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Encyclopedia > Criticism of Islam

Part of a series on
Islam
Image File history File links Broom_icon. ... Prose is writing distinguished from poetry by its greater variety of rhythm and its closer resemblance to everyday speech. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ...



Image File history File links Mosque02. ...

Beliefs
Aqidah (sometimes spelled as Aqeeda, Aqida or Aqeedah) (Arabic: عقيدة) is an Islamic term meaning creed. ...

Allah · Oneness of God
Muhammad · Prophets of Islam Allah is the Arabic language word for God. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Islam reveres the one God, who is considered the only Creator and Lord of the Universe. The main fundamental creed (shahadah) of Islam is There is but (one) God, and Muhammad is the Messenger of God. The Arabic word for The God is Allah (الله); Muslims consider him the same deity... Muhammad in a new genre of Islamic calligraphy started in the 17th century by Hafiz Osman. ... Prophets of Islam are male human beings who are regarded by Muslims to be prophets chosen by God. ...

Practices

Profession of Faith · Prayer
Fasting · Charity · Pilgrimage The Five Pillars of Islam (Arabic: أركان الإسلام) is the term given to the five duties incumbent on every Muslim. ... White flag featuring the Shahada text as used by the Taliban. ... Salat redirects here. ... Sawm (Arabic: صوم) is an Arabic word for fasting regulated by Islamic jurisprudence. ... This is a sub-article of Islamic economical jurisprudence. ... A supplicating pilgrim at Masjid Al Haram, the mosque which was built around the Kaaba (the cubical building at center). ...

History & Leaders
Muslim history began in Arabia with Muhammads first recitations of the Quran in the 7th century. ... Islamic religious leaders have traditionally been persons who, as part of the clerisy, mosque, or government, performed a prominent role within their community or nation. ...

Timeline of Muslim history
Ahl al-Bayt · Sahaba
Rashidun Caliphs · Shi'a Imams There is much more to Muslim history than military and political history; this particular chronology is almost entirely of military and political history. ... Ahl al-Bayt (Arabic: ) is a phrase meaning People of the House, or family. ... In Islam, the SÌ£aḥābah (Arabic: ‎ companions) were the companions of Muhammad. ... The Rightly Guided Caliphs or The Righteous Caliphs ( transliteration: ) is a term used in Sunni Islam to refer to the first four Caliphs. ... This article is about the Shia concept, for the more general Islamic term, see Imam. ...

Texts & Laws
// Quran Text Surahs Ayah Commentary/Exegesis Tafsir ibn Kathir (by Ibn Kathir) Tafsir al-Tabari (by Tabari) Al Kordobi Tafseer-e-kabir (by Imam Razi) Tafheem-al-Quran (by Maulana Maududi) Sunnah/Hadith Hadith (Traditions of The Prophet) The Siha-e-Sitta al-Bukhari (d. ... This article is about Islamic religious law. ...

Qur'an · Sunnah · Hadith
Fiqh · Sharia
Kalam · Tasawwuf (Sufism) The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ... Sunnah(t) () literally means “trodden path”, and therefore, the sunnah of the prophet means “the way of the prophet”. Terminologically, the word ‘Sunnah’ in Sunni Islam means those religious actions that were instituted by Muhammad(PBUH) during the 23 years of his ministry and which Muslims initially received through consensus... Hadith ( transliteration: ) are oral traditions relating to the words and deeds of Prophet Muhammad. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... This article is about Islamic religious law. ... Kalam (علم الكلم)is one of the religious sciences of Islam. ... Sufism is a mystic tradition within Islam that encompasses a diverse range of beliefs and practices dedicated to Divine love and the cultivation of the elements of the Divine within the individual human being. ...

Major branches
The religion of Islam has many divisions, sects, schools, traditions, and related faiths. ...

Sunni · Shi'a

Culture & Society
Sunni Muslims are the largest denomination of Islam. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Muslim culture is a term primarily used in secular academia to describe all cultural practices common to historically Islamic peoples. ... Nations with a Muslim majority appear in green, while nations that are approximately 50% Muslim appear yellow. ...

Academics · Animals · Art
Calendar · Children · Demographics
Festivals · Mosques · Philosophy
Politics · Science · Women Islamic Studies is the academic discipline which focuses on Islamic issues. ... This article is about the attitudes of Islam regarding animals. ... The Taj Mahal, Agra. ... The Islamic calendar or Muslim calendar (Arabic: التقويم الهجري; at-taqwÄ«m al-hijrÄ«; Persian: تقویم هجري قمری ‎ taqwÄ«m-e hejri-ye qamari; also called the Hijri calendar) is the calendar used to date events in many predominantly Muslim countries, and used by Muslims everywhere to determine the proper day on which to celebrate... This article discusses childrens rights given by Islam, childrens duties towards their parents, parents treatment of their children, both males and females, biological and foster children, also discussed are some of the differences regarding rights with respect to different schools of thoughts. ... Muslim percentage of population by country Distribution of Islam per country. ... Muslim holidays generally celebrate the events of the life of Islams main prophet, Muhammad, especially the events surrounding the first hearing of the Kuran. ... The Masjid al-Haram in Mecca as it exists today A mosque is a place of worship for followers of the Islamic faith. ... Islamic philosophy (الفلسفة الإسلامية) is a branch of Islamic studies, and is a longstanding attempt to create harmony between philosophy (reason) and the religious teachings of Islam (faith). ... Islam as a political movement has a diverse character that has at different times incorporated elements of many other political movements, while simultaneously adapting the religious views of Islamic fundamentalism, particularly the view of Islam as a political religion. ... In the history of science, Islamic science refers to the science developed under the Islamic civilisation between the 8th and 15th centuries (the Islamic Golden Age). ... The complex relationship between women and Islam is defined by both Islamic texts and the history and culture of the Muslim world. ...

Islam & other religions
This article does not cite any references or sources. ...

Christianity · Jainism
Judaism · Sikhism

See also
This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Jainism and Islam came in close contact with each other following the Islamic Conquest from Central Asia and Persia in the seventh to the twelfth centuries when much of north and central India came under the rule of the Delhi Sultanate, and later the Mughal dynasty. ... This article is about the historical interaction between Islam and Judaism. ... This article needs additional references or sources to facilitate its verification. ...

Criticism of Islam · Islamophobia
Glossary of Islamic terms Islamophobia is a controversial[1][2] though increasingly accepted[3][4] term that refers to prejudice or discrimination against Islam or Muslims. ... The following list consists of concepts that are derived from both Islamic and Arab tradition, which are expressed as words in the Arabic language. ...

Islam Portal  v  d  e 

Part of a series on
Controversies related to Islam and Muslims

This article lists various controversies related to Islam and Muslims. ...

Criticism

Islam · Muhammad · Qur'an This is a sub-article to Criticism of Islam. ... Muslims believe that the Quran is the literal word of God (Allah) as recited to Muhammad through the Angel Gabriel. ...

Issues

Apostasy · Dhimmi · Eurabia
Antisemitism · Domestic violence
Islamism · Islamophobia
Terrorism · Qutbism
Persecution of Muslims
Women in Muslim societies Apostasy in Islam (Arabic: ارتداد, irtidād or ridda) is commonly defined as the rejection of Islam in word or deed by a person who has been a Muslim. ... This article is about dhimmi in the context of Islamic law. ... Eurabia is a neologism that denotes a scenario where Europe allies itself to and eventually merges with the Arab world. ... This article is about the relationship between Islam and antisemitism. ... The extent to which domestic violence is sanctioned or opposed by Islam is a matter of debate. ... This article is about political Islam For the religion of Islam, see Islam. ... Islamophobia is a controversial[1][2] though increasingly accepted[3][4] term that refers to prejudice or discrimination against Islam or Muslims. ... Islamist terrorism, sometimes called Islamic terrorism, is terrorism that is carried out to further the political and religious ambitions of a segment of the Muslim community. ... Qutbism (also Kotebism, Qutbiyya, or Qutbiyyah) is the radical strain of Islamic ideology and activism, based on the thought and writings of Sayyid Qutb, a celebrated Islamist and former leading member of the Muslim Brotherhood who was executed in 1966. ... Conflicts between Muslims and non-Muslims made the persecution of both Muslims and non-Muslims a recurring phenomenon during the history of Islam. ... The factual accuracy of this article is disputed. ...

Notable critics

Afshin Ellian · Ayaan Hirsi Ali
Ahmad Kasravi · Irshad Manji
Daniel Pipes · Ibn Warraq
Philippe de Villiers · Robert Spencer
Theo van Gogh Afshin Ellian (Tehran, Iran, 27 February 1966) is a Dutch professor of law, philosopher, and poet. ... Ayaan Hirsi Ali, MA ( ; Somali: ; born Ayaan Hirsi Magan 13 November 1969[2] in Mogadishu, Somalia) is a Dutch feminist and political writer, daughter of the Somali scholar, politician, and revolutionary opposition leader Hirsi Magan Isse. ... Ahmad Kasravi Tabrizi (b. ... Irshad Manji (born 1968) is a Canadian Muslim feminist, author, journalist, and activist. ... Daniel Pipes in Copenhagen Daniel Pipes (born September 9, 1949) is an American historian and analyst who specializes in the Middle East. ... Ibn Warraq is the pen name of an author of several books on Islam. ... Philippe de Villiers in Toulouse in April 2007 Philippe de Villiers (born Viscount Philippe Le Jolis de Villiers de Saintignon on March 25, 1949) was the Mouvement pour la France nominee for the French presidential election of 2007. ... Robert Bruce Spencer (born 1962) is an American writer on Islam. ... Theo van Gogh (IPA: ) (July 23, 1957–November 2, 2004) was a Dutch film director, television producer, publicist and actor. ...

Muslims

List of Guantánamo Bay detainees
Moazzam Begg · Osama bin Laden Wikisource has original text related to this article: Detention, Treatment, and Trial of Certain Non-Citizens in the War Against Terrorism Wikisource has original text related to this article: Guantanamo Detainees (02/13/2004) This list of Guantánamo detainees is compiled from various sources. ... Moazzam Begg before speaking at a meeting about civil liberties Moazzam Begg (born 1968) is one of nine British Muslims who were held in extrajudicial detention in the Guantanamo Bay detainment camp, in Cuba, by the government of the United States of America. ... Osama bin Muhammad bin Awad bin Laden (Arabic: ‎; born March 10, 1957[1]), most often mentioned as Osama bin Laden or Usama bin Laden, is a Saudi Arabian militant Islamist and is widely believed to be one of the founders of the organization called al-Qaeda. ...

