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Encyclopedia > Crimean War
Crimean War

Detail of Franz Roubaud's panoramic painting The Siege of Sevastopol (1904).
Date 1853 - 1856
Location Crimean Peninsula,
Balkans,
Black Sea,
Baltic Sea,
Pacific Ocean
Result Treaty of Paris
Combatants
Allies:
Second French Empire
British Empire
Ottoman Empire
Kingdom of Sardinia
Russian Empire
Bulgarian volunteers
Casualties
90,000 French
35,000 Turkish
17,500 British
2,194 Sardinian
killed, wounded and died of disease
~134,000
killed, wounded and died of disease
Crimean War
SinopPetropavlovskAlmaSevastopolBalaclavaInkermanEupatoriaTaganrogChernaya RiverKarsMalakhoffKinburn - Kurekdere

The Crimean War (18531856) was fought between Imperial Russia on one side and an alliance of France, the United Kingdom, the Kingdom of Sardinia, and the Ottoman Empire on the other. The majority of the conflict took place on the Crimean Peninsula, with additional actions occurring in western Turkey, the Baltic Sea region, and in the Russian Far East. Image File history File links Malakhov1. ... Franz Alekseevitch Roubaud was a Russian painter. ... Scheveningen village, a small section of the Panorama Mesdag (1880-1881), with fake terrain in the foreground. ... 1853 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... 1856 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Motto: Процветание в единстве - Prosperity in unity Anthem: Нивы и горы твои волшебны, Родина - Your fields and mounts are wonderful, Motherland Location of Crimea (red) on the map of Ukraine. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... NASA satellite image of the Black Sea Map of the Black Sea The Black Sea is an inland sea between southeastern Europe and Anatolia that is actually a distant arm of the Atlantic Ocean by way of the Mediterranean Sea. ... The Baltic Sea is located in Northern Europe, from 53°N to 66°N latitude and from 20°E to 26°E longitude. ... The Treaty of Paris of 1856 settled the Crimean War between Russia and Ottoman Empire and its allies France and Britain. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... The neutrality of this article is disputed. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... Motto Dieu et mon droit(French) God and my right1 Anthem God Save the King (Queen) Territory of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland Capital London Language(s) English2 Government Constitutional monarchy Monarch  - 1801–1820 George III  - 1820–1830 George IV  - 1830–1837 William IV  - 1837–1901... Image File history File links Ottoman_Flag. ... Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1680, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–65) Edirne (1365–1453) Constantinople (Ä°stanbul, 1453–1922) Language(s) Ottoman Turkish Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 Osman I  - 1918–22 Mehmed VI... Image File history File links Flag_of_Italy_(1861-1946)_crowned. ... Kingdom of Sardinia, in 1839: Mainland Piedmont with Savoy, Nice, and Sardinia in the inset. ... Image File history File links Romanov_Flag. ... Anthem God Save the Tsar! The Russian Empire in 1914 Capital Moscow Language(s) Russian Religion Russian Orthodoxy Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1721–1725 Peter the Great  - 1894–1917 Nicholas II History  - Accession of Peter I May 7, 1682 NS, April 27, 1682 OS²  - Empire proclaimed October 22, 1721 NS, October... Image File history File links Flag_of_Bulgaria. ... Participants in the Second Bulgarian Legion (1867-1868). ... The naval Battle of Sinope (or Sinop) occurred on 30 November 1853 at Sinop, a sea port in northern Turkey, when Imperial Russian battleships annihiliated a force of Ottoman Empire frigates. ... The Siege of Petropavlovsk was the main operation on the Pacific Theatre of the Crimean War. ... Combatants French Empire United Kingdom Ottoman Empire Russian Empire Commanders Jacques St. ... Combatants Great Britain France Russia Commanders General François Canrobert (later replaced by General Pélissier) Lord Raglen Admiral Kornilov (later replaced by Admiral Pavel Nakhimov) Lt. ... It has been suggested that The Thin Red Line (1854 battle) be merged into this article or section. ... Combatants United Kingdom France Russia Commanders General Pierre Bosquet Lord Raglan General Aleksandr Menshikov Strength British: 8,500 and 38 guns French: 7,500 and 18 guns 31,000 infantry 4,000 cavalry 110 guns est. ... The Storm of Eupatoria was the most important military engagement of the Crimean War during the winter of 1855. ... In the spring of 1855, British-French coalition decided to occupy the Kerch Strait and seaport on Azov Sea, undermining Russian communications and food/military supplies to Russian troops in Crimea. ... The Battle of Chernaya River (Battle of Tchernaïa, Сражение у Черной речки, Сражение у реки Черной) was a... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... The Battle of Malakoff was fought on September 7, 1855 and resulted in a French victory under General MacMahon against the Russians. ... The Battle of Kinburn was a naval engagement during the final stage of the Crimean War. ... Combatants Ottoman Empire Russia Strength 40,000[3] 18,000[3] Casualties 3500[4] 3000[4] The Battle of Kurekdere occurred when the Ottoman army of Kars marched towards Gyumri to attack the Russian force, already weakened with detachments, the battle was related with great spirit and the defeat of... 1853 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... 1856 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Anthem God Save the Tsar! The Russian Empire in 1914 Capital Moscow Language(s) Russian Religion Russian Orthodoxy Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1721–1725 Peter the Great  - 1894–1917 Nicholas II History  - Accession of Peter I May 7, 1682 NS, April 27, 1682 OS²  - Empire proclaimed October 22, 1721 NS, October... Kingdom of Sardinia, in 1839: Mainland Piedmont with Savoy, Nice, and Sardinia in the inset. ... Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1680, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–65) Edirne (1365–1453) Constantinople (Ä°stanbul, 1453–1922) Language(s) Ottoman Turkish Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 Osman I  - 1918–22 Mehmed VI... Motto: Процветание в единстве - Prosperity in unity Anthem: Нивы и горы твои волшебны, Родина - Your fields and mounts are wonderful, Motherland Location of Crimea (red) on the map of Ukraine. ... The Baltic Sea is located in Northern Europe, from 53°N to 66°N latitude and from 20°E to 26°E longitude. ... Far Eastern Federal District (highlighted in red) Russian Far East (Russian: Д́альний Вост́ок Росс́ии; English transliteration: Dalny Vostok Rossii) is an informal term that refers to the Russian part of the Far East, i. ...


The Crimean War is sometimes considered to be the first "modern" conflict and "introduced technical changes which affected the future course of warfare."[1]

Contents

Build-up to war

Conflict over the Holy Land

The chain of events leading to Britain and France declaring war on Russia on March 28, 1853 can be traced to the 1851 coup d'état in France. Napoleon III had his ambassador to the Ottoman Empire, Marquis de Lafayette, force the Ottomans to recognize France as the "sovereign authority" in the Holy Land.[2] March 28 is the 87th day of the year (88th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1853 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... // A coup dÉtat (pronounced ), or simply coup, is the sudden overthrow of a government, often through illegal means by a part of the state establishment — mostly replacing just the high-level figures. ... Napoléon III, born Charles Louis Napoléon Bonaparte (20 April 1808 – 9 January 1873) was the first President of the French Republic from 1848 to 1851, then from 2 December 1851 to 2 December 1852 the ruler of a dictatorial government, then Emperor of the French under the name... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Holy Land (Biblical). ...


