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Encyclopedia > Crimean Tatars
Crimean Tatars
(Qırımtatarlar)
İsmail Gaspıralı • Noman Çelebicihan • Mustafa Abdülcemil Qırımoğlu
Total population

500,000 - 2,000,000 Image File history File links Ismail_Gaspirali. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Noman_Chelebicihan. ... Image File history File links Mustafa_Abdülcemil_Kırımoğlu. ... İsmail Gaspıralı (Gasprinskiy) (March 8, 1851-September 11, 1914) was a famous Crimean Tatar intellectual, educator, publisher and political figure. ... Noman Çelebicihan (Numan Çelebi Cihan) (1885-1918) was one of the most popular Crimean Tatar leaders of all time. ... Mustafa Abdülcemil Qırımoğlu Mustafa Abdülcemil Qırımoğlu (born November 13, 1943 Ay-Serez, Crimea), also known as Mustafa Jemilev (Dzhemilev, Cemilev), is Chairman of the Mejlis of the Crimean Tatar People and a member of the Ukrainian Parliament. ...

Regions with significant populations
Crimea:
   260,000[citation needed]

Uzbekistan:
   150,000
Turkey:
   ?
Romania:
   24,000
Bulgaria:
   3,000
Motto: Процветание в единстве - Prosperity in unity Anthem: Нивы и горы твои волшебны, Родина - Your fields and mounts are wonderful, Motherland Capital Simferopol Largest cities Simferopol, Eupatoria, Kerch, Theodosia, Yalta Official language Ukrainian. ...

Languages
Crimean Tatar
Religions
Sunni Islam
Related ethnic groups

other Turkic People Crimean Tatar language (Qırımtatar tili, Qırımtatarca), also known as Crimean (Qırım tili, Qırımca) and Crimean Turkish (Qırım Türkçesi) is the language of the Crimean Tatars. ... Sunni Muslims are the largest denomination of Islam. ... This is the disambiguation page for the terms Turk, Turkey, Turkic, and Turkish. ...

Kipchaks

The Crimean Tatars (sg. Qırımtatar, pl. Qırımtatarlar) or Crimeans (sg. Qırım, Qırımlı, pl. Qırımlar, Qırımlılar) are a Turkic-speaking ethnic group originally residing in Crimea. They speak the Crimean Tatar language. Kipchaks (also Kypchaks, Qipchaqs) are an ancient Turkic people, first mentioned in the historical chronicles of Central Asia in the 1st millennium BC. Their language was also known as Kipchak. ... The Turkic languages constitute a language family of some thirty languages, spoken across a vast area from Eastern Europe to Siberia and Western China with an estimated 140 million native speakers and tens of millions of second-language speakers. ... Motto: Процветание в единстве - Prosperity in unity Anthem: Нивы и горы твои волшебны, Родина - Your fields and mounts are wonderful, Motherland Capital Simferopol Largest cities Simferopol, Eupatoria, Kerch, Theodosia, Yalta Official language Ukrainian. ... Crimean Tatar language (Qırımtatar tili, Qırımtatarca), also known as Crimean (Qırım tili, Qırımca) and Crimean Turkish (Qırım Türkçesi) is the language of the Crimean Tatars. ...


In modern times, in addition to living in Crimea, there is a large diaspora of Crimean Tatars in Turkey, Romania, Bulgaria, Uzbekistan, Western Europe and North America, as well as small communities in Finland, Lithuania, Russia, Belarus and Poland. (See Crimean Tatar diaspora) Motto: Процветание в единстве - Prosperity in unity Anthem: Нивы и горы твои волшебны, Родина - Your fields and mounts are wonderful, Motherland Capital Simferopol Largest cities Simferopol, Eupatoria, Kerch, Theodosia, Yalta Official language Ukrainian. ... Look up Diaspora in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A common understanding of Western Europe in modern times. ... World map showing North America A satellite composite image of North America. ... The Crimean Tatar diaspora dates back to the annexation of Crimea by Russia in 1783, after which Crimean Tatars were forced to emigrate in a series of waves spanning the period from 1783 to 1917. ...


Today, more than 250,000 Crimean Tatars live in Crimea and about 150,000 remain in exile in Central Asia, mainly in Uzbekistan. There is an estimated 5 million people of Crimean origin living in Turkey, descendants of those who emigrated in the 19th and early 20th centuries. In the Dobruja region of Romania and Bulgaria, there are more than 27,000 Crimean Tatars: 24,000 on the Romanian side, and 3,000 on the Bulgarian side. Map of Romania with Northern Dobruja highlighted in orange and Bulgaria with Southern Dobruja highlighted in yellow. ...

