Republic of China has been estimated at 19.5 million by Wang Weizhi[23], 27 million by John Heidenrich[24], between 38 and 67 million by Kurt Glaser and Stephan Possony[25], between 32 and 59 million by Robert L. Walker[26], 65 million by The Black Book of Communism[27], and 77 million by R.J. Rummel[28].


The authors of The Black Book of Communism have also estimated that 9.3 million people have died as a result of the actions of other Communist states and leaders, distributed as follows: 2 million in North Korea, 2 million in Cambodia, 1.7 million in Africa, 1.5 million in Afghanistan, 1 million in Vietnam, 1 million in Eastern Europe, and 150,000 in Latin America.[29] R.J. Rummel has estimated that 1.6 million died in North Korea, 2 million in Cambodia, and 2.5 million in Poland and Yugoslavia.[30] The Black Book of Communism finds that roughly 94 million died under all Communist states while Rummel believes at least 144.7 million died under six Communist states. From a collection of the sources listed above, Matthew White also attempts to compose a total figure in his Historical Atlas of the 20th century[31], and arrives at the figure of 92 million.


Between the authors Wiezhi, Heidenrich, Glaser, Possony, Ponton, Tsaplin, and Nove, the communists states of Stalin's Soviet Russia and Mao's China have an estimated total death rate ranging from 23 million to 109 million.


The Black Book of Communism finds that roughly 94 million died under all Communist states while Rummel believes around 144.7 million died under six Communist states. From a collection of the sources listed above, Matthew White also attempts to compose a total figure in his Historical Atlas of the 20th century[32], and arrives at the figure of 92 million.


According to what is available here, these are the three highest numbers of victims blamed on Communism by any historian. However, it should be noted that the totals that include research by Wiezhi, Heidenrich, Glasser, Possony, Ponton, Tsaplin, and Nove do not include other periods of time beyond Stalin or Mao's rule, thus it is possible, when including other communist regimes, to reach higher totals.


The number of South Vietnamese people estimated to have been murdered in re-education camps after the fall of Saigon is approximately 850,000 people.


In its resolution (January 25th, 2006) condemning the crimes of all communist states, the Council of Europe considered the number to be 94 million , but, again, this was based on estimates from a controversial book "The Black Book of Communism", not a peer-reviewed historical study. The Palace of Europe in Strasbourg European Flag: used by the Council of Europe and by the European Union The Council of Europe (French: Conseil de lEurope , German: Europarat /ˌɔɪ.ˈro. ...


Reasons for Discrepancies

The reasons for such extreme discrepancies in the number of estimated victims of Communist states are twofold:

  • First, all these numbers are estimates derived from incomplete data. Researchers often have to extrapolate and interpret available information in order to arrive at their final numbers.
  • Second, different researchers work with different definitions of what it means to be killed by one's government. As noted above, the vast majority of alleged victims of Communist states did not die as a result of direct government orders, but rather by policy, so there is no agreement on the question of whether Communist governments should be held responsible for their deaths. The low estimates may count only executions and labour camp deaths as instances of government killing, while the high estimates may be based on the assumption that the government killed everyone who died from famine, war, or is unaccounted for.
  • Some of the writers make special distinction for Stalin and Mao, who all agree are responsible for the most crimes against humanity, but include little to no statistics on losses of life after their rule.
  • Finally, this is a highly politically charged field, with nearly all researchers having been accused of a pro- or anti-Communist bias at one time or another.

Some have argued that it is unfair to judge Communist states more harshly than other regimes on issues such as famine, because large numbers of people still die from hunger all over the world. For instance, some have estimated that hunger currently kills 24 thousand people daily.[33] Some critics argue that deaths from famine are the responsibility of the government, because their policies created an economic environment incapable of reacting to such natural disasters (for example in the Ukraine under Stalin, grain was exported by the government while people starved).


Economic and social development

Yearly economic growth record
of the Soviet Union (source: [34])
GNP GNP
per capita
Annual rate for
the period 1928-1980
4.4% 3.1%
Annual rate for
the period 1950-1980
4.7% 3.3%
Annual rate for
the period 1960-1980
4.2% 3.1%
Annual rate for
the period 1970-1980
3.1% 2.1%

Advocates of Communist states often praise them for having leaped ahead of contemporary capitalist countries in certain areas, for example by offering guaranteed employment, health care and housing to their citizens. Critics typically condemn Communist states by the same criteria, claiming that all lag far behind the industrialized West in terms of economic development and living standards. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Criticisms of communism. ... Measures of national income and output are used in economics to estimate the value of goods and services produced in an economy. ... Measures of national income and output are used in economics to estimate the value of goods and services produced in an economy. ... Per capita is a Latin phrase meaning for each head. ...


Central economic planning has in certain instances produced dramatic advances, including rapid development of heavy industry during the 1930s in the Soviet Union and later in their space program. Another example is the development of the pharmaceutical industry in Cuba. Early advances in the status of women were also notable, especially in Islamic areas of the Soviet Union.[35] However, the Soviet Union did not achieve the same kind of development in agriculture (forcing the Soviet Union to become a net importer of cereals after the Second World War). Other Communist states, such as Laos, Vietnam or Maoist China, continued in poverty; China has only achieved high rates of growth after introducing free market economic reforms[36] — a sign, claim the critics, of the superiority of capitalism. Another example is Czechoslovakia, which was a developed industrial country approaching Western standards prior to World War II, but fell behind the West in the post-war era. A planned economy most often refers to an economic system that is under comprehensive control and regulation by a government in accordance with a plan of economic development. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Combatants Major Allied powers: United Kingdom Soviet Union United States Republic of China and others Major Axis powers: Nazi Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Harry Truman Chiang Kai-Shek Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tojo Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead...

