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Encyclopedia > Criticism of Christianity

Throughout the history of Christianity, a wide range of Christians and non-Christians alike have offered criticisms of Christianity, the Church, and Christians themselves. Christianity has responded to many of these criticisms, partially through the field of Christian apologetics. Other criticism addresses the Christian teachings specifically and concerns interpretations and dogmas related to Christianity. Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Church historian redirects here. ... For other uses, see Christian (disambiguation). ... For the architectural structure, see Church (building). ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      Christian apologetics is the...

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Inspiration · Hermeneutics This Gutenberg Bible is displayed by the United States Library. ... Note: Judaism commonly uses the term Tanakh to refer to its canon, which corresponds to the Protestant Old Testament. ... This article is about the Christian scriptures. ... The canonical list of the Books of the Bible differs among Jews, and Catholic, Protestant, and Eastern Orthodox Christians, even though there is a great deal of overlap. ... A biblical canon is a list of Biblical books which establishes the set of books which are considered to be authoritative as scripture by a particular Jewish or Christian community. ... The biblical apocrypha includes texts written in the Jewish and Christian religious traditions that either were accepted into the biblical canon by some, but not all, Christian faiths, or are frequently printed in Bibles despite their non-canonical status. ... The Septuagint: A column of uncial text from 1 Esdras in the Codex Vaticanus, the basis of Sir Lancelot Charles Lee Brentons Greek edition and English translation. ... This article is about a list of ten religious commandments. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ... The Resurrection—Tischbein, 1778. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      The Sermon on the... In Christian tradition, the Great Commission is the instruction of the resurrected Jesus Christ to his disciples, that they spread the faith to all the world. ... The Bible has been translated into many languages. ... The efforts of translating the Bible from its original languages into over 2,000 others have spanned more than two millennia. ... Biblical inspiration is the doctrine in Christian theology concerned with the divine origin of the Bible and what the Bible teaches about itself. ... Biblical Hermeneutics, part of the broader hermeneutical question, relates to the problem of how one is to understand Holy Scripture. ...


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Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      Christian theology is reasoned discourse concerning... This article or section contains too many quotations for an encyclopedic entry. ... In many religions, the supreme God is given the title and attributions of Father. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      In mainstream Christianity, the... This is an overview of the history of theology in Greek thought, Christianity, Judaism and Islam from the time of Christ to the present. ... Theology finds its scholars pursuing the understanding of and providing reasoned discourse of religion, spirituality and God or the gods. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      Christian apologetics is the... Creation (theology) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... In Abrahamic religion, The Fall of Man or The Story of the Fall, or simply The Fall, refers to humanitys transition from a state of innocent bliss to a state of sinful understanding. ... Covenant, meaning a solemn contract, oath, or bond, is the customary word used to translate the Hebrew word berith (ברית, Tiberian Hebrew bÉ™rîṯ, Standard Hebrew bÉ™rit) as it is used in the Hebrew Bible, thus it is important to all Abrahamic religions. ... Note: Judaism commonly uses the term Tanakh to refer to its canon, which corresponds to the Protestant Old Testament. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Faith in Christianity centers on faith in the Resurrection of Christ (1 Corinthians 15:1-4) ... the gospel I preached to you. ... The Harrowing of Hell as depicted by Fra Angelico In Christian theology, justification is Gods act of declaring or making a sinner righteous before God. ... For other uses, see Salvation (disambiguation). ... Sanctification or in its verb form, sanctify, literally means to set apart for special use or purpose, that is to make holy or sacred (compare Latin sanctus holy). Therefore sanctification refers to the state or process of being set apart, i. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      In Eastern Orthodox and... Monument honoring the right to worship, Washington, D.C. In Christianity, worship has been considered by most Christians to be the central act of Christian identity throughout history. ... In Christian theology, ecclesiology is the study of doctrine pertaining to the Church itself as a community or organic entity, and with the understanding of what the church is —ie. ... In Christian belief and practice, a sacrament is a rite that mediates divine grace, constituting a sacred mystery. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      In Christian theology, Christian eschatology is the...


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Christian movements are theological, political, or philosophical intepretations of Christianity that are not generally represented by a specific church, sect, or denomination. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      A denomination, in the... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      Ecumenism (also oecumenism, Å“cumenism... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      A sermon is an oration by... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      This article... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      A liturgy is a... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      This article is about... Christian art is art that spans many segments of Christianity. ...


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Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch A 19th century picture of Paul of Tarsus Paul of Tarsus (originally Saul of Tarsus) or Saint Paul the Apostle (fl. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The Church Fathers, Early Church Fathers... The relationship between Constantine I and Christianity entails both the nature of the conversion of the emperor to Christianity, and his relations with the Christian Church. ... Athanasius of Alexandria (Greek: Αθανάσιος, Athanásios; c 293 – May 2, 373) was a Christian bishop, the Bishop of Alexandria, in the fourth century. ... “Augustinus” redirects here. ... Saint Anselm of Canterbury (1033 or 1034 – April 21, 1109) was an Italian medieval philosopher and theologian, who held the office of Archbishop of Canterbury from 1093 to 1109. ... Saint Thomas Aquinas, O.P.(also Thomas of Aquin, or Aquino; c. ... Gregory Palamas Gregory Palamas (Γρηγόριος Παλαμάς) (1296 - 1359) was a monk of Mount Athos in Greece and later Archbishop of Thessalonica known as a preeminent theologian of Hesychasm. ... Martin Luther (November 10, 1483 – February 18, 1546) was a German monk,[1] priest, professor, theologian, and church reformer. ... John Calvin (July 10, 1509 – May 27, 1564) was a French Protestant theologian during the Protestant Reformation and was a central developer of the system of Christian theology called Calvinism or Reformed theology. ... John Wesley (June 28 [O.S. June 17] 1703 – March 2, 1791) was an eighteenth-century Anglican minister and Christian theologian who was an early leader in the Methodist movement. ... Arius (AD/CE 256 - 336, poss. ... Marcion of Sinope (ca. ... The Archbishop of Canterbury is the spiritual leader and senior clergyman of the Church of England, recognized by convention as the head of the worldwide Anglican Communion. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Pope. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Patriarch of Alexandria. ... Throne inside the Patriarchade of Constantinople. ...

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The New Testament is rife with admonishments of Christians and appraisals of Christian doctrines.[citation needed] Scholars associated with the Federal Vision theology have argued against the idea that a Christian is someone who subscribes to a particular belief system called "Christianity". For example, Peter Leithart states that the Bible speaks of "Christians" and of "the Church", but not of "Christianity".[1] Some Christian writers, such as Dave Andrews, also reject Christianity on the basis that organised religion can detract from following Jesus.[2] This article is about the Christian scriptures. ... Christian Theology is reasoned discourse concerning Christian faith. ... This article or section contains too many quotations for an encyclopedic entry. ... Peter J. Leithart is the author of many books on literature and theology, a frequent contributor to such ecumenical and Trinitarian publications as First Things, Touchstone, and Credenda/Agenda, as well as theological journals such as Westminster Theological Journal. ... This article is about the religous people known as Christians. ... For the architectural structure, see Church (building). ... This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ...


Rationality

Atheists such as Bertrand Russell, Daniel Dennett and Richard Dawkins argue that Christianity has sought to suppress rational enquiry and hence the quest for truth.[citation needed] Bertrand Arthur William Russell, 3rd Earl Russell, OM, FRS, (18 May 1872 – 2 February 1970), was a British philosopher, logician, mathematician, advocate for social reform, and pacifist. ... Daniel Clement Dennett (b. ... Clinton Richard Dawkins (born March 26, 1941) is a British ethologist, evolutionary biologist and popular science writer who holds the Charles Simonyi Chair for the Public Understanding of Science at Oxford University. ...


Compatibility with science

Main article: Religion and science

David C. Lindberg states that the widespread popular belief that the Middle Ages was a time of ignorance and superstition due to the Christian church is a "caricature". According to Lindberg, while there are some portions of the classical tradition which suggests this view but these were exceptional cases. It was common to tolerate and encourage critical thinking about the nature of the world. The relation between Christianity and science is complex, according to Lindberg.[3] David C. Lindberg reports that "the late medieval scholar rarely experienced the coercive power of the church and would have regarded himself as free (particularly in the natural sciences) to follow reason and observation wherever they led. There was no warfare between science and the church."[4] Ted Peters in Encyclopedia of Religion writes that although there is some truth in the "Galileo's condemnation" story but through exaggerations, it has now become "a modern myth perpetuated by those wishing to see warfare between science and religion who were allegedly persecuted by an atavistic and dogma-bound ecclesiastical authority."[5] Religious and scientific modes of knowledge Generally speaking, religion and science use different methods in their effort to ascertain Truth. ...

Medieval artistic illustration of the spherical Earth in a 14th century copy of L'Image du monde (ca. 1246).
Medieval artistic illustration of the spherical Earth in a 14th century copy of L'Image du monde (ca. 1246).

During the nineteenth century developed what scholars today call the conflict thesis (or the warfare model, or the Draper-White thesis). According to it, any interaction between religion and science almost inevitably would lead to open hostility, with religion usually taking the part of the aggressor against new scientific ideas. A popular example was the supposition that people from the Middle Ages believed that the Earth was flat, and that only science, freed from religious dogma, had shown that it was round. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Medieval artistic representation of a spherical Earth - with compartments representing earth, air, and water (c. ... Illustration of the spherical Earth in a copy of LImage du monde. ... Galileo before the Holy Office by Joseph-Nicolas Robert-Fleury, a classic depiction of science clashing with religion The conflict thesis, also known as the warfare thesis, the warfare model or the Draper-White thesis, is an interpretive model of the relationship between religion and science. ... Part of a scientific laboratory at the University of Cologne. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... For the 1984 album by Thomas Dolby, see The Flat Earth. ...