Contents

History

The Crimean Tatars are descendants of a mix of Turkic - (Bulgars, Khazars, Petchenegs and Kypchaks) as well as non-Turkic (Scythians, Sarmatians, Cimmerians, Alans, Greeks, Goths, Adyghe) peoples who had settled in Eastern Europe as early as the 7th century BC. The earliest non-Turkic populations were assimilated into the Turkic. The current name has been in use since the 13th century when Crimea was occupied by the Mongols (or Tatars, as they were known in Europe and Russia). This article is about the various peoples speaking one of the Turkic languages. ... Map showing the location of Bulgars, 650. ... The Khazars (Hebrew Kuzari כוזרי Kuzarim כוזרים; Turkish Hazar Hazarlar; Russian Хазары; Tatar sing Xäzär Xäzärlär; Crimean Tatar: ; Greek Χαζάροι/Χάζαροι; Arabic خزر; Persianخزر ; Latin Gazari or Cosri) were a semi-nomadic Turkic people from Central Asia, many of whom converted to Judaism. ... Pechenegs or Patzinaks also known as Besenyők, were a semi-nomadic steppe people of Central Asia that spoke a Turkic language. ... Kypchaks (also Kipchaks, Qipchaqs) are an ancient Turkic people, first mentioned in historical chronicles of Central Asia in the 1st millennium BC. The western Kypchaks were also named Kuman, Kun and Polovtsian (pl. ... Scythian warriors, drawn after figures on an electrum cup from the KulOba kurgan burial near Kerch. ... Sarmatia and Scythia in 100 BC, also shown is the extent of the Parthian Empire. ... The Cimmerians (Greek Κιμμέριοι, Kimmerioi) were ancient equestrian nomads who, according to Herodotus, originally inhabited the region north of the Caucasus and the Black Sea, in what is now Russia and Ukraine, in the 8th and 7th century BC. Assyrian records, however, first place them in the region of Azerbaijan in... The Alans, Alani, Alauni or Halani were an Iranian nomadic group among the Sarmatian people, warlike nomadic pastoralists of varied backgrounds, who spoke an Iranian language and to a large extent shared a common culture. ... Invasion of the Goths: a late 19th century painting by O. Fritsche, is a highly romanticized portrait of the Goths as cavalrymen. ... The Adyghe or Adygs are a people of the northwest Caucasus region, principally inhabiting Adygeya (23 %) (now a constituent republic of the Russian Federation) and Karachay-Cherkessia (11 %) (where they are named as Cherkess). Shapsigh Autonomous District, an autonomous district founded for Shapsigh (or Shapsugh) tribe living on the Black...


The Crimean Tatars are subdivided into three sub-ethnic groups: the Tats (not to be confused with the Tat people) who inhabited the mountainous Crimea before 1944 (about 55%), the Yalıboylus who lived on the southern coast of the peninsula (about 30%), and the Noğays (not to be confused with the Nogai people) - former inhabitants of the Crimean steppe (about 15%). The Tats and Yalıboylus have a Caucasian physical appearance, while the Noğays retain Central Asian characteristics. The Tat are an Iranian ethnic group from the Caucasus. ... Flag of the Nogai people The Nogais, also spelled Nogay, Noghai, and often called the Caucasian Mongols (Caucasian refers to their geographic position, in the Caucasus mountains, not to their ethnicity), are a Turkic people, and an important ethnic group in the Daghestan region who speak the Turkic Nogai language. ...