Quickly, the Russians made counterclaims to this newest change in "authority" in the Holy Land. Pointing to two more treaties, one in 1757 and the other in 1774, the Ottomans reversed their earlier decision, renouncing the French treaty and insisting that Russia was the protector of the Christian faith in the Ottoman Empire. Napoleon III responded with a show of force, sending the ship of the line Charlemagne to the Black Sea, a "clear violation" of the London Straits Convention.[2] France's startling show of force, combined with aggressive diplomacy and money, made Sultan Abdülmecid I change his mind on the matter of the Holy Land and its protection. The newest treaty, between France and the Ottomans, confirmed France and the Catholic Church as the supreme Christian organization in the Holy Land, supreme control over the various Christian holy places, and gave the keys to the Church of the Nativity, previously in the hands of the Greek Orthodox Church, to the Catholic Church.[3] 1757 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Chesma Column in Tsarskoe Selo, commemorating the end of the Russo-Turkish War. ... This T-and-O map, which abstracts the known world to a cross inscribed within an orb, remakes geography in the service of Christian iconography. ... NASA satellite image of the Black Sea Map of the Black Sea The Black Sea is an inland sea between southeastern Europe and Anatolia that is actually a distant arm of the Atlantic Ocean by way of the Mediterranean Sea. ... In the London Straits Convention concluded on 13 July 1841 between the Great Powers of Europe at the time - Russia, the United Kingdom, France, Austria and Prussia - the ancient rule of the Ottoman Empire was re-established by closing the Turkish straits of Bosporus and the Dardanelles (which linked the... Abdülmecid I (Ottoman Turkish: عبد المجيد اول ‘Abdü’l-MecÄ«d-i evvel) (April 23, 1823 – June 25, 1861) was the 31st sultan of the Ottoman Empire and succeeded his father Mahmud II on July 2, 1839. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The Roman Catholic Church... View of The Church of the Nativity from Manger Square The Church of the Nativity in Bethlehem is one of the oldest continuously operating churches in the world. ... The Orthodox Church of Jerusalem, properly called the Greek Orthodox Church of Jerusalem, is regarded by Orthodox Christians as the mother church of all of Christendom, because it was in Jerusalem that the Church was established on the day of Pentecost with the descent of the Holy Spirit on the...


Due to his stunning diplomatic success in Constantinople, Napoleon III's support in France grew tremendously. However, Napoleon appeared to misjudge the religious convictions of Tsar Nicholas I. Angry over losing the diplomatic war to France in the Porte, the Russian Tsar had his 4th and 5th Army Corps mobilized and deployed along the River Danube and had Count Karl Nesselrode, his foreign minister, begin a diplomatic war to regain Russian prestige with the Ottomans. As Nesselrode, a veteran diplomat, began forming his strategy for the Tsar, he privately confided to the British ambassador in St Petersburg, Sir Hamilton Seymour: Istanbul (Turkish: , Greek: , historically Byzantium and later Constantinople; see other names) is Turkeys most populous city, and its cultural and financial center. ... Nicholas I (Russian: Николай I Павлович, Nikolai I Pavlovich), July 6 (June 25, Old Style), 1796–March 2 (18 February Old Style), 1855), was the Emperor of Russia from 1825 until 1855, known as one of the most reactionary of the Russian monarchs. ... Synonym of the government of the Ottoman Empire. ... The Danube (ancient Danuvius, Iranian *dānu, meaning river or stream, ancient Greek Istros) is the longest river in the European Union and Europes second longest river. ... A count is a nobleman in most European countries, equivalent in rank to a British earl, whose wife is also still a countess (for lack of an Anglo-Saxon term). ... Count Karl Robert Nesselrode (December 14, 1780 - March 23, 1862) was a Russian diplomat and a leading European conservative statesman of the Holy Alliance. ... Saint Petersburg (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991) and...

[The row over the Holy Places] had assumed a new character - that the acts of injustice towards the Greek church which it had been desired to prevent had been perpetrated and consequently that now the object must be to find a remedy for these wrongs. The success of French negotiations at Constantinople was to be ascribed solely to intrigue and violence - violence which had been supposed to be the ultima ratio of kings, being, it had been seen, the means which the present ruler of France was in the habit of employing in the first instance.[4]

As conflict loomed over the question of the Holy Places, Nicholas I and Nesselrode began a diplomatic offensive which they hoped would prevent either Britain or France from interfering in any conflict between Russia and the Ottomans, as well as to prevent them from allying together.

Cornet Henry Wilkin, 11th Hussars, British Army. Photo by Roger Fenton.
Cornet Henry Wilkin, 11th Hussars, British Army. Photo by Roger Fenton.

Nicholas began courting Britain through Seymour. Nicholas insisted that he no longer wished to expand Imperial Russia further, but that he had an obligation to Christian communities in the Ottoman Empire. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 536 × 599 pixels Full resolution (2892 × 3232 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 536 × 599 pixels Full resolution (2892 × 3232 pixel, file size: 1. ... Cornet was the third and lowest grade of commissioned officer in a British cavalry troop, after the Captain and Lieutenant. ... Polish (Winged) Hussar Hussar (original Hungarian spelling: huszár, plural huszárok, Polish: Husaria) refers to a number of types of cavalry used throughout Europe since the 15th century. ... by Roger Fenton, 1855 Valley of the Shadow of Death by Roger Fenton, 1855 Roger Fenton (March 20, 1819 - August 8, 1869) was a pioneering British photographer, one of the first war photographers. ...


The Tsar next dispatched a diplomat, Prince Menshikov, on a special mission to the Porte. By previous treaties, the Sultan was committed "to protect the Christian religion and its churches", but Menshikov attempted to negotiate a new treaty, under which Russia would be allowed to interfere whenever it deemed the Sultan's protection inadequate. Further, this new synod, a religious convention, would allow Russia to control the Orthodox Church's hierarchy in the Ottoman Empire. Menshikov arrived at Constantinople on 16 February on the steam-powered warship Gromovnik. Menshikov broke protocol at the Porte when, at his first meeting with the Sultan, he condemned the Ottoman's concessions to the French. Menshikov also began demanding the replacement of highly-placed Ottoman civil servants. Prince Aleksandr Sergeyevich Menshikov (Александр Сергеевич Меншиков in Russian)(August 26, 1787 — May 1, 1869, all n. ... A synod (also known as a council) is a council of a church, usually a Christian church, convened to decide an issue of doctrine, administration or application. ... February 16 is the 47th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...


The British embassy at Istanbul at the time was being run by Hugh Rose, chargé d'affaires for the British. Using his considerable resources within the Ottoman Empire, Rose gathered intelligence on Russian troop movements along the Danube frontier, and became concerned about the extent of Menshikov's mission to the Porte. Rose, using his authority as the British representative to the Ottomans, ordered a British squadron of warships to depart early for an eastern Mediterranean cruise and head for Istanbul. However, Rose's actions were not backed up by the British admiral in command of the squadron, Whitley Dundas, who resented the diplomat for believing he could interfere in the Admiralty's business. Within a week, Rose's actions were canceled. Only the French sent a naval task force to support the Ottomans. Field Marshal Hugh Henry Rose, 1st Baron Strathnairn, GCSI KCB, (April 6, 1801 – October 16, 1885), British field-marshal, third son of the Right Hon. ... Chargé daffaires (Fr. ... Composite satellite image of the Mediterranean Sea. ... Sir James Whitley Deans Dundas (4 December 1785-3 October 1862) was a British admiral. ... Flag of the Lord High Admiral The Admiralty was formerly the authority in the United Kingdom responsible for the command of the Royal Navy. ...