Events since 2001

September 11, 2001 attacks
Guantanamo Bay detention camp
Jyllands-Posten Muhammad cartoons
Qur'an desecration controversy
2005 beheadings of Christian girls
CPT hostage crisis
Fox journalists kidnapping
Abu Ghraib abuse
Egyptian ID card controversy
Flying Imams controversy
2005 Cronulla riots
French headscarf ban
Imam Rapito
Knighthood of Salman Rushdie
Pope Benedict XVI controversy
Lars Vilks Muhammad drawings
Teddy bear blasphemy case A sequential look at United Flight 175 crashing into the south tower of the World Trade Center The September 11, 2001 attacks (often referred to as 9/11—pronounced nine eleven or nine one one) consisted of a series of coordinated terrorist[1] suicide attacks upon the United States, predominantly... Wikisource has original text related to this article: Detention, Treatment, and Trial of Certain Non-Citizens in the War Against Terrorism Wikisource has original text related to this article: Statement of Alberto J Mora on interrogation abuse, July 7, 2004 Guantanamo Bay detention camp is a joint military prison and... The Jyllands-Posten Muhammad cartoons controversy began after twelve editorial cartoons, most of which depicted the Islamic prophet Muhammad, were published in the Danish newspaper Jyllands-Posten on 30 September 2005. ... Protests in Islamabad, Pakistan, following allegations that U.S. military personnel had desecrated the Quran The Quran desecration controversy of 2005 captured international attention in April 2005 when Newsweek published an article containing allegations that U.S. personnel at the Guantánamo Bay prison camp had deliberately damaged... On October 30, 2005, Theresia Morangke (15), Alfita Poliwo (17) and Yarni Sambue (17) were beheaded by Muslim militants [1] as Ramadan trophies [2] in the Poso region of the island of Sulawesi in Indonesia. ... Norman Kember and Harmeet Singh Sooden were held hostage, as depicted here on Al Jazeera television. ... Screenshot of Olaf Wiig (left) and Steve Centanni (right) in tape released after capture Fox News Channel journalists Olaf Wiig, a New Zealander photojournalist, and Steve Centanni, an American reporter, were kidnapped in the Gaza Strip by the Holy Jihad Brigades, a previously unknown group of Palestinian militants, from their... Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Abu Ghraib prisoner abuse Beginning in 2004, accounts of abuse, torture, rape[1] and homicide[2][3] of prisoners held in the Abu Ghraib prison in Iraq (also known as Baghdad Correctional Facility) came to public attention. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... It has been suggested that Flying while Muslim be merged into this article or section. ... Police observing crowds prior to confrontations The 2005 Cronulla riots were a series of ethnically motivated mob confrontations which originated in and around Cronulla, a beachfront suburb of Sydney, New South Wales. ... The French law on secularity and conspicuous religious symbols in schools bans wearing conspicuous religious symbols in French public (i. ... Immage from the CIAs surveillance of Hassan Mustafa Osama Nasr recovered during investigations by the prosecuting authority of Milan [1] The Abu Omar Case (or Imam Rapito affair - Kidnapped Imam affair) refers to the abduction and transfer in Egypt of the Imam of Milan Hassan Mustafa Osama Nasr, also... In mid-June 2007 Salman Rushdie was given the title of knight by the British Queen Elizabeth II. This action brought much criticism around the world in many countries with Muslim majority populations. ... Pope Benedict XVI, January 2006 The Pope Benedict XVI Islam controversy arose from a lecture delivered on 12 September 2006 by Pope Benedict XVI at the University of Regensburg in Germany. ... One of Vilkss original three drawings, depicting Muhammad as a roundabout dog. ... Unity High School Unity High School, founded in 1902, is an independent school in Khartoum, Sudan, which uses the English language and provides a British-style education to children of various backgrounds. ...

v  d  e

(Arguments critical to religion in general, or specific to Monotheism, such as the Existence of God, not dealt with here. This page describes criticism specific to Islam only, looking at either the historicity of Islam or at the results of its practice.) Arguments for and against the existence of God have been proposed by philosophers, theologians, and others. ...

Critics of Islam have existed since Islam's formative stages. Early written criticism came from Christians, prior to 1000 CE.[1] Later there appeared criticism from the Muslim world itself, and also from Jewish writers and from ecclesiastical Christians.[2][3][4][5] In the modern era, criticism has come from people both inside and outside Islam, on a wide variety of topics. Main article: Islamism This article is about criticism of political Islam For criticism of the religion of Islam, see Criticism of Islam. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... This article is about the religous people known as Christians. ... Nations with a Muslim majority appear in green, while nations that are approximately 50% Muslim appear yellow. ... The word Jew ( Hebrew: יהודי) is used in a wide number of ways, but generally refers to a follower of the Jewish faith, a child of a Jewish mother, or someone of Jewish descent with a connection to Jewish culture or ethnicity and often a combination...


Islam has been criticised on the grounds that it is not true (on philosophical, historical, scientific or theological grounds), and that it is not moral (on ethical and political grounds). For other uses, see Philosophy (disambiguation). ... This article is about the study of the past in human terms. ... A magnet levitating above a high-temperature superconductor demonstrates the Meissner effect. ... Kalam (علم الكلم)is one of the religious sciences of Islam. ... For other uses, see Ethics (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Politics (disambiguation). ...


One such topic is Islam's tolerance (or intolerance) of criticism, and the treatment accorded apostates in Islamic law.[6] Another area focuses on the morality of the life of Muhammad, the founder of Islam, both in his public and personal life.[5][7] Issues relating to the authenticity and morality of the Qu'ran, the Islamic holy book, are also discussed by critics.[8][9] Other criticisms focus on the question of human rights in modern Islamic nations, and the treatment of women in Islamic law and practice.[10][11] Recently, Islam's influence on the ability of Muslim immigrants in the West to assimilate has been criticized.[12] Apostasy (from Greek αποστασία, meaning a defection or revolt, from απο, apo, away, apart, στασις, stasis, standing) is a term generally employed to describe the formal renunciation of ones religion, especially if the motive is deemed unworthy. ... Sharia (Arabic شريعة also Sharia, Shariah or Syariah) is traditional Islamic law. ... Muhammad in a new genre of Islamic calligraphy started in the 17th century by Hafiz Osman. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... The Quran ( Arabic al-qurʾān أَلْقُرآن; its literal meaning is the recitation and is often called Al Quran Al Karim: The Noble Quran, also transliterated as Quran, Koran, and less commonly Alcoran) is the holy book...

Contents

History of criticism of Islam

Early Islam

The earliest surviving written criticisms of Islam are to be found in the writings of Christians, who came under the early dominion of the Islamic empire. One such Christian was John of Damascus (born c. 676), who was familiar with Islam and Arabic. The second chapter of his book, The Fount of Wisdom, titled 'Concerning Heresies' presents a series of discussions between Christians and Muslims. John claimed a Nestorian monk influenced Muhammad.[13][1] For other uses, see Christian (disambiguation). ... Saint John of Damascus (Arabic: يحيى ابن منصور Yaḥyā ibn Manṣūr; Greek: Ιωάννης Δαμασκήνος/Ioannês Damaskinos; Latin: Iohannes Damascenus or Johannes Damascenus also known as John Damascene, Χρυσορρόας/Chrysorrhoas, streaming with gold—i. ... Events November 2 - Donus becomes Pope. ... Arabic redirects here. ... The term Nestorianism is eponymous, even though the person who lent his name to it always denied the associated belief. ... For other uses, see Monk (disambiguation). ...


The Hadith (written between 844 and 874) contain accounts of criticism of Islam at the time of Muhammad from the pagan, Jewish and Christian inhabitants of Arabia. Hadith ( transliteration: ) are oral traditions relating to the words and deeds of Prophet Muhammad. ... Pagan may refer to: A believer in Paganism or Neopaganism Bagan, a city in Myanmar also known as Pagan Pagan (album), the 6th album by Celtic metal band Cruachan Pagan Island, of the Northern Mariana Islands Pagan Lorn, a metal band from Luxembourg, Europe (1994-1998) Pagans Mind, is... The word Jew ( Hebrew: יהודי) is used in a wide number of ways, but generally refers to a follower of the Jewish faith, a child of a Jewish mother, or someone of Jewish descent with a connection to Jewish culture or ethnicity and often a combination... For other uses, see Christian (disambiguation). ...


Medieval Islamic world

Over the years there have been several famous Muslim critics and skeptics of Islam from within the Islamic world itself. In tenth and eleventh-century Syria there lived a blind poet called Al-Ma'arri. According to Ibn Warraq, he became well-known for a poetry that was affected by a "pervasive pessimism." He labeled religions in general as "noxious weeds," and said that Islam does not have a monopoly on truth. He had particular contempt for the ulema, writing that: Abu al-Ala Ahmed ibn Abd Allah ibn Sullaiman al-Tanookhy al-Maarri (Arabic: أبو العلاء أحمد بن عبد الله بن سليمان التنوخي المعري. December 26, 973 - May 10 or May 21, 1057) was a blind Arab[1] philosopher poet and writer. ... Ibn Warraq is the pen name of an author of several books on Islam. ... Ulema (, transliteration: , singular: , transliteration: , scholar) (The people of Islamic Knowledge) refers to the educated class of Muslim legal scholars engaged in the several fields of Islamic studies. ...

They recite their sacred books, although the fact informs me that these are fiction from first to last. O Reason, thou (alone) speakest the truth. Then perish the fools who forged the religious traditions or interpreted them![2]

In 1280, the Jewish philosopher Ibn Kammuna criticised Islam in his book Examination of the Three Faiths. He reasoned that incompatibility of sharia with the principles of justice undercuts Muhammad's claims of being a perfect man: "there is no proof that Muhammad attained perfection and the ability to perfect others as claimed."[14] The philosopher thus concluded that people usually convert to Islam from ulterior motives: For other uses, see Jew (disambiguation). ... Said ibn Mansur Ibn Kammuna (d. ...

That is why, to this day we never see anyone converting to Islam unless in terror, or in quest of power, or to avoid heavy taxation, or to escape humiliation, or if taken prisoner, or because of infatuation with a Muslim woman, or for some similar reason. Nor do we see a respected, wealthy, and pious non-Muslim well versed in both his faith and that of Islam, going over to the Islamic faith without some of the aforementioned or similar motives.[3]

Maimonides, one of the foremost 12th century rabbinical arbiters and philosophers, sees the relation of Islam to Judaism as primarily theoretical. Maimonides has no quarrel with the strict monotheism of Islam, but finds fault with the practical politics of Muslim regimes. He also considered Islamic ethics and politics to be inferior to their Jewish counterparts. Maimonides criticised what he perceived as the lack of virtue in the way Muslims rule their societies and relate to one another.[4] Commonly used image indicating one artists conception of Maimonidess appearance Maimonides (March 30, 1135 or 1138–December 13, 1204) was a Jewish rabbi, physician, and philosopher in Spain, Morocco and Egypt during the Middle Ages. ... Posek (Hebrew פוסק, IPA: , pl. ...