This notion of a war between science and religion (especially Christianity) remained common in the historiography of science during the late 19th and early 20th centuries.[citation needed] Similar views have also been supported by many scientists. The astronomer Carl Sagan, for example, mentions the dispute between the astronomical systems of Ptolemy (who thought that the sun and planets revolved around the earth) and Copernicus (who thought the earth and planets revolved around the sun). He states in his A personal Voyage that Ptolemy's belief was "supported by the church through the Dark Ages...[It] effectively prevented the advance of astronomy for 1,500 years."[6] Sagan rebukes claims that religion and science did not have an antagonizing relationship in the Medieval era by explaining the axioms of Copernicus' discovery: Insert non-formatted text here Carl Edward Sagan (November 9, 1934 – December 20, 1996) was an American astronomer and astrobiologist and a highly successful popularizer of astronomy, astrophysics, and other natural sciences. ... A medieval artists rendition of Claudius Ptolemaeus Claudius Ptolemaeus (Greek: ; ca. ... Nicolaus Copernicus (in Latin; Polish Mikołaj Kopernik, German Nikolaus Kopernikus - February 19, 1473 – May 24, 1543) was a Polish astronomer, mathematician and economist who developed a heliocentric (Sun-centered) theory of the solar system in a form detailed enough to make it scientifically useful. ... A medieval artists rendition of Claudius Ptolemaeus Claudius Ptolemaeus (Greek: ; ca. ...

This Copernican model worked at least as well as Ptolemy's crystal spheres, but it annoyed an awful lot of people. The Catholic Church later put Copernicus' work on its list of forbidden books, and Martin Luther described Copernicus in these words...

People give ear to an upstart astrologer [Copernicus] who strives to show that the earth revolves, not the heavens or the firmament, the sun or the moon. Whoever wishes to appear clever must devise some new system, which of all systems is of course the very best. This fool wishes to reverse the entire science of astronomy; but sacred Scripture tells us that Joshua commanded the sun to stand still, and not the earth.

Martin Luther, Tischreden, ed Walsch XXII, 2260

Ted Peters however points out that the above remark didn't come from Luther's authored writings but rather from students who were taking notes. Ted states that Luther had only heard tales of Copernicus' new idea and didn't really have any serious engagements on this issue. Regarding Copernicus' thought, he is said to "have quipped that this would be comparable to somebody riding on a cart or in a ship and imagining that he was standing still while the earth and the trees were moving." Peters concludes that "spoken in jest, such items ought not to be interpreted as indicating any general opposition to science."[7]


The framing of the relationship between Christianity and science as being predominantly one of conflict is still prevalent in popular culture, but the same is not true among today's academics on the topic.[8] Most of today's historians of science consider that the conflict thesis has been superseded by subsequent historical research[9] Popular culture, sometimes abbreviated to pop culture, consists of widespread cultural elements in any given society. ...

Clerks studying astronomy and geometry.France, early 15th century.
Clerks studying astronomy and geometry.
France, early 15th century.

Moreover, many scientists through out history held strong Christian beliefs and strove to reconcile science and religion. Isaac Newton, for example, believed that gravity caused the planets to revolve about the Sun, and credited God with the design, yet his religious views are generally considered heretical. In the concluding General Scholium to the Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica, he wrote: "This most beautiful System of the Sun, Planets and Comets, could only proceed from the counsel and dominion of an intelligent and powerful being." Other famous founders of science as we know it who adhered to Christian beliefs included Galileo, Johannes Kepler, and Blaise Pascal.[10][11] Image File history File links Studying_astronomy_and_geometry. ... Image File history File links Studying_astronomy_and_geometry. ... Sir Isaac Newton FRS (4 January 1643 – 31 March 1727) [ OS: 25 December 1642 – 20 March 1727][1] was an English physicist, mathematician, astronomer, natural philosopher, and alchemist. ... Gravity is a force of attraction that acts between bodies that have mass. ... The eight planets and three dwarf planets of the Solar System. ... Sol redirects here. ... This article discusses the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ... Sir Isaac Newton at 46 in Godfrey Knellers 1689 portrait The law of gravity became Sir Isaac Newtons best-known discovery. ... Newtons own copy of his Principia, with handwritten corrections for the second edition. ...

Medieval scholars sought to understand the geometric and harmonic principles by which God created the universe.
Medieval scholars sought to understand the geometric and harmonic principles by which God created the universe.[12]

Historians of science such as J.L. Heilbron,[13] Alistair Cameron Crombie, David Lindberg,[14] Edward Grant, Thomas Goldstein,[15] and Ted Davis also have been revising the common notion — the product of black legends say some — that medieval Christianity has had a negative influence in the development of civilization. These historians believe that not only did the monks save and cultivate the remnants of ancient civilization during the barbarian invasions, but the medieval church promoted learning and science through its sponsorship of many universities which, under its leadership, grew rapidly in Europe in the 11th and 12th centuries, St. Thomas Aquinas, the Church's "model theologian," not only argued that reason is in harmony with faith, he even recognized that reason can contribute to understanding revelation, and so encouraged intellectual development. He was not unlike other medieval theologians who sought out reason in the effort to defend his faith.[16] Also, some today's scholars, such as Stanley Jaki, have suggested that Christianity with its particular worldview was actually a crucial factor for the emergence of modern science. Image File history File links God_the_Geometer. ... Image File history File links God_the_Geometer. ... Calabi-Yau manifold Geometry (Greek γεωμετρία; geo = earth, metria = measure) is a part of mathematics concerned with questions of size, shape, and relative position of figures and with properties of space. ... The history of science and technology (HST) is a field of history which examines how humanitys understanding of science and technology has changed over the millennia. ... John L. Heilbron is an American historian of science and academia. ... Alistair Cameron Crombie (4 November 1915 – 9 February 1996) was an Australian historian of science who began his career as a zoologist. ... David C. Lindberg is an American historian of science. ... Edward (Ted) Grant (born July 9, 1913) is a Trotskyist politician. ... Thomas C. Goldstein (Tom Goldstein) was a founding partner of Goldstein and Howe[1], a Washington, D.C. firm specializing in Supreme Court litigation. ... The Black Legend (Spanish: La Leyenda Negra) is a term coined by Julián Juderías in his 1914 book La leyenda negra y la verdad histórica (The Black Legend and Historical Truth), to describe what he argued was the unfair depiction of Spain and Spaniards as bloodthirsty, cruel... A university is an institution of higher education and of research, which grants academic degrees. ... The Reverend Father Professor Stanley L. Jaki OSB (b. ... Worldview is Chicago Public Radios daily international-affairs radio show, hosted by Jerome McDonnell. ...


Ethics

See also: Criticism of the Bible and Ethics in the Bible

when thousands of people call a person as thief, he becomes thief. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...

Slavery

The practice of slavery in the West predates the emergence of Christianity by thousands of years. Early Christianity variously opposed, accepted, or ignored slavery.[17] In early Medieval times, the Church discouraged slavery throughout Europe, largely eliminating it.[18] That changed in 1452, when Pope Nicholas V instituted hereditary slavery of captured Muslims and pagans, which effectively meant Africans or Asians. As he read the Bible, God had instructed his faithful to make slaves of the neighboring heathens. Since then, various Christian groups taught that Africans were the descendants of Ham, cursed with "the mark of Ham" (dark skin) to be servants to the descendants of Japheth (Europeans) and Shem (Asians). Some Christians became involved in slavery from the Middle Ages until the abolition movement of the late 19th century met success.[17] Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      // Both the... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      The term Early Christianity... Events October - English troops under John Talbot, 1st Earl of Shrewsbury, land in Guyenne, France, and retake most of the province without a fight. ... Nicholas V, né Tomaso Parentucelli (November 15, 1397 – March 24, 1455) was Pope from March 6, 1447, to his death. ... A Muslim is a believer in or follower of Islam. ... World map showing location of Africa A satellite composite image of Africa Africa is the worlds second_largest continent in both area and population, after Asia. ... Asian people[1] is a demonym for people from Asia. ... Ham (חָם, Standard Hebrew , Tiberian Hebrew , , Geez Kam), according to the Genealogies of Genesis, was a son of Noah and the father of Cush, Mizraim, Phut, and Canaan. ... Japheth (Hebrew. ... Shem (Hebrew: , Standard  Tiberian  ; Greek: Σημ, SÄ“m ; Arabic:  ; Geez: Sham ; renown; prosperity; name) was one of the sons of Noah in the Bible. ...


Today, only some periphery groups such as the Ku Klux Klan and other (self-proclaimed) Christian hate groups on the racist fringes of the Christian Reconstructionist and Christian Identity movements advocate the reinstitution of slavery.[17] With these exceptions, all Christian faith groups now condemn slavery, and see the practice as incompatible with basic Christian principles.[17][18] Members of the second Ku Klux Klan at a rally during the 1920s. ... A hate group is an organized group or movement that advocates hate, hostility, or violence towards members of a race, ethnicity, religion, gender or other designated sector of society, or that supports and publishes assertions and argumentation characteristic of hate groups without necessarily explicitly advocating such hate or violence that... Christian Reconstructionism is a religious and political movement within Protestant Christianity. ... // For the general identity of an individual with certain core essential religious doctrines, see Christianity. ...


Rodney Stark makes the argument in For the Glory of God: How Monotheism Led to Reformations, Science, Witch-Hunts, and the End of Slavery, that Christianity helped to end slavery worldwide, as does Lamin Sanneh in Abolitionists Abroad. These authors point out that Christians who viewed slavery as wrong on the basis of their religious convictions spearheaded abolitionism, and many of the early campaigners for the abolition of slavery were driven by their Christian faith and a desire to realize their view that all people are equal under God.[19] In the late 17th century, anabaptists began to criticize slavery. Criticisms from the Society of Friends, Mennonites, and the Amish followed suit. Prominent among these Christian abolitionists were William Wilberforce, and John Woolman. In Britain and America, Quakers were active in abolitionism. A group of Quakers founded the first English abolitionist organization in 1873, and a Quaker petition brought the issue before government that same year. The Quakers continued to be influential throughout the lifetime of the movement, in many ways leading the way for the campaign. John Wesley, the founder of Methodism, was instrumental in starting abolitionism as a popular movement.[20] Rodney Stark is an American sociologist of religion. ... This English poster depicting the horrific conditions on slave ships was influential in mobilizing public opinion against slavery. ... Anabaptists (re-baptizers, from Greek ana and baptizo; in German: Wiedertäufer) are Christians of the so-called radical wing of the Protestant Reformation. ... The Religious Society of Friends, commonly known as Quakers, or Friends, is a religious community founded in England in the 17th century. ... The Mennonites are a group of Christian Anabaptist denominations based on the teachings and tradition of Menno Simons. ... This article is about Old Order Amish, but also refers to other Amish sects. ... William Wilberforce (24 August 1759 – 29 July 1833) was an English politician, philanthropist, and abolitionist who led the parliamentary campaign against the slave trade. ... John Woolman (October 19, 1720 – October 7, 1772) was an itinerant Quaker preacher, traveling throughout the American colonies, advocating against conscription, military taxation, and particularly slavery. ... John Wesley (June 28 [O.S. June 17] 1703 – March 2, 1791) was an eighteenth-century Anglican minister and Christian theologian who was an early leader in the Methodist movement. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      For school of ancient Greek medicine...


