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Encyclopedia > Criticisms of Salvador Allende
Statue of Allende in Constitución Square, in front of La Moneda Palace

Salvador Allende, President of Chile, has inspired a variety of perceptions regarding his policies, personality and performance as a head of state. Around the world, journalists, polling organizations and others have documented the expression of an evolving array of opinions about him. More than thirty years after his death, Allende remains a controversial figure. Since his life ended before his presidential term was over, there has been much speculation as to what Chile would have been like had he been able to remain in power. Download high resolution version (598x798, 218 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (598x798, 218 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Front view of La Moneda The Palacio de La Moneda (Spanish The Mint Palace), is the present seat of the President of the Republic of Chile. ... Salvador Allende Gossens[1] (July 26, 1908 – September 11, 1973) was President of Chile from November 1970 until his suicide during the coup détat of September 11, 1973. ...


Allende's story is often cited in non-academic discussions about whether a 'Communist' government has ever been democratically elected (this circumstance has occurred in Nepal, Moldova, and several states of India). While Allende legitimately won a democratic election, the significance of this has been disputed by some because he only had a plurality, not a majority, in the popular vote. This voting pattern is not uncommon in representative democracies, however; George W. Bush, Bill Clinton, Margaret Thatcher, Tony Blair, Richard Nixon, Woodrow Wilson, and Abraham Lincoln are among those leaders who have been elected without a majority of the popular vote. Democracy is a form of government under which the power to alter the laws and structures of government lies, ultimately, with the citizenry. ... George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the 43rd and current President of the United States, inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ... William Jefferson Bill Clinton (born William Jefferson Blythe III[1] on August 19, 1946) was the 42nd President of the United States, serving from 1993 to 2001. ... Margaret Hilda Thatcher, Baroness Thatcher, LG, OM, PC (born October 13, 1925), former Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, in office from 1979 to 1990. ... For other people of the same name, see Tony Blair (disambiguation) Anthony Charles Lynton Blair (born May 6, 1953)[1] is the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, First Lord of the Treasury, Minister for the Civil Service, Leader of the Labour Party, and Member of Parliament for the constituency... Richard Milhous Nixon (January 9, 1913 – April 22, 1994) was the 37th President of the United States, serving from 1969 to 1974. ... Thomas Woodrow Wilson (December 28, 1856 – February 3, 1924), was the 28th President of the United States. ... For other uses, see Abraham Lincoln (disambiguation). ...

Contents

Supporters' View

Chileans marching in support of Allende

His supporters argue that he did not win an outright majority because Christian Democrat Radomiro Tomic, running on a leftist platform similar to Allende's, split the Left vote. Tomic and Allende together gathered 64% of the vote, a clear majority. His opponents maintain that Allende went much farther to the left than voters could have expected, but the Christian Democratic Party who were initially supportive of military intervention to remove Allende from office began to disassociate itself because of the manifestly undemocratic and violently repressive nature of the Pinochet regime. Download high resolution version (1024x678, 259 KB)Subject: Marchers for Salvador Allende Source: Library of Congress [1] File links The following pages link to this file: Salvador Allende Categories: United States government images ... Download high resolution version (1024x678, 259 KB)Subject: Marchers for Salvador Allende Source: Library of Congress [1] File links The following pages link to this file: Salvador Allende Categories: United States government images ... General Augusto José Ramón Pinochet Ugarte1 (born November 25, 1915) was head of the military government that ruled Chile from 1973 to 1990. ...


