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Encyclopedia > Criminal justice
United States criminal justice system flowchart.
United States criminal justice system flowchart.

Criminal justice is the system of legislation, practices, and organizations, used by the federal, state and local governments, directed at maintaining social control, deter and controlling crime, and sanctioning those who violate laws with criminal penalties. The primary agencies charged with these responsibilities are law enforcement (police and prosecutors), courts, defense attorneys and local jails and prisons which administer the procedures for arrest, charging, adjudication and punishment of those found guilty. When processing the accused through the criminal justice system, government must keep within the framework of laws that protect individual rights. The pursuit of criminal justice is, like all forms of "justice," "fairness" or "process," essentially the pursuit of an ideal. Throughout history, criminal justice has taken on many different forms which often reflect the cultural mores of society. Image File history File links Cjsflowco. ... Image File history File links Cjsflowco. ... Social control refers to social mechanisms that regulate individual and group behavior, in terms of greater sanctions and rewards. ... Deterrence is a theory of justice whereby the aim of punishment is to prevent or deter future mischief. ... For other uses, see Law (disambiguation). ... A trial at the Old Bailey in London as drawn by Thomas Rowlandson and Augustus Pugin for Ackermanns Microcosm of London (1808-11). ... Individual rights represent the moral rights of individuals in society prior to government. ... This article is about the concept of justice. ... iDEAL is an Internet payment method in The Netherlands, based on online banking. ...

Contents

History

The modern criminal justice system has evolved since ancient times, with new forms of punishment, added rights for offenders and victims, and policing reforms. These developments have reflected changing customs, political ideals, and economic conditions. In ancient times through the Middle Ages, exile was a common form of punishment. During the Middle Ages, payment to the victim (or their family), known as wergild, was another common punishment, including for violent crimes. For those who could not afford to buy their way out of punishment, harsh penalties included various forms of corporal punishment. These included mutilation, branding, and flogging, as well as execution. Throughout the history of criminal justice, evolving forms of punishment, added rights for offenders and victims, and policing reforms have reflected changing customs, political ideals, and economic conditions. ... For the span of recorded history starting roughly 5,000-5,500 years ago, see Ancient history. ... Look up Punishment in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For the direction right, see left and right or starboard. ... For other senses of this word, see crime (disambiguation). ... Customs is an authority or agency in a country responsible for collecting customs duties and for controlling the flow of animals and goods (including personal effects and hazardous items) in and out of a country. ... Exile (band) may refer to: Exile - The American country music band Exile - The Japanese pop music band Category: ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... Weregild (Alternative spellings: wergild, wergeld, weregeld, etc. ... Corporal punishment is the deliberate infliction of pain intended to change a persons behavior or to punish them. ... Mutilation or maiming is an act or physical injury that degrades the appearance or function of the (human) body, usually causing death. ... To Brand a person means to burn a symbol into a living persons skin using a hot or cold iron, with the intention that the resulting scar makes the symbol permanent. ... Whipping on a post Flagellation is the act of whipping (Latin flagellum, whip) the human body. ...


Though a prison, Le Stinche, existed as early as the 14th century in Florence, Italy [1], incarceration was not widely used until the 19th century. Correctional reform in the United States was first initiated by William Penn, towards the end of the 17th century. For a time, Pennsylvania's criminal code was revised to forbid torture and other forms of cruel punishment, with jails and prisons replacing corporal punishment. These reforms were reverted, upon Penn's death in 1718. Under pressure from a group of Quakers, these reforms were revived in Pennsylvania toward the end of the 18th century, and led to a marked drop in Pennsylvania's crime rate. John Howard undertook important studies of prisons during the 1770s in the United Kingdom,[2] and Patrick Colquhoun, Henry Fielding and others led significant reforms during the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries.[3] Florence (Italian, Firenze) is a city in the center of Tuscany, in central Italy, on the Arno River, with a population of around 400,000, plus a suburban population in excess of 200,000. ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... For other uses, see William Penn (disambiguation). ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... For other uses, see Torture (disambiguation). ... The Religious Society of Friends, commonly known as Quakers, or Friends, is a religious community founded in England in the 17th century. ... John Howard (September 2, 1726 - January 20, 1790) was a philanthropist and the first English prison reformer. ... Patrick Colquhoun Patrick Colquhoun (14 March 1745-25 April 1820) was a merchant, statistician, magistrate, and founder of the first regular preventive police force in England, the Thames River Police. ... Henry Fielding (April 22, 1707 – October 8, 1754) was an English novelist and dramatist known for his rich earthy humor and satirical prowess and as the author of the novel Tom Jones. ...