In addition to aiding abolitionism, many Christians made further efforts toward establishing racial equality, contributing to the Civil Rights Movement.[21] The African American Review notes the important role Christian revivalism in the black church played in the Civil Rights Movement.[22] Martin Luther King, Jr., an ordained Baptist minister, was a leader of the American Civil Rights Movement and president of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference, a Christian Civil Rights organization.[23] Historically, the civil rights movement was a period of time around the world of approximately one generation (1954–1980) wherein there was much worldwide civil unrest and popular rebellion. ... It has been suggested that Great Awakening be merged into this article or section. ... The term black church refers to Christian churches that minister to the African American community. ... “MLK” redirects here. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Coptic Orthodox Pope · Roman Catholic Pope Archbishop of Canterbury · Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      Baptist... The civil rights movement in the United States has been a long, primarily nonviolent struggle to bring full civil rights and equality under the law to all citizens of United States. ... The Southern Christian Leadership Conference Logo. ...

A hypothetical reconstruction of someone from the same time and place of Jesus, created by forensic artist Richard Neave.

This is Fair Use image-- See Popular Mechanics link-- cited BBC Sexual Image Library This work is copyrighted. ... This is Fair Use image-- See Popular Mechanics link-- cited BBC Sexual Image Library This work is copyrighted. ...

Eurocentrism

Christians have answered the charge of Eurocentrism by pointing out Christianity’s non-European origins. Christianity originated as a sect of Judaism in the Middle East,[24] as Jesus, the founder and central figure of Christianity, lived and held His ministry in the Middle East.[24] The race of Jesus is contested, and various theories have presented His ethnicity as White, Black, or Middle Eastern. Paul of Tarsus, an ethnic Jew[25] who was born and lived in the Middle East, holds such importance to Christianity that some call him the religion's "Second Founder".[24] The greatest influence on Christianity after Paul, Augustine of Hippo, a Church Father, a Doctor of the Church, and an eminent theologian, was African.[26] This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ... “Black Jesus” redirects here. ... Paul of Tarsus (b. ... “Augustinus” redirects here. ... The Church Fathers or Fathers of the Church are the early and influential theologians and writers in the Christian church, particularly those of the first five centuries of Christian history. ... In Roman Catholicism, a Doctor of the Church (Latin doctor, teacher, from Latin docere, to teach) is a saint from whose writings the whole Christian Church is held to have derived great advantage and to whom eminent learning and great sanctity have been attributed by a proclamation of a pope... Theology is literally rational discourse concerning God (Greek θεος, theos, God, + λογος, logos, rational discourse). By extension, it also refers to the study of other religious topics. ...


Others point to the diversity of Christians worldwide to counter criticisms of Eurocentrism. Christianity is a religion open to all humanity.[24] that counts one out of every three people on earth among its members.[24] Christendom encompasses a greater area of land than that of any other religious territory.[24] In terms of both population and geography, Christianity is the world's largest religion.[24] As such, Christianity contains a great diversity,[24] and has followers from a wide range of ethnicities, nationalities, and cultures.[27] Both Europeans and non-Hispanic Whites are shrinking minorities in the Church.[28] The Human Race could be: The Human race. ... This T-and-O map, which abstracts the known world to a cross inscribed within an orb, remakes geography in the service of Christian iconography. ...


In his book Enlarging the Story: Perspectives on Writing World Christian History, Richard Fox Young views the connection between Christianity and Eurocentrism as tenuous, and points to the postcolonial and non-European nature of the emerging Church and its impact on the development of World Christianity. In the postcolonial world, Christianity has lost its association with the West.[29][24] At the turn of the millennium, 60% of the world’s two billion Christians lived in Africa, Latin America, or Asia, and by 2025, those demographics will shift to an estimated 67% of the world's three billion Christians.[30] The rise of Christianity in the southern hemisphere, especially northern Africa and Latin America, in the late 20th and early 21st centuries is a "grassroots movement"[24] that has generated new forms of Christian theology and worship,[24] and shifted the cultural and geographic focal point of the Church away from the West.[29] The prominence of the southern hemisphere's Christianity has brought with it a cultural and intellectual diversity[31] to World Christianity, and contributed such ideas as Liberation Theology.[24] Postcolonial theory is a literary theory or critical approach that deals with literature produced in countries that were once, or are now, colonies of other countries. ... The emerging church (also known as the emerging church movement) is a controversial[1] 21st-century Protestant Christian movement whose participants seek to be like the christians mentioned in Revelation 3:16 and 2 Timothy 4:3. ... Categories: Africa geography stubs | North Africa ... Latin America consists of the countries of South America and some of North America (including Central America and some the islands of the Caribbean) whose inhabitants mostly speak Romance languages, although Native American languages are also spoken. ... In Christianity, liberation theology is a school of theology that focuses on Jesus Christ as not only the Redeemer but also the Liberator of the oppressed. ...


Persecution by Christians

Certain Christian groups and regimes have historically persecuted other groups, including both non-Christians and Christians. Women, minority groups and genderqueer have been targets of discrimination based upon scriptural claims. Christians have at times persecuted non-Christians on the basis of conflicts in their religious beliefs. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


Christianity and women

Joan of Arc led battles in the fight to free France from England. She believed that God had commanded her to do so. She was tried for heresy and burned at the stake. She is now a saint venerated in the Roman Catholic Church.
Joan of Arc led battles in the fight to free France from England. She believed that God had commanded her to do so. She was tried for heresy and burned at the stake. She is now a saint venerated in the Roman Catholic Church.[32]

Christianity has been criticised by proponents of gender equality for what they view as its advocation of female subjection to men.[citation needed] Download high resolution version (508x768, 119 KB) Image of Joan of Arc, painted between 1450 and 1500 (Centre Historique des Archives Nationales, Paris, AE II 2490). ... Download high resolution version (508x768, 119 KB) Image of Joan of Arc, painted between 1450 and 1500 (Centre Historique des Archives Nationales, Paris, AE II 2490). ... Joan of Arc, or Jeanne dArc in French,[1] (1412 – May 30, 1431)[2] is a 15th century national heroine of France. ... Look up Heresy in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... In traditional Christian iconography, Saints are often depicted as having halos. ... “Catholic Church” redirects here. ... Feminism is a social theory and political movement primarily informed and motivated by the experience of women. ...


Though there are two canonical books named in honor of women (the Book of Ruth and the Book of Esther), the Bible was written by men. Genealogies in the Bible are patrilinear, though there are a few mentions of women, such as Jesus' descent from Rahab. Most Biblical figures such as prophets, judges, patriarchs, and kings are men, though there are exceptions, such as the prophetesses Hannah, the judge Deborah, and the queen Esther).[citation needed] Naomi entreating Ruth and Orpah to return to the land of Moab by William Blake, 1795 Julius Schnorr von Carolsfeld: Ruth in Boazs Field, 1828 The Book of Ruth (Hebrew: מגילת רות, Megilat Rut, the Scroll of Ruth) is one of the books of the Ketuvim (Writings) of the Tanakh (the... Megillah redirects here. ... Patrilineality is a system in which one belongs to ones fathers lineage; it generally involves the inheritance of property, names or titles through the male line as well. ... For the video game character from Legacy of Kain Series, see Rahab (Legacy of Kain). ... Hannah (or Chana) (Hebrew: ×—× ×” - Grace [of God]) was a wife of Elkanah and the mother of the prophet Samuel as recorded in the Book of Samuel. ... For information on the nurse of Rebeccah, mentioned in Genesis, see Deborah (Genesis) Deborah or Dvora (Hebrew: ‎ Bee, Standard Hebrew DÉ™vora, Tiberian Hebrew Dəḇôrāh) was a prophetess and the fourth Judge and only female Judge of pre-monarchic Israel in the Old Testament (Tanakh). ... Esther (1865), by John Everett Millais Esther (Hebrew: , Standard  Tiberian ), born Hadassah, was a woman in the Hebrew Bible, the queen of Ahasuerus (commonly identified with either Xerxes I or Artaxerxes II), and heroine of the Biblical Book of Esther which is named after her. ...


Jesus himself is never recorded in the canonical Gospels as saying or doing anything derogatory toward women, and had several female followers.[citation needed]


In the early Church Christian women enjoyed a higher status among fellow Christians then non-Christian women did among their fellow non-Christians and many, perhaps the majority, of converts to Christianity were women. Many women are recorded as having obtained the status of Deacon. Paul addressed several of his letters to both women and men as leaders of their respective congregations. The fact that Christianity prohibited infanticide of both sexes led to a far higher number of women among Christians than among non-Christians which aided Christianity's growth. The conversion of several upper class women who then converted their husbands and families also helped bring about the dominance of Christianity within Greco-Roman society.[33] Deacon is a role in the Christian Church which is generally associated with service of some kind, but which varies among theological and denominational traditions. ...


The Old Testament includes many sagas that portray women as leaders and Heroes helping or asserting some power over men such as Sarah and Rachel in the book of Genesis and the many women who saved and helped Moses and the Israelites in Exodus such as the Midwives of Egypt, Moses's sister, the daughter of the Pharaoh and Moses's wife Zipporah.


Doctrine

The Creation

Main article: Creationism Creationism is the belief that humanity, life, the Earth, and the universe were created in their original form by a deity or deities (often the Abrahamic God of Judaism, Christianity and Islam), whose existence is presupposed. ...


Miracles

The Bible contains many accounts of miraculous events, of which the most important for Christians is the Resurrection of Jesus from the dead. The requirement of believers that they accept such accounts solely on the basis of authority is a commonly-made criticism of Christianity. This Gutenberg Bible is displayed by the United States Library. ... Look up Resurrection in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


The Trinity

Main article: Trinity This article or section contains too many quotations for an encyclopedic entry. ...