First hostilities

At the same time, however, the British government of Prime Minister Aberdeen sent Lord Stratford. Through skillful diplomacy, Lord Stratford convinced the Sultan to reject the treaty, which compromised the independence of the Turks. Benjamin Disraeli blamed Aberdeen and Stratford's actions for making war inevitable, thus starting the process by which Aberdeen would be forced to resign for his role in starting the war. Shortly after he learned of the failure of Menshikov's diplomacy, the Czar marched his armies into Moldavia and Wallachia (Ottoman principalities in which Russia was acknowledged as a special guardian of the Orthodox Church), using the Sultan's failure to resolve the issue of the Holy Places as a pretext. Nicholas believed that the European powers, especially Austria, would not object strongly to the annexation of a few neighbouring Ottoman provinces, especially given Russian involvement in suppressing the Revolutions of 1848. The Right Honourable George Hamilton-Gordon, 4th Earl of Aberdeen, PC (January 28, 1784–December 14, 1860) was a Tory/Peelite politician who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1852 until 1855. ... Stratford Canning, 1st Viscount Stratford de Redcliffe KG GCB PC (4 November 1786 - 14 August 1880) was a British diplomat and longtime ambassador to the Sublime Porte. ... Benjamin Disraeli, 1st Earl of Beaconsfield, KG, PC, FRS (December 21, 1804 – April 19, 1881), born Benjamin DIsraeli was a British Conservative statesman and literary figure. ... For other uses of Moldavia or Moldova, see Moldova (disambiguation). ... Map of Romania with Wallachia in yellow. ... The European Revolutions of 1848, known in some countries as the Spring of Nations or the Year of Revolution, were a revolutionary wave which erupted in Sicily and then, further triggered by the revolutions of 1848 in France, soon spread to the rest of Europe and as far afield as...

When the Czar sent his troops into Moldavia and Wallachia (the "Danubian Principalities"), Great Britain, seeking to maintain the security of the Ottoman Empire, sent a fleet to the Dardanelles, where it joined another fleet sent by France. At the same time, however, the European powers hoped for a diplomatic compromise. The representatives of the four neutral Great Powers—Great Britain, France, Austria and Prussia—met in Vienna, where they drafted a note which they hoped would be acceptable to the Russians and Ottomans. The note met with the approval of Nicholas I; it was, however, rejected by Abdülmecid, who felt that the document's poor phrasing left it open to many different interpretations. Great Britain, France and Austria were united in proposing amendments to mollify the Sultan, but their suggestions were ignored in the court of St Petersburg. Image File history File links Sinope_aivaz. ... Image File history File links Sinope_aivaz. ... Combatants Tsarist Russia Ottoman Empire Commanders Osman Pasha Strength 6 battleships, 2 frigates, 3 steamers 7 frigates, 5 corvettes Casualties none 7 frigates, 4 corvettes sunk {{{notes}}} The naval Battle of Sinope (or Sinop) occurred on 30 November 1853 at Sinop, a sea port in northern Turkey, when Imperial Russian... Ivan Konstantinovich Aivazovsky (Russian: , Armenian: - Hovhannes Aivazovsky July 29, 1817 - May 5, 1900) was a Russian painter of Armenian descent, most famous for his seascapes, which constitute more than half of his paintings. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Map of the Dardanelles The Dardanelles (Turkish: Çanakkale BoÄŸazı, Greek: Δαρδανέλλια, Dardanellia), formerly known as the Hellespont (Greek: Eλλήσποντος, Hellespontos), is a narrow strait in northwestern Turkey connecting the Aegean Sea to the Sea of Marmara. ... Flag of Prussia (1894 - 1918) The Kingdom of Prussia existed from 1701 until 1918, and from 1871 was the leading kingdom of the German Empire, comprising in its last form almost two-thirds of the area of the Empire. ... Vienna (German: , see also other names) is the capital of Austria, and also one of the nine States of Austria. ...


Great Britain and France set aside the idea of continuing negotiations, but Austria and Prussia did not believe that the rejection of the proposed amendments justified the abandonment of the diplomatic process. The Sultan proceeded to war, his armies attacking the Russian army near the Danube. Nicholas responded by dispatching warships, which destroyed a patrol squadron of Ottoman frigates and corvettes while they were anchored at the port of Sinop in northern Turkey on November 30, 1853. The destruction of the Turkish ships provided Great Britain and France the casus belli for declaring war against Russia, on the side of the Ottoman Empire. Late in March of 1854, after Russia ignored an Anglo-French ultimatum to withdraw from the Danubian Principalities, Great Britain and France formally declared war. The naval Battle of Sinope (or Sinop) occurred on 30 November 1853 at Sinop, a sea port in northern Turkey, when Imperial Russian battleships annihiliated a force of Ottoman Empire frigates. ... For other meanings of Sinop/Sinope, see Sinope Sinop (also Sinope) is a city with a population of 47,000 on the coast of the Black Sea, in the modern region of Galatia in modern-day northern Turkey, historically known as Sinope. ... November 30 is the 334th day of the year (335th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1853 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ...


Peace attempts

Nicholas felt that because of his services rendered in 1848, Austrians would side with him, or at the very least remain neutral. Austria, however, felt threatened by the Russian troops. When Great Britain and France demanded the withdrawal of Russian forces from the principalities, Austria supported them; and, though it did not immediately declare war on Russia, it refused to guarantee its neutrality.


Though the original grounds for war were lost when Russia withdrew its troops, Great Britain and France continued with hostilities. Determined to address the Eastern Question by putting an end to the Russian threat to the Ottoman Empire, the allies proposed several conditions for a peaceful resolution, including: The Eastern Question, in European history, encompasses the diplomatic and political problems posed by the decay of the Ottoman Empire (Turkey). ...

  1. Russia was to give up its protectorate over the Danubian Principalities;
  2. It was to abandon any claim granting it the right to interfere in Ottoman affairs on the behalf of the Orthodox Christians;
  3. The Straits Convention of 1841 was to be revised;
  4. All nations were to be granted access to the River Danube.

When the Czar refused to comply with these Four Points, the Crimean War commenced. In the London Straits Convention concluded on 13 July 1841 between the Great Powers of Europe at the time - Russia, the United Kingdom, France, Austria and Prussia - the ancient rule of the Ottoman Empire was re-established by closing the Turkish straits of Bosporus and the Dardanelles (which linked the... The Danube (ancient Danuvius, Iranian *dānu, meaning river or stream, ancient Greek Istros) is the longest river in the European Union and Europes second longest river. ...


Crimean War

Siege of Sevastopol

French zouaves and Russian soldiers engaged in hand-to-hand combat at Malakhov Kurgan
French zouaves and Russian soldiers engaged in hand-to-hand combat at Malakhov Kurgan
Mahmudiye (1829), ordered by the Ottoman Sultan Mahmud II and built by the Imperial Naval Arsenal on the Golden Horn in Istanbul, was for many years the largest warship in the world. The 62x17x7m ship-of-the-line was armed with 128 cannons on 3 decks. She participated in many important naval battles, including the Siege of Sevastopol (1854-1855) during the Crimean War (1854-1856). She was decommissioned in 1875.