Medieval Christendom

Main article: Medieval Christian view of Muhammad
  • Some medieval ecclesiastical writers portrayed Muhammad as possessed by Satan, a "precursor of the Antichrist" or the Antichrist himself.[5]
  • Denis the Carthusian wrote two treatises to refute Islam at the request of Nicholas of Cusa, Contra perfidiam Mahometi, et contra multa dicta Sarracenorum libri quatuor and Dialogus disutationis inter Christianum et Sarracenum de lege Christi et contra perfidiam Mahometi.[15]
  • In 1391 a dialogue was believed to have occurred between Byzantine Emporer Manuel II Palaiologos and a Persian scholar in which the Emperor stated:
Show me just what Muhammad brought that was new and there you will find things only evil and inhuman, such as his command to spread by the sword the faith he preached. God is not pleased by blood - and not acting reasonably is contrary to God's nature. Faith is born of the soul, not the body. Whoever would lead someone to faith needs the ability to speak well and to reason properly, without violence and threats... To convince a reasonable soul, one does not need a strong arm, or weapons of any kind, or any other means of threatening a person with death.
The first sentence of this quotation, when repeated by Pope Benedict XVI in 2006, lead to a riots, firebombing of churches and a Fatwa against the life of the Pope (see Pope Benedict XVI Islam controversy)

During the Middle Ages, the Christian world held a largely antagonistic view of Muhammad. ... This article is about the concept of Satan. ... For the Friedrich Nietzsche book, see The Antichrist. ... Denis the Carthusian (1402-1471), also known as Denys van Leeuwen or Denis Ryckel, was a Roman Catholic theologian and mystic. ... Nicholas of Cusa Nicholas of Cusa (1401– August 11, 1464) was a German cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church, a philosopher, jurist, mathematician, and an astronomer. ... Emperor Manuel II Manuel II Palaiologos or Palaeologus (Greek: Μανουήλ Β΄ Παλαιολόγος, Manouēl II Palaiologos) (June 27, 1350 – July 21, 1425) was Byzantine emperor from 1391 to 1425. ... Papal Arms of Pope Benedict XVI. The papal tiara was replaced with a bishops mitre, and pallium of the Pope was added beneath the coat of arms. ... Pope Benedict XVI, January 2006 The Pope Benedict XVI Islam controversy arose from a lecture delivered on 12 September 2006 by Pope Benedict XVI at the University of Regensburg in Germany. ...

Late 19th and Early 20th Century Critics of Islam

See also: Orientalism

During the late 19th and early 20th century, the new methods of Higher criticism were applied to the Qu'ran, claiming that it had a non-divine origin. Ignaz Goldziher and Henri Corbin wrote about the influence of Zoroastrianism, and others wrote on the influence of Judaism, Christianity and Sabianism [16] For the book by Edward Said, see Orientalism (book). ... Higher criticism, also known as historical criticism, is a branch of literary analysis that attempts to investigate the origins of a text, especially the text of the Bible. ... Ignaz Goldziher (June 22, 1850 - 1921), was a Jewish Hungarian orientalist and is widely considered among the founders of modern Islamic studies in Europe. ... Henry Corbin (April , 1903 - October 7, 1978) was a philosopher, theologian and professor of Islamic Studies at the Sorbonne in Paris. ... Zoroastrianism is the religion and philosophy based on the teachings ascribed to the prophet Zoroaster (Zarathustra, Zartosht). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is... Not to be confused with Sabian, the Canadian cymbal manufacturing company; Sabaeans, an ancient people living in what is now Yemen; Sabbateans, followers of Sabbatai Zevi; or Sabines, a pre-Roman Italic tribe of Latium. ...


Winston Churchill, the British Prime Minister through most of World War 2, was a strong critic of the effects Islam had on its believers. He stated in his 1899 book "The River War" [17]: Churchill redirects here. ... The River War: An Account of the Reconquest of the Sudan was a 1899 book written by Winston Churchill while he was still an officer in the British army, a first-hand account of the conquest of the Sudan by the English-Egyptian force under Lord Kitchener. ...

How dreadful are the curses which Mohammedanism lays on its votaries! Besides the fanatical frenzy, which is as dangerous in a man as hydrophobia in a dog, there is this fearful fatalistic apathy. The effects are apparent in many countries. Improvident habits, slovenly systems of agriculture, sluggish methods of commerce, and insecurity of property exist wherever the followers of the Prophet rule or live. A degraded sensualism deprives this life of its grace and refinement; the next of its dignity and sanctity. The fact that in Mohammedan law every woman must belong to some man as his absolute property, either as a child, a wife, or a concubine, must delay the final extinction of slavery until the faith of Islam has ceased to be a great power among men. Thousands become the brave and loyal soldiers of the Queen: all know how to die but the influence of the religion paralyses the social development of those who follow it. No stronger retrograde force exists in the world. Far from being moribund, Mohammedanism is a militant and proselytizing faith. It has already spread throughout Central Africa, raising fearless warriors at every step; and were it not that Christianity is sheltered in the strong arms of science, the science against which it had vainly struggled, the civilisation of modern Europe might fall, as fell the civilisation of ancient Rome.

Contemporary critics of Islam

Notable contemporary critics include:

Several scholars do not self-identify as critics of Islam but are not afraid to criticise some of its aspects: Robert Bruce Spencer (born 1962) is an American writer on Islam. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... Terrorist redirects here. ... Jihad Watch Logo Jihad Watch is a website and blog hosted by American author and pundit Robert Spencer which provides news, commentary, tracking and analysis of worldwide Militant Islam activity. ... This article is about political Islam For the religion of Islam, see Islam. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... For other uses, see Jihad (disambiguation). ... Daniel Pipes in Copenhagen Daniel Pipes (born September 9, 1949) is an American historian and analyst who specializes in the Middle East. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... Bat Yeor (Hebrew: בת יאור) (meaning daughter of the Nile in Hebrew; a pseudonym of Gisèle Littman, née Orebi) is a controversial British writer specializing in the history of non-Muslims in the Middle East, and in particular the history of Christian and Jewish dhimmis living under Islamic governments. ... This article is about the occupation of studying history. ... A scholar is either a student or someone who has achieved a mastery of some academic discipline, perhaps receiving financial support through a scholarship. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... For other uses, see Christian (disambiguation). ... The word Jew ( Hebrew: יהודי) is used in a wide number of ways, but generally refers to a follower of the Jewish faith, a child of a Jewish mother, or someone of Jewish descent with a connection to Jewish culture or ethnicity and often a combination... A Dhimmi, or Zimmi (Arabic ذمّي), as defined in classical Islamic legal and political literature, is a person living in a Muslim state who is a member of an officially tolerated non-Muslim religion. ... Sir Vidiadhar Surajprasad Naipaul, KB, TC (b. ... The Nobel Prize (Swedish: ) was established in Alfred Nobels will in 1895, and it was first awarded in Physics, Chemistry, Physiology or Medicine, Literature, and Peace in 1901. ... For other uses, see Trinidad (disambiguation). ... This article discusses the adherents of Hinduism. ... Brigitte Gabriel Brigitte Gabriel is a Lebanese American journalist, author and activist. ... American Congress for Truth (ACT) is a non-profit organization. ... Because They Hate: A Survivor of Islamic Terror Warns America Because They Hate: A Survivor of Islamic Terror Warns America is a book by Lebanese journalist and American Congress For Truth founder Brigitte Gabriel. ... Oriana Fallaci Oriana Fallaci (born July 29, 1930) is an Italian journalist , author, and political interviewer. ... Photograph of the cover of the US edition of The Rage and the Pride The Rage and the Pride (La Rabbia e l’Orgoglio in Italian) is a book written in the wake of the September 11, 2001 attacks by Italian journalist and author Oriana Fallaci, which condemns Islam as... The Force of Reason (La forza della ragione) is a book by renowned Italian author Oriana Fallaci. ...

  • Bernard Lewis holds that unbelievers, slaves, and women are considered fundamentally inferior to other groups of people under Islamic law. He does write that even the equality of free adult male Muslims represented a very considerable advance on the practice of both the Greco-Roman and the ancient Iranian world.[24][25]
  • John Esposito has written many introductory texts on Islam and the Islamic world. For example, he has addressed issues like the rise of militant Islam, the veiling of women, and democracy.[26][27] Esposito emphatically argues against what he calls the "pan-Islamic myth". He thinks that "too often coverage of Islam and the Muslim world assumes the existence of a monolithic Islam in which all Muslims are the same." To him, such a view is naive and unjustifiably obscures important divisions and differences in the Muslim world.[28]
  • Patricia Crone, is a scholar, author and historian of early Islamic history working at the Institute for Advanced Study. She co-authored the controversial Hagarism: The Making of the Islamic World, a book that researched the early history of Islam, coming to conclusions at variance with the traditional view.

For the founder of the River Island retail chain, see Bernard Lewis (entrepreneur). ... Wiktionary has related dictionary definitions, such as: slave Slave may refer to: Slavery, where people are owned by others, and live to serve their owners without pay Slave (BDSM), a form of sexual and consenual submission Slave clock, in technology, a clock or timer that synchrnonizes to a master clock... Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... For the pianist named John Esposito, see John Esposito (pianist). ... Patricia Crone, Ph. ... A scholar is either a student or someone who has achieved a mastery of some academic discipline, perhaps receiving financial support through a scholarship. ... For other uses, see Author (disambiguation). ... The historiography of early Islam is the study of how various historians have treated the events of the first two centuries of Islamic history. ... The Institute for Advanced Study is a private institution in Princeton Township, New Jersey, designed to foster pure cutting-edge research by scientists in a variety of fields without the complications of teaching or funding, or the agendas of sponsorship. ...

Atheists

Clinton Richard Dawkins, FRS (born March 26, 1941) is a British ethologist, evolutionary biologist and popular science writer who holds the Charles Simonyi Chair for the Public Understanding of Science at the University of Oxford. ... Antireligion is opposition to some or all religions in some or all contexts. ... “Atheist” redirects here. ... Secular humanism is a humanist philosophy that upholds reason, ethics, and justice, and specifically rejects the supernatural and the spiritual as warrants of moral reflection and decision-making. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Symbol of the brights The brights movement was started by Paul Geisert and Mynga Futrell in 2003 to provide a positive-sounding umbrella term, bright, to describe various types of people who have a naturalistic worldview, without casting that worldview as a negative response to religion (as the terms atheist... For other persons named Sam Harris, see Sam Harris (disambiguation). ... Sam Harris began writing The End of Faith in what he has described as a period of collective grief and stupefaction following the September 11, 2001 attacks. ... Christopher Eric Hitchens (born April 13, 1949) is a British-American author, journalist and literary critic. ... This article is about the term Islamofascism; See the broader treatment of possible relations between religion and fascism in Clerical fascism and Neofascism and religion. ... Richard Carrier Richard Carrier M.A., M.Phil. ... Internet Infidels, Inc. ...