The doctrine of the Trinity has been criticised for being logically incoherent. This article or section contains too many quotations for an encyclopedic entry. ...


Hell and damnation

See also: Problem of Hell
Adam and Eve being driven from Eden due to original sin, portrayed by Gustave Doré.

Skeptics have criticized Christianity for seeking to persuade people into accepting its authority through simple fear of punishment[34] or, conversely, through hope of reward after death, rather than through rational argumentation or empirical evidence.[35] Traditional Christian doctrine assumes that, without faith in God, one is subject to eternal hellfire. The Epistle of James states that even mere belief is insufficient for salvation, for "the devils believe and also tremble" (James 2:19). Saint Paul also states in Romans that confession of the Lord as your savior entails you will be saved and "He that doubted is damned" (Romans 14:23). Not only is doubt detrimental to salvation, but mere hope to Paul is an unacceptable sign of uncertainty, "For hope that is seen is not hope: for what man sees, why does he yet hope for? (Romans 8:24)" Not only must one have unwavering belief and faith to receive salvation, but according to Saint Augustine, one of the church's prime theologians throughout the medieval era, those who are already saved are predetermined, they however must have been baptized and a member of the church.[citation needed] The problem of Hell is a variant of the problem of evil, applying specifically to religions which hold both that: An omnipotent (all-powerful), omniscient (all-knowing), and omnibenevolent (all-loving) God exists. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2347x3187, 5953 KB) Other versions Originally from en. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2347x3187, 5953 KB) Other versions Originally from en. ... Michelangelos The Creation of Adam, a fresco on the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel, shows God creating Adam, with Eve in His arm. ... Michelangelos The Creation of Eve, a fresco on the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel, shows God creating Eve from the side of Adam. ... Doré photographed by Felix Nadar. ... Skepticism (Commonwealth spelling: Scepticism) can mean: Philosophical skepticism - a philosophical position in which people choose to critically examine whether the knowledge and perceptions that they have are actually true, and whether or not one can ever be said to have absolutely true knowledge; or Scientific skepticism - a scientific, or practical... For other uses, see Hell (disambiguation). ... Paul of Tarsus (b. ... The Epistle to the Romans is one of the letters of the New Testament canon of the Christian Bible. ... St. ...

Since we all inherit Adam's sin, we all deserve eternal damnation. All who die unbaptized, even infants, will go to hell and suffer unending torment. We have no reason to complain of this, since we are all wicked. (In the Confessions, the Saint enumerates the crimes of which he was guilty in the cradle.) But by God's free grace certain people, among those who have been baptized, are chosen to go to heaven; these are the elect. They do not go to heaven because they are good; we are all totally depraved, except insofar as God's grace, which is only bestowed on the elect, enables us to be otherwise. No reason can be given why some are saved and the rest damned; this is due to God's unmotivated choice. Damnation proves God's justice; salvation His mercy. Both equally display His goodness.[36]

Critics regard the eternal punishment of those who fail to adopt Christian faith as morally objectionable, and consider it an abhorrent picture of the nature of the world. "God so loved the world that he made up his mind to damn a large majority of the human race." - Robert G. Ingersoll. On a similar theme objections are made against the perceived injustice of punishing a person for all eternity for a temporal crime. Some Christians agree (see Annihilationism and Trinitarian Universalism). These beliefs have been considered especially repugnant[37] when the claimed omnipotent God makes, or allows a person to come into existence, with a nature that desires that which he finds objectionable[38] - see original sin. NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Rublevs Trinity Trinitarian Universalism is a formulation of Universalism, the belief that every person will be saved, that is centered and based on the Christian Trinitarianism of Athanasius, Karl Barth and T. F. Torrance. ... “Original Sin” redirects here. ...


Atonement

The idea of atonement for original sin is criticized by some on the grounds that the image of God as requiring the suffering and death of Jesus to effect reconciliation with humankind is morally repugnant. The view is summarized by Richard Dawkins: "if God wanted to forgive our sins, why not just forgive them? Who is God trying to impress?" [3] Christians often respond to this objection by claiming that the sacrifice of Christ on the cross was the greatest expression of divine mercy God could give while still maintaining perfect justice.[citation needed] See also Penal substitution. For other uses, see Atonement (disambiguation). ... “Original Sin” redirects here. ... Clinton Richard Dawkins (born March 26, 1941) is a British ethologist, evolutionary biologist and popular science writer who holds the Charles Simonyi Chair for the Public Understanding of Science at Oxford University. ... Penal substitution is a theory of the atonement within Christian theology, especially cherished by Evangelicals of the Reformed tradition. ...


Robert Green Ingersoll suggests that the concept of the atonement is simply an extension of the Mosaic tradition of blood sacrifice and "is the enemy of morality". [4] The death of Jesus Christ represents the blood sacrifice to end all blood sacrifices; the resulting mechanism of atonement by proxy through that final sacrifice has appeal as a more convenient and much less costly approach to redemption than repeated animal sacrifice – a common sense solution to the problem of reinterpreting ancient religious approaches based on sacrifice. NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ...


Prominent Christian apologist, Josh McDowell, in More Than A Carpenter, addresses the issue through an analogy of a real-life judge in California who was forced to fine his daughter $100 for speeding, but then came down, took off his robe, and paid the fine for her from his billfold.[citation needed]


The Second Coming

A fundamental belief of Christianity is that Christ will return to the earth to conquer evil and rule over the faithful - a simplified definition of the Second Coming. Since the first century until modern times, some Christian leaders and their followers have prophesied that this would happen, usually during the lifetime of the person making the prophecy, and frequently within the next 20 years after the prophecy. This practice seems to contradict a fundamental Christian principle that says that no one knows when Christ will come (Mark 13:32). The failure of even one of these many prophesies to come true often has the effect of trivializing Christian teachings and making the church seem unreliable. For other uses, see Second Coming (disambiguation). ...


Several verses in the New Testament appear to contain Jesus' predictions that the Second Coming would take place within a century following his death. Most notably, Matthew 10:22-23, 16:27-28, 23:36, 24:29-34, 26:62-64; Mark 9:1, Mark 14:24-30, 14:60-62; and Luke 9:27. However many of these statements of Jesus are Jesus quoting from the Old Testament books such as the Book of Isaiah and Book of Daniel which many Christians assume renders them metaphorical, not literal, prophecies. An example is Jesus' predictions of the Olivet discourse, where much is taken from Isaiah's predictions of the fall of Babylon and God's judgments on the world. Such statements have contributed to the Preterism movement, a belief that the Second Coming had already taken place by the end of the first century CE. This article is about the Christian scriptures. ... This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ... For other uses, see Second Coming (disambiguation). ... This article is about the Book of Isaiah. ... For other uses, see Book of Daniel (disambiguation). ... The Olivet discourse or Little Apocalypse is a passage found in the Synoptic Gospels of Matthew (24), Mark (13) and Luke (21), occurring just before the narrative of Jesuss passion beginning with the Anointing of Jesus. ... Isaiah the Prophet in Hebrew Scriptures was depicted on the Sistine Chapel ceiling by Michelangelo. ... For other uses, see Babylon (disambiguation). ... Preterism is a variant of Christian eschatology which holds that some or all of the biblical prophecies concerning the Last Days (or End Times) refer to events which actually happened in the first century after Christs birth. ... For other uses, see Second Coming (disambiguation). ...


The Afterlife

What often poses problems for Christians is the nature of the afterlife portrayed by the history of the land of Ancient Israel, or the Old Testament. Many scholars believe there is no concept of immortality or life after death in the Old Testament.[39] The human body was shaped by God from the earth, and animated with the "breath of life" (Gen 2:7-8). At death, the person becomes a "dead breath" (Numbers 6:6). Biblical passages such as Ecclesiastes 12:7 state, "the dust returns to the earth as it was", "In Sheol who will praise you?"[40] and "Will the dust praise thee?"[41] The presumption is that the deceased are inert, lifeless, and engaging in no activity.[42] This is portrayed in Job's plea to God: The Kingdom of Israel (Hebrew מַלְכוּת יִשְׂרָאֵל, Standard Hebrew Malḫut Yisraʾel, Tiberian Hebrew Malḵûṯ Yiśrāʾēl) according to the Bible, was the nation... Note: Judaism commonly uses the term Tanakh to refer to its canon, which corresponds to the Protestant Old Testament. ...

Job seen arguing with his friends concerning the suffering Satan put him through. God will later tell Job the monsters Behemoth and Leviathan are the chief of his creations. Portrayed by Gerard Seghers.
Job seen arguing with his friends concerning the suffering Satan put him through. God will later tell Job the monsters Behemoth and Leviathan are the chief of his creations. Portrayed by Gerard Seghers.
Why did I not die at birth,
come forth from the womb and expire? ...
From then I should have lain down and been quiet;
I should have slept; then I should have been at rest...
There the wicked cease from troubling,
and there the weary are at rest.
There the prisoners are at ease together;
they hear not the voice of the taskmaster [God].
The small and the great are there,
and the slave is free from his master.[43]

The idea of Sheol or a state of nothingness was shared among Babylonian and Israelite beliefs. "Sheol, as it was called by the ancient Israelites, is the land of no return, lying below the cosmic ocean, to which all, the mighty and the weak, travel in the ghostly form they assume after death, known as Raphraim. There the dead have no experience of either joy or pain, perceiving no light, feeling no movement."[44] Professor Obayshi alludes that the Israelites were satisfied with such a shadowy realm of afterlife because they were more deeply concerned with survival.[44] This theme of prosperity via unity is very much portrayed in the book of Joshua. The descendants of Moses, led from Egypt, follow Joshua into Canaan where they capture much of the land, the book ascribes this to their religious piety. The famed walls of Jericho even fall when Priests encircle the walls and blow ram horns. This theme of unity resonates in the next stanza where Joshua suffers a setback at the easily conquerable town of Ai. God lets the Israelites lose in battle because a man stole booty from the victory prior, this exemplifies the Old Testament's logic of salvation via collective survival. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (850x671, 92 KB)The Patient Job, Gerard Seghers, National Gallery Prague. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (850x671, 92 KB)The Patient Job, Gerard Seghers, National Gallery Prague. ... It has been suggested that Bahamut be merged into this article or section. ... Destruction of Leviathan. 1865 engraving by Gustave Doré. Leviathan (Hebrew: , Standard  Tiberian  ; Twisted; coiled) was a Biblical sea monster referred to in the Old Testament (Psalm 74:13-14; Job 41; Isaiah 27:1). ... In Hebrew, ²² Sheol (שאול, Shol) is the abode of the dead, the underworld, the common grave of humankind or pit.[1] In the Hebrew Bible, it is a place beneath the earth, beyond gates, where both the bad and the good, slave and king, pious and wicked must go at... In Hebrew, ²² Sheol (שאול, Shol) is the abode of the dead, the underworld, the common grave of humankind or pit.[1] In the Hebrew Bible, it is a place beneath the earth, beyond gates, where both the bad and the good, slave and king, pious and wicked must go at... Joshua, Jehoshuah or Yehoshua. ... Joshua, Jehoshuah or Yehoshua. ... For other uses, see Canaan (disambiguation). ... Walls of Jericho are a female-fronted metalcore band formed in 1998 from Detroit, Michigan named after power metal band Helloweens album of the same name. ... Ai (Hebrew: ; heap of ruins) refers to one or two places in ancient Israel: A city mentioned along with Heshbon by Jeremiah 49:3, whose location is currently unknown, and which may or may not be the same as: A Canaanite royal city which according to the Book of Joshua... An Israelite is a member of the Twelve Tribes of Israel, descended from the twelve sons of the Biblical patriarch Jacob who was renamed Israel by God in the book of Genesis, 32:28 The Israelites were a group of Hebrews, as described in the Bible. ...