Estimates of national income (GNP) growth in the Soviet Union, 1928 - 1985 (source: [37])
Khanin Bergeson/CIA TsSu
1928-1980 3.3 4.3 8.8
1928-1941 2.9 5.8 13.9
1950s 6.9 6.0 10.1
1960s 4.2 5.2 7.1
1970s 2.0 3.7 5.3
1980-85 0.6 2.0 3.2

Nevertheless, some Communist states with planned economies maintained consistently higher rates of economic growth than industrialized Western capitalist countries. From 1928 to 1985, the economy of the Soviet Union grew by a factor of 10, and GNP per capita grew more than fivefold.[38] The Soviet economy started out at roughly 25% the size of the economy of the United States. By 1955, it climbed to 40%. In 1965 the Soviet economy reached 50% of the contemporary US economy, and in 1977 it passed the 60% threshold.[39] For the first half of the Cold War, most economists were asking when, not if, the Soviet economy would overtake the US economy.[40] Starting in the 1970s, however, and particularly during the 1980s, growth rates slowed down in the Soviet Union and throughout the Communist world. The reasons for this downturn are still a matter of debate among economists, but there is a general consensus that the Communist states had reached the limits of the extensive growth model they were pursuing, and the downturn was at least in part caused by their refusal or inability to switch to intensive growth.[41] Further, it could be argued that since the communist economies of countries like Russia began as pre-industrial, the high economic growth rate could be attributed to industrialization. Also, high growth rates were often accompanied by intense suffering in the form of starvation on the part of a communist state's citizens. The economy of the Soviet Union was based on a system of state ownership and administrative planning. ... Measures of national income and output are used in economics to estimate the value of goods and services produced in an economy. ... Per capita is a Latin phrase meaning for each head. ... The United States has the largest national economy in the world, with a GDP for 2005 of 12. ... The 1970s decade refers to the years from 1970 to 1979, inclusive. ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ...


Technological progress in the Communist states was sometimes highly uneven, in the sense that some sectors surged ahead while others lagged behind. As noted above, the Soviet space program saw remarkable progress; so did pure science, mathematics, and military technology. Consumer products, on the other hand, were typically several years behind their Western counterparts. According to the CIA[42], a number of Soviet products were in fact using Western technology, which had been either legally purchased or obtained through espionage. This situation has been largely attributed to the fact that economic planners in the Soviet Union and elsewhere were accountable to the government, but, in the absence of democracy, they were not accountable to the people. Thus, their plans tended to focus on long-term goals and scientific and military development, rather than the immediate needs of the population. The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is an intelligence agency of the United States Government. ...

Yearly economic growth compared
(source: [43])
Soviet
Union
Western
Europe
United
States
Annual GNP
growth rate: 1950-1980
4.7% 4.2% 3.3%
Annual GNP
growth rate: 1970-1980
3.1% 3.0% 3.0%
Annual GNP per capita
growth rate: 1950-1980
3.3% 3.3% 1.9%
Annual GNP per capita
growth rate: 1970-1980
2.1% 2.3% 2.0%

Both critics and supporters of Communist states often make comparisons between particular Communist and capitalist countries, with the intention of showing that one side was superior to the other. Critics prefer to compare East and West Germany; supporters prefer to compare Cuba to Jamaica or Central America. All such comparisons are open to challenge, both on the comparability of the states involved and the statistic being used for comparison. No two countries are identical; Western Europe was more developed and industrialized than Eastern Europe long before the Cold War, and Cuba was more developed than many of its Central American neighbors before the Cuban revolution. [citation needed] Comparison of Cuba to the rest of the Caribbean or Latin America has a special problem: Cuba is the only Latin American country to have been Communist for forty years; it is also the only Latin American country to have been for forty years under embargo by its largest neighbor and geographically natural trading partner, while East Germany had much of its industry taken by the USSR for war reparations. Motto: Пролетарии всех стран, соединяйтесь! (Transliterated: Proletarii vsekh stran, soedinyaytes!) (Russian: Workers of the world, unite!) Anthem(s): The Internationale (1922-1944) Hymn of the Soviet Union (1944-1991) Capital Moscow Largest city Moscow Official language(s) None; Russian de facto Government Federation of Soviet Republics  - Last President Mikhail Gorbachev  - Last Premier Ivan Silayev... Motto: Пролетарии всех стран, соединяйтесь! (Transliterated: Proletarii vsekh stran, soedinyaytes!) (Russian: Workers of the world, unite!) Anthem(s): The Internationale (1922-1944) Hymn of the Soviet Union (1944-1991) Capital Moscow Largest city Moscow Official language(s) None; Russian de facto Government Federation of Soviet Republics  - Last President Mikhail Gorbachev  - Last Premier Ivan Silayev... A common understanding of Western Europe in modern times. ... A common understanding of Western Europe in modern times. ... United States is the current Good Article Collaboration of the week! Please help to improve this article to the highest of standards. ... United States is the current Good Article Collaboration of the week! Please help to improve this article to the highest of standards. ... Measures of national income and output are used in economics to estimate the value of goods and services produced in an economy. ... Measures of national income and output are used in economics to estimate the value of goods and services produced in an economy. ... Measures of national income and output are used in economics to estimate the value of goods and services produced in an economy. ... Per capita is a Latin phrase meaning for each head. ... Measures of national income and output are used in economics to estimate the value of goods and services produced in an economy. ... Per capita is a Latin phrase meaning for each head. ... GDR redirects here. ... This article is about the economic term. ...


