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Encyclopedia > Criminology
Criminology and Penology
Schools
Chicago School · Classical School
Conflict Criminology
Environmental Criminology
Feminist School · Frankfurt School
Integrative Criminology
Italian School · Left Realism
Marxist Criminology
Neo-Classical School
Positivist School
Postmodernist School
Right Realism
Criminal justice portal
See also Wikibooks:Social Deviance
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Criminology is the scientific study of crime as an individual and social phenomenon. Criminological research areas include the incidence and forms of crime as well as its causes and consequences. They also include social and governmental regulations and reactions to crime. Criminology is an interdisciplinary field in the behavioural sciences, drawing especially on the research of sociologists and psychologists, as well as on writings in law. In 1885, Italian law professor Raffaele Garofalo coined the term "criminology" (in Italian, criminologia). The French anthropologist Paul Topinard used it for the first time in French (criminologie) around the same time.[1] Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Penology (from the Latin poena, punishment) comprises penitentiary science: that concerned with the processes devised and adopted for the punishment, repression, and prevention of crime, and the treatment of prisoners. ... In sociology and, later, criminology, the Chicago School (sometimes described as the Ecological School) refers to the first major body of works emerging during the 1920s and 1930s specialising in urban sociology, and the research into the urban environment by combining theory and ethnographic fieldwork in Chicago, now applied elsewhere. ... The Classical School in criminology is usually a reference to the eighteenth century work during the Enlightenment by the utilitarian and social contract philosophers Jeremy Bentham and Cesare Beccaria. ... Conflict criminology Largely based on the writings of Karl Marx, conflict criminology claims that crime is inevitable in capitalist societies, as invariably certain groups will become marganalised and unequal. ... Environmental criminology focuses on criminal patterns within particular built environments and analyzes the impacts of these external variables on people’s cognitive behaviour. ... The Feminist School of criminology developed in the late 1960s and into the 1970s as a reaction against the gender distortions and stereotyping within traditional criminology. ... Max Horkheimer (front left), Theodor Adorno (front right), and Jürgen Habermas in the background, right, in 1965 at Heidelberg The Frankfurt School is a school of neo-Marxist social theory (which is more akin to anarchism than communism), social research, and philosophy. ... Integrative Criminology reacts against single theory or methodology approaches, and adopts an interdisciplinary paradigm for the study of criminology and penology. ... Cesare Lombroso (1835-1909) and two of his Italian disciples, Enrico Ferri (1856–1929) and Raffaele Garofalo (1851–1934), founded what became known as the Italian school of criminology. ... In criminology Left Realism is the polar political opposite of Right Realism. ... Marxist criminology is one of the schools of criminology. ... In criminology, the Neo-Classical School continues the traditions of the Classical School within the framework of Right Realism. ... In criminology, the Positivist School has attempted to find scientific objectivity for the measurement and quantification of criminal behaviour. ... In criminology the Postmodernist School applies postmodernism to the study of crime and criminals, and understands criminality as a product of the power to limit the behaviour of those individuals excluded from power, but who try to overcome social inequality and behave in ways which the power structure prohibits. ... In criminology, Right Realism (also known as New Right Realism, Neo-Classicism, Neo-Positivism, or Neo-Conservatism) is the ideological polar opposite of Left Realism. ... Part of a scientific laboratory at the University of Cologne. ... Behaviorism (or behaviourism) is an approach to psychology based on the proposition that behavior is interesting and worthy of scientific research. ... This article or section includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... Psychology (from Greek: ψυχή, psukhÄ“, spirit, soul; and λόγος, logos, knowledge) is both an academic and applied discipline involving the scientific study of mental processes and behavior. ... Lady Justice or Justitia is a personification of the moral force that underlies the legal system (particularly in Western art). ...

Contents

Schools of thought

In the mid-18th century, criminology arose as social philosophers gave thought to crime and concepts of law. Over time, several schools of thought have developed. Social philosophy is the philosophical study of interesting questions about social behavior (typically, of humans). ...


Classical school

The Classical School, which developed in the mid 18th century, was based on utilitarian philosophy. Cesare Beccaria, author of On Crime and Punishment (1763-64), Jeremy Bentham, inventor of the panopticon, and other classical school philosophers argued that (1) people have free will to choose how to act. (2) Deterrence is based upon the utilitarian ontological notion of the human being a 'hedonist' who seeks pleasure and avoids pain, and a 'rational calculator' weighing up the costs and benefits of the consequences of each action. Thus, it ignores the possibility of irrationality and unconscious drives as motivational factors (3) Punishment (of sufficient severity) can deter people from crime, as the costs (penalties) outweigh benefits, and that severity of punishment should be proportionate to the crime.[2] (4) The more swift and certain the punishment, the more effective it is in deterring criminal behavior. The Classical school of thought came about at a time when major reform in penology occurred, with prisons developed as a form of punishment. Also, this time period saw many legal reforms, the French Revolution, and the development of the legal system in the United States. The Classical School in criminology is usually a reference to the eighteenth century work during the Enlightenment by the utilitarian and social contract philosophers Jeremy Bentham and Cesare Beccaria. ... Utilitarianism (1861), see Utilitarianism (book). ... Cesare, Marquis of Beccaria (or the Marchese de Beccaria-Bonesana) (March 11, 1738 - November 28, 1794) was an Italian philosopher and politician. ... Dei delitti e delle pene (English: On Crime and Punishment) is a judiciary treatise written by the Italian philosopher and thinker Cesare Beccaria between 1763 and 1764. ... Jeremy Bentham (IPA: or ) (February 15, 1748 O.S. (February 26, 1748 N.S.) – June 6, 1832) was an English jurist, philosopher, and legal and social reformer. ... Panopticon blueprint by Jeremy Bentham, 1791 The Panopticon is a type of prison building designed by English philosopher Jeremy Bentham in the late eighteenth century. ... Look up Punishment in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Penology (from the Latin poena, punishment) comprises penitentiary science: that concerned with the processes devised and adopted for the punishment, repression, and prevention of crime, and the treatment of prisoners. ... Lady Justice or Justitia is a personification of the moral force that underlies the legal system (particularly in Western art). ... The French Revolution (1789–1815) was a period of political and social upheaval in the political history of France and Europe as a whole, during which the French governmental structure, previously an absolute monarchy with feudal privileges for the aristocracy and Catholic clergy, underwent radical change to forms based on...