Achan, who was stoned to death in front of his sons and daughters. A great cairn of stones was the burial for criminals, portrayed by Gustave Doré.
Achan, who was stoned to death in front of his sons and daughters. A great cairn of stones was the burial for criminals, portrayed by Gustave Doré.

Joshua summons the man named Achan with his sons and daughters and stones him to death (7:24-26). This leads to God's full endorsement where they are commanded to genocide the 12,000 inhabitants of the town (8:18). The town is then burned to the ground, the king is hanged (8:28-29), and men and women are killed by the sword "in the open country and wilderness" (8:24). Recent Archaeology has revealed that the town of Ai was destroyed 1,000 years before the story took place, 500 years before the fall of Jericho,[45] however the cult-like theme of unity and sheol which largely shaped the ancient tradition of Judaism and thus Christianity is later dispersed when only the most pious of Jews were being massacred during the Maccabean revolt. Image File history File links Achanstoned. ... Image File history File links Achanstoned. ... Achan means Father in malayalam language. ... Doré photographed by Felix Nadar. ... Joshua, Jehoshuah or Yehoshua. ... Achan means Father in malayalam language. ... In Hebrew, ²² Sheol (שאול, Shol) is the abode of the dead, the underworld, the common grave of humankind or pit.[1] In the Hebrew Bible, it is a place beneath the earth, beyond gates, where both the bad and the good, slave and king, pious and wicked must go at... The Maccabees were a Jewish family who fought against the rule of Antiochus IV Epiphanes of the Hellenistic Seleucid dynasty, who was succeeded by his infant son Antiochus V Eupator. ...

The suffering during the Maccabean period became the most serious challenge to the old Israelite thinking. This time it was not the shared suffering of all the Jews, but only those who remained loyal to the Torah who suffered and died. Thus the ancient belief of Sheol, the underworld, which summarized the common fate of all the Jews, proved no longer satisfactory. The logic of salvation that focused only on corporate or collective survival was no longer sufficient. The fate of the individual who perished for the faith had to be addressed. It was through this situation that the idea of resurrection, which Robert Goldenberg calls "the most individualistic of all religious conceptions," was introduced into Judaism... Resurrection and apocalypticism were the Judaic answer to changing times.[46]



Scripture

See also: Criticism of the Bible, The Bible and History, and Internal consistency and the Bible
Abraham, whose unconditional promises were not fulfilled by Jesus according to people of the Jewish tradition. Portrait done by Giovanni Battista Tiepolo.
Abraham, whose unconditional promises were not fulfilled by Jesus according to people of the Jewish tradition. Portrait done by Giovanni Battista Tiepolo.

Many skeptics reject Christianity because of its reliance on the Bible, the most recent parts of which were written during the Roman period, almost 2000 years ago, with older parts dating back many centuries before that. when thousands of people call a person as thief, he becomes thief. ... The article concerns the historicity of the Bible. ... There has long been interest in the subject of internal consistency and the Bible. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (541x797, 142 KB) Summary A depiction of Abraham, the leading patriach in the Old Testament. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (541x797, 142 KB) Summary A depiction of Abraham, the leading patriach in the Old Testament. ... “Abram” redirects here. ... Giovanni Battista Tiepolo, also known as Gianbattista or Giambattista Tiepolo (March 5, 1696 - March 27, 1770) was an Venetian painter and printmaker, considered among the last Grand Manner fresco painters from the Venetian republic. ... This Gutenberg Bible is displayed by the United States Library. ...


The Hebrew Bible, often referred to by Christians as the Old Testament, is a history of the land of Israel. God gave Abraham unconditional promises entailing multitudinous progeny, nationhood, royal leaders, and land possession. The Hebrew Bible's prophetic literature ends waiting for Judah to be restored via a new monarch, one who will restore the Davidic kingdom and possibly create universal peace. The New Testament traces Jesus' line to that of David; however according to Professor Stephen L. Harris: 11th century manuscript of the Hebrew Bible with Targum Hebrew Bible is a term that refers to the common portions of the Jewish canon and the Christian canons. ... Note: Judaism commonly uses the term Tanakh to refer to its canon, which corresponds to the Protestant Old Testament. ... “Abram” redirects here. ... Look up Judah in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is about the Christian scriptures. ... Stephen L Harris is Professor and Chair, Department of Humanities and Religious Studies at California State University, Sacramento. ...

Jesus did not accomplish what Israel's prophets said the Messiah was commissioned to do: He did not deliver the covenant people from their Gentile enemies, reassemble those scattered in the Diaspora, restore the Davidic kingdom, or establish universal peace (cf Isa. 9:6-7; 11:7-12:16, etc.). Instead of freeing Jews from oppressors and thereby fulfilling God's ancient promises - for land, nationhood, kingship, and blessing - Jesus died a "shameful" death (Deut. 21:24), defeated by the very political powers the Messiah was prophesied to overcome. Indeed, the Hebrew prophets did not foresee that Israel's savior would be executed as a common criminal by Gentiles (John 7:12,27,31,40-44), making Jesus' crucifixion a "stumbling block" to scripturally literate Jews (1 Cor. 1:23).[47]

Many skeptics have composed lists of conflicts involving the Bible, perhaps none so renowned as Robert G. Ingersoll's 61 reasons in his article Inspiration Of Bible. NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ...


Many Christians believe some prophecies are left to be fulfilled in the future upon Jesus' return, labeling them as "Future Unfulfilled." Most Jews (one exception is Messianic Jews) reject Jesus as their Messiah because of those specific yet unfulfilled prophecies. Messianic Judaism is any of a group of loosely related religious movements, all claiming a connection with Judaism but predominantly evangelical Christian in their beliefs, believing Jesus to be the Messiah, and using the New Testament as scripture. ...


Internal consistency

Many critics [citation needed] point to general inconsistency between different sections of the Bible, or to specific perceived contradictions in matters of detail. Most of these reflect a disparity between the Old Testament, identified with a jealous and vengeful God, lack of tolerance, and often violent attitude toward nonbelievers living near Jewish cities and lands, and the New Testament, identified with God as a loving father and an approach to salvation inclusive of all cultures. Even apart from the perceived specific contradictions of detail, the overall discrepancy between Biblical texts from widely different historical periods is a major cause of skepticism regarding Biblical inspiration. (Evangelical or Fundamentalist Christians generally respond by attempting to show that the inconsistencies are only apparent at first glance and ultimately nonexistent, while liberal Christians seek to reconcile Christian belief with a critical approach, accepting that the text reflects its historical context and is not verbally infallible.) [citation needed] There has long been interest in the whether internal consistency is or isnt present in the Bible. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The word evangelicalism often refers to... Fundamentalist Christianity, or Christian fundamentalism, is a movement that arose mainly within British and American Protestantism in the late 19th and early 20th centuries by conservative evangelical Christians, who, in a reaction to modernism, actively affirmed a fundamental set of Christian beliefs: the inerrancy of the Bible, Sola Scriptura, the... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      Liberal Christianity, sometimes called...


Alleged Selective interpretation

Sometimes particular attention is directed to Jewish rules contained in the Old Testament which are not observed by Christians [5]. Many of the rules in question are specifically abrogated by the New Testament, such as circumcision (see the Council of Jerusalem in Acts 15); and the entire Law is described by Galatians 3:24-25 as a tutor which is no longer necessary, according to Antinomianism. The alleged hypocrisy is in the continued invocation of portions of the Old Testament that are considered obsolete under Christianity, particularly when those portions endorse hostility towards women and homosexuals[citation needed]. The counter argument is that these viewpoints are (allegedly) also endorsed in the New Testament.[48] Christians believe that Jesus is the mediator of the New Covenant (see Hebrews 8:6). ... Main article: Mitzvah 613 Mitzvot or 613 Commandments (Hebrew: ‎ transliterated as Taryag mitzvot; TaRYaG is the acronym for the numeric value of 613) are a list of commandments from God in the Torah. ... Note: Judaism commonly uses the term Tanakh to refer to its canon, which corresponds to the Protestant Old Testament. ... This article is about the Christian scriptures. ... It has been variously proposed that male circumcision began as a religious sacrifice, as a rite of passage marking a boys entrance into adulthood, as a form of sympathetic magic to ensure virility, as a means of suppressing sexual pleasure, as an aid to hygiene where regular bathing was... Wikisource has original text related to this article: Book of Acts, Chapter 15 Council of Jerusalem is a title applied in retrospect to an unnamed meeting described in Acts of the Apostles chapter . ... Antinomianism (from the Greek αντι, against + νομος, law), or lawlessness (in the Greek Bible: ανομια, which is unlawful), in theology, is the idea that members of a particular religious group are under no obligation to obey the laws of ethics or morality as presented by religious authorities. ...