The following month, though the immediate cause of war was withdrawn, allied troops landed in the Crimea and besieged the city of Sevastopol, home of the Tsar's Black Sea Fleet and the associated threat of potential Russian penetration into the Mediterranean. Combatants Great Britain France Russia Commanders General François Canrobert (later replaced by General Pélissier) Lord Raglen Admiral Kornilov (later replaced by Admiral Pavel Nakhimov) Lt. ... Image File history File links French zouaves and Russian soldiers engaged in hand-to-hand combat at the Malakoff tower. ... Image File history File links French zouaves and Russian soldiers engaged in hand-to-hand combat at the Malakoff tower. ... A zouave from 1888. ... Detail of Franz Roubauds panoramic painting (1904). ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1680, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–65) Edirne (1365–1453) Constantinople (Ä°stanbul, 1453–1922) Language(s) Ottoman Turkish Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 Osman I  - 1918–22 Mehmed VI... The stylized signature of Mahmud II was written in an expressive calligraphy. ... View of Golden Horn from Eyup Sultan Cemetery The Golden Horn (in Turkish Haliç, in Greek Khrysokeras or Chrysoceras or Χρυσοκερας) is an estuary dividing the city of Istanbul. ... Istanbul (Turkish: , Greek: , historically Byzantium and later Constantinople; see other names) is Turkeys most populous city, and its cultural and financial center. ... HMS Victory in 1884, the only surviving example of a ship-of-the-line. ... Combatants United Kingdom France Russia Commanders General François Canrobert (later replaced by General Pélissier) Lord Raglen Admiral Kornilov (later replaced by Admiral Pavel Nakhimov) Lt. ... Location Map of Ukraine with Sevastopol highlighted. ... NASA satellite image of the Black Sea Map of the Black Sea The Black Sea is an inland sea between southeastern Europe and Anatolia that is actually a distant arm of the Atlantic Ocean by way of the Mediterranean Sea. ...


The Russians had to scuttle their ships, and used the naval cannons as additional artillery and the ships' crews as marines. During the siege the Russians lost four 110- or 120-gun 3-decker ships of the line, twelve 84-gun 2-deckers and four 60-gun frigates in the Black Sea, plus a large number of smaller vessels. Admiral Nakhimov suffered a mortal bullet wound to the head, inflicted by sniper Benjamin Schneider, and died on 30 June 1855. The city was captured in September 1855, after about a year-long siege. German battlecruiser Derfflinger scuttled at Scapa Flow. ... Ships of the line were 1st, 2nd, or 3rd-rated ships in the rating system of the Royal Navy. ... For the bird, see Frigatebird. ... Admiral Pavel Stepanovich Nakhimov (June 23, 1802 - June 28, 1855) was one of the most famous admirals in Russian naval history, best remembered as the commander of naval and land forces during the Siege of Sevastopol (Sevastopol) in the Crimean War. ... Arkansas Army National Guard soldiers practice sniper marksmanship at their firing range near Baghdad, Iraq on February 15, 2005. ... June 30 is the 181st day of the year (182nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1855 (MDCCCLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...


In the same year, the Russians besieged and occupied the Turkish fortress of Kars (the Battle of Kurekdere had been fought between the two in the same general area the year before). This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Kars (Armenian: Ô¿Õ¡Ö€Õ½) is a city in northeast Turkey and the capital of the Kars Province, formerly at the head of a sanjak in the Turkish vilayet of Erzurum. ... Combatants Turkey Russia Strength 40,000[3] 18,000[3] Casualties 3500[4] 3000[4] The Battle of Kurekdere occurred when the Turkish army of kars marched towards Gyumri to attack the Russian force, already weakened with detachments, the battle was related with great spirit and the defeat of the...


Baltic theatre

The Baltic was a forgotten theatre of the war. The popularisation of events elsewhere has overshadowed the overarching significance of this theatre, which was close to the Russian capital. From the beginning, the Baltic campaign turned into a stalemate. The outnumbered Russian Baltic Fleet confined its movements to the areas around fortifications. At the same time, British and French commanders Sir Charles Napier and Parseval-Deschènes – although they led the largest fleet assembled since the Napoleonic Wars – considered Russian coastal fortifications, especially the Kronstadt fortress, too well-defended to engage and limited their actions to blockading Russian trade and conducting raids on less fortified sections of the Finnish coast. The Baltic Sea is located in Northern Europe, from 53°N to 66°N latitude and from 20°E to 26°E longitude. ... Saint Petersburg (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991) and... The Baltic Fleet, located at the Baltic Sea. ... Admiral sir Charles Napier (print, c. ... Combatants Austria[1] Portugal Prussia[1] Russia[2] Spain[3] Sweden United Kingdom[4] Ottoman Empire[5] Holy Roman Empire[6] French Empire Holland Kingdom of Italy Kingdom of Naples Duchy of Warsaw Bavaria[7] Saxony[8] Denmark [9] Commanders Archduke Charles Prince Schwarzenberg Karl Mack von Leiberich Gebhard von... 1888 map of Kronstadt bay Kronstadt (Russian: ), or Kronshtadt, Cronstadt, is a strongly fortified Russian seaport town, located on Kotlin Island, near the head of the Gulf of Finland, at , . It lies thirty kilometers west of Saint Petersburg, of which it is the chief port. ...

Bombardment of Bomarsund during the Crimean War
Bombardment of Bomarsund during the Crimean War

Russia was dependent on imports for both the domestic economy and the supply of her military forces and the blockade seriously undermined the Russian economy. Raiding by allied British and French fleets destroyed forts on the Finnish coast including Bomarsund on the Åland Islands and Fort Slava. Other such attacks were not so successful, and the poorly planned attempts to take Hanko, Ekenäs, Kokkola and Turku were repulsed. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (900x699, 184 KB)British fleet bombarding Sveaborg during the Crimean War. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (900x699, 184 KB)British fleet bombarding Sveaborg during the Crimean War. ... Bomarsund is a 19th century fortress in Sund on the Ã…land Islands in the Baltic Sea. ... Bomarsund is a 19th century fortress in Sund on the Ã…land Islands in the Baltic Sea. ... National motto: ? Official language Swedish Capital Mariehamn Governor Peter Lindbäck Premier Roger Nordlund Total Area  - Land  - Water 6,784 km² 1,527 km² 5,258 km² Population  - Total (2002)  - Density 26,257 17. ... The word Hanko may refer to Hanko, Finland, town and municipality Hanko Peninsula Hanko, a Japanese signature stamp Hanko is sometimes a misspelling of Hankou (汉口), China This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Alley in Ekenäs Church of Ekenäs Ekenäs (IPA: //), or Tammisaari (/ˈtÉ‘mːiËŒsɑːri/) in Finnish, is a municipality of Finland. ... Kokkola (Karleby in Swedish) is a town and municipality of Finland. ... Turku (IPA:  , Swedish:  ), founded in the 13th century, is the oldest and fifth largest city in Finland, with a population of 174,868 (as of 2005). ...


The burning of tar warehouses and ships in Oulu and Raahe led to international criticism, and in Britain, an MP, Mr Gibson, demanded in the House of Commons that the First Lord of the Admiralty explain a system which carried on a great war by plundering and destroying the property of defenseless villagers. In the autumn, a squadron of three British warships led by HMS Miranda left the Baltic for the White Sea, where they shelled Kola (which was utterly destroyed) and the Solovki. Their attempt to storm Arkhangelsk proved abortive, as was the siege of Petropavlovsk in Kamchatka. Here, an Anglo-French naval squadron successfully shelled the town but a naval brigade of 800 sailors and marines landed the next day was repulsed. Tar can be produced from corn stalks by heating in a microwave. ... Founded 1605 Country Finland Province Oulu province Region Northern Ostrobothnia Sub-region Oulu Area - Of which land - Rank 384. ... Raahe (Brahestad in Swedish) is a town and municipality of Finland. ... Thomas Milner Gibson (1806-1884), English politician, who came of a good Suffolk family, was born in Trinidad, where his father, an officer in the army, was serving. ... The House of Commons is the lower house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. ... Map of the White Sea Two satellite photos of the White Sea The White Sea (Russian: ) is an inlet of the Barents Sea on the North Western coast of Russia. ... Kola can refer to: Kola nut, a genus of about 125 species of trees Bhuta Kola, an ancient form of worship prevalent among the Tulu-speaking community in Udupi, Dakshina Kannada districts in Karnataka and Kasargod district in Kerala Inca Kola, a very successful cola soft drink made in Peru... Solovki is located in the Solovetsky Islands, White Sea, Russia. ... Arkhangelsk (Russian: ), formerly called Archangel in English, is a city in and the administrative center of Arkhangelsk Oblast, Russia. ... The Siege of Petropavlovsk was the main operation on the Pacific Theatre of the Crimean War. ... Kamchatka Oblast, an oblast in Russia. ...