Positivist school

The Positivist School presumes that criminal behaviour is caused by internal and external factors outside of the individual's control. The scientific method was introduced and applied to study human behavior. Positivism can be broken up into three segments which include biological, psychological and social positivism. In criminology, the Positivist School has attempted to find scientific objectivity for the measurement and quantification of criminal behaviour. ... Scientific method is a body of techniques for investigating phenomena and acquiring new knowledge, as well as for correcting and integrating previous knowledge. ...


Cesare Lombroso, an Italian prison doctor working in the late 19th century and sometimes regarded as the "father" of criminology, was one of the largest contributors to biological positivism.[3] Lombroso took a scientific approach, insisting on empirical evidence, for studying crime.[4] Considered as the founder of criminal anthropology, he suggested that physiological traits such as the measurements of one's cheek bones or hairline, or a cleft palate, considered to be throwbacks to Neanderthal man, were indicative of "atavistic" criminal tendencies. This approach, influenced by the earlier theory of phrenology and by Charles Darwin and his theory of evolution, has been superseded, but more modern research examines genetic characteristics and the chemistry of nutrition to determine whether there is an effect on violent behaviour (see Natural Justice). Enrico Ferri, a student of Lombroso, believed that social as well as biological factors played a role, and held the view that criminals should not be held responsible for the factors causing their criminality were beyond their control. Lombroso's biological theories have since been rejected by criminologists, with control groups not used in his studies.[5] Cesare Lombroso Cesare Lombroso (Verona, November 6, 1835 - Turin, October 19, 1909) was a historical figure in modern criminology, and the founder of the Italian Positivist School of criminology. ... It has been suggested that Race and crime be merged into this article or section. ... Binomial name King, 1864 Neanderthal range Synonyms Palaeoanthropus neanderthalensis The Neanderthal (IPA: , also with , and ), (Homo neanderthalensis) or Neandertal was a species of the Homo genus that inhabited Europe and parts of western Asia. ... An atavism can mean an organism that is a real or supposed evolutionary throwback; the unexpected appearance of primitive traits; or a reversion to or reappearance of a trait that had been present in a lineage in the past, but which had been absent in intervening generations. ... A 19th century phrenology chart. ... For other people of the same surname, and places and things named after Charles Darwin, see Darwin. ... This article is about biological evolution. ... The updated USDA food pyramid, published in 2005, is a general nutrition guide for recommended food consumption. ... Natural justice is a legal philosophy used in some jurisdictions in the determination of just, or fair, processes in legal proceedings. ... Enrico Ferri (1856–1929) was an Italian criminologist and socialist who continued the work of Cesare Lombroso (see Anthropological criminology). ... From Latin ex- + -periri (akin to periculum attempt). ...


Hans Eysenck (1964, 1977), a British psychologist, claimed that psychological factors such as Extraversion and Neuroticism made a person more likely to commit criminal acts. He also includes a Psychoticism dimension that includes traits similar to the psychopathic profile, developed by Hervey M. Cleckley and later Robert Hare. He also based his model on early parental socialization of the child; his approach bridges the gap between biological explanations and environmental or social learning based approaches, (see e.g. social psychologists B. F. Skinner (1938), Albert Bandura (1973), and the topic of "nature vs. nurture".) Hans Eysenck Hans Jürgen Eysenck (March 4, 1916 - September 4, 1997) was an eminent psychologist, most remembered for his work on intelligence and personality, though he worked in a wide range of areas. ... The terms Introvert and Extrovert (originally spelled Extravert by Carl Jung, who invented the terms) are referred to as attitudes and show how a person orients and receives their energy. ... For the band, see Neurotic (band). ... Psychoticism is one of the three traits used by the psychologist Hans Eysenck in his P-E-N model (psychoticism, extraversion and neuroticism) model of personality. ... Antisocial personality disorder (APD) is a personality disorder which is often characterised by antisocial and impulsive behaviour. ... The pioneer of the research of psychopathy was Dr. Hervey Cleckley who released in 1941 a book called The Mask of Sanity: An Attempt to Clarify Some Issues About the So-Called Psychopathic Personality. ... Dr. Robert D. Hare is a researcher renowned in the field of criminal psychology. ... This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Burrhus Frederic Skinner Burrhus Frederic Skinner (March 20, 1904 – August 18, 1990) was an American psychologist and author. ... Albert Bandura (born December 4, 1925 in Mundare, Canada) is a Ukrainian-Canadian psychologist most famous for his work on social learning theory (or Social Cognitivism) and self efficacy. ... This article needs cleanup, so as to conform to a higher standard. ...