Matthew 5:17-19 (see also Adherence to the Law) can be taken to imply that the Old Testament laws remain in place in the New Testament, while Matthew 5:38-39 (see also Antithesis of the Law and Christian view of the Law) can be viewed as contradicting those earlier passages. Skeptics believe investigation yields many apparent contradictions in the Bible, which Christians use to argue against belief in the Bible as the absolute, inerrant Word of God. See "Internal consistency" section above. The Expounding of the Law (KJV:Matthew 5:17-48), sometimes called the Antithesis of the Law, is a less well known but highly structured (Ye have heard . ... The Expounding of the Law (KJV:Matthew 5:17-48), sometimes called the Antithesis of the Law, is a less well known but highly structured (Ye have heard . ... Note: Judaism commonly uses the term Tanakh to refer to its canon, which corresponds to the Protestant Old Testament. ...


While consideration of the context is necessary when studying the Bible, some find the four different accounts of the Resurrection of Jesus within the four Gospels of Matthew, Mark, Luke and John, difficult to reconcile.[citation needed] E.P. Sanders concludes that the inconsistencies make the possibility of a deliberate fraud unlikely: "A plot to foster belief in the Resurrection would probably have resulted in a more consistent story. Instead, there seems to have been a competition: 'I saw him,' 'so did I,' 'the women saw him first,' 'no, I did; they didn't see him at all,' and so on. [49] The resurrection of Jesus is an event in the New Testament in which God raised him from the dead[1] after his death by crucifixion. ... Ed Parish Sanders (born 1947) is a leading New Testament theologian and one of the principal proponents of the New Perspective on Paul. ...


Mistranslation and textual corruption

For more details on this topic, see Textual criticism.

Criticisms are also sometimes raised because of contradictions arising between different English translations of the Hebrew or Greek text. Some Christian interpretations are criticized by non-Christians (and sometimes particularly by Jewish believers) as being based on mistranslations, or on readings found in only some manuscripts of the Bible, or in particular English translations of the Bible. Carmina Cantabrigiensia, Manuscript C, folio 436v, 11th century Textual criticism or lower criticism is a branch of philology or bibliography that is concerned with the identification and removal of errors from texts and manuscripts. ... There are many attempts to translate the Bible into modern English which is defined as the form of English in use after 1800. ...


Newly discovered ancient manuscripts of the Bible, such as the Dead Sea Scrolls and Codex Sinaiticus, suggest that passages such as the Pericope Adulteræ, and Mark 16 and Comma Johanneum originally took other forms than are present in older translations such as the King James Version, or were even absent. There is also the question of whether the masoretic text, which forms the basis of most modern English translations of the Old Testament, is the more accurate or whether one of the translations which pre-dates the masoretic text, such as the Septuagint, Syriac Peshitta, and Samaritan Pentateuch is more accurate. The Dead Sea scrolls comprise roughly 900 documents, including texts from the Hebrew Bible, discovered between 1947 and 1956 in eleven caves in and around the Wadi Qumran (near the ruins of the ancient settlement of Khirbet Qumran, on the northwest shore of the Dead Sea) in the West Bank. ... A portion of the Codex Sinaiticus, containing Esther 2:3-8. ... The Pericope Adulteræ (Latin pronunciation ; English pronunciation ; Latin for the passage of the adulterous woman) is the name traditionally given to verses 7:53–8:11 of the Gospel of John, which describe the attempted stoning by Pharisees of an accused adulterous woman, and Jesus defense of her. ... Mark 16 is the final chapter of the Gospel of Mark in the New Testament of the Christian Bible. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      The Comma... This page is about the version of the Bible; for the Harvey Danger album, see King James Version (album). ... The Masoretic Text (MT) is the Hebrew text of the Tanakh approved for general use in Judaism. ... Note: Judaism commonly uses the term Tanakh to refer to its canon, which corresponds to the Protestant Old Testament. ... The Septuagint: A column of uncial text from 1 Esdras in the Codex Vaticanus, the basis of Sir Lancelot Charles Lee Brentons Greek edition and English translation. ... The Peshitta is the standard version of the Bible in the Syriac language. ... This entry incorporates text from Eastons Bible Dictionary, 1897, with some modernisation. ...


Some accuse Christians of translating the Bible in a dishonest way to make the text reflect Christian doctrine. For example, Muslim convert Gary Miller (Abdul-Ahad Omar) points out that modern English translations avoid using the word worship in some contexts ("Nebuchadnezzar came to Daniel and he worshiped him") while crucially retaining it in others ("a man came to Jesus and he worshiped him").[50] and that the word Messiah or "anointed one" is translated differently when applied to Cyrus the Persian in Isaiah, chapter 45, and when applied to Jesus. Miller claims that this is a deliberately inconsistent translation, in order to "give us the impression that there is only one Messiah, one Christ and no other."[51]


Bart D. Ehrman makes similar claims in his book Misquoting Jesus. In Chapter 7 of the book, he discusses theologically motivated alterations of the text. He argues, for example, that scribes added Luke 22:43-44 in an attempt to counter the arguments that Jesus was not fully human and did not have a body. In Chapter 8, he argues that texts were changed in order to minimize the role of women and counter the Jews and pagans. Bart D. Ehrman is a New Testament scholar and an expert on early Christianity. ...


Virgin: Matthew 1:22-1:23 reads: "All this took place to fulfill what the Lord had said through the prophet: "The virgin will be with child and will give birth to a son, and they will call him Immanuel" — which means, "God with us." This verse is, according to Jews (and other critics of the doctrine of the Virgin Birth), a misquoting of Isaiah 7:14. Jewish translations of the verse reads: "Behold, the young woman is with child and will bear a son and she will call his name Immanuel." Moreover, it is claimed that Christians have taken this verse out of context (see Immanuel for further information).[52] Link title Immanuel is also a town in Israel, near Ariel. ...


Another example is Matthew 2:23: "And he came and dwelt in a city called Nazareth, that it might be fulfilled which was spoken by the prophets, 'He shall be called a Nazarene.'" A Jewish website claims that "Since a Nazarene is a resident of the city of Nazareth and this city did not exist during the time period of the Jewish Bible, it is impossible to find this quotation in the Hebrew Scriptures. It was fabricated."[52] However, one common suggestion is that the New Testament verse is based on a passage relating to Nazirites, either because this was a misunderstanding common at the time, or through deliberate re-reading of the term by the early Christians. Nazarene may refer to: an artist in the Nazarene movement a member of the Church of the Nazarene. ... A nazirite or nazarite, (in Hebrew: נזיר, nazir), refers to a Jew who took an ascetic vow described in Numbers 6:1-21. ...


Sectarianism

Some have argued that Christianity is undermined by the inability of Christians to agree on matters of faith and church governance, and the tendency for the content of their faith to be determined by regional or political factors. Schopenhauer sarcastically suggests that Christian beliefs are affected by climate:

The Catholic clergy, for example, are fully convinced of the truth of all the tenets of their Church, and so are the Protestant clergy of theirs, and both defend the principles of their creeds with like zeal. And yet the conviction is governed merely by the country native to each; to the South German ecclesiastic the truth of the Catholic dogma is quite obvious, to the North German, the Protestant. If then, these convictions are based on objective reasons, the reasons must be climatic, and thrive, like plants, some only here, some only there. The convictions of those who are thus locally convinced are taken on trust and believed by the masses everywhere.[53]

Christians

Mahatma Gandhi: "I like your Christ. I do not like your Christians. Your Christians are so unlike your Christ."[citation needed] Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi (Gujarati: , Hindi: , IAST: mohandās karamcand gāndhī, IPA: ) (October 2, 1869 – January 30, 1948), was a major political and spiritual leader of India and the Indian independence movement. ...


From the 16th onward into the 20th century, some White Christian Europeans oppressed some non-Whites, non-Christians, and non-Europeans in many parts of the world. As was the case with the West's science, philosophy, and politics, some employed its religion to aid causes that the majority of modern people, Christian and otherwise, now see as abhorrent. [citation needed]


The materialism of affluent Christian countries appears to contradict the claims of Jesus Christ that says it is not possible to worship both Mammon and God[54] at the same time.[55]. At times the example of Christians may be a contributory factor resulting in atheism. "..believers can have more than a little to do with the birth of atheism. To the extent that they neglect their own training in the faith, or teach erroneous doctrine, or are deficient in their religious, moral, or social life, they must be said to conceal rather than reveal the authentic face of God and religion".[56] “Atheist” redirects here. ...


Origins

See also: Historicity of Jesus and Jesus as myth

Some scholars have argued that Christianity adopted many mythological tales and traditions into its views of Jesus. These traditions, largely from Greco-Roman religions, have parallels to the story of Jesus, according to some scholars.[57] This article is about the veracity of Jesus existence. ... Jesus as myth refers to the idea that the narrative of Jesus in the gospels is not about a real person, but a construct of Christian mythology, which parallels mystery religions of the Roman Empire such as Mithraism and the myths of rebirth deities. ... This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ...


Dionysus

See also: Osiris-Dionysus and Dionysus
Dionysus, son of Zeus, holding wine with a faun eating lionskin, portrayed by Michelangelo Buonarroti.
Dionysus, son of Zeus, holding wine with a faun eating lionskin, portrayed by Michelangelo Buonarroti.

The story of Dionysus, son of the Greek Olympian God Zeus, has been seen by several writers as containing parallels to the story of Jesus. Professor Harris writes in his book Understanding the Bible that "the myth of Dionysus foreshadows some later Christian theological interpretations of Jesus' cosmic role. Although Jesus is a historical figure and Dionysus purely mythological, Dionysus's story contains events and themes, such as his divine parentage, violent death, descent into the Underworld, and subsequent resurrection to immortal life in heaven, where he sits near his father's throne, that Christians ultimately made part of Jesus' story. Like Asclepius, Heracles, Perseus, and other heroes of the Greco Roman era, Dionysus has a divine father and human mother. The only Olympian born to a mortal woman, he is also the only major deity to endure rejection, suffering, and death before ascending to heaven to join his immortal parent. The son of Zeus and Semele, a princess of Thebes, Dionysus was known as the "twice born."[58] The term Osiris-Dionysus is used by some historians of religion to refer to a group of deities worshipped around the Mediterranean in the centuries prior to the birth of Jesus. ... This article is about the ancient deity. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (256x717, 19 KB) Summary The Greek God Dionysus. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (256x717, 19 KB) Summary The Greek God Dionysus. ... This article is about the ancient deity. ... Michelangelo (full name Michelangelo di Lodovico Buonarroti Simoni) (March 6, 1475 - February 18, 1564) was a Renaissance sculptor, architect, painter, and poet. ... This article is about the ancient deity. ... The Statue of Zeus at Olympia Phidias created the 12-m (40-ft) tall statue of Zeus at Olympia about 435 BC. The statue was perhaps the most famous sculpture in Ancient Greece, imagined here in a 16th century engraving Zeus (in Greek: nominative: Zeús, genitive: Diós), is... This article is about the ancient deity. ...