Evangelical Christians

  • Pat Robertson who expresses the view that "Islam wants to take over the world and is not a religion of peace", and that radical Muslims are "satanic", and that Osama Bin Laden was a "true follower of Muhammad".[34][35]
  • Jerry Falwell, another American conservative Baptist minister, characterized the prophet Muhammad as being a 'terrorist'.[36]
  • Franklin Graham who described Islam as an 'evil and wicked religion' and suggested that those who believed Islam to be "wonderful" should "go and live under the Taliban somewhere".[37]

Marion Gordon Pat Robertson (born March 22, 1930) is a televangelist from the United States. ... The Religion of Peace (sometimes abbreviated as ROP or RoP) is a political neologism used to describe Islam. ... Osama bin Muhammad bin Awad bin Laden (Arabic: ‎; born March 10, 1957[1]), most often mentioned as Osama bin Laden or Usama bin Laden, is a Saudi Arabian militant Islamist and is widely believed to be one of the founders of the organization called al-Qaeda. ... This article is about Jerry Falwell, Sr. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Baptist is... William Franklin Graham III (born July 14, 1952), known publicly as Franklin Graham, is an American Christian evangelist and missionary. ... The Taliban (Pashto: , also anglicized as Taleban) are a Sunni Muslim and ethnic Pashtun movement [2] that ruled most of Afghanistan from 1996 until 2001, when their leaders were removed from power by a cooperative military effort between the Northern Alliance, United States, Canada, Australia and the United Kingdom. ...

Former Muslims

There are also outspoken former Muslims who believe that Islam is the primary cause for what they see as the mistreatment of minority groups in Muslim countries and communities. Almost all of them now live in the West, many under assumed names because of a legitimate danger to themselves. Many have had death threats made against them by Islamic groups and individuals.

  • Salman Rushdie author of The Satanic Verses.
  • Ayaan Hirsi Ali, who has focused on the plight of Muslim women, saying that "they aspire to live by their faith as best they can, but their faith robs them of their rights."[38]
  • Nyamko Sabuni, who is the Minister of Integration and Gender Equality in Sweden and advocates banning the veil and instituting compulsory gynecological examinations for schoolgirls to guard against female genital mutilation, stating, "I will never accept that women and girls are oppressed in the name of religion" and declaring it not her intent to reform Islam but only to denounce "unacceptable" practices. She has received death threats, requiring 24-hour police protection, for her views.[39]
  • Ali Sina The founder of Faith Freedom International.
  • Ibn Warraq a secularist author, intellectual, scholar and founder of the Institute for the Secularisation of Islamic Society and a senior research fellow at the Center for Inquiry[40][41][42] specializing in Koranic criticism.[43][44]
  • Nonie Darwish, who founded the pro-Israel web site Arabs for Israel and stated that "Islam is more than a religion, it is a totalitarian state"[45] She is also the author of Now They Call Me Infidel: Why I Renounced Jihad for America, Israel, and the War on Terror.

Sir Ahmed Salman Rushdie (Devanagari : अहमद सलमान रश्दी Nastaliq:; born 19 June 1947) is an Indian-British novelist and essayist. ... For the verses known as Satanic Verses, see Satanic Verses. ... Ayaan Hirsi Ali, MA ( ; Somali: ; born Ayaan Hirsi Magan 13 November 1969[2] in Mogadishu, Somalia) is a Dutch feminist and political writer, daughter of the Somali scholar, politician, and revolutionary opposition leader Hirsi Magan Isse. ... Nyamko Sabuni Nyamko Ana Sabuni (born 31 March 1969 in Burundi) is the Swedish Minister for Integration and Equality. ... The Ministry of Integration and Gender Equality (Swedish: ) is a ministry of the Government Offices of Sweden. ... Female circumcision (including excision) loosely refers to a number of procedures performed on the female genitalia and which are generally of a cultural, rather than medical, nature. ... Ali Sina may refer to: Abu Ali Ibn Sina (Avicenna), Persian philosopher, physician, and scientist Bu-Ali Sina University, university in the city of Hamedan in Hamedan province of Iran. ... Ali Sina redirects here, as it is the name the founder of Faith Freedom International uses. ... Ibn Warraq is the pen name of an author of several books on Islam. ... This article concerns secularism, the exclusion of religion and supernatural beliefs. ... The Institute for the Secularisation of Islamic Society (ISIS) is an organization of scholars and writers that promotes the ideas of rationalism, secularism, democracy and human rights within Islamic society. ... <drini ☎> 14:27, 15 August 2005 (UTC) Categories: Possible copyright violations ... Nonie Darwish (Arabic: نوني درويش) (born 1948[1]) is an Arab-American writer and public speaker. ... Nonie Darwish is a freelance writer for the online journal, , edited by David Horowitz. ...

Muslims

  • Irshad Manji, a Canadian journalist and author of The Trouble with Islam.[46]
  • Wafa Sultan, who has pointed out that the prophet of Islam said: "I was ordered to fight the people until they believe in Allah and his Messenger." Sultan has called on Islamic teachers to review their writings and teachings and remove every call to fight people who do not believe as Muslims.[47] Dr. Sultan is now in hiding, fearing for her life and the safety of her family after appearing on the al-Jazeera TV show.[48]
  • Ahmed H. al-Rahim, founder of American Islamic Congress, who says that the Mosques in America are teaching values of hate and not peace.[49]

Irshad Manji (born 1968) is a Canadian Muslim feminist, author, journalist, and activist. ... Original cover of The Trouble with Islam The Trouble with Islam, published in some editions as The Trouble with Islam Today , is a 2004 book critical of Islam written by Irshad Manji, in which she writes: The Trouble with Islam is an open letter from me, a Muslim voice of... Wafa Sultan on Al Jazeera February 2006. ... Prophets of Islam are male human beings who are regarded by Muslims to be prophets chosen by God. ... Al Jazeera logo Al Jazeera (&#1575;&#1604;&#1580;&#1586;&#1610;&#1585;&#1577;), meaning The Island or The (Arabian) Peninsula (whence also Algiers) is an Arabic television channel based in Qatar. ... Ahmed is a founding member of the American Islamic Congress, an organization which was formed after September 11th, in the belief that American Muslims should play a leading role in rejecting the Muslim extremism and promoting a democratic future in the Muslim world. ... The American Islamic Congress (AIC) is a 501(c)(3) non-profit organization based in the United States. ...

Responses to criticism of Islam

Responses from contemporary non-Muslim scholars

Responses to criticism of Islam has come from non-Muslim scholars like:

  • William Montgomery Watt who in his book Muhammad: Prophet and Statesman addresses Muhammad’s alleged moral failures. He claims that “Of all the world's great men none has been so much maligned as Muhammad.” Watt argues on a basis of moral relativism that Muhammad should be judged by the standards of his own time and country rather than "by those of the most enlightened opinion in the West today."[50]
  • Karen Armstrong, tracing what she believes to be the West's long history of hostility toward Islam, finds in Muhammad’s teachings a theology of peace and tolerance. Armstrong holds that the "holy war" urged by the Qur'an alludes to each Muslim's duty to fight for a just, decent society.[51]
  • Edward Said, in his essay Islam Through Western Eyes, stated that the general basis of Orientalist thought forms a study structure in which Islam is placed in an inferior position as an object of study. He claims the existence of a very considerable bias in Orientalist writings as a consequence of the scholars' cultural make-up. He claims Islam has been looked at with a particular hostility and fear due to many obvious religious, psychological and political reasons, all deriving from a sense "that so far as the West is concerned, Islam represents not only a formidable competitor but also a late-coming challenge to Christianity."[52]
  • Cathy Young of Reason Magazine claimed that the growing trend of anti-Islamic and anti-Muslim sentiment stemmed from an atmosphere where such criticism is popular. While stating that the terms "Islamophobia" and "anti-Muslim bigotry" are often used in response to legitimate criticism of fundamentalist Islam and problems within Muslim culture, she claimed "the real thing does exist, and it frequently takes the cover of anti-jihadism."[53]

William Montgomery Watt is a English Islamic scholar. ... In philosophy, moral relativism is the position that moral or ethical propositions do not reflect objective and/or universal moral truths, but instead make claims relative to social, cultural, historical or personal circumstances. ... Karen Armstrong (b. ... Edward Wadie Saïd, Arabic: , , (1 November 1935 – 25 September 2003) was a Palestinian-American literary theorist and Palestinian activist. ... Orientalism is the study of Near and Far Eastern societies and cultures, by Westerners. ...

Responses from contemporary Muslim scholars

The following Muslim Scholars have written responses to criticism of Islam:

Mirza Ghulam Ahmad Mirza Ghulam Ahmad of Qadian (مرزا غلام احمد) (February 13, 1835 - May 26, 1908 corresponding to Shawal 14, 1250 AH - Rabi al-thani 24 1326 AH). ... Ahmadi Muslims are followers of Mirza Ghulam Ahmad. ... Shaikh Yusuf Estes Yusuf Estes, PhD. (born 1944), is an American convert to Islam and Chairman of the Muslim Foundation International, which is an Islamic Promotional and Missionary Organization dedicated to spreading the message of al-Islam according to the Quran, Sunnah. ... Zakir Abdul Karim Naik (born October 18, 1965) is an Indian public speaker, debater and writer on the subject of Islam and comparative religion. ... The Islamic Research Foundation (IRF), located in Mumbai (also know as Bombay), India, is a registered non-profit public charitable trust. ... Yusuf al-Qaradawi (Arabic: يوسف القرضاوي), (born September 9, 1926) is an Egyptian Muslim scholar and preacher best known for his popular al Jazeera program, ash-Shariah wal-Hayat (Shariah and Life), and IslamOnline (a website that he helped to found in 1997), where he offers opinions and religious edicts (fatwa) based... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... This is a list of Muslim scholars, divided according to fields of study. ... Al Jazeera logo Al Jazeera (&#1575;&#1604;&#1580;&#1586;&#1610;&#1585;&#1577;), meaning The Island or The (Arabian) Peninsula (whence also Algiers) is an Arabic television channel based in Qatar. ... Sharia (Arabic &#1588;&#1585;&#1610;&#1593;&#1577; also Sharia, Shariah or Syariah) is traditional Islamic law. ... Islamonline. ... For the band, see 1997 (band). ... A fatwā (Arabic: ; plural fatāwā Arabic: ), is a considered opinion in Islam made by a mufti, a scholar capable of issuing judgments on Sharia (Islamic law). ... The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ... The Lawful and the Prohibited in Islam is a book by Islamic scholar Yusuf al-Qaradawi [1]. Publishers forword: List of Sunni books Prose contains specific citations in source text which may be viewed in edit mode. ... Michael A. Sells is currently the John Henry Barrows Professor of Islamic History and Literature at the Divinity School of the University of Chicago. ... The University of Chicago Divinity School is a graduate institution at the University of Chicago dedicated to the training of academics and clergy across religious boundaries. ... For other uses, see University of Chicago (disambiguation). ... Dr. M. A. Muqtedar Khan (b. ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ...