In 1855, the Western Allied Baltic Fleet tried to destroy heavily defended Russian dockyards at Sveaborg outside Helsinki. More than 1,000 enemy guns tested the strength of the fortress for two days. Despite the shelling, the sailors of the 120-gun ship Rossiya, led by Captain Viktor Poplonsky, defended the entrance to the harbor. The Allies fired over twenty thousand shells but were unable to defeat the Russian batteries. A massive new fleet of more than 350 gunboats and mortar vessels was prepared, but before the attack was launched, the war ended. Year 1855 (MDCCCLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Utsikt över Sveaborg (View over Sveaborg), painting by Augustin Ehrensvärd Suomenlinna (Finnish), or Sveaborg (Swedish), is an inhabited sea fortress built on six islands, today within Helsinki, the capital of Finland. ... Nickname: Location of Helsinki in Northern Europe Coordinates: Country Finland Province Southern Finland Region Uusimaa Sub-region Helsinki Charter 1550 Capital city 1812 Government  - Lord Mayor Jussi Pajunen  - Mayor Pekka Korpinen  - Mayor Ilkka-Christian Björklund  - Mayor Pekka Sauri  - Mayor Paula Kokkonen Area  - City 187. ...

"Bombardment of the Solovetsky Monastery in the White Sea by the Royal Navy". A lubok (popular print) from 1868.

Part of the Russian resistance was credited to the deployment of newly created blockade mines. Modern naval mining is said to date from the Crimean War: "Torpedo mines, if I may use this name given by Fulton to self-acting mines underwater, were among the novelties attempted by the Russians in their defenses about Cronstadt and Sebastopol", as one American officer put it in 1860.[5] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Solovetsky Monastery Solovetsky Monastery (Соловецкий монастырь in Russian), a monastery on the Solovetsky Islands in the White Sea. ... Map of the White Sea Two satellite photos of the White Sea The White Sea (Russian: ) is an inlet of the Barents Sea on the North Western coast of Russia. ... The Royal Navy of the United Kingdom is the oldest of the British armed services (and is therefore the Senior Service). ... In Russian, Lubok (Cyrillic: Лубок) stands for: The bark of tilia, which had a variety of uses in Russia. ... Polish wz. ... The torpedo, historically called a locomotive torpedo, is a self-propelled explosive projectile weapon, launched above or below the water surface, propelled underwater toward a target, and designed to detonate on contact or in proximity to a target. ...


Pacific

Minor naval skirmishes also occurred in the Far East, where a strong British and French Allied squadron under Rear Admiral David Price and Contre-admiral Febrier-Despointes besieged a smaller Russian force under Rear Admiral Yevfimy Putyatin at Petropavlovsk on the Kamchatka Peninsula. An Allied landing force was beaten back with heavy casualties in September 1854, and the Allies withdrew. The Russians escaped under snow in early 1855 after Allied reinforcements arrived in the region. The Siege of Petropavlovsk was the main operation on the Pacific Theatre of the Crimean War. ... Yevfimy Putyatin The frigate Pallada. ... Petropavlovsk may refer to: Petropavl, also known as Petropavlovsk, a city in Kazakhstan, and Petropavlovsk Airport Battleship Petropavlovsk (1897) (эскадренный броненосец Петропавловск), Imperial Russia (1897-1904) Battleship Petropavlovsk (1914) (линейный корабль Петропавловск), a Gangut class battleship in the Baltic Fleet (1914-1953) Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky, a city in Russia Petropavlovsk, name of several rural settlements in Russia... Kamchatka is home to many volcanoes, including Avachinsky shown here. ...


Italian Involvement

With the Italian Unification campaign going on at the time in the Italian states, Camillo di Cavour under orders by Victor Emmanuel II of the Kingdom of Sardinia sent troops to side with French and British forces during the war. This was an attempt at gaining the favour of the French especially when the issue of uniting Italy under the Sardinian throne would become an important matter. The deployment of Italian troops to the Crimea allowed Piedmont to be represented at the peace conference at the end of the war, where it could address the issue of the risorgimento to other European powers. Italian unification (called in Italian the Risorgimento, or Resurgence) was the political and social process that unified disparate states of the Italian peninsula into the single nation of Italy. ... Count Camilio Benso di Cavour (August 10, 1810 _ June 6, 1861) was a statesman who was a leading figure in the movement toward Italian unification and the first Prime Minister of the new Kingdom of Italy. ... King Victor Emmanuel II of Italy Victor Emmanuel II (Italian: Vittorio Emanuele II; March 14, 1820—January 9, 1878) was the King of Piedmont, Savoy and Sardinia from 1849–1861, and King of Italy from 1861 until his death in 1878. ... Kingdom of Sardinia, in 1839: Mainland Piedmont with Savoy, Nice, and Sardinia in the inset. ... Italian unification, also known as Risorgimento (resurrection), was a historical process by which the Kingdom of Sardinia (ruled by the Savoy dynasty with Turin as its capital) gradually conquered the Italian peninsula, including the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies, the Duchy of Modena, the Grand Duchy of Tuscany, the Duchy...


End of the war

Ottoman losses after the Russo-Turkish War of 1877-78 (in yellow)

Peace negotiations began in 1856 under Nicholas I's son and successor, Alexander II. Furthermore, the Tsar and the Sultan agreed not to establish any naval or military arsenal on the Black Sea coast. The Black Sea clauses came at a tremendous disadvantage to Russia, for it greatly diminished the naval threat it posed to the Turks. Moreover, all the Great Powers pledged to respect the independence and territorial integrity of the Ottoman Empire. Download high resolution version (809x1322, 200 KB)Balkan changes after the Crimean War, from Literary and Historical Atlas of Europe, by J.G. Bartholomew, 1912 The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with a... Download high resolution version (809x1322, 200 KB)Balkan changes after the Crimean War, from Literary and Historical Atlas of Europe, by J.G. Bartholomew, 1912 The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with a... 1856 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Alexander (Aleksandr) II Nikolaevich (Russian: Александр II Николаевич) (born 29 April 1818 in Moscow; died 13 March 1881 in St. ...


The Treaty of Paris stood until 1871, when France was crushed by the German states in the Franco-Prussian War of 1870–1871. Whilst Prussia and several other German states united to form a powerful German Empire, the Emperor of the French, Napoleon III, was deposed to permit the formation of a French Republic. During his reign (which began in 1852), Napoleon III, eager for the support of Great Britain, had opposed Russia over the Eastern Question. Russian interference in the Ottoman Empire, however, did not in any significant manner threaten the interests of France. Thus, France abandoned its opposition to Russia after the establishment of a Republic. Encouraged by the decision of the French, and supported by the German minister Otto, Fürst von Bismarck, Russia denounced the Black Sea clauses of the treaty agreed to in 1856. As Great Britain alone could not enforce the clauses, Russia once again established a fleet in the Black Sea. The Treaty of Paris of 1856 settled the Crimean War between Russia and Ottoman Empire and its allies France and Britain. ... 1871 (MDCCCLXXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Combatants Second French Empire North German Confederation allied with south German states (later German Empire) Commanders Napoleon III Otto Von Bismarck, Helmuth von Moltke the Elder Strength 400,000 at the beginning of the war 1,200,000 Casualties 150,000 dead or wounded 284,000 captured 350,000 civilian... Motto Gott mit Uns (German: God with us”) Anthem Heil dir im Siegerkranz (unofficial) Territory of the German Empire in 1914, prior to World War I Capital Berlin Language(s) Official: German Unofficial minority languages: Danish, French, Frisian, Polish, Sorbian Government Constitutional monarchy Emperor  - 1871–1888 William I  - 1888 Frederick... “Bismarck” redirects here. ...