In general, critics of Communist states argue that they remained behind the industrialized West in terms of economic development for most of their existence, while advocates argue that growth rates were sometimes higher in Communist states than in capitalist countries, so they would have eventually caught up to the West if those growth rates had been maintained. Some reject all comparisons altogether, noting that the Communist states started out with economies that were much less developed to begin with, though this was not always the case.[44]


Most Communist states chose to concentrate their economic resources on heavy industry and defense while largely neglecting consumer goods. As a result, standards of living in the majority of Communist states were consistently below those experienced in the industrialized West, even when their economic growth was comparable or higher. Heavy industry does not have a single fixed meaning compared to light industry. ... In military science, defense (or defence) is the art of preventing an enemy from conquering territory. ... Definitions of consumer goods by Ben Murray New goods acquired by households for their own consumption. ...


Life expectancy has increased in fits and starts in the West. The latest of these began about 1970, and largely consists of improvements in cardiovascular medicine. Demographic studies[45] have concluded that the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe did not partake of this increase, as they had in the earlier ones; male life expectancies even decreased by a year - leading to a large gap between East and West by 1990. However, since a market economy was introduced, a sharp decline in life expectancy was noted in the countries of the former Soviet Union. This decline has accelerated in Russia and Ukraine; in the Baltic republics life expectancy may have started to increase. In Eastern Europe, after 1990, the decline continued most notably in Romania, but life expectancy eventually began to increase in many of the other countries in the region. All these developments give information on post-Soviet capitalism, especially the economy of Russia, as well as on the policies of the Communist states. World map of life expectancy Life expectancy is a statistical measure defined as the expected (mean) survival. ... The circulatory system or cardiovascular system is the organ system which circulates blood around the body of most animals. ... Medicine is the branch of health science and the sector of public life concerned with maintaining or restoring human health through the study, diagnosis, treatment and possible prevention of disease and injury. ... Baltic states and the Baltic Sea The Baltic states or the Baltic countries is a term which nowadays refers to three countries in Northern Europe: Estonia Latvia Lithuania Prior to World War II, Finland was sometimes considered, particularly by the Soviet Union, a fourth Baltic state. ... The economy of Russia experienced a dramatic transformation in the 1990s. ...


Supporters of the Communist states note their social and cultural programs, sometimes administered by labor organizations. Universal education programs have been a strong point, as has the generous provision of universal health care. They point out the high levels of literacy enjoyed by Eastern Europeans (in comparison, for instance, with Southern Europe), Cubans or Chinese. Western critics charge that Communist compulsory education was replete with pro-Communist propaganda and censored opposing views.


Arts, science, and environment

Many Communist states censored the arts for significant periods of time, usually giving preferential treatment to socialist realism. Some Communist states have engaged in large-scale cultural experiments. In Romania, the historical center of Bucharest was demolished and the whole city was redesigned between 1977 and 1989. In the Soviet Union, hundreds of churches were demolished or converted to secular purposes during the 1920s and 30s. In China, the Cultural Revolution sought to give all artistic expression a 'proletarian' content.[46] Critics argue that such policies represented unjustified destruction of cultural heritage, while advocates claim that the new culture they created was better than the old. The Arts is a broad subdivision of culture, comprised of many expressive disciplines. ... Roses for Stalin, Boris Vladimirski, 1949 Socialist realism is a teleologically-oriented style of realistic art which has as its purpose the furtherance of the goals of socialism and communism. ... Status Capital of Romania Mayor Adriean Videanu, Democratic Party, since 2005 Area 228 km² Population (2003) 1,921,751[1] Density 9131. ... For the album by Ash, see 1977 (album). ... 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution (Simplified Chinese: , Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: WúchÇŽn JiÄ“jí Wénhuà Dà Gémìng; literally Proletarian Cultural Great Revolution; often abbreviated to 文化大革命 wénhuà dà gémìng, literally Great Cultural Revolution, or even simpler, to 文革 wéngé, Cultural Revolution) in the People...