Criticism of the truth of Islam

Reliability of the Qur'an

See also: Historicity_of_Muhammad#Historical_Authenticity_of_the_Qur'an
See also: Origin and development of the Qur'an
An extract of a page from the Sana'a manuscripts the oldest known copy of the Qur'an. This version contains differences from the traditional version.

Muslims believe the Qur'an to be the perfect word of Allah, and as such it cannot contain any errors or contradictions, and must be perfectly compatible with science. It is so perfect that readers must conclude it is of divine, rather than human, origin. Muslims believe that the Quran is the literal word of God (Allah) as recited to Muhammad through the Angel Gabriel. ... The historicity of Muhammad concerns the historical authenticity of Muhammad. ... The study of the origins and development of the Qur’an can be said to fall into two major schools of thought, the first being a traditionalist Muslim pious view which argues that the Quran is a religious text revealed by Allah to Muhammad, this assertion to be taken... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 400 × 600 pixelsFull resolution‎ (600 × 900 pixels, file size: 131 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) This page has probably been written by two different copyists as the script in the first half is different from the second. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 400 × 600 pixelsFull resolution‎ (600 × 900 pixels, file size: 131 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) This page has probably been written by two different copyists as the script in the first half is different from the second. ... An extract of a page from the Quran found at the site In 1972 a large collection of many manuscripts was found in an ancient mosque in the Yemen. ...


Critics argue that:

  • the Qur'an does have scientific errors.[56][57]
  • the Qur'an contains numerous verses which contradict each other.[58][59]
  • the Qur'an gets cosmology predictably wrong.[33]
  • there is nothing miraculously new in the Qur'an[33]
  • the Qur'an is not original, but a rather shows the influence of Zoroastrianism, Judaism, Sabianism, and Samaritanism in its origins. S Zwemer concluded the Qur'an
is not an invention, but a concoction; there is nothing novel about it except the genius of Mohammad in mixing old ingredients into a new panacea for human ills and forcing it down by means of the sword[60]
  • The oldest known copies of the Qur'an (the Sana'a manuscripts, found in Yemen in 1972) [61] contain minor differences from the traditional version.[62] Critics believe that this implies that the Qur'an has changed over time.[63]
  • The traditional account of the history of Islam says there were two verses in the Qur'an (known as the Satanic Verses) that were allegedly added by Mohammad when he was tricked by Satan. These verses refered to "daughters of Allah". These verses were later removed from the Qur'an.[64][50] Supposedly, Allah guarantees that any errors will eventually be corrected.

Zoroastrianism is the religion and philosophy based on the teachings ascribed to the prophet Zoroaster (Zarathustra, Zartosht). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Not to be confused with Sabian, the Canadian cymbal manufacturing company; Sabaeans, an ancient people living in what is now Yemen; Sabbateans, followers of Sabbatai Zevi; or Sabines, a pre-Roman Italic tribe of Latium. ... Main article: Samaritan Samaritanism is the religion practiced by the Samaritan people. ... An extract of a page from the Quran found at the site In 1972 a large collection of many manuscripts was found in an ancient mosque in the Yemen. ... For the novel by Salman Rushdie, see The Satanic Verses. ... For other people named Muhammad, see Muhammad (disambiguation). ...

Reliability of hadith

Main article: Hadith

Hadith are Muslim traditions relating to the Sunna (words and deeds) of Muhammad. They are drawn from the writings of scholars writing between 844 and 874 CE, more than 200 years after the death of Mohammed in 632 AD.[65] In general, for Muslims the hadith are second only to the Qur'an in importance,[66] although some scholars put more emphasis on the perpetual adherence of Muslim nation to the traditions to give them credibility, and not solely on hadith.[67]. Most of our knowledge about the life of Muhammad comes from the hadith, many of which were biographies of Mohammed. Many Islamic practices (such as the Pillars of Islam) are drawn from the hadith. Hadith ( transliteration: ) are oral traditions relating to the words and deeds of Prophet Muhammad. ... Hadith ( transliteration: ) are oral traditions relating to the words and deeds of Prophet Muhammad. ... Sunna can refer to: Sunna, a female Viking name[]. A number of English place names are derived from this name including Sonning (historically spelled Sunning), Sonning Eye, Sunbury, Sunningdale, Sunninghill and Sunningwell, many close to the River Thames. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The religion of Islam consists of faith (&#1573;&#1610;&#1605;&#1575;&#1606;, &#299;m&#257;n) and practice (&#1583;&#1610;&#1606;, d&#299;n). ...


However, there is criticism of the historical reliability of hadith. John Esposito notes that "Modern Western scholarship has seriously questioned the historicity and authenticity of the hadith", maintaining that "the bulk of traditions attributed to the Prophet Muhammad were actually written much later." He mentions Joseph Schacht as one scholar who argues this, claiming that Schacht "found no evidence of legal traditions before 722," from which Schacht concluded that "the Sunna of the Prophet is not the words and deeds of the Prophet, but apocryphal material" dating from later.[68] For the pianist named John Esposito, see John Esposito (pianist). ... Joseph Schacht (1902-1969), Schact was professor of Arabic and Islamics at Columbia University in New York. ...


Other Western scholars, like Wilferd Madelung, are more confident in the reliability of Islamic traditions, rejecting the stance of some historians who show an "extreme distrust" for "Muslim literary sources for the early age of Islam". Madelung wrote in the preface of his book The Succession to Muhammad: Wilferd Madelung is the Laudian Professor of Arabic at the University of Oxford. ... The Succession to Muhammad is a book writen by Wilferd Madelung and released by the Cambridge University Press in 1997. ...

Work with the narrative sources, both those that have been available to historians for a long time and others which have been published recently, made it plain that their wholesale rejection as late fiction is unjustified and that with a judicious use of them a much more reliable and accurate portrait of the period can be drawn than has so far been realized.[69]

Within Islam, different schools and sects have different opinions on the proper selection and use of hadith. The four schools of Sunni Islam all consider hadith second only to the Qur'an, although they differ on how much freedom of interpretation should be allowed to legal scholars.[70] Shi'i scholars disagree with Sunni scholars as to which hadith should be considered reliable. The Shi'as accept the Sunna of Ali and the Imams as authoritative in addition to the Sunna of Muhammad, and as a consequence they maintain their own, different, collections of hadith.[71]


On the extreme end, there have been Muslims who deny the authority of the hadith completely or almost completely (manifestations of which have sometimes been termed the Quran-only movement). Early in Islamic history there was a school of thought that adhered to this view, but it receded in importance after coming under criticism by al-Shafi'i. Daniel Brown describes a modern anti-hadith movement that reached its peak in the 1950s and 1960s, but is now in decline.[72] The Submitters movement today holds to a Quran-only view,[73] although they are considered heretical by more traditionalist Muslims.[74] Quran alone Muslims are those Muslims who reject hadith, or recorded Islamic traditions, and claim to follow the Quran, Islams sacred text, without any further human additions. ... This article or section seems not to be written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia entry. ... Daniel Brown (born 12th September 1980) is an English footballer currently playing for Cambridge United in the Nationwide Conference. ... The United Submitters International (USI) is a religious group, founded by Rashad Khalifa. ...


Lack of secondary evidence

See also: Historiography of early Islam

The traditional view of Islam has also been criticised for the lack of supporting evidence consistent with that view, such as the lack of archaeological evidence, and discrepancies with non-Muslim literary sources.[75] (see Hagarism) The historiography of early Islam is the study of how various historians have treated the events of the first two centuries of Islamic history. ... Hagarism: The Making of the Islamic World, 1977, is a book by scholars and historiographers of early Islam Patricia Crone and Michael Cook. ...


Criticism of the morality of Islam

Criticism of the morality of Muhammad

Main article: Criticism of Muhammad

Muslims consider Muhammad to be the final prophet, the messenger of the final revelation that he called the Qur’an. Muslims believe that Muhammad is righteous, holy, no more than a messenger, a warner and seal of Prophets. However, some scholars such as Koelle and Ibn Warraq, as well as some other non-Muslims, see some of his actions as immoral.[5][7] Islamic scholars, such as William Montgomery Watt disagree, especially when a comparison is made between Muhammad and Biblical prophets. Watt, for example, argues that Muhammad should be judged by the standards of his own time and country rather than "by those of the most enlightened opinion in the West today." This is a sub-article to Criticism of Islam. ... Muhammad in a new genre of Islamic calligraphy started in the 17th century by Hafiz Osman. ... The Quran (Arabic: al-qurān literally the recitation; also called Al Qurān Al KarÄ«m or The Noble Quran; or transliterated Quran, Koran, and less commonly Alcoran) is the holy book of Islam. ... Ibn Warraq is the pen name of an author of several books on Islam. ... William Montgomery Watt is a English Islamic scholar. ...


Criticism of the morality of the Qur'an

Muslims believe that the Qur'an is the literal word of God as recited to Muhammad through the Angel Gabriel. Criticism of the Qur'an generally consists of questioning traditional claims about the Qur'an's composition and content. Muslims believe that the Quran is the literal word of God (Allah) as recited to Muhammad through the Angel Gabriel. ... The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ... This article is about the archangel Gabriel. ...


It is a central tenet of Islam that the Qur'an is perfect, so criticism of the Qur'an is considered criticism of Islam. The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ...


This is a list of critical arguments:

  • Critics argue that the Quranic verse [Qur'an 4:34] allows Muslim men to beat their wives[76][77]
  • Critics claim that because violence is implicit in the Qur'anic text, Islam itself, not just Islamism, promotes terrorism.
  • The Quran is criticized for advocating the death penalty[78][79] or other harsh punishments, for acts like homosexuality,[80] adultery,[81] and theft.[82]
  • There is much criticism of the Qur'an on its position on slavery, since it specifically allows the practice.[83]
  • Some critics argue that the Qur'an is incompatible with other religious scriptures, attacks and advocates hate against people of other religions.[8][84][85][86][87]

The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ... This article is about political Islam For the religion of Islam, see Islam. ... This article contains information that has not been verified and thus might not be reliable. ... Capital punishment, or the death penalty, is the execution of a convicted criminal by the state as punishment for crimes known as capital crimes or capital offences. ... For age-structured homosexuality, see Pederasty in the Middle East Islamic views on homosexuality are as varied as those of most other major religions and have changed throughout history. ... This article is about the act of adultery. ... A young waif steals a pair of boots Stealing redirects here. ... 13th century slave market in Yemen The major juristic schools of Islam traditionally accepted the institution of slavery. ...