Having abandoned its alliance with Russia, Austria was diplomatically isolated following the war. This led to its defeat in the 1866 Austro-Prussian War and loss of influence in most German-speaking lands. Soon after, Austria would ally with Prussia as it became the new state of Germany, creating the conditions that would lead to World War I. Combatants Austria, Saxony, Bavaria, Baden, Württemberg, Hanover and some minor German States (formerly as the German Confederation) Prussia, Italy, and some minor German States Strength 600,000 Austrians and German allies 500,000 Prussians and German allies 300,000 Italians Casualties 20,000 dead or wounded 37,000 dead... “The Great War ” redirects here. ...


Criticisms and Reform

Photograph of the British army army camp at Balaklava during the Crimean War. Albumen silver print by "Robertson & Beato", 1855

The Crimean war was infamously known for military and logistical incompetence. However, it highlighted the work of women who served as army nurses. The scandalous treatment of wounded soldiers in the desperate winter that followed was reported by war correspondents for newspapers, prompting the work of Florence Nightingale, Mary Seacole, and others and introducing modern nursing methods. Image:Balaklava-camp. ... Image:Balaklava-camp. ... Balaklava (Ukrainian: , Russian: , Crimean Tatar: ) is a town in the Crimea, Ukraine which has an official status of a district of the city of Sevastopol. ... The albumen print, invented in 1850 by Louis Désiré Blanquart-Evrard, was the first commercially exploitable method of producing a print on a paper base from a negative. ... Florence Nightingale, OM, RRC (12 May 1820 – 13 August 1910), who came to be known as The Lady with the Lamp, was a pioneer of modern nursing and a noted statistician. ... A portrait of Mary Seacole in oils, c. ...


The Crimean War also introduced the first tactical use of railways and other modern inventions such as the telegraph. The Crimean War employed modern military tactics, such as trenches and blind artillery fire. The use of the Minié ball for shot, coupled with the rifling of barrels, greatly increased Allied rifle range and damage. Telegraphy (from the Greek words tele = far away and grapho = write) is the long distance transmission of written messages without physical transport of letters, originally over wire. ... 1855 minie ball design from Harpers Ferry, West Virginia The Minié ball (or minie ball) is a type of muzzle-loading rifle ordnance named after its main co-developer, Claude-Étienne Minié. It came to prominence in the Crimean War and American Civil War. ...


The British Army system of sale of commissions came under great scrutiny during the war, especially in connection with the Battle of Balaclava, which saw the ill-fated Charge of the Light Brigade, leading, eventually, to its abolition. The British Army is the land armed forces branch of the British Armed Forces. ... Through most of the history of the British Army it was common practice for officers to purchase their rank. ... It has been suggested that The Thin Red Line (1854 battle) be merged into this article or section. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


Major events of the war

Crimea War Memorial near Regent Street, St James's Park, London
Crimea War Memorial near Regent Street, St James's Park, London
  • It was the first war where the electric telegraph started to have a significant effect, with the first 'live' war reporting to The Times by William Howard Russell. Indeed, some credit Russell with prompting the resignation of the sitting British government through his reporting of the lackluster shape of the British forces deployed to the Crimea. Additionally, the telegraph reduced the independence of British from their commanders in London due to such rapid communications. Newspaper readership informed public opinion in the United Kingdom and France as never before.
  • Florence Nightingale and Mary Seacole came to prominence for their contributions in the field of nursing.

Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2304 × 3072 pixel, file size: 2. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2304 × 3072 pixel, file size: 2. ... St. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... Anatolia and Europe Anatolia (Turkish: from Greek: Ανατολία - Anatolia) is a peninsula of Western Asia which forms the greater part of the Asian portion of Turkey, as opposed to the European portion (Thrace, or traditionally Rumelia). ... The Baltic Sea is located in Northern Europe, from 53°N to 66°N latitude and from 20°E to 26°E longitude. ... Map of the White Sea Two satellite photos of the White Sea The White Sea (Russian: ) is an inlet of the Barents Sea on the North Western coast of Russia. ... Central Asia, circa 1848. ... For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Map of the Dardanelles The Dardanelles (Turkish: Çanakkale BoÄŸazı, Greek: Δαρδανέλλια, Dardanellia), formerly known as the Hellespont (Greek: Eλλήσποντος, Hellespontos), is a narrow strait in northwestern Turkey connecting the Aegean Sea to the Sea of Marmara. ... The naval Battle of Sinope (or Sinop) occurred on 30 November 1853 at Sinop, a sea port in northern Turkey, when Imperial Russian battleships annihiliated a force of Ottoman Empire frigates. ... November 30 is the 334th day of the year (335th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1853 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Combatants French Empire United Kingdom Ottoman Empire Russian Empire Commanders Jacques St. ... September 20 is the 263rd day of the year (264th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1854 (MDCCCLIV) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Combatants United Kingdom France Russia Commanders General François Canrobert (later replaced by General Pélissier) Lord Raglen Admiral Kornilov (later replaced by Admiral Pavel Nakhimov) Lt. ... Sebastopol may refer to: Sebastopol, Wales, United Kingdom Sebastopol, California, USA Sebastopol, Mississippi, USA Sebastopol, New South Wales, Australia Sebastopol (cannon), a giant mortar commissioned by Ethiopian Emperor Theodore II Sevastopol, a city in Ukraine, used to be transliterated as Sebastopol in English Sevastopol (disambiguation) Category: ... September 25 is the 268th day of the year (269th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1854 (MDCCCLIV) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... September 8 is the 251st day of the year (252nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1855 (MDCCCLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... It has been suggested that The Thin Red Line (1854 battle) be merged into this article or section. ... October 25 is the 298th day of the year (299th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1854 (MDCCCLIV) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Combatants United Kingdom France Russia Commanders General Pierre Bosquet Lord Raglan General Aleksandr Menshikov Strength British: 8,500 and 38 guns French: 7,500 and 18 guns 31,000 infantry 4,000 cavalry 110 guns est. ... November 5 is the 309th day of the year (310th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 56 days remaining. ... 1854 (MDCCCLIV) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... The Storm of Eupatoria was the most important military engagement of the Crimean War during the winter of 1855. ... February 17 is the 48th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1855 (MDCCCLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... The Battle of Chernaya River (Battle of Tchernaïa, Сражение у Черной речки, Сражение у реки Черной) was a... August 25 is the 237th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (238th in leap years), with 128 days remaining. ... Year 1855 (MDCCCLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... November 28 is the 332nd day (333rd in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1855 (MDCCCLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Optical Telegraf of Claude Chappe on the Litermont near Nalbach, Germany Telegraphy (from the Greek words tele (τηλε) = far and graphein (γραφειν) = write) is the long-distance transmission of written messages without physical transport of letters, originally by changing something that could be observed from a distance (optical telegraphy). ... The Times is a national newspaper published daily in the United Kingdom since 1785, and under its current name since 1788. ... Categories: People stubs | 1821 births | 1907 deaths ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... Florence Nightingale, OM, RRC (12 May 1820 – 13 August 1910), who came to be known as The Lady with the Lamp, was a pioneer of modern nursing and a noted statistician. ... A portrait of Mary Seacole in oils, c. ...