Sociological positivism postulates that societal factors such as poverty, membership of subcultures, or low levels of education can predispose people to crime. Adolphe Quetelet made use of data and statistical analysis to gain insight into relationship between crime and sociological factors. He found that age, gender, poverty, education, and alcohol consumption were important factors related to crime.[6] Rawson W. Rawson utilized crime statistics to suggest a link between population density and crime rates, with crowded cities creating an environment conducive for crime.[7] Joseph Fletcher and John Glyde also presented papers to the Statistical Society of London on their studies of crime and its distribution.[8] Henry Mayhew used empirical methods and an ethnographic approach to address social questions and poverty, and presented his studies in London Labour and the London Poor.[9] Emile Durkheim viewed crime as an inevitable aspect of society, with uneven distribution of wealth and other differences among people. A boy from an East Cipinang trash dump slum in Jakarta, Indonesia shows what he found. ... Lambert Adolphe Jacques Quételet (February 22, 1796 – February 17, 1874) was a Belgian astronomer, mathematician, statistician and sociologist. ... For other uses, see Data (disambiguation). ... A graph of a normal bell curve showing statistics used in educational assessment and comparing various grading methods. ... This article or section includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... Gender in common usage refers to the sexual distinction between male and female. ... A boy from an East Cipinang trash dump slum in Jakarta, Indonesia shows what he found. ... Functional group of an alcohol molecule. ... It has been suggested that Crime rate be merged into this article or section. ... This graph shows the rate of non-fatal firearm-related crime in the United States from 1993 to 2003. ... Joseph Fletcher (1905-1991) was an American professor who founded the theory of situational ethics in the 1960s, and was a pioneer in the field of bioethics. ... The Royal Statistical Society (RSS) is a learned society for statistics and a professional body for statisticians in the UK. It was founded in 1834 as the Statistical Society of London, in the same week that the Tolpuddle Martyrs were sentenced (see History of Teaching Statistics). ... Henry Mayhew (25 November 1812 - 25th July 1887) was an English journalist and one of the founders of the humorous magazine Punch, and the magazines editor for its beginning days. ... A central concept in science and the scientific method is that all evidence must be empirical, or empirically based, that is, dependent on evidence or consequences that are observable by the senses. ... Ethnography (from the Greek ethnos = people and graphein = writing) refers to the genre of writing that presents varying degrees of qualitative and quantitative descriptions of human social phenomena, based on fieldwork. ... A boy from an East Cipinang trash dump slum in Jakarta, Indonesia shows what he found. ... London Labour and the London Poor is an extraordinary work of Victorian journalism by Henry Mayhew. ... David Émile Durkheim (April 15, 1858 - November 15, 1917) is known as the founder of modern sociology. ... Young people interacting within an ethnically diverse society. ... Wealth from the old English word weal, which means well-being or welfare. The term was originally an adjective to describe the possession of such qualities. ...


Chicago School

The Chicago School arose in the early twentieth century, through the work of Robert Ezra Park, Ernest Burgess, and other urban sociologists at University of Chicago. In the 1920s, Park and Burgess identified five concentric zones that often exist as cities grow, including the "zone in transition" which was identified as most volatile and subject to disorder. In the 1940s, Henry McKay and Clifford R. Shaw focused on juvenile delinquents, finding that they were concentrated in the zone of transition. In sociology and, later, criminology, the Chicago School (sometimes described as the Ecological School) refers to the first major body of works emerging during the 1920s and 1930s specialising in urban sociology, and the research into the urban environment by combining theory and ethnographic fieldwork in Chicago, now applied elsewhere. ... Robert Ezra Park (February 14, 1864–February 7, 1944) was an American urban sociologist, one of the main founders of the original Chicago School of sociology. ... Ernest W. Burgess (May 16, 1886 - December 27, 1966) was an urban sociologist at the University of Chicago. ... Urban sociology is the sociological study of the various statistics among the population in cities. ... The University of Chicago is a private university located principally in the Hyde Park neighborhood of Chicago. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Concentric zone model. ... Juvenile delinquency refers to criminal acts performed by juveniles. ...


Chicago School sociologists adopted a social ecology approach to studying cities, and postulated that urban neighborhoods with high levels of poverty often experience breakdown in the social structure and institutions such as family and schools. This results in social disorganization, which reduces the ability of these institutions to control behavior and creates an environment ripe for deviant behavior. Social ecology is, in the words of its leading exponents, a coherent radical critique of current social, political, and anti-ecological trends as well as a reconstructive, ecological, communitarian, and ethical approach to society. Social Ecology is a radical view of ecology and of social/political systems. ... A boy from an East Cipinang trash dump slum in Jakarta, Indonesia shows what he found. ... See Social structure of the United States for an explanation of concepts exsistance within US society. ... A family in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso in 1997 A family consists of a domestic group of people (or a number of domestic groups), typically affiliated by birth or marriage, or by analogous or comparable relationships — including domestic partnership, cohabitation, adoption, surname and (in some cases) ownership (as occurred in the... Students in Rome, Italy. ... Social disorganization is a criminology theory that was developed by Henry McKay and Clifford R. Shaw of the Chicago School. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Deviant redirects here. ...


Other researchers suggested an added social-psychological link. Edwin Sutherland suggested that people learn criminal behavior from older, more experienced criminals that they may associate with. From The American System of Criminal Justice by George F. Cole and Christopher E. Smith, Tenth Edition, Page 14: Crimes cimitted in the course of business were first described by crimonologist Edwin Sutherland in 1939, when he developed the concept of white-collar crime. ...


Theories of crime

Theoretical perspectives used in criminology include psychoanalysis, functionalism, interactionism, Marxism, econometrics, systems theory, postmodernism, etc. Psychoanalysis is a family of psychological theories and methods based on the work of Sigmund Freud. ... In the social sciences, specifically sociology and sociocultural anthropology, functionalism (also called functional analysis) is a sociological paradigm that originally attempted to explain social institutions as collective means to fill individual biological needs. ... Interactionism is a generic sociological perspective that brings under its umbrella a number of subperspectives: phenomenology ethnomethodology Symbolic interactionism (social psychology) Interactionism is an American sociological current that analyzes the social interaction. ... Marxism is both the theory and the political practice (that is, the praxis) derived from the work of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. ... Econometrics literally means economic measurement. It is a combination of mathematical economics and statistics. ... This article cites its sources but does not provide page references. ... The term Postmodernism (sometimes abbreviated Pomo[1]) was coined in 1949 to describe a dissatisfaction with modern architecture, founding the postmodern architecture. ...