During the Stalinist period in the Soviet Union, historical documents were often the subject of revisionism and forgery, intended to change public perception of certain important people and events. The pivotal role played by Leon Trotsky in the Russian revolution and Civil War, for example, was almost entirely erased from official historical records after Trotsky became the leader of a communist faction that opposed Stalin's rule (see Fourth International). Soviet research in certain sciences was at times guided by political rather than scientific considerations. Lysenkoism and Japhetic theory were promoted for brief periods of time in biology and linguistics respectively, despite having no scientific merit. Research into genetics was restricted, because Nazi use of eugenics had prompted the Soviet Union to label genetics a "fascist science" (see suppressed research in the Soviet Union). Joseph Stalin. ... For other senses of this word, see history (disambiguation). ... In Parson Weems Fable (1939) Grant Wood takes a sly poke at a traditional hagiographical account of George Washington Historical revisionism is the reexamination of historical facts, with an eye towards updating histories with newly discovered, more accurate, or less biased information. ...   (Russian: Лев Давидович Троцкий) (Latinized: Lev Davidovič Trokij; also transliterated Leo, Lev, Trotskii, Trotski, Trotskij, Trockij and Trotzky) (November 7, 1879 [O.S. October 26] – August 21, 1940), born Lev Davidovich Bronstein (Лев Давидович Бронштейн), was a Bolshevik revolutionary and Marxist theorist. ... The Fourth International (FI) is Trotskyisms international organization. ... Please wikify (format) this article as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... Japhetic theory is a term used to describe a linguistic theory developed by the Soviet linguist Nikolay Yakovlevich Marr (1864-1934). ... Biology (from Greek βίος λόγος, see below) is the branch of science dealing with the study of life. ... Linguistics is the scientific study of human language. ... Genetics (from the Greek genno γεννώ= give birth) is the science of genes, heredity, and the variation of organisms. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Eugenics is the self-direction of human evolution: Logo from the Second International Congress of Eugenics, 1921, depicting it as a tree which unites a variety of different fields. ... Research in Soviet Union in science and humanities from the very beginning was under a strict ideological scrutiny, together with art, literature, education and all other domains of human culture. ...

According to the United States Department of Energy, the Communist states maintained a much higher level of energy intensity than either the Western nations or the Third World, at least after 1970. Energy-intensive development may have been reasonable. The Soviet Union was an exporter of oil; China has vast supplies of coal.
Enlarge
According to the United States Department of Energy, the Communist states maintained a much higher level of energy intensity than either the Western nations or the Third World, at least after 1970. Energy-intensive development may have been reasonable. The Soviet Union was an exporter of oil; China has vast supplies of coal.

Communist states often engaged in rapid industrialization, and in some cases this has lead to environmental disasters. The most cited example is the great shrinking of the Aral Sea in today's Uzbekistan and Kazakhstan, which is believed to have been caused by the diversion of the waters of its two affluent rivers for cotton production. The Caspian Sea has also been diminishing; in addition, there was significant pollution of the Black Sea, the Baltic Sea, and the unique freshwater environment of Lake Baikal. In 1988 only 20% of the sewage in the Soviet Union was treated properly. Established health standards for air pollution were exceeded by ten times or more in 103 cities in 1988. In Eastern Europe, air pollution is cited as the cause of forest die-back, damage to buildings and cultural heritage, and a rise in the occurrence of lung cancer. According to official sources, 58 percent of the total agricultural land of the former Soviet Union was affected by salinization, erosion, acidity, or waterlogging. Nuclear waste was dumped in the Sea of Japan, the Arctic Ocean, and in locations in the Far East. It was revealed in 1992 that in the city of Moscow there were 636 radioactive waste sites and 1,500 in St. Petersburg.[47][48] Download high resolution version (960x720, 42 KB) Source: Energy Information Administration: International Energy Outlook 2004, http://www. ... Download high resolution version (960x720, 42 KB) Source: Energy Information Administration: International Energy Outlook 2004, http://www. ... The United States Department of Energy (DOE) is a Cabinet-level department of the United States government responsible for energy policy and nuclear safety. ... Energy intensity is a measure of the energy efficiency of a nations economy. ... Natural olive oil Synthetic motor oil Oil, in a general sense, is a chemical compound that is not miscible with water, and is in a liquid state at ambient temperatures. ... Coal Coal (IPA: ) is a fossil fuel extracted from the ground by underground mining or open-pit mining (surface mining). ... // Map of area around the Aral Sea. ... The Caspian Sea is the largest lake on Earth by both area and volume,[1] with a surface area of 371,000 square kilometres (143,244 mi²) and a volume of 78,200 cubic kilometres (18,761 mi³).[2] It is a landlocked endorheic body of water and lies between... Map of the Black Sea. ... Map of the Baltic Sea. ... The references in this article would be clearer with a different and/or consistent style of citation, footnoting or external linking. ... Sewage is the liquid water produced by human society which typically contains washing water, laundry waste, faeces, urine and other liquid or semi-liquid wastes. ... Before flue gas desulfurization was installed, the emissions from this power plant in New Mexico contained excessive amounts of sulfur dioxide. ... Lung cancer is a cancer of the lungs characterized by the presence of malignant tumours. ... Soil salination results from the accumulation of free salts to such an extent that it leads to degradation of soils and vegetation. ... Severe soil erosion in a wheat field near Washington State University, USA. Erosion is the displacement of solids (soil, mud, rock and other particles) by the agents of wind, water or ice, by downward or down-slope movement in response to gravity or by living organisms (in the case of... Acidity is a controversial novelette written for the popular South Asian website Chowk. ... Waterlogging is a verbal noun meaning the saturation of such as ground or the filling of such as a boat with water. ... The Sea of Japan (East Sea) is a marginal sea of the western Pacific Ocean. ... Location Position of Moscow in Europe Government Country District Subdivision Russia Central Federal District Federal City Mayor Yuriy Luzhkov Geographical characteristics Area  - City 1,081 km² Population  - City (2005)    - Density 10,415,400   8537. ... Saint Petersburg (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991) and...