Prominent military commanders

Chapel in Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky, commemorating the Siege of Petropavlovsk in 1854
Chapel in Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky, commemorating the Siege of Petropavlovsk in 1854

Image File history File links Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky-Chapel. ... Image File history File links Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky-Chapel. ... Petropavlovsk, as seen from Avacha Bay Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky (Russian: ) is the administrative, industrial, scientific, and cultural center of Kamchatka Oblast, Russia. ... The Siege of Petropavlovsk was the main operation on the Pacific Theatre of the Crimean War. ... 1854 (MDCCCLIV) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Coat of arms of the Gorchakov family Gorchakov, or Gortchakoff (Russian: Горчаков) is a Russian princely family of Rurikid stock, descended from Michael Vsevolodovich, prince of Chernigov, who, in 1246, was assassinated by the Mongols in Karakorum. ... Portrait by George Dawe from the Military Gallery Ivan Fyodorovich Paskevich (Russian: ) (18 August [O.S. 5 August] 1782 – 1 February [O.S. 20 January] 1856) was a Ukrainian-born military leader in the Russian service. ... Admiral Pavel Stepanovich Nakhimov (June 23, 1802 - June 28, 1855) was one of the most famous admirals in Russian naval history, best remembered as the commander of naval and land forces during the Siege of Sevastopol (Sevastopol) in the Crimean War. ... Eduard Ivanovich Totleben (or Todleben) (May 20, 1818 - July 1, 1884), Count, general, was a famous Russian military engineer. ... Prince Aleksandr Sergeyevich Menshikov (Александр Сергеевич Меншиков in Russian)(August 26, 1787 — May 1, 1869, all n. ... James Thomas Brudenell, 7th Earl of Cardigan (October 16, 1797 - March 28, 1868) was a British military leader during the Crimean War. ... Field Marshal Lord Raglan during the Crimean War, portrait by Roger Fenton, ca. ... Edmund Lyons Edmund Lyons, 1st Baron Lyons G.C.B. K.C.H. was born at Whitehayes House, Burton, near Christchurch, Hampshire on 21 November 1790. ... Armand-Jacques Leroy de Saint Arnaud (August 20, 1801-September 29, 1854), French soldier, served as a Marshal of France. ... François Certain Canrobert (June 27, 1809 - January 28, 1895), was a marshal of France. ... Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1680, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–65) Edirne (1365–1453) Constantinople (Ä°stanbul, 1453–1922) Language(s) Ottoman Turkish Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 Osman I  - 1918–22 Mehmed VI... Abdulkerim Nadir Pasha (1807-1883) was an Ottoman Turkish soldier, born in Chirpan, Stara Zagora Province, Ottoman Bulgaria. ... Omar Pasha by Roger Fenton Omar Pasha Omar Pasha (1806 - 1871) was a general in the Turkish army. ...

Crimean War in fiction

  • The song "The Trooper" by English metal band Iron Maiden is about the Crimean War.
  • The Charge of the Light Brigade by Alfred, Lord Tennyson depicted a disastrous but brave cavalry charge during the Battle of Balaclava.
  • Leo Tolstoy wrote a few short sketches on the Siege of Sevastopol, collected in The Sebastopol Sketches. The stories detail the lives of the Russian soldiers and citizens in Sevastopol during the siege. Because of this work, Tolstoy has been called the world's first war correspondent.
  • In the Thursday Next series of novels by Jasper Fforde, which are set in an alternative reality, the Crimean War lasts 132 years from 1853 to 1985, and creates sour relations between Imperial Russia and Great Britain. The protagonist of the series, Thursday Next, fought in the conflict.
  • Beryl Bainbridge's novel Master Georgie is set in the Crimean War.
  • Garry Douglas Kilworth's series of Fancy Jack Crossman novels, 5 in all, also deal with the Crimean War. Battle of the Alma, The Valley of Death, Soldiers in the Mist, The Winter Soldiers, Battle for the Redan.
  • George MacDonald Fraser's novel Flashman at the Charge (1986) is also set in the Crimean War.
  • Stephen Baxter's novel Anti-Ice starts with the siege of Sevastopol, which is shortened dramatically by a new Anti-Ice weapon. The book asks the question - what if nuclear weapons had existed in Victorian times?
  • The song "Abdul Abulbul Amir" by Irish music hall performer Percy French was inspired by the Crimean War and reduces it to two fighters, the Turk Abdul and the Russian soldier Ivan Skavinsky Skivar, who duel over a triviality and both die, accomplishing nothing.
  • "Luck", by Mark Twain, mentions the Crimean War in connection with a celebrated war hero.
  • The Great Stink by Clare Clark, debut novel published 2006, tells the story of a traumatised veteran of the Crimean War and contains a number of references and flashbacks to this conflict.
  • The Irish music song "The Kerry Recruit" deals with the experiences of a young man from Kerry who fights in the war.
  • Crime Fiction author Anne Perry's William Monk novels include commentaries on the Crimean War through the eyes of the character Hester Latterly, 'one of Miss Nightingale's nurses'.
  • "Hope" by Lesley Pearse describes the experiences of a nurse in the Crimean War as part of a wider and longer plot.
  • The music video for Kasabian song Empire is set during the Crimean War - with the band members as British infantrymen. It was shot on location outside of Bucharest, Romania.
  • The Michael Crichton novel "The Great Train Robbery" revolves around the theft of a gold shipment that was to pay the troops in the Crimea.
  • In the video-game Donkey Kong Country 3: Dixie Kong's Double Trouble! the Bazooka Bear says he fought in the Kremean War, a pun of the Crimean War.