Social structure theories

Social disorganization (neighborhoods)

Social disorganization theory is based on the work of Henry McKay and Clifford R. Shaw of the Chicago School.[10] Social disorganization theory postulates that neighborhoods plagued with poverty and economic deprivation tend to experience high rates of population turnover.[11] These neighborhoods also tend to have high population heterogeneity.[11] With high turnover, informal social structure often fails to develop, which in turn makes it difficult to maintain social order in a community. Social disorganization is a criminology theory that was developed by Henry McKay and Clifford R. Shaw of the Chicago School. ... A heterogeneous compound, mixture, or other such object is one that consists of many different items. ... See Social structure of the United States for an explanation of concepts exsistance within US society. ... Social order is a concept used in sociology, history and other social sciences. ...


Social ecology

Since the 1970s, social ecology studies have built on the social disorganization theories. Many studies have found that crime rates are associated with poverty, disorder, high numbers of abandoned buildings, and other signs of community deterioration.[11][12] As working and middle class people leave deteriorating neighborhoods, the most disadvantaged portions of the population may remain. William Julius Wilson suggested a poverty "concentration effect", which may cause neighborhoods to be isolated from the mainstream of society and become prone to violence. The term working class is used to denote a social class. ... The middle class (or middle classes) comprises a social group once defined by exception as an intermediate social class between the nobility and the peasantry. ... William Julius Wilson (born December 20, 1935) is one of the most a significant American sociologists. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Strain theory (social class)

Strain theory, advanced by American sociologist Robert Merton, suggests that mainstream culture, especially in the United States, is saturated with dreams of opportunity, freedom and prosperity; as Merton put it, the American Dream. Most people buy into this dream and it becomes a powerful cultural and psychological motivation. Merton also used the term anomie, but it meant something slightly different for him than it did for Durkheim. Merton saw the term as meaning a dichotomy between what society expected of its citizens, and what those citizens could actually achieve. Therefore, if the social structure of opportunities is unequal and prevents the majority from realizing the dream, some of them will turn to illegitimate means (crime) in order to realize it. Others will retreat or drop out into deviant subcultures (gang members, "hobos": urban homeless drunks and drug abusers).[13] In criminology, the Strain Theories state that social structures within society may encourage citizens to commit crime. ... Editing Robert K. Merton This article is about the sociologist. ... Culture (Culture from the Latin cultura stemming from colere, meaning to cultivate,) generally refers to patterns of human activity and the symbolic structures that give such activity significance. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Anomie, in contemporary English, means a condition or malaise in individuals, characterized by an absence or diminution of standards or values. ... David Émile Durkheim (April 15, 1858 - November 15, 1917) is known as the founder of modern sociology. ... A dichotomy is a division into two non-overlapping or mutually exclusive and jointly exhaustive parts. ... Deviant redirects here. ... A gang is a group of individuals who share a common identity and, in current usage, engage in illegal activities. ... Drug abuse has a wide range of definitions related to taking a psychoactive drug or performance enhancing drug for a non-therapeutic or non-medical effect. ...


Subcultural theory

Main article: subcultural theory

Following on from the Chicago School and Strain Theory, and also drawing on Edwin H. Sutherland's idea of differential association, subcultural theorists focused on small cultural groups fragmenting away from the mainstream to form their own values and meanings about life. In criminology, Subcultural Theory emerged from the work of the Chicago School on gangs and developed into a set of theories arguing that certain groups or subcultures in society have values and attitudes that are conducive to crime and violence. ... In sociology and, later, criminology, the Chicago School (sometimes described as the Ecological School) refers to the first major body of works emerging during the 1920s and 1930s specialising in urban sociology, and the research into the urban environment by combining theory and ethnographic fieldwork in Chicago, now applied elsewhere. ... From The American System of Criminal Justice by George F. Cole and Christopher E. Smith, Tenth Edition, Page 14: Crimes cimitted in the course of business were first described by crimonologist Edwin Sutherland in 1939, when he developed the concept of white-collar crime. ... In criminology, Differential Association is a theory developed by Edwin Sutherland proposing that through interaction with others, individuals learn the values, attitudes, techniques, and motives for criminal behavior. ...


Albert Cohen tied anomie theory with Freud's reaction formation idea, suggesting that delinquency among lower class youths is a reaction against the social norms of the middle class.[14] Some youth, especially from poorer areas where opportunities are scarce, might adopt social norms specific to those places which may include "toughness" and disrespect for authority. Criminal acts may result when youths conform to norms of the deviant subculture.[15] Albert Cohen (August 16, 1895 - October 7, 1981) was a Greek-born Jewish Swiss novelist who wrote in French. ... Sigmund Freud (IPA: ), born Sigismund Schlomo Freud (May 6, 1856 – September 23, 1939), was an Austrian neurologist and psychiatrist who co-founded the psychoanalytic school of psychology. ... In Freuds psychoanalytic theory, reaction formation is a defense mechanism in which anxiety-producing or unacceptable emotions are replaced by their direct opposites. ... In sociology, a norm, or social norm, is a pattern of behavior expected within a particular society in a given situation. ...