Human Rights: Apostasy

Decision of a Fatwa committee on the case of a convert to Christianity: "Since he left Islam, he will be invited to express his regret. If he does not regret, he will be killed pertaining to rights and obligations of the Islamic law."
Decision of a Fatwa committee on the case of a convert to Christianity: "Since he left Islam, he will be invited to express his regret. If he does not regret, he will be killed pertaining to rights and obligations of the Islamic law."
Main article: Apostasy in Islam

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (942x717, 87 KB) Popis Author: Orientalist Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: Apostasy in Islam ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (942x717, 87 KB) Popis Author: Orientalist Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: Apostasy in Islam ... A fatwā (Arabic: ; plural fatāwā Arabic: ), is a considered opinion in Islam made by a mufti, a scholar capable of issuing judgments on Sharia (Islamic law). ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is... Apostasy in Islam (Arabic: ارتداد, irtidād or ridda) is commonly defined as the rejection of Islam in word or deed by a person who has been a Muslim. ...

Apostasy in Islamic law

Bernard Lewis summarizes: For the founder of the River Island retail chain, see Bernard Lewis (entrepreneur). ...

The penalty for apostasy, in Islamic law, is death. Islam is conceived as a polity, not just as a religious community. It follows therefore that apostasy is treason. It is a withdrawal, a denial of allegiance as well as of religious belief and loyalty. Any sustained and principled opposition to the existing regime or order almost inevitably involves such a withdrawal.[88]

The four Sunni schools of Islamic jurisprudence, as well as Shi'a scholars, agree that a sane adult male apostate must be executed. A female apostate may be put to death, according to the majority view, or imprisoned until she repents, according to others.[89] Sunni Islam (Arabic &#1587;&#1606;&#1617;&#1577;) is the largest denomination of Islam. ... Shia Islam ( Arabic &#1588;&#1610;&#1593;&#1609; follower; English has traditionally used Shiite or Shiite) is the second largest Islamic denomination; some 20-25% of all Muslims are said to follow a Shia tradition. ...


The Qur'an threatens apostate with punishment in the next world only, the historian W. Heffening states, the traditions however contain the element of death penalty. Muslim scholar Shafi'i interprets verse [Qur'an 2:217] as adducing the main evidence for the death penalty in Qur'an.[90] The historian Wael Hallaq states the later addition of death penalty was "reflects a later reality and does not stand in accord with the deeds of the Prophet." He further states that "nothing in the law governing apostate and apostasy derives from the letter of the holy text."[91] The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ...


William Montgomery Watt, in an interview in response to a question about westerns view of the Islamic Law as being cruel, states that "In Islamic teaching, such penalties may have been suitable for the age in which Muhammad lived. However, as societies have since progressed and become more peaceful and ordered, they are not suitable any longer."[92] William Montgomery Watt is a English Islamic scholar. ...


Some contemporary Islamic jurists from both the Sunni and Shi'a denominations together with Qur'an only Muslims have argued or issued fatwas that state that either the changing of religion is not punishable or is only punishable under restricted circumstances.[93][94][95][96][97][98][99][100] For example, Grand Ayatollah Hossein-Ali Montazeri argues that no Qur'anic verse prescribes an earthly penalty for apostasy and adds that it is not improbable that the punishment was prescribed by Muhammad at early Islam due to political conspiracies against Islam and Muslims and not only because of changing the belief or expressing it. Montazeri defines different types of apostasy. He does not hold that a reversion of belief because of investigation and research is punishable by death but prescribes capital punishment for a desertion of Islam out of malice and enmity towards the Muslim.[101] Quran alone Muslims or Quranic Muslims are those Muslims who reject hadith and abrogation of Quranic verses, or recorded Islamic traditions, and follow the Quran, Islams sacred text, without any further additions. ... A fatwā (Arabic: ; plural fatāwā Arabic: ), is a considered opinion in Islam made by a mufti, a scholar capable of issuing judgments on Sharia (Islamic law). ... Grand Ayatollah Hossein Ali Montazeri (Persian: حسین علی منتظری), styled His Honourable Eminence, (born in 1922), was one of the leaders of the Islamic Revolution in Iran. ...


Contemporary treatment of accused apostates

Today, out of 57 mostly Islamic countries in OIC, five make apostasy from Islam a crime punishable by death: Afghanistan: Saudi Arabia: Iran: Sudan and Yemen. According the US State Department, there have been no reports any executions carried out by the government of Saudi Arabia for several years.[102] On the other hand, in Pakistan, vigilante attacks against alleged apostates are common.[103] OIC may stand for: Organization of the Islamic Conference Office of Independent Council Office of Internal Communications Office of the Information Commissioner In Internet slang Oh, I see - also popular, in same usage, as comedic element from a scene in Disneys animated movie version of Tarzan. ...


Abdul Rahman

The recent case of Afghan Abdul Rahman has achieved particular notoriety. In early 2006 , Rahman was arrested and held by Afghan authorities on charges that he converted from Islam to Christianity, a capital offense in Afghanistan. Many Muslim clerics in the country pushed for a death sentence, but after international pressure (including a public statement by U.S. Secretary of State at the time Condoleezza Rice) he was released and secretly given asylum in Italy.[104][105] Abdul Rahman (Persian: ) (born 1965) is an Afghan citizen who was arrested in February 2006 and threatened with the death penalty for Apostasy from Islam when he converted to Christianity. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is... Condoleezza Rice (born November 14, 1954) is the 66th United States Secretary of State, and the second in the administration of President George W. Bush to hold the office. ...


Nasr Abu Zayd

In 1993, an Egyptian professor named Nasr Abu Zayd was divorced from his wife by an Egyptian court run by Islamic radicals on the grounds that his controversial writings about the Qur'an demonstrated his apostasy. He subsequently fled to Europe with his wife.[106] Another Egyptian professor, Farag Fuda, was killed in 1992 by masked men after criticizing Muslim fundamentalists and announcing plans to form a new movement for Egyptians of all religions.[107] Professor Nasr Hamid Abu Zayd (in Arabic: ) was born in Tanta, Egypt on October 7, 1943 and currently works and resides in The Netherlands. ...


Apostasy and Human Rights Conventions

Some widely held interpretations of Islam are inconsistent with Human Rights conventions that recognize the right to change religion.[108][109]


In particular article 18 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights [110] states: The Universal Declaration of Human Rights (abbreviated UDHR) is an advisory declaration adopted by the United Nations General Assembly (A/RES/217, 10 December 1948 at Palais de Chaillot, Paris). ...

Everyone has the right to freedom of thought, conscience and religion; this right includes freedom to change his religion or belief, and freedom, either alone or in community with others and in public or private, to manifest his religion or belief in teaching, practice, worship and observance.

To implement this, Article 18 (2) of the ICCPR states: The International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights is a United Nations treaty based on the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. ...

No one shall be subject to coercion which would impair his freedom to have or to adopt a religion of his choice.

The right for Muslims to change their religion is not afforded by the Iranian Shari'ah law, which specifically forbids it [111][109][108]


Muslim countries such as Sudan, Iran, and Saudi Arabia, have the death penalty for apostasy from Islam.[112]. Apostasy in Islam (Arabic: ارتداد, irtidād or ridda) is commonly defined as the rejection of Islam in word or deed by a person who has been a Muslim. ...


These countries have criticized the Universal Declaration of Human Rights for its perceived failure to take into account the cultural and religious context of non-Western countries. Occident redirects here. ...


In 1990 the Organization of Islamic Conference published a separate Cairo Declaration of Human Rights compliant with Shari'ah.[113]. Although granting many of the rights in the UN declaration, it does not grant Muslims the right to convert to other religions, and restricts freedom of speech to those expressions of it that are not in contravention of the Islamic law. The flag of the Organization of the Islamic Conference (OIC) The Organization of the Islamic Conference (OIC) is an inter-governmental organization with a Permanent Delegation to the United Nations. ... The Cairo Declaration of Human Rights was adopted on 5 August 1990 at the Nineteenth Islamic Conference of Foreign Ministers in Cairo. ... This article is about the general concept. ...


Sayyid Abul Ala Maududi, the founder of Jamaat-e-Islami.[114] write a book Human Rights in Islam[115], in which he argues that respect for human rights has always been enshrined in Sharia law (indeed that the roots of these rights are to be found in Islamic doctrine)[116] and criticizes Western notions that there is an inherent contradiction between the two.[117]. Western scholars have, for the most part, rejected Maududi's analysis.[118][119] [120] It has been suggested that Introduction of Islam (book) be merged into this article or section. ... Jamaat-e-Islami (Arabic: جماعتِ اسلامی, Islamic Assembly Jamaat, JI) is an Islamic political movement founded in Lahore by Syed Abul Ala Maududi on 26 August 1941. ... Human Rights in Islam is a book written by Sayyid Abul Ala Maududi. ... Human rights are rights which some hold to be inalienable and belonging to all humans. ... This article is about Islamic religious law. ...


Human Rights: Discrimination against women

Many have asserted that "women are not treated as equal members" of Muslim societies [10] and have criticized Islam for condoning this treatment.[11] The complex relationship between women and Islam is defined by both Islamic texts and the history and culture of the Muslim world. ...


Human Rights:Discrimination against non-Muslims

Muslims have been accused of interpreting the Qu'ran and Islamic teachings to justifying discrimination and voilence against non-Muslims.


Historical discrimination

Non-Muslims are called non-believers Kaffirs or Infidels in the Qu'ran[citation needed]. The Jizya or capitation tax was levied on non-Muslims in Islamic kingdoms. Non-Muslims were also prevented from practicing their faith openly.[citation needed] see Kaphir for more information, kaffir lime for the condiment, kafir for the Muslim equivalent of infidel, kephir for the fermented drink. ... An infidel (literally, one without faith) is one who doubts or rejects central tenets of a religion, especially those regarding its deities. ... In states ruled by Islamic law, jizya or jizyah (Arabic: جزْية; Ottoman Turkish: cizye) is a per capita tax imposed on able bodied non-Muslim men of military age. ...


Many places of worship, such as temples and churches, have been destroyed by Muslim armies.[citation needed] Notable examples are the Somnath Temple in Gujarat destroyed by Mahmoud Ghauri. Christian places of worship have also been converted into mosques, with Hagia Sophia in Istanbul being a notable example.[citation needed] The Somnath Temple located in the Prabhas Kshetra near Veraval in Saurashtra, on the western coast of Gujarat, India is one of the twelve Jyotirlings (golden lingas) symbols of the God Shiva. ... This article is for the Indian state. ... For other uses, see Hagia Sophia (disambiguation). ... Istanbul (Turkish: , Greek: , historically Byzantium and later Constantinople; see other names) is Turkeys most populous city, and its cultural and financial center. ...


Contempary Discrimination

In Saudi Arabia it is a crime to openly display or practice any religion other than Islam.


The terms "Islamic apartheid" and "Muslim apartheid" have been used to highlight alleged discrimination by religion as well as by gender.[121][122][123][124]


The gigantic Bamiyan Buddha statues were destroyed by the Taliban in 2001 on the pretext that they were no longer worshiped by anyone and hence not needed. Bamiyan province is one of the thirty_four provinces of Afghanistan. ...