With the exception of radioactive waste, all of the aforementioned examples of environmental degradation are similar to what occurred in Western capitalist countries during the height of their drive to industrialize, in the 19th century.[49] Others claim that Communist states did more damage than average, primarily due to the lack of any popular or political pressure to research environmentally friendly technologies.[50]


Many ecological problems continued unabated after the fall of the Soviet Union and are still major issues today - which has prompted supporters of Communist states to accuse their opponents of holding a double standard.[51] In other cases the environmental situation has improved after a number of years[52][53], but researchers have concluded that this improvement was largely due to the severe economic downturns in the 1990s that caused many factories to close down.[54] The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... See also 1990s, the band The 1990s decade refers to the years from 1990 to 1999, inclusive, sometimes informally including popular culture from the late 1980s and shortly after the year 2000. ...


Communist and Left criticism of 20th century Communist states

Communist states are nominally based on Marxism-Leninism, which is only one form of Marxism, which is in turn only one school of the Left. Many communists themselves disagree with some or most of the actions undertaken by Communist states during the 20th century. Many of the anti-communist criticisms presented in the above section (for example, criticisms of violations of human rights) are shared by the communist critics. Vladimir Lenin in 1920 Leninism is a political and economic theory which builds upon Marxism; it is a branch of Marxism (and it has been the dominant branch of Marxism in the world since the 1920s). ... Marxism refers to the philosophy and social theory based on Karl Marxs work on one hand, and to the political practice based on Marxist theory on the other hand (namely, parts of the First International during Marxs time, communist parties and later states). ... In politics, left-wing, the political left or simply the left are terms that refer to the segment of the political spectrum typically associated with any of several strains of, to varying extents, socialism, green politics, anarchism, communism, social democracy, progressivism, American liberalism or social liberalism, and defined in contradistinction...


Other varieties of the Left opposed Bolshevik plans before they were put into practice: The revisionist Marxists, such as Eduard Bernstein and Karl Kautsky denied the necessity of a revolution. Anarchists (who had differed from Marx and his followers since the split in the First International) and the Left Socialist-Revolutionaries supported the revolution, but vigorously opposed the Bolshevik seizure of power. The anarchist Nestor Makhno led an insurrection against the Bolsheviks during the Russian Civil War. Revisionism is a word which has several meanings. ... Eduard Bernstein Eduard Bernstein (January 6, 1850 - December 18, 1932) was a German social democratic theoretician and politician, member of the SPD, and founder of evolutionary socialism or reformism. ... Karl Kautsky (October 18, 1854 - October 17, 1938) was a leading theoretician of social democracy. ... This article or section may contain inappropriate or misinterpreted citations. ... The International Workingmens Association, sometimes called the First International, was an international organization which aimed at uniting a variety of different left-wing political groups and trade union organizations which were based on the working class. ... In 1917, Russia the Socialist-Revolutionary Party split between those who supported the Provisional Government, established after the February Revolution, and those who supported the Bolsheviks who favoured a communist insurrection. ... Nestor Makhno. ... Combatants Red Army (Bolsheviks) German Empire? White Army (Monarchists, SRs, Anti-Communists) Commanders Leon Trotsky, Mikhail Tukhachevsky, Semyon Budyonny Lavr Kornilov, Alexander Kolchak, Anton Denikin, Pyotr Wrangel The Russian Civil War was fought from 1917 to 1922. ...


Marx and Engels (like Alexander Hamilton) did not believe that true liberal democracy was a possible form of government, since all states inherently give unlimited power to the ruling class. After the revolution, when all production was securely controlled by the proletariat, the state would eventually "wither away", since it would have no function. Alexander Hamilton (January 11, 1755 or 1757 — July 12, 1804) was an American politician, leading statesman, financier, intellectual, military officer, and founder of the Federalist party. ... This article or section is missing references or citation of sources. ... The term ruling class refers to the social class of a given society that decides upon and sets that societys political policy. ...


Criticisms of Communist states from the Left began very soon after the creation of the first such state. Bertrand Russell visited Russia in 1920, and regarded the Bolsheviks as intelligent, but clueless and planless. In her book about Soviet Russia after the revolution, My Further Disillusionment in Russia, Emma Goldman condemned the suppression of the Kronstadt rebellion as a 'massacre'. In politics, left-wing, the political left or simply the left are terms that refer to the segment of the political spectrum typically associated with any of several strains of, to varying extents, socialism, green politics, anarchism, communism, social democracy, progressivism, American liberalism or social liberalism, and defined in contradistinction... Bertrand William Russell, 3rd Earl Russell OM FRS (18 May 1872 – 2 February 1970), was a British philosopher, logician, and mathematician, working mostly in the 20th century. ... Bolshevik Party Meeting. ... My Further Disillusionment in Russia is a continuation of Emma Goldmans book, My Disillusionment in Russia, the original publication of which omitted the final chapters. ... Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: Emma Goldman Emma Goldman (June 27, 1869 – May 14, 1940) aka Red Emma, was a Kaunas, Lithuania-born anarchist known for her writings and speeches. ... This article is about the events that took place in Russia, 1921. ...