Richard Cloward and Lloyd Ohlin suggested that deliquency can result from differential opportunity for lower class youth.[16] Such youths may be tempted to take up criminal activities, choosing an illegitimate path that provides them more lucrative economic benefits than conventional, over legal options such as minimum wage-paying jobs available to them.[16] Richard A. Cloward (December 25, 1926 - August 20, 2001) was a American sociologist and political activist. ... The minimum wage is the minimum rate a worker can legally be paid (usually per hour) as opposed to wages that are determined by the forces of supply and demand in a free market. ...


British subcultural theorists focused more heavily on the issue of class, where some criminal activities were seen as 'imaginary solutions' to the problem of belonging to a subordinate class. A further study by the Chicago school looked at gangs and the influence of the interaction of gang leaders under the observation of adults.


Individual theories

Trait theories

Biosocial and psychological trait theories have emerged in modern criminology, as scientific knowledge of genetics, biochemistry, and neurology has grown. Biosocial theorists believe in equipotentiality and that genetics significantly influence human behavior. They believe that biological factors, together with environmental and social factors, influence a person's propensity for crime. Research into biosocial theories has looked at vitamin definciency and antisocial behavior, the link between high consumption of sugar and aggressive behavior, and possible influence of hormones. Environmental contamination, particularly lead levels, and links to aggressive behavior is another research focus of biosocial theorists. This article or section includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... Criminal psychology is the study of the wills, thoughts, intentions and reactions of criminals. ... DNA, the molecular basis for inheritance. ... Biochemistry is the study of the chemical processes and transformations in living organisms. ... Neurology is a branch of medicine dealing with disorders of the nervous system. ... Equipotentiality refers to a psychological theory in both neuropsychology and behaviorism. ... Human behavior is the collection of activities performed by human beings and influenced by culture, attitudes, emotions, values, ethics, authority, rapport, hypnosis, persuasion, coercion and/or genetics. ... Retinol (Vitamin A) For the record label, see Vitamin Records A vitamin is an organic compound required in tiny amounts for essential metabolic reactions in a living organism. ... millyfan ... Magnification of grains of sugar, showing their monoclinic hemihedral crystalline structure. ... In psychology and other social and behavioral sciences, aggression refers to behavior that is intended to cause harm or pain. ... Hormone is also the NATO reporting name for the Soviet/Russian Kamov Ka-25 military helicopter. ... Water pollution Pollution is the release of chemical, physical, biological or radioactive contaminants to the environment. ... For Pb as an abbreviation, see PB. General Name, Symbol, Number lead, Pb, 82 Chemical series Post-transition metals or poor metals Group, Period, Block 14, 6, p Appearance bluish gray Standard atomic weight 207. ...


Control theories

Another approach is made by the social bond or social control theory. Instead of looking for factors that make people become criminal, those theories try to explain why people do not become criminal. Travis Hirschi identified four main characteristics: "attachment to others", "belief in moral validity of rules", "commitment to achievement" and "involvement in conventional activities".[17] The more a person features those characteristics, the less are the chances that he or she becomes deviant (or criminal). On the other hand, if those factors are not present in a person, it is more likely that he or she might become criminal. Hirschi expanded on this theory, with the idea that a person with low self-control is more likely to become criminal.[18] A simple example: someone wants to have a big yacht, but does not have the means to buy one. If the person cannot exert self-control, he or she might try to get the yacht (or the means for it) in an illegal way; whereas someone with high self-control will (more likely) either wait or deny themself that need. Social bonds, through peers, parents, and others, can have a countering effect on one's low self-control. For families of low socio-economic status, a factor that distinguishes families with delinquent children from those who are not delinquent is the control exerted by parents or chaperonage.[19] In criminology, Social Control Theory as represented in the work of Travis Hirschi fits into the Positivist School, Neo-Classical School, and, later, Right Realism. ... For other uses, see Self control (disambiguation). ... A peer group is a group of people of approximately the same age, social status, and interests. ... A parent is a father or mother; one who begets or one who gives birth to or nurtures and raises a child; a relative who plays the role of guardian // Mother This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... A chaperon (or chaperone) is an adult who accompanies or supervises one or more young, unmarried men or women during social occasions usually with the specific intent of preventing inappropriate social or sexual interactions. ...


Symbolic interactionism

Symbolic interactionism draws on the phenomenology of Edmund Husserl and George Herbert Mead, as well as subcultural theory and conflict theory.[20] This school of thought focused on the relationship between the powerful state, media and conservative ruling elite on the one hand, and the less powerful groups on the other. The powerful groups had the ability to become the 'significant other' in the less powerful groups' processes of generating meaning. The former could to some extent impose their meanings on the latter, and therefore they were able to 'label' minor delinquent youngsters as criminal. These youngsters would often take on board the label, indulge in crime more readily and become actors in the 'self-fulfilling prophecy' of the powerful groups. Later developments in this set of theories were by Howard Becker and Edwin Lemert, in the mid 20th century.[21] Stanley Cohen who developed the concept of "moral panic" (describing societal reaction to spectacular, alarming social phenomena such as post-World War Two youth cultures (e.g. the Mods and Rockers in the UK in 1964), AIDS and football hooliganism). Symbolic interactionism is a sociological perspective which examines how individuals and groups interact, focusing on the creation of personal identity through interaction with others. ... This article is about the philosophical movement. ... Edmund Gustav Albrecht Husserl (April 8, 1859, Prostějov – April 26, 1938, Freiburg) was a German philosopher, known as the father of phenomenology. ... George Herbert Mead (February 27, 1863 – April 26, 1931) was an American philosopher, sociologist and psychologist, primarily affiliated with the University of Chicago, where he was one of several distinguished pragmatists. ... In criminology, Subcultural Theory emerged from the work of the Chicago School on gangs and developed into a set of theories arguing that certain groups or subcultures in society have values and attitudes that are conducive to crime and violence. ... In sociology, conflict theory states that the society or organization functions so that each individual participant and its groups struggle to maximize their benefits, which inevitably contributes to social change such as changes in politics and revolutions. ... Howard Becker can refer to: Howard Paul Becker (1899-1960), U.S. sociologist Howard Saul Becker (born 1928), U.S. sociologist This is a disambiguation page: a list of articles associated with the same title. ... Stanley Cohen can refer to: Stanley Cohen - neurologist, Nobel Prize winner Stanley Cohen - former MP for Leeds, South-East Stanley Cohen - sociologist Stanley Cohen - geneticist Stanley Cohen - author STANLEY COHEN and RITA LEVI-MONTALCINI for their discoveries of growth factors. ... A moral panic is a reaction by a group of people based on the false or exaggerated perception that some cultural behavior or group, frequently a minority group or a subculture, is dangerously deviant and poses a menace to society. ... The Mods and Rockers were two conflicting British youth subcultures of the early-mid 1960s. ... This article or section needs a complete rewrite for the reasons listed on the talk page. ...