Violence towards critics of Islam

Islam has been criticised as being intolerant and violent towards its critics.


Examples of violence towards of contemporary critics of Islam

  • Ibn Warraq has collected and published stories of the reported mistreatment of Muslim apostates at the hands of Islamic authorities.[6]
  • German professor Christoph Luxenberg feels compelled to work under a pseudonym to protect himself because of fears that a new book on the origins of the Qur'an may make him a target for violence.[125]
  • Hashem Aghajari, an Iranian university professor, was initially sentenced to death because of a speech that criticized some of the present Islamic practices in Iran being in contradiction with the original practices and ideology of Islam, and particularly for stating that Muslims were not "monkeys" and "should not blindly follow" the clerics. The sentence was later commuted to three years in jail, and he was released in 2004 after serving two years of that sentence.[126][127][128]
  • On September 30, 2005, the Danish newspaper Jyllands-Posten published editorial cartoons, many of which depicted the Islamic prophet Mohammed. The publication was intended to contribute to the debate regarding criticism of Islam and self-censorship - objectives which manifested themselves in the public outcry from Muslim communities within Denmark and the subsequent apology by the paper. However, the controversy deepened when further examples of the cartoons were reprinted in newspapers in more than fifty other countries. This led to protests across the Muslim world, some of which escalated into violence, including setting fire to the Norwegian and Danish Embassies in Syria, and the storming of European buildings and desecration of the Danish and German flags in Gaza City.[131]
  • On September 19, 2006 French writer and philosophy teacher Robert Redeker wrote an editorial for Le Figaro, a French conservative newspaper, in which he attacked Islam and Muhammad, writing: "Pitiless war leader, pillager, butcher of Jews and polygamous, this is how Mohammed is revealed by the Qur'an"; he received death threats and went into hiding.[132]

Ibn Warraq is the pen name of an author of several books on Islam. ... Christoph Luxenberg is the pseudonym of the author of the 2000 book Die Syro-Aramäische Lesart des Koran: Ein Beitrag zur Entschlüsselung der Koransprache (in English: The Syro-Aramaic reading of the Quran: a contribution to the decipherment of the Quranic language). ... Dr. Hashem Aghajari defending his speech in court. ... A fatwā (Arabic: ; plural fatāwā Arabic: ), is a considered opinion in Islam made by a mufti, a scholar capable of issuing judgments on Sharia (Islamic law). ... Sir Ahmed Salman Rushdie (Devanagari : अहमद सलमान रश्दी Nastaliq:; born 19 June 1947) is an Indian-British novelist and essayist. ... Taslima Nasrin, also known as Taslima Nasreen, (born 25 August 1962 in Mymensingh, Bangladesh) is a writer. ... is the 306th day of the year (307th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Theo (or Theodore or Theodorus) van Gogh may refer to one of the following members of the Dutch van Gogh family: Theodorus van Gogh (1822-1885), father of Vincent van Gogh Theo van Gogh (art dealer) (1857-1890), brother of Vincent van Gogh Theo van Gogh (film director) (1957-2004... Mohammed Bouyeri (Arabic: ) (born March 8, 1978 in Amsterdam), is serving a life sentence without parole for the murder of Dutch film director Theo van Gogh. ... Submission is a 10-minute film in English directed by Theo van Gogh and written by Ayaan Hirsi Ali, a former Liberal party member of the Lower House of the Netherlands Parliament. ... Ayaan Hirsi Ali, MA ( ; Somali: ; born Ayaan Hirsi Magan 13 November 1969[2] in Mogadishu, Somalia) is a Dutch feminist and political writer, daughter of the Somali scholar, politician, and revolutionary opposition leader Hirsi Magan Isse. ... is the 273rd day of the year (274th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Jyllands-Posten Muhammad cartoons controversy began after twelve editorial cartoons, most of which depicted the Islamic prophet Muhammad, were published in the Danish newspaper Jyllands-Posten on 30 September 2005. ... is the 262nd day of the year (263rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Philosophy (disambiguation). ... Robert Redeker is a French writer and philosophy teacher. ... Le Figaro (English: ) is one of the leading French morning daily newspapers. ...

Rise of fatwas

Critics of Islam are concerned about the rise in fatwas from Islamic leaders. Some fatwas are simple declarations about lifestyle choices and others, such as Osama bin Laden's declaration of war against America, are a call to violence or assassination. Some critics of fatwas are shocked by a recent call to destroy ancient Egyptian statues and artifacts. [14] A fatwā (Arabic: ; plural fatāwā Arabic: ), is a considered opinion in Islam made by a mufti, a scholar capable of issuing judgments on Sharia (Islamic law). ... Osama bin Laden wrote what is referred to as a fatwa in August 1996[1], and was one of several signatories of another and shorter fatwa in February of 1998[2]. Both documents appeared initially in the Arabic-language London newspaper Al-Quds Al-Arabi[1][2]. At the time...


Islam's influence on the ability of Muslim immigrants in the West to assimilate

The immigration of Muslims to European countries has increased greatly in recent decades, and frictions have developed between these new neighbors. Conservative Muslim social attitudes on modern issues have caused much controversy in Europe and elsewhere, and scholars argue about how much of these attitudes are a result of Islamic beliefs.[133] The 24-rule was introduced in Denmark, whereby a person must be over 24 years old to marry a foreign born individual. This law came into place to prevent Muslim arranged marriages.


Some critics say that Islam is incompatible with secular society,[12] and their criticism has been influenced by a stance against multiculturalism advocated by recent philosophers, closely linked to the heritage of New Philosophers. Fiery polemic on the subject by proponents like Pascal Bruckner,[134] and Paul Cliteur has kindled international debate.[135] They hold multiculturalism to be an invention of an enlightened elite who deny the benefits of democratic rights to the rest of humanity by chaining people to their roots. They claim this allows Islam free rein to propagate abuses such as the mistreatment of women and homosexuals, and in some countries slavery. They also claim multiculturalism allows freedom of religion[136] to exceed the realms of personal religious experience[137] and to organize towards mundane ambitions seeking moral and political influence that opposes European secular or Christian values. This tendency to focus criticism of Islam on politics and the non-European identity of its traditions triggered a new debate on Islamophobia.[133] The term multiculturalism generally refers to a state of both cultural and ethnic diversity within the demographics of a particular social space. ... The New Philosophers (French nouveaux philosophes) were a group of French philosophers (for example, André Glucksmann and Bernard Henri-Lévy) who appeared in the early 1970s, as critics of the previously-fashionable philosophers (roughly speaking, the post-structuralists). ... This article or section seems to contain too many quotations for an encyclopedia entry. ... For age-structured homosexuality, see Pederasty in the Middle East Islamic views on homosexuality are as varied as those of most other major religions and have changed throughout history. ... 13th century slave market in Yemen The major juristic schools of Islam traditionally accepted the institution of slavery. ... Islam as a political movement has a diverse character that has at different times incorporated elements of many other political movements, while simultaneously adapting the religious views of Islamic fundamentalism, particularly the view of Islam as a political religion. ... Islamophobia is a controversial[1][2] though increasingly accepted[3][4] term that refers to prejudice or discrimination against Islam or Muslims. ...


See also

Topics regarding Islam and controversy

Apostasy in Islam (Arabic: ارتداد, irtidād or ridda) is commonly defined as the rejection of Islam in word or deed by a person who has been a Muslim. ... Religious persecution is systematic mistreatment of an individual or group due to their religious affiliation. ... This article is about the relationship between Islam and antisemitism. ... This article contains information that has not been verified and thus might not be reliable. ... This article is about the term Islamofascism; See the broader treatment of possible relations between religion and fascism in Clerical fascism and Neofascism and religion. ... The Sudanese teddy bear blasphemy case concerns the arrest, conviction and subsequent release of a British schoolteacher working at Unity High School in Sudan. ... Islamophobia is a controversial[1][2] though increasingly accepted[3][4] term that refers to prejudice or discrimination against Islam or Muslims. ... The Jyllands-Posten Muhammad cartoons controversy began after twelve editorial cartoons, most of which depicted the Islamic prophet Muhammad, were published in the Danish newspaper Jyllands-Posten on 30 September 2005. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Conflicts between Muslims and non-Muslims made the persecution of both Muslims and non-Muslims a recurring phenomenon during the history of Islam. ... This article or section seems to contain too many quotations for an encyclopedia entry. ... Ali Sina redirects here, as it is the name the founder of Faith Freedom International uses. ...

Criticism of other beliefs

  • Criticism of atheism
  • Anti-Catholicism
  • Anti-clericalism
  • Anti-Judaism
  • Anti-Mormonism
  • Anti-Protestantism

The criticism of religion includes criticism of the concept of religion, the validity of religion, the practice of religion, and the consequences of religion for humanity. ... Throughout the history of Christianity, a wide range of Christians and non-Christians alike have offered criticisms of Christianity, the Church, and Christians themselves. ... Criticism of the Catholic Church subsumes critical observations made about the current or historical Roman Catholic Church, in its actions, teachings, omissions, structure, or nature; theological disagreements would be covered on a denominational basis. ... Criticism of Judaism has existed since Judaisms formative stages, as with many other religions, on philosophical, scientific, ethical, political and theological grounds. ... Life-size figure of Joseph Smith Criticism of Mormonism is the criticism of the Latter Day Saint movement, especially of the largest and most prominent group, The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (hereafter referred to as the LDS Church). ... This does not cite its references or sources. ... Criticism of atheism is made chiefly by theistic sources, though some forms of atheism also receive criticism from nontheistic sources. ... Anti-Catholicism is discrimination, hostility or prejudice directed at Catholics or the Catholic Church. ... Anti-clericalism is a historical movement that opposes religious (generally Catholic) institutional power and influence, real or imagined[1], in all aspects of public and political life, and the involvement of religion in the everyday life of the citizen. ... An example of state-sponsored atheist anti-Judaism. ... An anti-Mormon political cartoon from the late nineteenth century. ... Anti-Protestantism is an institutional, ideological or emotional bias against Protestantism and its followers. ...

References

  • Cohen, Mark R. (1995). Under Crescent and Cross. Princeton University Press; Reissue edition. ISBN 978-0691010823. 
  • Lockman, Zachary (2004). Contending Visions of the Middle East: The History and Politics of Orientalism. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0521629379. 
  • Rippin, Andrew (2001). Muslims: Their Religious Beliefs and Practices, 2nd, Routledge. ISBN 978-0415217811. 
  • Westerlund, David (2003). "Ahmed Deedat's Theology of Religion: Apologetics through Polemics". Journal of Religion in Africa 33 (3). >

For information on the fictional character Mark Cohen, see RENT Mark R. Cohen is a Professor of Near Eastern Studies at Princeton University. ... Andrew Rippin is Professor of History and Dean of Humanities at the University of Victoria, British Columbia, Canada. ...