Allende is seen as a hero to many on the political Left. Some view him as a martyr who died for the cause of socialism. His face has even been stylized and reproduced as a symbol of Marxism, similar to the famous images of Che Guevara. Some hold the United States, specifically Henry Kissinger and the CIA, responsible for his death, and view him as a victim of American imperialism. For his supporters his greatest legacy was his conviction that Socialism can be reached through a democratic, pacific path. His legacy can be seen in Venezuela and, most recently, Bolivia. “Leftism” redirects here. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Marxism takes its name from the praxis (the synthesis of philosophy and political action) of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. ... Ernesto Guevara de la Serna (June 14,[1] 1928 – October 9, 1967), commonly known as Che Guevara or El Che, was an Argentine-born Marxist revolutionary, medical doctor, political figure, and leader of Cuban and internationalist guerrillas. ... Henry Alfred Kissinger (born Heinz Alfred Kissinger on May 27, 1923) is a German-born American diplomat, and 1973 Nobel Peace Prize laureate. ... The CIA Seal The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is an American intelligence agency, responsible for obtaining and analyzing information about foreign governments, corporations, and individuals, and reporting such information to the various branches of the U.S. Government. ... This article is about views of the historical expansionism and current international influence of the United States. ... Socialism refers to a broad array of doctrines or political movements that envisage a socio-economic system in which property and the distribution of wealth are subject to control by the community. ...


Opponents' View

Allende supporter attacking a policeman in 1972

Others view Allende much less favorably. He is criticized for his government's mass nationalization of private industry, alleged friendliness with more militant groups such as the Movement of the Revolutionary Left, and the supply shortages and hyperinflation that occurred during the latter years of his presidency; all these had combined to cause a strong polarization in the country and the committed opposition of the Christian Democratic Party at the time of the coup. He is also accused of having had an autocratic style, attempting to circumvent the Congress and the courts, and having a hostile attitude toward critical media. Image File history File linksMetadata Allende07. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Allende07. ... Revolutionary Left Movement Revolutionary Left Movement (MIR) (Spanish Movimiento de Izquierda Revolucionaria) is a Chilean communist party founded on October 12, 1965. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      An autocracy is a form of government in which the political power is held by everybody The term autocrat is derived from the Greek word autokratôr (lit. ...


A common claim among opponents was the belief that Allende's closeness with Fidel Castro and Eastern bloc countries meant that he was planning to model the Chilean state along Cuban lines.[citation needed] Such allegations are highly controversial. One, offered by the military junta which deposed Allende, accusing him of formulating the supposed "Plan Z", in which the Popular Unity government was accused to have planned a bloody coup of its own to install Allende as dictator. The junta alleged that the plot was to be no less than a blueprint for assassinations of military leaders and general "mass murder". The CIA later concluded[1] that "Plan Z" was probably disinformation. Nevertheless, according to his opponents, Allende's own refusal to obey and/or enforce more than 7,000 Chilean Supreme Court and other legistlative rulings (as detailed in the Resolution of August 22, 1973[citation needed]) was a sign of dictatorial style in defiance of Chile's democratic government institutions. Fidel Alejandro Castro Ruz (born on August 13, 1926) is the current President of Cuba but on indefinite medical hiatus. ... A map of the Eastern Bloc. ...


Accusations of racism

Recent controversy has surrounded Allende's 1933 doctoral dissertation "Mental Hygiene and Delinquency", the subject of a recent book Salvador Allende: Anti-Semitism and Euthanasia by Victor Farías, a Chilean-born teacher at the Latin America Institute of the Free University of Berlin. In his book, Farías claims that Allende held racist, homophobic and anti-semitic views, as well as believing at that time that mental illnesses, criminal behaviour, and alcoholism were hereditary. Satellite photo of Berlin. ... A protest by The Westboro Baptist Church; a group identified by the Anti-Defamation League as virulently homophobic. ... The Eternal Jew: 1937 German poster. ...


Farías' allegations have been challenged by the Spanish President Allende Foundation, which published various relevant materials on the internet, including the dissertation itself[2] and a letter of protest sent by the Chilean Congress (and signed among others by Allende) to Adolf Hitler after Kristallnacht.[3] The Foundation claims[4] that in his thesis Allende was merely quoting Italian-Jewish scientist Cesare Lombroso, whereas he himself was critical of these theories. Farías maintains the affirmations that appear in his book. The President Allende Foundation replied publishing the entire original text of Lombroso[5] and in April 2006 filed an anti-libel claim against Farías and his publisher in the Court of Justice of Madrid (Spain).[6] Hitler redirects here. ... Kristallnacht, also known as Reichskristallnacht, Pogromnacht, Crystal Night and the Night of Broken Glass, was a pogrom[1] against Jews throughout Germany and parts of Austria on November 9–10, 1938. ... Cesare Lombroso Cesare Lombroso (Verona, November 6, 1835 - Turin, October 19, 1909) was a historical figure in modern criminology, and the founder of the Italian Positivist School of criminology. ...