Dionysus also parallels the life of Jesus as he and Demeter gave humanity two gifts to come into communion with the divine: grain (or bread) to sustain life and wine to make life bearable. The Athenian Euripides, a playwright from 485-406 BCE, writes in his The Bacchae: A statue of Euripides. ... The Bacchae (also known as The Bacchantes) is a tragedy by the ancient Greek playwright Euripides. ...

Next came the son of the virgin. Dionysus.
bringing the counterpart to bread. wine
and the blessings of life's flowing juices.
His blood, the blood of grape,
lightens the burden of our mortal misery...
it is his blood we pour out
to offer Thanks to the Gods. And through him.
we are blessed.[59]

Professor Harris alludes that "long before Jesus linked wine and bread as part of the Christian liturgy (Mark 14:22-25; Luke 22:17-20) the two tokens of divine favor were associated in the Dionysian tradition. In the Bacchae (worshippers of Bacchus, another name for Dionysus), the Athenian playwright Euripides (c. 485-406 BCE) has the prophet Tiresias observe that Demeter and Dionysus, respectively, gave humanity two indispensable gifts: grain or bread to sustain life and wine to make life bearable. Tiresias urges his hearers to see in Dionysus's gift of wine a beverage that brings into communion with the divine.[60]

One particular wine ritual of the Dyonisian myth followers involved priests and guests. The priests would leave three empty pots in a building for all citizens to see. Pausanias states in his Description of Greece, "The doors of the building are sealed by the priests themselves and by any others who may so be inclined. On the morrow they are allowed to examine the seals, and on going into the building they find the pots filled with wine."[61]

According to Professor Luther H. Martin in his Hellenistic Religions, this wine tradition and that of the emblem liknon, or the process of purifying wheat from chaff via agency of the spirit, was adopted by the earliest Christians.

"This Dionysian wine ritual was incorporated into Christian imagery by the Gospel of John. According to this gospel, the first public act of Jesus was to transform jars of water into wine- the typical Dionysian epiphany miracle. By employing this well-known Dionysian convention, the Gospel at its outset establishes the presence of Jesus as a divine epiphany...the Dionysian liknon represented the possibility of an ecstatic purification by the breath of the spirit as initiates transcended the conditions of everydayness. This image of separating wheat from the chaff through the agency of spirit was also employed by the early Christians (Matt 3:11-12; Luke 3:16-17)."[62]

The list scholars have compiled for parallels of Jesus and Dionysus include:

  • Birth to a divine parent
  • Narrow escape from attempts to kill him as an infant
  • Some "missing" formative years
  • Sudden appearance as a young adult manifesting miraculous gifts
  • Struggle with evil forces
  • Return to his place of origin, commonly resulting in rejection
  • Gift of wine and bread for communion
  • His betrayal, suffering, and death
  • His resurrection to divine status leading to the establishment of a cult honoring his name.

Christian apologists claim the Messianic prophecies which allegedly predicted Jesus' life were around before Dionysus legends. They state that the Messianic prophecies were recorded before the legends of Dionysus and are contained in the Old Testament.[citation needed] Apologists also argue that the Old Testament prophecies are more precise than a comparison of the life of Jesus to Dionysus.[citation needed] Some would point out the differences between Jesus and Dionysus as well.[63]


Horus and Isis

Isis with cow horns, solar disk, sitting on lion throne with Horus on her lap. (Egyptian Late Period)
Isis with cow horns, solar disk, sitting on lion throne with Horus on her lap. (Egyptian Late Period)

Some critics of the historicity of Jesus have pointed to similarities between the stories of Jesus and some late (Hellenistic) versions of ancient Egyptian myths involving Horus and Osiris. For example, the death and resurrection of Horus-Osiris and Horus' nature as both the son of Osiris and Osiris himself, have been seen as foundations for the later Christian doctrines of the resurrection of Jesus and of the Trinity[citation needed]. Image File history File links Isis_Enthroned-Egyptian-650-BCE.jpg‎ File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Isis ... Image File history File links Isis_Enthroned-Egyptian-650-BCE.jpg‎ File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Isis ... For other uses, see Horus (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Osiris (disambiguation). ...


A few scholars and critics theorize further that certain elements of the story of Jesus were embellishments, copied from legends surrounding Horus through an abrupt form of syncretism. Indeed, some even claim that the historical figure of Jesus was copied from Horus wholesale, and retroactively made into a Jewish teacher [citation needed]; these assert that Horus was the basis for elements, such as the infancy narratives, which are found independently in Matthew and Luke, and not in Mark or in the hypothetical source called Q.[citation needed]


Mithras

Comparisons are also made with the tale of Mithras, whose cult existed during the period of the origin of Christianity.[citation needed] This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... This article or section contains too much jargon and may need simplification or further explanation. ...


Responses

A classic response to this criticism is that of J. R. R. Tolkien and subsequently C. S. Lewis, who considered that just because a story was a myth does not preclude it from also having taken place as a historical event. Pagan myths can be seen as prefiguring the life and death of Christ, but without detracting from their historical and religious significance. Lewis even went so far as to suggest that the existence of these Pagan myths lend Christianity credibility, as their existence might reflect God's hidden watch over all human history and His influence on the collective subconscious in the form of "good dreams" and premonitions. Lewis states that he would be far more doubtful of the reality of a supposed historical event the magnitude of the Atonement if humanity had neglected to anticipate it in any way.[citation needed] John Ronald Reuel Tolkien CBE (3 January 1892 – 2 September 1973) was an English philologist, writer and university professor, best known as the author of The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings. ... Clive Staples Lewis (29 November 1898 – 22 November 1963), commonly referred to as C. S. Lewis, was an Irish author and scholar. ... Collective unconscious is a term of analytical psychology, and was originally coined by Carl Jung. ...