Modern police

The first modern police force is commonly said to be the London Metropolitan Police, established in 1829 by Sir Robert Peel, which promoted the preventive role of police as a deterrent to urban crime and disorder.[4] In the United States, police departments were first established in Boston in 1838, and New York City in 1844. Early on, police were not respected by the community, as corruption was rampant. Modernity is a term used to describe the condition of being related to modernism. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... The Metropolitan Police Service (MPS) is the name currently used by the territorial police force which is responsible for Greater London other than the City of London (the responsibility of the City of London Police). ... For other people named Robert Peel, see Robert Peel (disambiguation). ... Preventive police is that aspect of law enforcement intended to act as a deterrent to the commission of crime. ... Nickname: City on the Hill, Beantown, The Hub (of the Universe)1, Athens of America, The Cradle of Revolution, Puritan City, Americas Walking City Location in Massachusetts, USA Counties Suffolk County Mayor Thomas M. Menino(D) Area    - City 232. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ...


In the 1920s, led by Berkeley, California police chief, August Vollmer and O.W. Wilson, police began to professionalize, adopt new technologies, and place emphasis on training and professional qualifications of new hires. Despite such reforms, police agencies were led by highly autocratic leaders, and there remained a lack of respect between police and the community. Following urban unrest in the 1960s, police placed more emphasis on community relations, enacted reforms such as increased diversity in hiring, and many police agencies adopted community policing strategies. Berkeley is a city on the east shore of San Francisco Bay in Northern California, in the United States. ... August Vollmer, circa 1925 August Gus Vollmer (March 7, 1876 - November 4, 1955) was a leading figure in the development of the field of criminal justice in the United States in the early 20th century. ... Orlando Winfield Wilson (May 15, 1900-October 18, 1972), also known as O.W. Wilson, was an influential leader in policing, having served as Superintendent of Police of the Chicago Police Department, chief of police in Fullerton, California and Wichita, Kansas, and authored several books on policing. ... In 1967, state-of-the-art policing was exemplified by a fast response to radio calls in this Black-and-White and a crowd drawn by the siren and flashing lights. ...


In the 1990s, CompStat was developed by the New York Police Department as an information-based system for tracking and mapping crime patterns and trends, and holding police accountable for dealing with crime problems. CompStat has since been replicated in police departments across the United States and around the world, with problem-oriented policing, intelligence-led policing, and other information-led policing strategies also adopted. I like pie. CompStat - or COMPSTAT - (short for COMPuter STATistics or COMParative STATistics) is the name given to the New York City Police Departments accountability process. ... The New York City Police Department (NYPD) , the largest police department in the United States, has primary responsibility for law enforcement and investigation within the five boroughs of New York City. ... Crime mapping is a key component of crime analysis and the CompStat policing strategy. ... Problem-oriented policing (POP), coined by University of Wisconsin-Madison professor Herman Goldstein, is a policing strategy that involves identifying specific crime and disorder problems, such as occur in crime hot spots. ... Intelligence-led policing (ILP) is a policing model that has emerged in recent years which is “built around risk assessment and risk management. ...