Farías paraphrases of Lombroso have been much quoted; for example The Daily Telegraph (UK) reported 12 May 2005 that "Allende… wrote: 'The Hebrews are characterised by certain types of crime: fraud, deceit, slander and above all usury. These facts permits the supposition that race plays a role in crime.' Among the Arabs, he wrote, were some industrious tribes but 'most are adventurers, thoughtless and lazy with a tendency to theft'[7] This article concerns the British newspaper. ...


The Telegraph's quotation about the Jews appears to be a combination of two sentences that are not adjacent in the dissertation. Both are part of Allende's summary of Cesare Lombroso's views on different "tribes", "races" and "nations" being prone to different types of crime; the latter is misquoted. Allende's passage about the Jews reads "The Hebrews are characterized by certain types of crime: fraud, deceit, defamation and, above all, usury. On the other hand, murders and crimes of passion are the exception." After recounting Lombroso's views, Allende writes, "These data lead one to suspect that race influences crime. Nonetheless, we lack precise data to demonstrate this influence in the civilized world." The passage about Arabs is "Among the Arabs there are some honored and hardworking tribes, and others who are adventurers, thoughtless and lazy with a tendency to theft." There is no statement that the latter applies to "most" Arabs.[2] Cesare Lombroso Cesare Lombroso (Verona, November 6, 1835 - Turin, October 19, 1909) was a historical figure in modern criminology, and the founder of the Italian Positivist School of criminology. ...


Farías further claims to have found evidence that Allende had tried to implement his ideas about heredity during his period as Health Minister 1939-1941, and that he received help from German Nazis E. Brücher and Hans Betzhold in drafting of an unsuccessful bill mandating forced sterilisation of alcoholics. The President Allende Foundation has challenged Farias in the Court of Justice of Madrid (Spain)to prove that any bill on this issue has been proposed by Minister Allende to the Chilean Government or Parliament, and to prove as well Farías' allegation that Allende was bribed by the Nazi foreign minister Joachim von Ribbentrop without providing any evidence of it.[6] Joachim von Ribbentrop with his son. ...


Surviving personal friends of Allende have completely rejected the validity of Victor Farías accusations of "racism" and "anti-semitism" for two major reasons: Allende's mother, Laura Gossens Uribe, was of Jewish descent and Allende considered himself a Marxist and socialist internationalist for most of his adult life. International Socialism redirects here. ...


Allende’s supposed “anti-semitism” is left unfounded not only because of Allende’s own Jewish ancestry, which was well known in Chile, but by the fact that it was often used by his political detractors against him. The renowned neo-Nazi intellectual and former Chilean diplomat Miguel Serrano (who was the mentor to many in the fascist “Patria y Libertad” movement, which was instrumental in overseeing the CIA’s backed programme of destabilization in Chile) often spoke about Allende’s “Jewishness” or his “Judeo-Bolshevik” agenda. Miguel Serrano (born September 10, 1917) is a Chilean diplomat and author of poetry, books on his spiritual quest, and esoteric Hitlerism. ...


During his term in office, Allende - who was himself an atheist - supported a more ecumenical approach to national festivities and encouraged participation from the small Chilean Jewish community in celebrating Chile’s Independence Day, which had always been sanctified by the Roman Catholic Church. During his term in office, the Great Rabbi of Santiago, spiritual leader of the Jewish Community, had a principal role in the preparation of an ecumenical service for this event. For information about the band, see Atheist (band). ...