One specifically communist critique, however, is the allegation that the "Communist states" of the 20th century grossly violated communist principles, and were therefore only partially communist at best or completely un-communist at worst.


Firstly, all communists agree that democracy (the rule of the people) is a key element of both socialism and communism - though they may disagree on the particular form that this democracy should take. The leaders of the Communist states themselves frequently announced their support for democracy, held regular elections and sometimes even gave their countries names such as the "German Democratic Republic" or the "Democratic People's Republic of Korea". Supporters of Communist states have always argued that those states were democratic. However, critics point out that, in practice, one political party held an absolute monopoly on power, dissent was banned, and the elections usually featured a single candidate and were ripe with fraud (often producing implausible results of 99% in favor of the candidate). Thus, communist critics of Communist states argue that, in practice, these states were not democratic and therefore not communist or socialist. Anthem: Auferstanden aus Ruinen   Capital East Berlin, in spite of status as part of an occupied city Government Socialist state  - Last Head of State Sabine Bergmann-Pohl  - Last Head of Government Lothar de Maizière History    - Established October 7, 1949   - Final Settlement September 25, 1990   - Disestablished October 3, 1990  Area...


A lack of democracy implies a lack of a mandate from the people; as such, communist critics argue that the leadership of Communist states did not represent the interests of the working class, and it should therefore be no wonder that this leadership took actions that directly harmed the workers (for example Mao's Great Leap Forward). In particular, Communist states banned independent labor unions, an act seen by many communists (and most others on the political left) as an open betrayal of the working class. The term working class is used to denote a social class. ... Propaganda poster of the Great Leap Forward. ... A union (labor union in American English; trade union, sometimes trades union, in British English; either labour union or trade union in Canadian English) is a legal entity consisting of employees or workers having a common interest, such as all the assembly workers for one employer, or all the workers... In politics, left-wing, the political left or simply the left are terms that refer to the segment of the political spectrum typically associated with any of several strains of, to varying extents, socialism, green politics, anarchism, communism, social democracy, progressivism, American liberalism or social liberalism, and defined in contradistinction...


Trotskyists, in particular, have argued that Stalin transformed the Soviet Union into a bureaucratic and repressive state, and that all subsequent Communist states ultimately turned out similar because they copied his example (Stalinism). There are various terms used by Trotskyists to define such states; see state capitalism, degenerated workers' state and deformed workers' state. Trotskyism is the theory of Marxism as advocated by Leon Trotsky. ... Iosif (usually anglicized as Joseph) Vissarionovich Stalin (Russian: Иосиф Виссарионович Сталин), original name Ioseb Jughashvili (Georgian: იოსებ ჯუღაშვი&#4314... Joseph Stalin. ... There are multiple definitions of the term state capitalism. ... In Trotskyist political theory the term degenerated workers state has been used since the 1930s to describe the state of the Soviet Union after Stalins consolidation of power in or about 1924. ... In Trotskyist political theory, deformed workers states are states where the bourgeoisie has been overthrown through social revolution, the industrial means of production have been largely nationalized, but where the working class has never held political power (as it did in Russia shortly after the Russian Revolution). ...


While Trotskyists are Leninists, there are other communists who embrace classical Marxism and reject Leninism entirely, arguing, for example, that the Leninist principle of democratic centralism was the source of the Soviet Union's slide away from communism. Vladimir Lenin in 1920 Leninism is a political and economic theory which builds upon Marxism; it is therefore a branch of Marxism. ... Marxism refers to the philosophy and social theory based on Karl Marxs work on one hand, and to the political practice based on Marxist theory on the other hand (namely, parts of the First International during Marxs time, communist parties and later states). ... Democratic centralism is the name given to the principles of internal organization used by Leninist political parties, and the term is sometimes used as a synonym for any Leninist policy inside a political party. ...


Finally, it should be noted that many of these communist criticisms draw counter-criticisms from anti-communists, many of whom have attempted to establish a direct link between communist principles and the actions of Communist states. Ultimately, this comes down to a fundamental disagreement between communists and anti-communists as to what those 'communist principles' actually are. A glaring example is the issue of democracy: Communists claim that democracy is an essential part of their principles, while anti-communists claim that it is not.


In addition to Communism, the names of several other ideologies and political systems have been used by governments or political parties whose policies are widely regarded as being contrary to the basic principles of those ideologies or systems. The Democratic Republic of the Congo or the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (North Korea), for example, are universally regarded as highly undemocratic. Likewise, the Liberal Democratic Party of Russia shares virtually nothing with the ideology of liberalism. Leader of the party The Liberal Democratic Party of Russia (Либерально-Демократическая Партия России, Liberalno-Demokratičeskaja Partija Rossii) is a far right political party in Russia. ... Liberalism is an ideology, philosophical view, and political tradition which holds that liberty is the primary political value. ...


See also

Coordinatorism is an economic system in which control is held neither by people who own capital, nor by the workers, but instead is held by an intervening class of coordinators, typically in the roles of managers, administrators, engineers, university intellectuals, doctors, lawyers. ... States in which a single party is constitutionally linked to power are coloured in brown. ... A dictatorship is a autocratic form of government in which the government is ruled by a dictator. ... Human rights are rights which some hold to be inalienable and belonging to all humans. ...