Goals

In the United States, criminal justice policy has been guided by the 1967 President's Commission on Law Enforcement and Administration of Justice, which issued a ground-breaking report "The Challenge of Crime in a Free Society." This report made more than 200 recommendations as part of a comprehensive approach toward the prevention and fighting of crime. Some of those recommendations found their way into the Omnibus Crime Control and Safe Streets Act of 1968. The Commission advocated a "systems" approach to criminal justice, with improved coordination among law enforcement, courts, and correctional agencies.[5] The President's Commission defined the criminal justice system as the means for society to "enforce the standards of conduct necessary to protect individuals and the community."[6] The Omnibus Crime Control Act of 1968 gave the rules for obtaining wiretap orders in the United States. ...


The criminal justice system in England and Wales aims to "reduce crime by bringing more offences to justice, and to raise public confidence that the system is fair and will deliver for the law-abiding citizen."[7] In Canada, the criminal justice system aims to balance the goals of crime control and prevention, and justice (equity, fairness, protection of individual rights).[8] In Sweden, the overarching goal for the criminal justice system is to reduce crime and increase the security of the people.[7] For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... This article is about the country. ...


Law

Law[9] is a system of rules usually enforced through a set of institutions. The purpose of law is to provide an objective set of rules for governing conduct and maintaining order in a society. For other uses, see Law (disambiguation). ...


The oldest known codified law is the Code of Hammurabi, which was established circa 1760 BC in ancient Mesopotamia. Throughout history laws have been handed down by many different organizations. In ancient Rome for example, laws had to be voted on by a Senate before taking effect. Throughout the Dark and Middle Ages laws were often created or abolished according to the whim of the ruling nobility. In different parts of the world, law could be established by philosophers or religion. In the modern world, laws are typically created and enforced by governments. These codified laws may coexist with or contradict other forms of social control, such as religious proscriptions, professional rules and ethics, or the cultural mores and customs of a society. An inscription of the Code of Hammurabi. ... For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ... The Roman Senate (Latin: Senatus) was the main governing council of both the Roman Republic, which started in 509 BC, and the Roman Empire. ... Petrarch, who conceived the idea of a European Dark Age. From Cycle of Famous Men and Women, Andrea di Bartolo di Bargillac, c. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... In Chinese history, Legalism (Chinese: ; Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Fa-chia; literally School of law) was one of the four main philosophic schools in the Spring and Autumn Period and the Warring States Period (Near the end of the Zhou dynasty from about the sixth century BC to about the third...


Within the realm of codified law, there are generally two forms of law that the courts are concerned with. Civil laws are rules and regulations which govern transactions and grievances between individual citizens. Criminal law is concerned with actions which are dangerous or harmful to society as a whole, in which prosecution is pursued not by an individual but rather by the state. The purpose of criminal law is to provide the specific definition of what constitutes a crime and to proscribe punishments for committing such a crime. No criminal law can be valid unless it includes both of these factors. The subject of criminal justice is, of course, primarily concerned with the enforcement of criminal law. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The term criminal law, sometimes called penal law, refers to any of various bodies of rules in different jurisdictions whose common characteristic is the potential for unique and often severe impositions as punishment for failure to comply. ...


Criminal justice system

The criminal justice system consists of law enforcement (police), courts, prosecutors, defense attorneys and corrections. Criminal justice agencies are intended to operate within the rule of law. For the band, see The Police. ... This article is about courts of law. ... Corrections refers to one of the components of the criminal justice system. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      The rule of law, in its most basic form, is the principle that no one is above the law. ...