See also

The criticism of religion includes criticism of the concept of religion, the validity of religion itself, the practice of religion, and the consequences of religion for humanity. ... Criticism of the Catholic Church subsumes critical observations made about the current or historical Roman Catholic Church, in its actions, teachings, omissions, structure, or nature; theological disagreements would be covered on a denominational basis. ... Anti-Catholicism is discrimination, hostility or prejudice directed at Catholics or the Catholic Church. ... Anti-clericalism is a historical movement that opposes religious (generally Catholic) institutional power and influence in all aspects of public and political life, and the encroachment of religion in the everyday life of the citizen. ... Anti-Protestantism is an institutional, ideological or emotional bias against Protestantism and its followers. ... Jesus is the central figure of Christianity. ... Life-size figure of Joseph Smith Criticism of Mormonism is the criticism of the Latter Day Saint movement, especially of the largest and most prominent group, The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (hereafter referred to as the LDS Church). ... Criticism of Islam has existed since Islams formative stages on philosophical, scientific, ethical, political and theological grounds. ... This does not cite its references or sources. ... when thousands of people call a person as thief, he becomes thief. ... There is debate between science and the Bible, which usually involves how accurately the Bible describes the physical world when compared to contemporary scientific understanding. ... It has been suggested that Biblical astronomy be merged into this article or section. ... Biblical literalism is the supposed adherence to the explicit and literal sense of the Bible. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Illustration depicting atheism as the descent from Christianity. ... Anti-Christian discrimination, anti-Christian prejudice, Christianophobia or Christophobia is a negative categorical bias against Christians or the religion of Christianity. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Leithart, Peter. Against Christianity. ISBN 1-591-28006-0.
  2. ^ Andrews, Dave. "Too Much Christianity, Too Little Christ," Zadok 66 [2000] 12-15.
  3. ^ When Science & Christianity Meet, By Donald R. Shanor, David C. Lindberg, Ronald L. Numbers, p.8
  4. ^ quoted in: Peters, Ted. "Science and Religion". Encyclopedia of Religion pg. 8182
  5. ^ quoted in Ted Peters,Science and Religion, Encyclopedia of Religion, p.8182
  6. ^ A personal Voyage, Carl Sagan.
  7. ^ Ted Peters,Science and Religion, Encyclopedia of Religion, p.8182
  8. ^ From Ferngren's introduction:
    "...while [John] Brooke's view [of a complexity thesis rather than conflict thesis] has gained widespread acceptance among professional historians of science, the traditional view remains strong elsewhere, not least in the popular mind. (p. x) - Gary Ferngren, (2002); Introduction, p. ix)
  9. ^ Gary Ferngren (editor). Science & Religion: A Historical Introduction. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2002. ISBN 0-8018-7038-0. (Introduction, p. ix)
  10. ^ [1]
  11. ^ [2]
  12. ^ The compass in this 13th century manuscript is a symbol of God's act of Creation.
    * Thomas Woods, How the Catholic Church Built Western Civilization, (Washington, DC: Regenery, 2005), ISBN 0-89526-038-7
  13. ^ J.L. Heilbron. London Review of Books. Retrieved on 2006-09-15.
  14. ^ Lindberg, David; Numbers, Ronald L (October 2003). When Science and Christianity Meet. University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0-226-48214-6. 
  15. ^ Goldstein, Thomas (April 1995). Dawn of Modern Science: From the Ancient Greeks to the Renaissance. Da Capo Press. ISBN 0-306-80637-1. 
  16. ^ Pope John Paul II (September 1998). Fides et Ratio (Faith and Reason), IV. Retrieved on 2006-09-15.
  17. ^ a b c d Robinson, B. A. (2006). Christianity and slavery. Retrieved on 2007-01-03.
  18. ^ a b Ostling, Richard N. (September 17th, 2005). Human slavery: why was it accepted in the Bible?. Salt Lake City Desert News. Retrieved on 2007-01-03.
  19. ^ Ostling, Richard N. (September 17th, 2005). Human slavery: why was it accepted in the Bible?. Salt Lake City Desert News. Retrieved on 2007-01-03.
  20. ^ Abolitionist Movement. MSN Encyclopedia Encarta. Microsoft. Retrieved on 2007-01-03.
  21. ^ Civil Rights Movement in the United States. MSN Encyclopedia Encarta. Microsoft. Retrieved on 2007-01-03.
  22. ^ Religious Revivalism in the Civil Rights Movement. African American Review (Winter, 2002). Retrieved on 2007-01-03.
  23. ^ Martin Luther King: The Nobel Peace Prize 1964. The Nobel Foundation. Retrieved on 2006-01-03.
  24. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Hopfe, Lewis M.; Mark R. Woodward (2005). Religions of the World. Saddle River, New Jersey: Pearson, 290-1. 0131195158. 
  25. ^ Paul describes himself as "an Israelite of the tribe of Benjamin, circumcised on the eighth day" Phil. 3:5
  26. ^ Hopfe, Lewis M.; Mark R. Woodward (2005). Religions of the World. Saddle River, New Jersey: Pearson, 299. 0131195158. 
  27. ^ Predominant Religions. Adherents.com. Retrieved on 2007-01-03.
  28. ^ The Christian Revolution: The Changing Demographics of Christianity. World Christianity. St. John in the Wilderness Adult Education and Formation. Retrieved on 2007-01-03.
  29. ^ a b Miller, Sara (July 17, 2002). Global gospel: Christianity is alive and well in the Southern Hemisphere. Christian Century. Retrieved on 2007-01-03.
  30. ^ The Christian Revolution: The Changing Demographics of Christianity. World Christianity. St. John in the Wilderness Adult Education and Formation. Retrieved on 2007-01-03.
  31. ^ The Christian Revolution: The Changing Demographics of Christianity. World Christianity. St. John in the Wilderness Adult Education and Formation. Retrieved on 2007-01-03.
  32. ^ Thurston, Herbert (1910), "St. Joan of Arc", in Obstat,, Nihil, The Catholic Encyclopedia, vol. VIII, New York: Robert Appleton Company, <http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/08409c.htm>
  33. ^ Reconstructing the rise of Christianity: the role of women. By Rodney Stark Accessed 2007 March 19th
  34. ^ A List of Quotations on the Fear of Hell
  35. ^ "Let no cultured person draw near, none wise and none sensible, for all that kind of thing we count evil; but if any man is ignorant, if any man is wanting in sense and culture, if anybody is a fool, let him come boldly [to become a Christian]. Celsus, AD178
  36. ^ A history of Western Philosophy by Bertrand Russell, Simon & Schuster, 1945
  37. ^ Bible Teaching and Religious Practice essay: "Europe and Elsewhere", Mark Twain, 1923)
  38. ^ Albert Einstein, Out of My Later Years (New York: Philosophical Library, 1950), p. 27.
  39. ^ From Witchcraft to Justice: Death and Afterlife in the Old Testament, George E. Mendenhall.
  40. ^ See Psalm 6:6
  41. ^ See Psalm 30:9
  42. ^ From Witchcraft to Justice: Death and Afterlife in the Old Testament, George E. Mendenhall.
  43. ^ See Job 3:11, 13-15, 17-19
  44. ^ a b Hiroshi Obayashi, Death and Afterlife: Perspectives of World Religions. See Introduction.
  45. ^ Shifting Ground in the Holy Land, Jennifer Wallace. Smithsonian Magazine, May 2006.
  46. ^ Hiroshi Obayashi, Death and the Afterlife: Perspectives of World Religions. (Praeger Publishers, 1992.) See Introduction
  47. ^ Stephen L. Harris, Understanding the Bible. (McGraw-Hill, 2002) p 376-7
  48. ^ For instance "What's wrong with being gay?" at ChristianAnswers.net argues that the Old Testament prohbitions against homosexuality are renewed in the New Testament
  49. ^ Britannica Encyclopedia, Jesus Christ, p.17
  50. ^ Gary Miller: "What the Gospels Mean to Muslims"
  51. ^ Gary Miller: "Some Thoughts on the "Proofs" of the Alleged Divinity of Jesus"
  52. ^ a b English Handbook Page 34PDF (999 KiB)
  53. ^ Schopenhauer, Arthur; trans. T. Bailey Saunders. "Religion: A Dialogue", The Essays of Arthur Schopenhauer. 
  54. ^ luke 16:13 “No servant can serve two masters; for either he will hate the one and love the other, or else he will be loyal to the one and despise the other. You cannot serve God and mammon.”
  55. ^ William Rees-Mogg 4 April 2005 edition of the The Times
  56. ^ Gaudium et Spes, 19
  57. ^ Brian Branston, The Lost Gods of England
  58. ^ Stephen L. Harris, Understanding the Bible. (McGraw Hill, 2002) p 361
  59. ^ Euripides, The Bacchae. (Plume Publishers, 1982.) Translated by Michael Cacoyannis. p 18
  60. ^ Stephen L. Harris, Understanding the Bible. (McGraw Hill, 2002) p 362-3
  61. ^ Pausanias, Description of Greece: Attica and Corinth. (Harvard University Press, 1918.) VI, 26, 1-2
  62. ^ Luther H. Martin, Hellenistic Religions: An Introduction. (Oxford University Press, 1987.) P 95-6
  63. ^ Holding, J.P. "Dealing Down Dionysus: Did The Greek God of Wine Influence Christian Beliefs?" Tekton. Retrieved July 1, 2007.

This article is about the navigational instrument. ... (12th century - 13th century - 14th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 13th century was that century which lasted from 1201 to 1300. ... A manuscript (Latin manu scriptus, written by hand), strictly speaking, is any written document that is put down by hand, in contrast to being printed or reproduced some other way. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 258th day of the year (259th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 258th day of the year (259th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 3rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 3rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 3rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 3rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 3rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 3rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 3rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 3rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 3rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 3rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 3rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 3rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Celsus (Greek: ) was a 2nd century Greek philosopher and opponent of Christianity. ... Samuel Langhorne Clemens (November 30, 1835 – April 21, 1910),[1] better known by the pen name Mark Twain, was an American humorist, satirist, lecturer and writer. ... “Einstein” redirects here. ... “PDF” redirects here. ... A kibibyte (a contraction of kilo binary byte) is a unit of information or computer storage, commonly abbreviated KiB (never kiB). 1 kibibyte = 210 bytes = 1,024 bytes The kibibyte is closely related to the kilobyte, which can be used either as a synonym for kibibyte or to refer to... Arthur Schopenhauer Arthur Schopenhauer (February 22, 1788 &#8211; September 21, 1860) was a German philosopher born in Gda&#324;sk (Danzig), Poland. ... William Rees-Mogg, Baron Rees-Mogg (born July 14, 1928) is a journalist and politician in the United Kingdom. ... The Times is a national newspaper published daily in the United Kingdom since 1788. ... Gaudium et Spes, the Pastoral Constitution on the Church in the Modern World, was one of the chief accomplishments of the Second Vatican Council. ...

References

  • Joseph McCabe, "A Rationalist Encyclopaedia: A book of reference on religion, philosophy, ethics and science," Gryphon Books (1971). Excerpts appear at: http://www.christianism.com/

Further reading

  • Letter to a Christian Nation, by Sam Harris
  • The Varieties of Scientific Experience: A Personal View of the Search for God, by Carl Sagan
  • From Jesus to Christianity, by Michael L White
  • Where God and Science Meet [Three Volumes]: How Brain and Evolutionary Studies Alter Our Understanding of Religion, by Patrick McNamara
  • Russell on Religion, by Louis Greenspan (Includes most all of Russell's essays on religion)
  • Breaking the Spell, by Daniel Dennett
  • Einstein and Religion, by Max Jammer
  • Out of my later years and the World as I see it, by Albert Einstein
  • Understanding the Bible, by Stephen L Harris
  • Future of an illusion, by Sigmund Freud
  • Civilization and its discontents, by Sigmund Freud
  • Why I am not a Christian and other essays, by Bertrand Russell
  • Death and Afterlife, Perspectives of World Religions, by Hiroshi Obayashi
  • Misquoting Jesus: The Story Behind Who Changed the Bible and Why, by Bart Ehrman
  • The Birth of Christianity : Discovering What Happened in the Years Immediately After the Execution of Jesus, by John Dominic Crossan
  • Why I Rejected Christianity: A Former Apologist Explains, by John W. Loftus

Sigmund Freud (IPA: ), born Sigismund Schlomo Freud (May 6, 1856 – September 23, 1939), was an Austrian neurologist and psychiatrist who founded the psychoanalytic school of psychology. ... Sigmund Freud (IPA: ), born Sigismund Schlomo Freud (May 6, 1856 – September 23, 1939), was an Austrian neurologist and psychiatrist who founded the psychoanalytic school of psychology. ...

External links

Historical perspective

Antisemitism

Skeptical

Apologetic

William Lane Craig (born August 23, 1949) is an American philosopher, theologian, New Testament historian, and Christian apologist. ... Leadership University is a non-profit online information resource for Christian apologetics and articles about theology and biblical studies. ...

Islamic Point of Critics about Christianity

  • Answering Christianity "Islam's Answers"

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Christians believe that as Messiah Jesus was anointed as ruler and saviour of both the Jewish people specifically and of humanity in general, and hold that Jesus' coming was the fulfilment of Old Testament prophecy and the inauguration of the Kingdom of Heaven.
Western Christianity in the Middle Ages was characterized by cooperation and conflict between the secular rulers and the Church under the Pope, and by the development of scholastic theology and philosophy.
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It is quite important when one is defending his position against criticism which comes in the form of a parable to make sure, at the outset, that the parable is not in fact a parody which counterfeits his position.
Thus again Montgomery's criticism (Christianity cannot successfully argue with unbelief if you are a presuppositionalist since the hopeless circularity of an arbitrary faith commitment is seen at the base of both positions) is pointless since the presuppositionalist does not hold to what Montgomery alleges (and intimates by editing his quotations).
The renewed Christian would be undercutting his own character if, instead of genuine knowledge, he thought he could only have probability with respect to Christianity; the believer, says the Bible, has been "renewed unto knowledge."[125] He not only believes but knows the truth,[126] for the very nature of salvation is a knowledge of the truth.
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