Deterrence

Rational choice theory

Rational choice theory is based on the utilitarian, classical school philosophies of Cesare Beccaria, which were popularized by Jeremy Bentham. They argued that punishment, if certain, swift, and proportionate to the crime, was a deterrent for crime, with risks outweighing possible benefits to the offender. In Dei delitti e delle pene (On Crime and Punishment, 1763-1764), Beccaria advocated a rational penology. Beccaria conceived of punishment as the necessary application of the law for a crime: thus, the judge was simply to conform his sentence to the law. Beccaria also distinguished between crime and sin, and advocated against the death penalty, as well as torture and inhumane treatments, as he did not consider themselves rational deterrents. In criminology, the Rational Choice Theory adopts a Utilitarian belief that man is a reasoning actor who weighs means and ends, costs and benefits, and makes a rational choice. ... In criminology, the Rational Choice Theory adopts a Utilitarian belief that man is a reasoning actor who weighs means and ends, costs and benefits, and makes a rational choice. ... Utilitarianism (1861), see Utilitarianism (book). ... Cesare, Marquis of Beccaria (or the Marchese de Beccaria-Bonesana) (March 11, 1738 - November 28, 1794) was an Italian philosopher and politician. ... Dei delitti e delle pene (English: On Crime and Punishment) is a judiciary treatise written by the Italian philosopher and thinker Cesare Beccaria between 1763 and 1764. ... Penology (from the Latin poena, punishment) comprises penitentiary science: that concerned with the processes devised and adopted for the punishment, repression, and prevention of crime, and the treatment of prisoners. ... Sin is a term used mainly in a religious context to describe an act that violates a moral rule, or the state of having committed such a violation. ... Capital punishment, or the death penalty, is the execution of a convicted criminal by the state as punishment for crimes known as capital crimes or capital offences. ... Torture is defined by the United Nations Convention Against Torture as any act by which severe pain or suffering, whether physical or mental, is intentionally inflicted on a person for such purposes as obtaining from him or a third person information or a confession, punishing him for an act he...


This philosophy was replaced by the Positivist and Chicago Schools, and not revived until the 1970s with the writings of James Q. Wilson, Gary Becker's 1965 article titled "Crime and Punishment [22]" and George Stigler's 1970 article "The Optimum Enforcement of Laws [23]." Rational choice theory argues that criminals, like other people, weigh costs/risks and benefits when deciding whether or not to commit crime and think in economic terms.[24] They will also try to minimize risks of crime by considering the time, place, and other situational factors.[24] James Q. Wilson (born May 27, 1931) is the Ronald Reagan professor of public policy at Pepperdine University in California, and a professor emeritus at UCLA. He has a Ph. ... Gary Stanley Becker (born December 2, 1930) is an economist and a Nobel laureate. ... George Joseph Stigler (1911 - 1991) was a U.S. economist. ... Economics (deriving from the Greek words οίκω [okos], house, and νέμω [nemo], rules hence household management) is the social science that studies the allocation of scarce resources to satisfy unlimited wants. ...


Gary Becker, for example, acknowledged that many people operate under a high moral and ethical constraint, but considered that criminals rationally see that the benefits of their crime outweigh the cost such as the probability of apprehension, conviction, punishment, as well as their current set of opportunities. From the public policy perspective, since the cost of increasing the fine is marginal to that of the cost of increasing surveillance, one can conclude that the best policy is to maximize the fine and minimize surveillance.


With this perspective, crime prevention or reduction measures can be devised that increase effort required to commit the crime, such as target hardening.[25] Rational choice theories also suggest that increasing risk of offending and likelihood of being caught, through added surveillance, police or security guard presence, added street lighting, and other measures, are effective in reducing crime.[25] Crime prevention is a term describing techniques used in deterring crime and criminals. ... This article includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... A security officer guards a construction site. ... Lighting includes both artificial light sources such as lamps and natural illumination of interiors from daylight. ...


One of the main difference between this theory and Jeremy Bentham's rational choice theory, which had been abandoned in criminology, is that if Bentham considered it possible to completely annihilate crime (through the panopticon), Becker's theory acknowledged that a society could not eradicate crime beneath a certain level. For example, if 25% of a supermarket's products were stolen, it would be very easy to reduce this rate to 15%, quite easy to reduce it until 5%, difficult to reduce it under 3% and nearly impossible to reduce it to zero (a feat which would cost the supermarket, in surveillance, etc., that it would outweight the benefices). Jeremy Bentham (IPA: or ) (February 15, 1748 O.S. (February 26, 1748 N.S.) – June 6, 1832) was an English jurist, philosopher, and legal and social reformer. ... Panopticon blueprint by Jeremy Bentham, 1791 The Panopticon is a type of prison building designed by English philosopher Jeremy Bentham in the late eighteenth century. ...