Policing

Main article: Police

The first contact an offender has with the criminal justice system is usually with the police (or law enforcement) who investigate and make the arrest. Police or law enforcement agencies and officers are empowered to use force and other forms of legal coercion and legal means to effect public and social order. The term is most commonly associated with police departments of a state that are authorized to exercise the police power of that state within a defined legal or territorial area of responsibility. The word comes from the Latin politia (“civil administration”), which itself derives from the Ancient Greek πόλις, for polis ("city").[10] The first police force comparable to the present-day police was established in 1667 under King Louis XIV in France, although modern police usually trace their origins to the 1800 establishment of the Marine Police in London, the Glasgow Police, and the Napoleonic police of Paris.[11][12][13] For other senses of this word, see crime (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Arrest (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see State (disambiguation). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... Note: This article contains special characters. ... Louis XIV King of France and Navarre By Hyacinthe Rigaud (1701) Louis XIV (Louis-Dieudonné) (September 5, 1638–September 1, 1715) reigned as King of France and King of Navarre from May 14, 1643 until his death. ... The Marine Police Force, sometimes known as the Thames River Police and said to be Englands first Police force, was formed by magistrate Patrick Colquhoun and a Master Mariner, John Harriott, in 1798 to tackle theft and looting from ships anchored in the Pool of London and the lower... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... The City of Glasgow Police was one of the first professional police forces in modern history. ... Napoléon I, Emperor of the French (born Napoleone di Buonaparte, changed his name to Napoléon Bonaparte)[1] (15 August 1769; Ajaccio, Corsica – 5 May 1821; Saint Helena) was a general during the French Revolution, the ruler of France as First Consul (Premier Consul) of the French Republic from... The Préfet de Police is an official of the Government of France who supervises police and emergency services to Paris and the surrounding eight departments of Hauts-de-Seine, Seine-Saint-Denis, Seine-et-Marne, Val-de-Marne, Essonne, Yvelines and Val dOise, and has other security duties...


The notion that police are primarily concerned with enforcing criminal law was popularized in the 1930s with the rise of the Federal Bureau of Investigation as the pre-eminent "law enforcement agency" in the United States; this however has only ever constituted a small portion of policing activity.[14] Policing has included an array of activities in different contexts, but the predominant ones are concerned with order maintenance and the provision of services.[15] The term criminal law, sometimes called penal law, refers to any of various bodies of rules in different jurisdictions whose common characteristic is the potential for unique and often severe impositions as punishment for failure to comply. ... F.B.I. and FBI redirect here. ... Law Enforcement Agency (LEA) is a generic term used for local and state police, as well as federal agencies (such as the FBI, the BATF, DHS, Europol, Interpol, etc. ... In urban planning, the notion of public order refers a city containing relatively empty (and orderly) spaces; which allow for flexibility in redesiging the citys layout; such perceptions played an important role in the establishments of suburbs. ...


Courts

The courts serve as the venue wherein disputes are then settled and justice is administered. With regard to criminal justice, there are a number of critical players in any court setting. These include the judge, prosecutor, and the defense attorney. The judge, or magistrate, is a person who should be knowledgeable in the law, and whose function is to objectively administer the legal proceedings and offer a final decision to dispose of a case. This article is about courts of law. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The prosecutor is the chief legal representative of the prosecution in countries adopting the common law adversarial system or the civil law inquisitorial system. ... A lawyer in the United States is technically called an attorney at law or an attorney-at-law. ...


In America and a growing number of nations, guilt or innocence is decided through the adversarial system. In this system, two parties will both offer their version of events and argue their case before the court (sometimes before a judge or panel of judges, sometimes before a jury). The case should be decided in favor of the party offers the most sound and compelling argument bsed on the law as applied to the facts of the case. “Guilty” redirects here. ... The adversarial system (or adversary system) of law is the system of law, generally adopted in common law countries, that relies on the skill of each advocate representing his or her partys positions and involves a neutral person, usually the judge, trying to determine the truth of the case. ... In logic, an argument is an attempt to demonstrate the truth of an assertion called a conclusion, based on the truth of a set of assertions called premises. ...


The prosecutor is the lawyer who brings charges against an individual or corporation. It is the prosecutor's duty to explain to the court what crime was committed and to detail what evidence has been found which incriminates the accused. The prosecutor should not be confused with a plaintiff or plaintiff's counsel. Although both serve the function of bringing a complaint before the court, the prosecutor is a servant of the state who makes accusations on behalf of the state in criminal proceedings, while the plaintiff is the complaining party in civil proceedings. For the fish called lawyer, see Burbot. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A plaintiff, also known as a claimant or complainer, is the party who initiates a lawsuit (also known as an action) before a court. ...