References

  1.   A Country Study: Soviet Union (Former). Chapter 9 - Mass Media and the Arts. The Library of Congress. Country Studies. Retrieved on October 03, 2005.
  2.   Koehler, John O. (2000). Stasi: The Untold Story of the East German Secret Police. Westview Press. ISBN 0-8133-3744-5.
  3.   The Soviet Case: Prelude to a Global Consensus on Psychiatry and Human Rights. Human Rights Watch. Retrieved on October 3, 2005.
  4.   A Country Study: Soviet Union (Former). Chapter 5. Trade Unions. The Library of Congress. Country Studies. Retrieved on October 4, 2005.
  5.   Bibliography: Szymanski, p. 291
  6.   New York Times, 30 April 1980, p. 6
  7.   A Concrete Curtain: The Life and Death of the Berlin Wall. Retrieved on October 25, 2005.
  8.   Bibliography: Szymanski, p. 15
  9.   Bibliography: Szymanski, p. 16
  10.   Bibliography: Szymanski, p. 19
  11.   Bibliography: Szymanski, p. 22-25
  12.   Bibliography: Szymanski, p. 21
  13.   Bibliography: Pipes, 1994. p. 141-166
  14.   On the Abolition of the Death Penalty. Decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR, 26 May 1947. Retrieved on January 8, 2006.
  15.   On the Employment of the Death Penalty to Traitors of the Motherland, Spies, and Saboteur-Subversives. Decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR, 12 January 1950. Retrieved on January 8, 2006.
  16.   Bibliography: Pipes, 2001. p. 66-67
  17.   Ponton, G. (1994) The Soviet Era.
  18.   Tsaplin, V.V. (1989) Statistika zherty naseleniya v 30e gody.
  19.   Nove, Alec. Victims of Stalinism: How Many?, in Stalinist Terror: New Perspectives (edited by J. Arch Getty and Roberta T. Manning), Cambridge University Press, 1993. ISBN 0-521-44670-8.
  20.   Bibliography: Courtois, 1999. Introduction
  21.   Davies, Norman. Europe: A History, Harper Perennial, 1998. ISBN 0-06-097468-0.
  22.   Bibliography: Rummel.
  23.   Weizhi, Wang. Contemporary Chinese Population, 1988.
  24.   Heidenrich, John. How to Prevent Genocide: A Guide for Policymakers, Scholars, and the Concerned Citizen, Praeger Publishers, 2001. ISBN 0-275-96987-8.
  25.   Kurt Glaser and Stephan Possony. Victims of politics: The state of human rights, Columbia University Press, 1979. ISBN 0-231-04442-9.
  26.   Walker, Robert L. The Human Cost of Communism in China, report to the US Senate Committee of the Judiciary, 1971.
  27.   Bibliography: Courtois, 1999. Introduction
  28.   Bibliography: Rummel.
  29.   Bibliography: Courtois, 1999. Introduction
  30.   Death by Government. R.J. Rummel. Retrieved on January 18, 2006.
  31.   Historical Atlas of the 20th century. Matthew White's homepage. Retrieved on January 18, 2006.
  32.   Mission Network News. Gospel Communications Network. Retrieved on January 17, 2006.
  33.   Reevaluating Colonial Democide. Democratic Peace papers. Retrieved on January 17, 2006.
  34.   Ofer, Gur. Soviet Economic Growth: 1928-1985, RAND/UCLA Center for the Study of Soviet International Behavior, 1988. ISBN 0-8330-0894-3. page 15.
  35.   Massell, Gregory J. The Surrogate Proletariat: Moslem Women and Revolutionary Strategies in Soviet Central Asia: 1919–1929, Princeton University Press, 1974. ISBN 0-691-07562-X.
  36.   Wand, Xiaolu, and Lian Meng (2001). "A Reevaluation of China's Economic Growth". China Economic Review 12(4): 338–346.
  37.   Elizabeth Brainerd (2002). "Reassessing the Standard of Living in the Soviet Union". Centre for Economic Policy Research.
  38.   Ofer, Gur. Soviet Economic Growth: 1928-1985, RAND/UCLA Center for the Study of Soviet International Behavior, 1988. ISBN 0-8330-0894-3. Introduction.
  39.   Ofer, Gur. Soviet Economic Growth: 1928-1985, RAND/UCLA Center for the Study of Soviet International Behavior, 1988. ISBN 0-8330-0894-3. Summary.
  40.   Ofer, Gur. Soviet Economic Growth: 1928-1985, RAND/UCLA Center for the Study of Soviet International Behavior, 1988. ISBN 0-8330-0894-3. Summary.
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  42.   The Farewell Dossier. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved on January 18, 2006.
  43.   Ofer, Gur. Soviet Economic Growth: 1928-1985, RAND/UCLA Center for the Study of Soviet International Behavior, 1988. ISBN 0-8330-0894-3. page 18
  44.   Ofer, Gur. Soviet Economic Growth: 1928-1985, RAND/UCLA Center for the Study of Soviet International Behavior, 1988. ISBN 0-8330-0894-3. Introduction.
  45.   Mortality in Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union: long-term trends and recent upturns. IUSSP/MPIDR Workshop "Determinants of Diverging Trends in Mortality". Retrieved on January 18, 2006.
  46.   Bibliography: Courtois, 1999. Introduction
  47.   Díaz-Briquets, Sergio, and Jorge Pérez-López (1998). "Socialism and Environmental Disruption: Implications for Cuba". Proceedings of the Annual Meetings of the Association for the Study of the Cuban Economy 8: 154–172.
  48.   Steele, 2002.
  49.   Manser, Roger (1994) Failed Transitions:. The New Press, New York. ISBN 1-56584-119-0.
  50.   Non-industrial and regulated industrial systems are the most environmentally friendly. Steve Kangas' Liberal FAQ. Retrieved on January 18, 2006.
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  52.   Environmental Performance Reviews Programme. United Nations Economic Commission for Europe. Retrieved on October 2, 2005.
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October 3 is the 276th day of the year (277th in Leap years). ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... October 3 is the 276th day of the year (277th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... October 4 is the 277th day of the year (278th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... October 25 is the 298th day of the year (299th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... January 8 is the 8th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... January 8 is the 8th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... January 18 is the 18th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... January 18 is the 18th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... January 17 is the 17th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... January 17 is the 17th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... January 18 is the 18th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... January 18 is the 18th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... January 18 is the 18th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... October 2 is the 275th day (276th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 90 days remaining. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... October 2 is the 275th day (276th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 90 days remaining. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Further reading