Such rational choice theories, linked to neoliberalism, have been at the basics of crime prevention through environmental design. For the school of international relations, see Neoliberalism (international relations). ... Crime prevention through environmental design (CPTED) is a multi-disciplinary approach to deterring criminal behavior. ...


Routine activity theory

Routine activity theory, developed by Marcus Felson and Lawrence Cohen, drew upon control theories and explained crime in terms of crime opportunities that occur in everyday life.[26] A crime opportunity requires that elements converge in time and place including (1) a motivated offender (2) suitable target or victim (3) lack of a capable guardian.[27] A guardian at a place, such as a street, could include security guards or even ordinary pedestrians who would witness the criminal act and possibly intervene or report it to police.[27] Routine activity theory was expanded by John Eck, who added a fourth element of "place manager" such as rental property managers who can take nuisance abatement measures.[28] Routine activity theory is a sub-field of rational choice criminology, developed by Marcus Felson. ... Look up Place in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Several newspapers go by the name of Guardian: The Guardian, a British newspaper founded in 1821 as the Manchester Guardian, which took its current title in 1959. ... A pedestrian at the intersection of Alinga Street and Northbourne Avenue, Canberra, Australia A pedestrian is a person travelling on foot, whether walking or running. ... Nuisance is a common law tort. ...


Types and definitions of crime

Both the Positivist and Classical Schools take a consensus view of crime — that a crime is an act that violates the basic values and beliefs of society. Those values and beliefs are manifested as laws that society agrees upon. However, there are two types of laws:

  • Natural laws are rooted in core values shared by many cultures. Natural laws protect against harm to persons (e.g. murder, rape, assault) or property (theft, larceny, robbery), and form the basis of common law systems.
  • Statutes are enacted by legislatures and reflect current cultural mores, albeit that some laws may be controversial, e.g. laws that prohibit marijuana use and gambling. Marxist Criminology, Conflict Criminology and Critical Criminology claim that most relationships between State and citizen are non-consensual and, as such, criminal law is not necessarily representative of public beliefs and wishes: it is exercised in the interests of the ruling or dominant class. The more right wing criminologies tend to posit that there is a consensual social contract between State and citizen.

Therefore, definitions of crimes will vary from place to place, in accordance to the cultural norms and mores, but may be broadly classified as blue-collar crime, corporate crime, organized crime, political crime, public order crime, state crime, state-corporate crime, and white-collar crime. This article concerns the common-law legal system, as contrasted with the civil law legal system; for other meanings of the term, within the field of law, see common law (disambiguation). ... Statutory law is written law (as opposed to oral or customary law) set down by a legislature or other governing authority such as the executive branch of government in response to a perceived need to clarify the functioning of government, improve civil order, answer a public need, to codify existing... A legislature is a type of representative deliberative assembly with the power to adopt laws. ... Mores are strongly held norms or customs. ... Look up Cannabis in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Caravaggio, The Cardsharps, c. ... Marxist criminology is one of the schools of criminology. ... Conflict criminology Largely based on the writings of Karl Marx, conflict criminology claims that crime is inevitable in capitalist societies, as invariably certain groups will become marganalised and unequal. ... A state is a political association with effective dominion over a geographic area. ... The word citizen may refer to: A person with a citizenship Citizen Watch Co. ... Criminal law (also known as penal law) is the body of statutory and common law that deals with crime and the legal punishment of criminal offenses. ... John Lockes writings on the Social Contract were particularly influential among the American Founding Fathers. ... It has been suggested that Convention (norm) be merged into this article or section. ... In criminology, blue-collar crime is any crime committed by an individual from a lower social class as opposed to white-collar crime which is associated with crime committed by individuals of a higher social class. ... In criminology, corporate crime refers to crimes either committed by a corporation, i. ... Organized crime or criminal organizations are groups or operations run by criminals, most commonly for the purpose of generating a monetary profit. ... In the standard sense of the phrase, a political crime is an action deemed illegal by a government in order to control real or imagined threats to its survival, at the expense of a range of human rights and freedoms. ... In criminology public order crime is defined by Siegel (2004) as ...crime which involves acts that interfere with the operations of society and the ability of people to function efficiently, i. ... In criminology, state crime is activity or failures to act that break the states own criminal law or public international law. ... In criminology, the concept of state-corporate crime refers to crimes that result from the relationship between the policies of the state and the policies and practices of commercial corporations. ... Within the field of criminology, white-collar crime has been defined by Edwin Sutherland ...as a crime committed by a person of respectability and high social status in the course of his occupation. ...


Subtopics

Areas of study in criminology include:

Comparative criminology is the study of the social phenomenon of crime across cultures, to identify differences and similarities in crime patterns.[29] Crime prevention is a term describing techniques used in deterring crime and criminals. ... It has been suggested that Crime rate be merged into this article or section. ... Deviant redirects here. ... Penology (from the Latin poena, punishment) comprises penitentiary science: that concerned with the processes devised and adopted for the punishment, repression, and prevention of crime, and the treatment of prisoners. ... An approach to law stressing the actual social effects of legal institutions, doctrines, and practices and vice versa. ... Victimology is the study of why certain people are victims of crime and how lifestyles affect the chances that a certain person will fall victim to a crime. ...


See also

Criminal law (also known as penal law) is the body of statutory and common law that deals with crime and the legal punishment of criminal offenses. ... Ethics (via Latin from the Ancient Greek moral philosophy, from the adjective of Ä“thos custom, habit), a major branch of philosophy, is the study of values and customs of a person or group. ... This article or section includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ...