A defense attorney counsels the accused on the legal process, likely outcomes for the accused and suggests strategies. The accused, not the lawyer, has the right to make final decisions regarding a number of fundamental points, including whether to testify, and to accept a plea offer or demand a jury trial in appropriate cases. It is the defense attorney's duty represent the interests of the client, raise procedural and evidentiary issues, and hold the prosecution to its burden of proving guilt beyond a reasonable doubt. Defense counsel may challenge evidence presented by the prosecution or present exculpatory evidence and argue on behalf of their client. At trial, the defense attorney may attempt to offer a rebuttal to the prosecutor's accusations. In law, rebuttal is a form of evidence that is presented to contradict or nullify other evidence that has been presented by an adverse party. ...


In modern America, an accused person is entitled to a government-paid defense attorney if he or she is in jeopardy of losing their liberty. Those who cannot afford a private attorney may be provided one by the state. Historically, however, the right to a defense attorney has not always been universal. For example, in Tudor England criminals accused of treason were not permitted to offer arguments in their defense. In many jurisdictions, there is no right to an appointed attorney, if the accused is not in jeopardy of losing his or her liberty. Tudor usually relates to the Tudor period in English history, which refers to the period of time between 1485 and 1558/1603 when the Tudor dynasty held the English throne. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Treason (disambiguation) or Traitor (disambiguation). ...


The final determination of guilt or innocence is typically made by a third party, who is supposed to be disinterested. This function may be performed by a judge, a panel of judges, or a jury panel composed of disinterested citizens. This process varies depending on the laws of the specific jurisdiction. In some places the panel (be it judges or a jury) is required to issue a unanimous decision, while in others only a majority vote is required. In America, this process depends on the state, level of court, and even agreements between the prosecuting and defending parties. Other nations do not use juries at all, or rely on theological or military authorities to issue verdicts. For jury meaning makeshift, see jury rig. ... Voting is a method of decision making wherein a group such as a meeting or an electorate attempts to gauge its opinion—usually as a final step following discussions or debates. ...


Some cases can be disposed of without the need for a trial. In fact, the vast majority are. If the accused confesses their guilt, a shorter process may be employed and a judgment may be rendered more quickly. Some nations, such as America, allow plea bargaining in which the accused pleads guilty, nolo contendre or not guilty, and may accept a diversion program or reduced punishment, where the prosecution's case is weak or in exchange for the cooperation of the accused against other people. This reduced sentence is sometimes a reward for sparing the state the expense of a formal trial. Many nations do not permit the use of plea bargaining, believing that it coerces innocent people to plead guilty in an attempt to avoid a harsh punishment. A plea bargain is an agreement in a criminal case in which a prosecutor and a defendant arrange to settle the case against the defendant. ...


The entire trial process, whatever the country, is fraught with problems and subject to criticism. Bias and discrimination form an ever-present threat to an objective decision. Any prejudice on the part of the lawyers, the judge, or jury members threatens to destroy the court's credibility. Some people argue that the often byzantine rules governing courtroom conduct and processes restrict a layman's ability to participate, essentially reducing the legal process to a battle between the lawyers. In this case, the criticism is that the decision is based less on sound justice and more on the lawyer's eloquence and charisma. This is a particular problem when the lawyer performs in a substandard manner. The jury process is another area of frequent criticism, as there are few mechanisms to guard against poor judgment or incompetence on the part of the layman jurors. For other senses of this word, see bias (disambiguation). ... Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Gay bashing Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Anti-discriminatory Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity Counter-discriminatory Affirmative action Racial... Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Gay bashing Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Anti-discriminatory Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity Counter-discriminatory Affirmative action Racial... For other uses, see Charisma (disambiguation). ...


Corrections

Offenders are then turned over to the correctional authorities, from the court system after the accused has been found guilty. Like all other aspects of criminal justice, the administration of punishment has taken many different forms throughout history. Early on, when civilizations lacked the resources necessary to construct and maintain prisons, exile and execution were the primary forms of punishment. Historically shame punishments and dismemberment have also been used as forms of censure. Corrections refers to one of the components of the criminal justice system. ... Exile (band) may refer to: Exile - The American country music band Exile - The Japanese pop music band Category: ... For other uses, see Shame (disambiguation). ... Dismemberment is the act of cutting, tearing, pulling, wrenching or otherwise removing, the limbs of a living thing. ...