  • Andrew G. Walder (ed.) Waning of the Communist State: Economic Origins of the Political Decline in China & Hungary (University of California Press, 1995) hardback. (ISBN 0-520-08851-4)
  • Nicolas Werth, Karel Bartosek, Jean-Louis Panne, Jean-Louis Margolin, Andrzej Paczkowski, Stephane Courtois, Black Book of Communism: Crimes, Terror, Repression, Harvard University Press, September, 1999, hardcover, 858 pages, ISBN 0-674-07608-7
  • Anne Applebaum, Gulag: A History, Broadway Books, 2003, hardcover, 720 pages, ISBN 0-7679-0056-1
  • Slavenka Drakulic, How We Survived Communism and Even Laughed, W. W. Norton (1992), hardcover, ISBN 0-393-03076-8; trade paperback, Harpercollins (1993), ISBN 0-06-097540-7 Women of communist Yugoslavia.
  • János Kornai, The Socialist System. The Political Economy of Communism. Princeton: Princeton University Press, and Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1992

János Kornai, (1928-), born in Budapest, Hungary, is an economist noted for his criticism of the command economies of Eastern European communist states. ...

References on human rights violations by Communist states

  • Becker, Jasper (1998) Hungry Ghosts : Mao's Secret Famine. Owl Books. ISBN 0-8050-5668-8.
  • Conquest, Robert (1991) The Great Terror: A Reassessment. Oxford University Press ISBN 0-19-507132-8.
  • Conquest, Robert (1987) The Harvest of Sorrow: Soviet Collectivization and the Terror-Famine. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-505180-7.
  • Courtois,Stephane; Werth, Nicolas; Panne, Jean-Louis; Paczkowski, Andrzej; Bartosek, Karel; Margolin, Jean-Louis & Kramer, Mark (1999). The Black Book of Communism: Crimes, Terror, Repression. Harvard University Press. ISBN 0-674-07608-7.
  • Hamilton-Merritt, Jane (1999) Tragic Mountains: The Hmong, the Americans, and the Secret Wars for Laos, 1942-1992 Indiana University Press. ISBN 0-253-20756-8.
  • Jackson, Karl D. (1992) Cambodia, 1975–1978 Princeton University Press ISBN 0-691-02541-X.
  • Kakar, M. Hassan (1997)Afghanistan: The Soviet Invasion and the Afghan Response, 1979-1982 University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-20893-5.
  • Khlevniuk, Oleg & Kozlov, Vladimir (2004) The History of the Gulag : From Collectivization to the Great Terror (Annals of Communism Series) Yale University Pres. ISBN 0-300-09284-9.
  • Natsios, Andrew S. (2002) The Great North Korean Famine. Institute of Peace Press. ISBN 1-929223-33-1.
  • Nghia M. Vo (2004) The Bamboo Gulag: Political Imprisonment in Communist Vietnam McFarland & Company ISBN 0-7864-1714-5.
  • Pipes, Richard (1995) Russia Under the Bolshevik Regime. Vintage. ISBN 0-679-76184-5.
  • Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe (2006) Res. 1481 Need for international condemnation of crimes of totalitarian communist regimes
  • Rummel, R.J. (1997). Death by Government. Transaction Publishers. ISBN 1-56000-927-6.
  • Rummel, R.J. (1996). Lethal Politics: Soviet Genocide and Mass Murder Since 1917. Transaction Publishers ISBN 1-56000-887-3.
  • Rummel, R.J. & Rummel, Rudolph J. (1999). Statistics of Democide: Genocide and Mass Murder Since 1900. Lit Verlag ISBN 3-8258-4010-7.
  • Todorov, Tzvetan & Zaretsky, Robert (1999). Voices from the Gulag: Life and Death in Communist Bulgaria. Pennsylvania State University Press. ISBN 0-271-01961-1.
  • Yakovlev, Alexander (2004). A Century of Violence in Soviet Russia. Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-10322-0.

The Palace of Europe in Strasbourg The Council of Europe is an international organisation of 46 member states in the European region. ...

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