References

  1. ^ Deflem, Mathieu (2006). Sociological Theory and Criminological Research: Views from Europe and the United States. Elsevier, p. 279. ISBN 0762313226. 
  2. ^ Beccaria, Cesare (1764). in Richard Davies, translator: On Crimes and Punishments, and Other Writings. Cambridge University Press, p. 64. ISBN 0521402034. 
  3. ^ Siegel, Larry J. (2003). Criminology, 8th edition. Thomson-Wadsworth, p. 7. 
  4. ^ McLennan, Gregor, Jennie Pawson, Mike Fitzgerald (1980). Crime and Society: Readings in History and Theory. Routledge, p. 311. ISBN 0415027551. 
  5. ^ Siegel, Larry J. (2003). Criminology, 8th edition. Thomson-Wadsworth, p. 139. 
  6. ^ Beirne, Piers (March 1987). "Adolphe Quetelet and the Origins of Positivist Criminology". American Journal of Sociology 92(5): pp. 1140-1169. 
  7. ^ Hayward, Keith J. (2004). City Limits: Crime, Consumerism and the Urban Experience. Routledge, p. 89. ISBN 1904385036. 
  8. ^ Garland, David (2002). "Of Crimes and Criminals", in Maguire, Mike, Rod Morgan, Robert Reiner: The Oxford Handbook of Criminology, 3rd edition. Oxford University Press, p. 21. 
  9. ^ Henry Mayhew: London Labour and the London Poor. Center for Spatially Integrated Social Science.
  10. ^ Shaw, Clifford R. and McKay, Henry D. (1942). Juvenile Delinquency and Urban Areas. The University of Chicago Press. 
  11. ^ a b c Bursik Jr., Robert J. (1988). "Social Disorganization and Theories of Crime and Delinquency: Problems and Prospects". Criminology 26: p. 519-539. 
  12. ^ Morenoff, Jeffrey, Robert Sampson, Stephen Raudenbush (2001). "Neighborhood Inequality, Collective Efficacy and the Spatial Dynamics of Urban Violence". Criminology 39: p. 517-60. 
  13. ^ Merton, Robert (1957). Social Theory and Social Structure. Free Press. 
  14. ^ Cohen, Albert (1955). Delinquent Boys. Free Press. 
  15. ^ Kornhauser, R. (1978). Social Sources of Delinquency. University of Chicago Press. 
  16. ^ a b Cloward, Richard, Lloyd Ohlin (1960). Delinquency and Opportunity. Free Press. 
  17. ^ Hirschi, Travis (1969). Causes of Delinquency. Transaction Publishers. 
  18. ^ Gottfredson, M., T. Hirschi (1990). A General Theory of Crime. Stanford University Press. 
  19. ^ Wilson, Harriet (1980). "Parental Supervision: A Neglected Aspect of Delinquency". British Journal of Criminology 20. 
  20. ^ Mead, George Herbert (1934). Mind Self and Society. University of Chicago Press. 
  21. ^ Becker, Howard (1963). Outsiders. Free Press. 
  22. ^ Gary Becker, "Crime and Punishment", in Journal of Political Economy, vol. 76 (2), March-April 1968, p.196-217
  23. ^ George Stigler, "The Optimum Enforcement of Laws", in Journal of Political Economy, vol.78 (3), May-June 1970, p.526-536
  24. ^ a b Cornish, Derek, and Ronald V. Clarke (1986). The Reasoning Criminal. Springer-Verlag. 
  25. ^ a b Clarke, Ronald V. (1992). Situational Crime Prevention. Harrow and Heston. 
  26. ^ Felson, Marcus (1994). Crime and Everyday Life. Pine Forge. 
  27. ^ a b Cohen, Lawrence, and Marcus Felson (1979). "Social Change and Crime Rate Trends". American Sociological Review 44. 
  28. ^ Eck, John, and Julie Wartell (1997). Reducing Crime and Drug Dealing by Improving Place Management: A Randomized Experiment. National Institute of Justice. 
  29. ^ Barak-Glantz, I.L., E.H. Johnson (1983). Comparative criminology. Sage. 

Gary Stanley Becker (born December 2, 1930) is an economist and a Nobel laureate. ... The Journal of Political Economy is a academic journal run by economists at the University of Chicago and published every two months. ... George Joseph Stigler (1911 - 1991) was a U.S. economist. ... The Journal of Political Economy is a academic journal run by economists at the University of Chicago and published every two months. ...

Bibliography

Cesare, Marquis of Beccaria (or the Marchese de Beccaria-Bonesana) (March 11, 1738 - November 28, 1794) was an Italian philosopher and politician. ... Dei delitti e delle pene (English: On Crime and Punishment) is a judiciary treatise written by the Italian philosopher and thinker Cesare Beccaria between 1763 and 1764. ... Environmental criminology focuses on criminal patterns within particular built environments and analyzes the impacts of these external variables on people’s cognitive behaviour. ... Integrative Criminology reacts against single theory or methodology approaches, and adopts an interdisciplinary paradigm for the study of criminology and penology. ... Philip Pettit - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Law & Society Review is a leading journal in the field of law and society. ...

External links

Wikibooks
Wikibooks has a book on the topic of
  • National Criminal Justice Reference Service (NCJRS)
  • American Society of Criminology
  • Australian Institute of Criminology (AIC)
  • Criminology Mega-Site — Dr. Tom O'Connor (Assistant Professor of Criminal Justice, Austin Peay State University)
  • Stockholm Criminology Symposium
  • College of Criminology and Criminal Justice, Florida State University
  • The New Criminologist, the Professional Journal of Criminology
  • Criminology Timeline from Middlesex University

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