The most publicly visible form of punishment in the modern era is the prison. Prisons may serve as detention centers for prisoners both before, during, and after trial. Early prisons were used primarily to sequester criminals and little thought was given to living conditions within their walls. In America, the Quaker movement is commonly credited with establishing the idea that prisons should be used to reform criminals. This can also been seen as a critical moment in the debate regarding the purpose of punishment. The Religious Society of Friends, commonly known as Quakers, or Friends, is a religious community founded in England in the 17th century. ...


Punishment (in the form of prison time) may serve a variety of purposes. First, and most obviously, the incarceration of criminals removes them from the general population and inhibits their ability to perpetrate further crimes. Many societies also view prison terms as a form of revenge or retribution, and any harm or discomfort the prisoner suffers is "payback" for the harm they caused their victims. A new goal of prison punishments is to offer criminals a chance to be rehabilitated. Many modern prisons offer schooling or job training to prisoners as a chance to learn a vocation and thereby earn a legitimate living when they are returned to society. Religious institutions also have a presence in many prisons, with the goal of teaching ethics and instilling a sense of morality in the prisoners. For other uses, see Revenge (disambiguation). ...


There are numerous other forms of punishment which are commonly used in conjunction or in place of prison terms. Monetary fines are one of the oldest forms of punishment still used today. These fines may be paid to the state or to the victims as a form of reparation. Probation and house arrest are also sanctions which seek to limit a person's mobility and their opportunities to commit crimes without actually placing them in a prison setting. Many jurisdictions may require some form of public service as a form of reparations for lesser offenses. A fine is money paid as a financial punishment for the commission of minor crimes or as the settlement of a claim. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... In justice and law, house arrest is the situation where a person is confined (by the authorities) to his or her residence. ...


Execution or capital punishment is still used around the world. Its use is one of the most heavily debated aspects of the criminal justice system. Some societies are willing to use executions as a form of political control, or for relatively minor misdeeds. Other societies reserve execution for only the most sinister and brutal offenses. Others still have outlawed the practice entirely, believing the use of execution to be excessively cruel or hypocritical. Capital punishment, or the death penalty, is the execution of a convicted criminal by the state as punishment for crimes known as capital crimes or capital offences. ...


Academic discipline

Criminal justice is distinct from the field of criminology, which involves the study of crime as a social phenomena, causes of crime, criminal behavior, and other aspects of crime. Criminal justice emerged as an academic discipline in the 1920s, beginning with Berkeley police chief August Vollmer who established a criminal justice program at the University of California, Berkeley in 1916.[16] Vollmer's work was carried on by his student, O.W. Wilson, who led efforts to professionalize policing and reduce corruption. Other programs were established in the United States at Indiana University, Michigan State University, San Jose State University, and the University of Washington.[17] As of 1950, criminal justice students were estimated to number less than 1,000.[citation needed] Until the 1960s, the primary focus of criminal justice in the United States was on policing and police science. Criminology is the scientific study of crime as an individual and social phenomenon. ... Berkeley is a city on the east shore of San Francisco Bay in Northern California, in the United States. ... August Vollmer, circa 1925 August Gus Vollmer (March 7, 1876 - November 4, 1955) was a leading figure in the development of the field of criminal justice in the United States in the early 20th century. ... Sather tower (the Campanile) looking out over the San Francisco Bay and Mount Tamalpais. ... Orlando Winfield Wilson (May 15, 1900-October 18, 1972), also known as O.W. Wilson, was an influential leader in policing, having served as Superintendent of Police of the Chicago Police Department, chief of police in Fullerton, California and Wichita, Kansas, and authored several books on policing. ... Indiana University is the principal campus of the Indiana University system. ... Michigan State University (MSU) is a co-educational public research university in East Lansing, Michigan USA. Founded in 1855, it was the pioneer land-grant institution and served as a model for future land-grant colleges in the United States under the 1862 Morrill Act. ... San Jose State University San José State University, commonly shortened to San Jose State and SJSU, is the oldest university in what became the California State University system. ... The University of Washington, founded in 1861, is a public research university in Seattle, Washington. ...