The Trooper is a song written by Iron Maiden bass player Steve Harris. ... Iron Maiden are an English heavy metal band from east London. ... The Charge of the Light Brigade is a poem by Alfred, Lord Tennyson about the Charge of the Light Brigade during the Crimean War. ... Lord Tennyson, Poet Laureate Alfred Tennyson, 1st Baron Tennyson (August 6, 1809 - October 6, 1892) is generally regarded as one of the greatest English poets. ... French Republican Guard - May 8, 2005 celebrations Cavalry (from French cavalerie) were soldiers or warriors who fought mounted on horseback in combat. ... Battle of WoÅ‚odarka Polish infantry charging enemy positions during the Polish Defensive War A charge is a maneuver in battle in which soldiers advance towards their enemy at their best speed to engage in close combat. ... It has been suggested that The Thin Red Line (1854 battle) be merged into this article or section. ... Count Lev Nikolayevich Tolstoy (Russian: , IPA:  ), commonly referred to in English as Leo Tolstoy (September 9 [O.S. August 28] 1828 – November 20 [O.S. November 7] 1910) was a Russian novelist, writer, essayist, philosopher, Christian anarchist, pacifist, educational reformer, moral thinker, and an influential member of the Tolstoy family. ... There have been two Sieges of Sevastopol, a Russian city on the Crimean peninsula: Siege of Sevastopol (1854) - during the Crimean War Siege of Sevastopol (1942) - during the Second World War This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same... Thursday Next is the protagonist in the series of novels by Jasper Fforde. ... Jasper Fforde (born in London on 11 January 1961) is a novelist and aviator living in Wales. ... A protagonist is the main figure of a piece of literature or drama and has the main part or role. ... Dame Beryl Bainbridge DBE (born on 21 November 1934), is an English novelist. ... George MacDonald Fraser (born 1926 in Carlisle, England) is a writer of Scottish descent. ... Harry Paget Flashman is a fictional character originally created by the author Thomas Hughes in his semi-autobiographical work Tom Browns Schooldays, first published in 1857. ... Stephen Baxter at the Science-Fiction-Tage NRW in Dortmund, Germany, March 1997 Stephen Baxter (born in Liverpool, 13 November 1957) is a British hard science fiction author. ... Anti-Ice is a science fiction novel by Stephen Baxter. ... Queen Victoria (shown here on the morning of her accession to the Throne, 20 June 1837) gave her name to the historic era The Victorian era of the United Kingdom marked the height of the British Industrial Revolution and the apex of the British Empire. ... Abdul Abulbul Amir is a folk song written in 1877 by Percy French and later set to music. ... William Percy French (May 1, 1854–January 24, 1920) was one of Irelands foremost songwriters and entertainers in his day. ... Michael Faraday giving his card to Father Thames, caricature commenting on a letter of Faradays on the state of the river in the Times in Summer 1855 The Great Stink or The Big Stink was a time in the summer of 1858 during which the smell of untreated sewage... // Events June 26, 2006: J.K. Rowling reaveals that two characters will die in the seventh book of the Harry Potter series. ... Trauma can represent: Physical trauma, an often serious and body-altering physical injury, such as the removal of a limb. ... In literature, film, television and other media, a flashback (also called analepsis) is an interjected scene that takes the narrative back in time from the current point the story has reached. ... Ireland is an island in the North Atlantic politically divided between the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland. ... Statistics Province: Munster County Town: Tralee Code: KY Area: 4,746 km² Population (2006) 139,616 Website: www. ... Anne Perry (born October 28, 1938), born Juliet Hulme in England, is a British historical novelist and convicted murderess (see also Parker-Hulme murder). ... Kasabian are an English rock band from Leicestershire, formed by Tom Meighan (vocals), Sergio Pizzorno (guitar and vocals), Chris Edwards (bass) and Chris Karloff (guitar and keyboards). ... Empire is a song by British rock band Kasabian, and is the lead track to their second album, Empire. ... Michael Crichton (born October 23, 1942, pronounced [1]) is an American author, film producer, film director, and television producer. ...

See also

Military history of the Ottoman Empire Portal

Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 502 × 599 pixel Image in higher resolution (858 × 1024 pixel, file size: 503 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Artillery troop image on the Ottoman coat of arms From: http://www. ... Florence Nightingale, OM, RRC (12 May 1820 – 13 August 1910), who came to be known as The Lady with the Lamp, was a pioneer of modern nursing and a noted statistician. ... A portrait of Mary Seacole in oils, c. ... by Roger Fenton, 1855 Valley of the Shadow of Death by Roger Fenton, 1855 Roger Fenton (March 20, 1819 - August 8, 1869) was a pioneering British photographer, one of the first war photographers. ... Timothy (estimated 1844 – April 3/April 4, 2004) was a Mediterranean spur thighed tortoise who was thought to be approximately 160 years old at the time of her death. ... Current political map of the Balkans. ... The Crimean War Memorial is located at the junction of Lower Regent Street and Pall Mall in London. ... The Anglo-Russian War (1807-1812) was a war between the United Kingdom and Russia which took place in 1807-1812, during the Napoleonic Wars. ... // The Sultan of Turkey issued this medal to allied military personnel involved in the Crimean war. ... The following 111 recipients were awarded the Victoria Cross for the Crimean War (1854?1856). ... Fort Queenscliff in Victoria, Australia, dates from the Crimean War of 1853–1856, when Great Britain and her allies (including the various British colonies in yet-to-be-federated Australia) were at war with Russia. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Royle. Preface
  2. ^ a b Royle. Pg 19
  3. ^ Royle. Pg 20
  4. ^ Royle. Pg 21
  5. ^ Mining in the Crimean War

Bibliography

  • Bamgart, Winfried. The Crimean War, 1853-1856, Arnold Publishers, 2002. ISBN 0-340-61465-X
  • Ponting, Clive (2004). The Crimean War, Chatto and Windus. ISBN 0-7011-7390-4
  • Pottinger Saab, Anne (1977). The Origins of the Crimean Alliance, University of Virginia Press. ISBN 0-8139-0699-7
  • Rich, Norman (1985). Why the Crimean War: A Cautionary Tale, McGraw-Hill. ISBN 0-07-052255-3
  • Royle, Trevor (2000). Crimea: The Great Crimean War, 1854-1856, Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 1-4039-6416-5
  • Schroeder, Paul W. (1972). Austria, Great Britain, and the Crimean War: The Destruction of the European Concert, Cornell University Press. ISBN 0-8014-0742-7
  • Wetzel, David. (1985). The Crimean War: A Diplomatic History, Columbia University Press. ISBN 0-88033-086-4

Further reading

  • Hamley, The War in the Crimea, (London, 1891)
  • Kinglake, The Invasion of the Crimea, (nine volumes, London, 1863-87)
  • Russell, The War in the Crimea, 1854-56, (London, 1855-56)
  • Marx, The Eastern Question, 1853-56, (translated by E. M. and E. Aveling, London, 1897)
  • Lodomir, La guerre de 1853-56, (Paris, 1857)
  • Kovalevski, Der Krieg Russlands mit der Türkei in den Jahren 1853-54, (Leipzig, 1869)
  • Rein, Die Teilnahme Sardiniens am Krimkrieg und de öffentliche Meinung in Italien, (Leipzig, 1910)

External links

  • Loading and Firing British Muskets in the Crimean War 1854-1856
  • Austria Chronology Crimean War
  • France Chronology Crimean War
  • Great Britain Chronology Crimean War
  • Italy Chronology Crimean War
  • Russia Chronology Crimean War
  • Turkey Chronology Crimean War
  • Crimean War Research Society.
  • Immediate causes of the War detailed in context.
  • The Tunisian Army in the Crimean War: A Military Mystery by Dr. Andrew McGregor
  • The Baltic Campaign of the Crimean War
  • Punch Sketches on Crimean War
  • Commander W. Gordon, R.N. (H.M.S Sansapareil). Balaclava and the Sevastopol Inquiry, 1855
  • The Army Service of Hastings McAllister
Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Crimean War

  Results from FactBites:
 
Crimean War - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (3860 words)
The Crimean War lasted from 28 March 1853 until 1 April 1856 and was fought between Imperial Russia on one side and an alliance of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, the Second French Empire, the Kingdom of Sardinia, and the Ottoman Empire on the other.
The Crimean War caused a mass exodus of Crimean Tatars towards the Ottoman lands, resulting in massive depopulation in the peninsula.
The war became infamously known for military and logistical incompetence, epitomised by the Charge of the Light Brigade which was immortalised in Tennyson's poem.
Crimean War - definition of Crimean War - Labor Law Talk Dictionary (759 words)
Austria also threatened to enter the war on the Ottoman side, causing the Russians to withdraw from the occupied areas, which were immediately occupied by the Austrians, in August 1854.
The war became infamously known for military and logistical incompetence, epitomised by the Charge of the Light Brigade immortalised in Tennyson's poem.
The Crimean War also occasioned the invention of hand rolled "paper cigars" — cigarettes — by French and British troops, who copied their Turkish comrades in using old newspaper for rolling when their cigar-leaf rolling tobacco ran out or dried and crumbled.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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