Further countering accusations of anti-semitism is the fact that Allende entrusted two of the most important tasks of his government to Chilean Jews: Jacques Chonchol to direct and implemented the successful agrarian reform which completely transformed the country’s agricultural structure, and David Silberman Gurovich, who was in charge of consolidating the nationalization of the most important industry in the country, Codelco-Chuquicamata (the largest open-pit copper mine in the World). One of the larger pits in the base of the open cast mine Chuquicamata copper mine in 1984 Chuquicamata, or, Chuqui, as it is commonly called, is the largest open pit copper mine in the world. ...


In 1972, Salvador Allende suggested the Nazi hunter Simon Wiesenthal ask the Chilean Supreme Court to extradite former SS Colonel Walter Rauff to Germany. The letters exchanged between Wiesental and President Allende are published in CLARIN.[8] Simon Wiesenthal, KBE, (Buczacz, December 31, 1908 – Vienna, September 20, 2005) was an Austrian-Jewish architectural engineer who became a Nazi hunter after surviving the Holocaust. ... SS-Standartenführer insignia Standartenführer was a Nazi Party paramilitary rank that was used in both the SA and the SS. First created as a title in 1925, in 1928 the rank became one of the first commissioned Nazi ranks and was bestowed upon those SA and SS officers... Walther Rauff (born 1916, died May 14, 1984) was a Lieutenant Colonel (Obersturmbannführer) in the Nazi SS in Germany. ...


Additional information

See also

Politics of Chile President of Chile Political parties in Chile Elections in Chile: Presidential: 1925 - 1927 - 1931 - 1932 - 1938 - 1941 - 1946 - 1952 - 1958 - 1964 - 1970 - 1989 - 1993 - 1999 - 2005 A presidential election was held in Chile on 4 September 1970. ... Schneider Doctrine was a political doctrine originally espoused by Chilean General René Schneider, which allowed the election of Salvador Allende as President of Chile, and was the main ideological obstacle to a military coup détat against him. ... Chileans marching in support of Allende Salvador Allende was the president of Chile from 1970 until 1973, and head of the Popular Unity government; he was the first Marxist ever to be elected to the national presidency of a democracy. ... The United States on several occasions sought to influence the policies or government of Chile. ... The Cuban packages (1972) was a smuggling scandal in Chilean history, involving President Salvador Allende, his Minister of the Interior, Hernán del Canto and the Director of the Civil Police Eduardo Paredes. ... General Prats, as vice-president General Carlos Prats González (1915 - Chilean political figure, and General Augusto Pinochets predecessor as Commander-in-Chief of the Chilean Army. ... Project FUBELT is the codename for the secret CIA operations that were intended to undermine Salvador Allendes government and promote a military coup in Chile. ... Allendes last photograph alive Salvador Allende, President of Chile died during the Chilean coup of 1973. ... The Vuskovic Plan was the basis for the economic policy of the Popular Unity (UP) government of President Salvador Allende. ... Project Cybersyn was a Chilean attempt at real-time computer-controlled planned economy in the years 1970-1973 (during the government of president Salvador Allende). ...

References

  1. ^ Hinchey Report, "CIA Activities in Chile", September 18, 2000
  2. ^ a b (Spanish)Salvador Allende, Higiene Mental y Delincuencia (dissertation)
  3. ^ (Spanish) Letter of Protest to Adolf Hitler
  4. ^ (English) Forthcoming publication of university thesis by Dr. Salvador Allende, May 17, 2005, Clarín.
  5. ^ (Spanish) Cesare Lombroso "El Delito, sus causas y remedios", 1902, translated into Spanish by Bernardo de Quirós.
  6. ^ a b (Spanish) Extracts from the suit filed by the Fundación Salvador Allende.
  7. ^ Quotes from Allende's Thesis as reported in Newspapers
  8. ^ (Spanish) (German) Correspondencia entre Simon Wiesenthal y El Presidente Allende (1972).
History of Chile

 
 

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