Throughout the 1960s and 1970s, crime rates soared and social issues took center stage in the public eye. A number of new laws and studies focused federal resources on researching new approaches to crime control. The Supreme Court, under the leadership of Earl Warren, issued a series of rulings which redefined citizen's rights and substantially altered the powers and responsibilities of police and the courts. The Civil Rights Era offered significant legal and ethical challenges to the status quo. The supreme court functions as a court of last resort whose rulings cannot be challenged, in some countries, provinces and states. ... For the swing saxophonist and occasional singer, see Earle Warren Earl Warren (March 19, 1891 – July 9, 1974) was a California district attorney of Alameda County, the 20th Attorney General of California, the 30th Governor of California, and the 14th Chief Justice of the United States (from 1953 to 1969). ...


In the late 1960s, with the establishment of the Law Enforcement Assistance Administration (LEAA) and associated policy changes that resulted with the Omnibus Crime Control and Safe Streets Act of 1968. The LEAA provided grants for criminology research, focusing on social aspects of crime. By the 1970s, there were 729 academic programs in criminology and criminal justice in the United States.[17] Largely thanks to the Law Enforcement Education Program, criminal justice students numbered over 100,000 by 1975. Over time, scholars of criminal justice began to include criminology, sociology, and psychology, among others, to provide a more comprehensive view of the criminal justice system and the root causes of crime. Criminal justice studies now combine the practical and technical policing skills with a study of social deviance as a whole. The Law Enforcement Assistance Administration (LEAA) was a U.S. federal agency within the U.S. Dept. ... The Omnibus Crime Control Act of 1968 gave the rules for obtaining wiretap orders in the United States. ... Grants are funds given to tax-exempt nonprofit organizations or local governments by foundations, corporations, governments, small business and individuals. ... Criminology is the scientific study of crime as an individual and social phenomenon. ... Sociology (from Latin: socius, companion; and the suffix -ology, the study of, from Greek λόγος, lógos, knowledge [1]) is the systematic and scientific study of society, including patterns of social relationships, social action, and culture[2]. Areas studied in sociology can range from the analysis of brief contacts between anonymous... Psychological science redirects here. ...


See also

Main list: List of basic criminal justice topics

This list is not necessarily complete or up to date - if you see an article that should be here but isnt (or one that shouldnt be here but is), please update the page accordingly. ... Corrections refers to one of the components of the criminal justice system. ... This article is about courts of law. ... The term criminal law, sometimes called penal law, refers to any of various bodies of rules in different jurisdictions whose common characteristic is the potential for unique and often severe impositions as punishment for failure to comply. ... Criminal procedure refers to the legal process for adjudicating claims that someone has violated the criminal law. ... A Criminologist is defined as someone who studies aetiology of crime, criminal behavior, types of crime, and social reaction to crime. ... Criminology is the scientific study of crime as an individual and social phenomenon. ... Throughout the history of criminal justice, evolving forms of punishment, added rights for offenders and victims, and policing reforms have reflected changing customs, political ideals, and economic conditions. ... For other uses, see Law (disambiguation). ... The National Institute of Justice (NIJ) is the research, development and evaluation agency of the United States Department of Justice. ... Organized crime or criminal organizations are groups or operations run by criminals, most commonly for the purpose of generating a monetary profit. ... Penology (from the Latin poena, punishment) comprises penitentiary science: that concerned with the processes devised and adopted for the punishment, repression, and prevention of crime, and the treatment of prisoners. ... Restorative justice is commonly known as a theory of criminal justice that focuses on crime as an act against another individual or community rather than the state. ... Social justice refers to the concept of an unjust society that refers to more than just the administration of laws. ... In law, a sentence forms the final act of a judge-ruled process, and also the symbolic principal act connected to his function. ...