Further reading

Robert Bruce Spencer (born 1962) is an American writer on Islam. ... The Politically Incorrect Guide to Islam (And the Crusades) is a book by best-selling author Robert Spencer, the director of Jihad Watch. ... Robert Bruce Spencer (born 1962) is an American writer on Islam. ... Onward Muslim Soldiers: How Jihad Still Threatens America and the West (ISBN#: 0895261006 is a topical nonfiction book by popular counter-terrorism author Robert Spencer, published in October 2003. ... Robert Bruce Spencer (born 1962) is an American writer on Islam. ... The Legacy of Jihad by Andrew G. Bostom The Legacy of Jihad is a book by Andrew Bostom. ... Andrew G. Bostom, MD, MS is an American scholar and Associate Professor of Medicine at Brown University Medical School. ... Bat Yeor (Hebrew: בת יאור) (meaning daughter of the Nile in Hebrew; a pseudonym of Gisèle Littman, née Orebi) is a controversial British writer specializing in the history of non-Muslims in the Middle East, and in particular the history of Christian and Jewish dhimmis living under Islamic governments. ... Bat Yeor (Hebrew: בת יאור) (meaning daughter of the Nile in Hebrew; a pseudonym of Gisèle Littman, née Orebi) is a controversial British writer specializing in the history of non-Muslims in the Middle East, and in particular the history of Christian and Jewish dhimmis living under Islamic governments. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... Victor Davis Hanson giving a lecture at Kenyon College. ... Gilles Kepel on a Frontline documentary Gilles Kepel is a prominent French scholar and analyst of the Islamic and the Arab world. ... The War for Muslim Minds is a 2004 book by French author and scholar Gilles Kepel and translation from the French of Fitna: guerre au coeur de lIslam. ... Gilles Kepel on a Frontline documentary Gilles Kepel is a prominent French scholar and analyst of the Islamic and the Arab world. ... Ibn Warraq is the pen name of an author of several books on Islam. ... Cover of Why I Am Not a Muslim Why I Am Not a Muslim, a book written by Ibn Warraq, is a critique of Islam and the Quran. ... Rebirth may refer the following spiritual/religious concepts: Reincarnation Buddhist Rebirth The experience of being born again in Christianity Rebirth may also refer to: Rebirth, an album by Pain Rebirth, an album by Jennifer Lopez Rebirth, an album by Gackt Rebirth, an album by Angra ReBirth RB-338, software synthesizer...

External links

Directories of sites critical of Islam

Christian academic sources

Jewish academic sources

Muslim responses to criticism

Notes

  1. ^ a b De Haeresibus by John of Damascus. See Migne. Patrologia Graeca, vol. 94, 1864, cols 763-73. An English translation by the Reverend John W Voorhis appeared in THE MOSLEM WORLD for October 1954, pp. 392-398.
  2. ^ a b Warraq, Ibn (2003). Leaving Islam: Apostates Speak Out. Prometheus Books, 67. ISBN 1-59102-068-9. 
  3. ^ a b Ibn Kammuna, Examination of the Three Faiths, trans. Moshe Perlmann (Berkeley and Los Angeles, 1971), pp. 148–49
  4. ^ a b The Mind of Maimonides, by David Novak, retrieved April 29, 2006
  5. ^ a b c d Mohammed and Mohammedanism, by Gabriel Oussani, Catholic Encyclopedia, retrieved April 16, 2006
  6. ^ a b Bostom, Andrew. "Islamic Apostates' Tales - A Review of Leaving Islam by Ibn Warraq", FrontPageMag, July 21, 2003. 
  7. ^ a b Ibn Warraq, The Quest for Historical Muhammad (Amherst, Mass.:Prometheus, 2000), 103.
  8. ^ a b Bible in Mohammedian Literature., by Kaufmann Kohler Duncan B. McDonald, Jewish Encyclopedia, retrieved April 22, 2006
  9. ^ Robert Spencer, "Islam Unveiled", pp. 22, 63, 2003, Encounter Books, ISBN 1-893554-77-5
  10. ^ a b http://www.freedomhouse.org/template.cfm?page=22&year=2005&country=6825. See also Timothy Garton Ash. "Islam in Europe", The New York Review of Books, 10-05-2006. 
  11. ^ a b Timothy Garton Ash. "Islam in Europe", The New York Review of Books, 10-05-2006. 
  12. ^ a b Tariq Modood (April 6, 2006). Multiculturalism, Muslims and Citizenship: A European Approach, 1st, Routledge, 29. ISBN 978-0415355155. 
  13. ^ The Muslim World, Volume XLI (1951), pages 88-99, [1]
  14. ^ Ibn Warraq. Why I Am Not a Muslim, p. 3. Prometheus Books, 1995. ISBN 0-87975-984-4
  15. ^ both in vol. 36 of the Tournai edition, pp. 231-442 and 443-500.
  16. ^ Why I am not a Muslim by Ibn Warraq, p35 [ISBN 1591020115]
  17. ^ Winston S. Churchill, from The River War, first edition, Vol. II, pages 248-50 (London: Longmans, Green & Co., 1899)
  18. ^ Bio from Jihadwatch.org.
  19. ^ Jula Duin ("Washington Times," October 30, 2002 State of 'dhimmitude' seen as threat to Christians, Jews Egyptian-born historian Bat Ye'or and her husband, David Littman, have been making the rounds of several campuses this month to lecture on "dhimmitude," a word she coined to describe the status of Christians and Jews under Islamic governments.
  20. ^ Daniel Pipes Miniatures : Views of the Islamic and Middle Eastern Politics pg 114 The scholar Bat Ye'or explains for non-Muslims that this has meant through history "war, dispossession, dhimmitude, slavery, and death."
  21. ^ Griffith, Sidney H. "The Decline of Eastern Christianity under Islam: From Jihad to Dhimmitude, Seventh-Twentieth Century by Bat Yeor, Miriam Kochan, David Littman", International Journal of Middle East Studies, Vol. 30, No. 4, November 1998, pp. 619-621
  22. ^ Gibbons, Fiachra. "VS Naipaul launches attack on Islam", The Guardian, October 4, 2001. 
  23. ^ "THE AGITATOR: Oriana Fallaci directs her fury toward Islam.", The Newyorker, May 29, 2005. 
  24. ^ Bernard Lewis, What Went Wrong?, p. 67, 2003, Harper Perennial, ISBN 0-06-051605-4
  25. ^ Lewis, Bernard. "Islamic Revolution", The New York Review of Books, January 21, 1998. 
  26. ^ Esposito, John L. (2002). What Everyone Needs to Know About Islam. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-515713-3. 
  27. ^ Esposito, John L. (2003). Unholy War: Terror in the Name of Islam. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-516886-0. 
  28. ^ Esposito, John L. (1999). The Islamic Threat: Myth or Reality?. Oxford University Press, 225-228. ISBN 0-19-513076-6. 
  29. ^ Hitchens, Christopher. God Is Not Great: How Religion Poisons Everything. Twelve, 5. ISBN 0-446-57980-7. 
  30. ^ Downey, Robert (1996-12-11). Article in Eastsideweek (title unknown). Eastsideweek. Retrieved on 2006-11-14.
  31. ^ Harris, Sam (2005). The End of Faith: Religion, Terror, and the Future of Reason. W. W. Norton; Reprint edition, 31, 149. ISBN 0-393-32765-5. 
  32. ^ The End of Faith" by Sam Harris p108 [ISBN 0-7432-6809-1]
  33. ^ a b c http://www.infidels.org/library/modern/richard_carrier/islam.html
  34. ^ "Evangelical broadcaster Pat Robertson calls radical Muslims 'satanic'", Associated Press, 2006-03-14. Retrieved on 2006-07-21. 
  35. ^ "Top US evangelist targets Islam", BBC News, 2006-03-14. Retrieved on 2006-07-21. 
  36. ^ "Jerry Falwell calls Islam's Prophet a "Terrorist"", Associated Press. Retrieved on 2006-07-21. 
  37. ^ "Franklin Graham: Islam Still Evil", Associated Press, 2006-03-16. Retrieved on 2006-07-21. 
  38. ^ Ayaan Hirsi Ali, "Unfree Under Islam", The Wall Street Journal, August 16, 2005, [2]
  39. ^ Charter, David (2007-05-21). Young, black, Swedish – the minister for controversy. The Times. Retrieved on 2007-11-25.
  40. ^ The spectator 3 October 2007 "The great Islamic scholar, Ibn Warraq, one of the great heroes of our time. Personally endangered, yet unremittingly vocal, Ibn Warraq leads a trend. Like a growing number of people, he refuses to accept the pretence that all cultures are equal. Were Ibn Warraq to live in Pakistan or Saudi Arabia, he would not be able to write. Or if he did, he would not be allowed to live. Among his work is criticism of the sources of the Koran. In Islamic states this constitutes apostasy. It is people like him, who know how things could be, who understand why Western values are not just another way to live, but the only way to live — the only system in human history in which the individual is genuinely free (in the immortal words of Thomas Jefferson) to ‘pursue happiness’."
  41. ^ The spectator Oct 2007
  42. ^ Stephen Crittenden L The Religion Report Ibn Warraq: Why I am not a Muslim Oct 10 2001 Secularist Muslim intellectual Ibn Warraq - not his real name - was born on the Indian subcontinent and educated in the West. He believes that the great Islamic civilisations of the past were established in spite of the Koran, not because of it, and that only a secularised Islam can deliver Muslim states from fundamentalist madness.
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  137. ^ Pascal Bruckner - A reply to Ian Buruma and Timothy Garton Ash "It's so true that many English, Dutch and German politicians, shocked by the excesses that the wearing of the Islamic veil has given way to, now envisage similar legislation curbing religious symbols in public space. The separation of the spiritual and corporeal domains must be strictly maintained, and belief must confine itself to the private realm."

  Results from FactBites:
 
Islam: Definition and Much More from Answers.com (7739 words)
Islam is a strictly monotheistic religion, and its adherents, called Muslims, regard the Prophet Muhammad as the last and most perfect of God's messengers, who include Adam, Abraham, Moses, Jesus, and others.
At the core of Islam is the Qur'an, believed to be the final revelation by a transcendent Allah [Arab.,=the God] to Muhammad, the Prophet of Islam; since the Divine Word was revealed in Arabic, this language is used in Islamic religious practice worldwide.
Islam is the dominant faith in Arab nations, a number of countries of central Asia, and Malaysia and Indonesia.
Islam Hadhari at AllExperts (359 words)
Islam Hadhari (Arabic الإسلام الحضاري) or "Civilizational Islam" is a theory of government based on the principles of Islam as derived from the Qur'an.
However, Islam Hadhari has been welcomed by those who fear that PAS, the main Islamic opposition party in Malaysia is too extreme with its goals.
The involvement of several of its academicians in Jemaah Islamiyah and the frequent occurrences of moral policing seem to suggest that Islam Hadhari is mere rhetorics.
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