References

  1. ^ Wolfgang, Marvin (1990). "Crime and Punishment in Renaissance Florence". Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology 81: 567-84. 
  2. ^ Garland, David (2002). "Of Crimes and Criminals", in Maguire, Mike, Rod Morgan, Robert Reiner: The Oxford Handbook of Criminology, 3rd edition. Oxford University Press, p. 21. 
  3. ^ Garland, David (2002). "Of Crimes and Criminals", in Maguire, Mike, Rod Morgan, Robert Reiner: The Oxford Handbook of Criminology, 3rd edition. Oxford University Press, p. 20. 
  4. ^ Brodeur, Jean-Paul; Eds., Kevin R. E. McCormick and Livy A. Visano (1992). ”High Policing and Low Policing: Remarks about the Policing of Political Activities,” Understanding Policing. Toronto: Canadian Scholars’ Press, 284-285, 295. ISBN. 
  5. ^ Walker, Samuel (1992). "Origins of the Contemporary Criminal Justice Paradigm: The American Bar Foundation Survey, 1953-1969". Justice Quarterly 9(1). 
  6. ^ President's Commission on Law Enforcement and Administration of Justice (1967). The Challenge of Crime in a Free Society. U.S. Government Printing Office. 
  7. ^ a b Criminal Justice - Aims and Objectives. Scottish Executive Consultations.
  8. ^ Schmolka, Vicki. Principles to Guide Criminal Law Reform. Department of Justice, Government of Canada.
  9. ^ From Old English lagu "something laid down or fixed"; legal comes from Latin legalis, from lex "law," "statute" (Law, Online Etymology Dictionary; Legal, Mirriam-Webster's Online Dictionary)
  10. ^ police. Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved on 2007-02-08.
  11. ^ Dinsmor, Alastair (Winter 2003). Glasgow Police Pioneers. The Scotia News. Retrieved on 2007-01-10.
  12. ^ History. Marine Support Unit. Metropolitan Police. Retrieved on 2007-02-10.
  13. ^ La Lieutenance Générale de Police. La Préfecture de Police fête ses 200 ans Juillet 1800 - Juillet 2000. La Préfecture de Police au service des Parisiens.
  14. ^ Walker, Samuel (1977). A Critical History of Police Reform: The Emergence of Professionalism. Lexington, MT: Lexington Books, 143. ISBN. 
  15. ^ Neocleous, Mark (2004). Fabricating Social Order: A Critical History of Police Power. London: Pluto Press, 93-94. ISBN. 
  16. ^ "Finest of the Finest", TIME Magazine, February 18, 1966. 
  17. ^ a b Savelsberg, Joachim J., Lara L. Cleveland, Ryan D. King (June 2004). "Institutional Environments and Scholarly Work: American Criminology, 1951-1993". Social Forces 82(4): p1275-1302. 

Old English (also called Anglo-Saxon[1], Old English: ) is an early form of the English language that was spoken in parts of what is now England and southern Scotland between the mid-fifth century and the mid-twelfth century. ... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... The translation of law to other European languages faces several difficulties. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 39th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 10th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 41st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Further reading

  • Criminal Justice: Mainstream and Crosscurrents. John Randolph Fuller. 2005. Prentice Hall. Upper Saddle River, NJ.
  • Crime and Punishment in America. Volume 1. Richard C. Hanes and Sharon M. Hanes. 2005. Thomas Gale. Farmington Hills, MI
  • Popular Justice: A History of American Criminal Justice. Samuel Walker. 1980. Oxford University Press, Inc. New York, NY.
  • Crime and Punishment in American History. Lawrence M. Friedman. 1993. Basic Books. New York, NY.
  • The Emerging System of International Criminal Law: Developments in Codification and Implementation, Lyal S. Sunga. 1997. Kluwer Law International. The Hague, The Netherlands.

External links


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