The Crimean Tatars emerged as a nation at the time of the Crimean Khanate. The Crimean Khanate was a Turkic-speaking Muslim state which was among the strongest powers in Eastern Europe until the beginning of the 18th century.[citation needed] The Crimean Tatars adopted Islam in the 13th century and thereafter Crimea became one of the centers of Islamic civilization. According to Baron Iosif Igelström, in 1783 there were close to 1600 mosques and religious schools in Crimea. In Bakhchisaray, the khan Meñli I Giray built Zıncırlı Medrese (literally "Chain Madrassah"), an Islamic seminary where one has to bow while entering from its door because of the chain hanging over. This symbolized the Crimean society's respect for learning. Meñli I Giray also constructed a large mosque on the model of Hagia Sophia (which was ruined in 1850s). Later, the khans built a greater palace, Hansaray in Bakhchisaray, which survives until today. Sahib I Giray patronized many scholars and artists in this palace. During the reign of Devlet I Giray the architect Sinan built a mosque, Cuma Cami, in Kezlev. The Crimean Khanate or the Khanate of Crimea (Crimean Tatar: ; Russian: - Krymskoye khanstvo; Ukrainian: - Krymske khanstvo; Turkish: ) was a Crimean Tatar state from 1441 to 1783. ... The Crimean Khanate or the Khanate of Crimea (Crimean Tatar: ; Russian: - Krymskoye khanstvo; Ukrainian: - Krymske khanstvo; Turkish: ) was a Crimean Tatar state from 1441 to 1783. ... Islam (Arabic:  ) is a monotheistic religion based upon the teachings of Muhammad, a 7th century Arab religious and political figure. ... Portrait of General Igelström by Dmitry Levitsky. ... Bakhchisaray (Crimean Tatar: Bağçasaray, Ukrainian: , Russian: ), a town in Central Crimea, centre of the Bakhchisaray raion (district), former capital of the Crimean Khanate. ... Meñli I Giray (aka Mengli I Giray) (Crimean Tatar: I Meñli Geray) (1445–1515) was a khan of the Crimean Khanate and the sixth son of the khanate founder Haci Giray. ... Madrassa in the Gambia The word madrassa in the Arabic language (and other languages of the Islamic nations such as Persian, Turkish, Indonesian etc. ... Meñli I Giray (aka Mengli I Giray) (Crimean Tatar: I Meñli Geray) (1445–1515) was a khan of the Crimean Khanate and the sixth son of the khanate founder Haci Giray. ... This article includes a list of works cited but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... Bakhchisaray Palace Fountain of Tears The Khans Palace or Hansaray is located in the town of Bakhchisaray, Crimea, Ukraine. ... Bakhchisaray (Crimean Tatar: Bağçasaray, Ukrainian: , Russian: ), a town in Central Crimea, centre of the Bakhchisaray raion (district), former capital of the Crimean Khanate. ... Devlet I Giray (Crimean Tatar: I Devlet Geray) (1512–1577) — a khan of the Crimean Khanate in 1551–1577. ... Selimiye Mosque, built by Sinan in 1575. ... Eupatoria (Russian: , Ukrainian: , Crimean Tatar: Kezlev), also known as Yevpatoria or Evpatoria, as pronounced in Russian and Ukrainian, is a town in the Crimea. ...


The slave trade in Crimea dates back to the earliest written history in the area. When the Ottomans and Mongols conquered this area, they legitimized the slave trade by the fact that they were captured during the war. Otherwise it was not legitimate according to Islamic law.


Crimean Tatars were known for frequent devastating raids into Ukraine and Russia. In 1571 they seized and burned Moscow. For a long time, until the early 18th century Crimean Tatars maintained massive slave trade with the Ottoman Empire and the Middle East. One of the most known and important trading ports and slave markets was Kefe. Some researchers estimate that altogether more than 3 million people, predominantly Ukrainians but also Russians, Belarusians and Poles, were captured and enslaved during the time of the Crimean Khanate in what was called "the harvesting of the steppe". A constant threat from Crimean Tatars supported the appearance of cossackdom. Theodosia (Ukrainian: , Russian: , Crimean Tatar: ) is a port and resort city in Crimea, Ukraine, located on the Black Sea coast. ... Reply of the Zaporozhian Cossacks to Sultan Mehmed IV of Ottoman Empire. ...


The Crimean Khanate became a protectorate of the Ottoman Empire in 1475, when the Ottoman general Gedik Ahmed Pasha conquered the southern coast of Crimea. However, the Ottomans respected the legitimacy of Giray khans to rule in the rest of Crimea and the steppes, because of their Chingizid lineage. The alliance with the Ottomans became an important factor in the survival of the khanate until the 18th century, while its sisters, the Kazan Khanate and the Astrakhan Khanate were destroyed by the increasingly powerful Russian state. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... In 1509 Balboa tried to join a Spanish expedition but could not because he owed so many debts January 10—Stephen III of Moldavia defeats the Ottoman Empire at the Battle of Vaslui. ... Gedik Ahmet Pasha Mosque (1477) in Afyonkarahisar, part of a magnificent religious and educational compound (source&permission: Municioality of Afyonkarahisar). ... Categories: Historical stubs | Former countries | Tatars | Tatarstan history | History of Mongolia ... The Khanate of Astrakhan (Xacitarxan Khanate) was a Tatar feudal state that appeared after the collapse of the Golden Horde. ...


The Ottoman-Russian War of 1768-1774 resulted with the defeat of the Ottomans, and according to the Treaty of Kuchuk-Kainarji (1774) signed after the war, Crimea became independent and Ottomans renounced their political right to protect the Crimean Khanate. Russia violated the treaty and annexed the Crimean Khanate in 1783. After the annexation, under pressure of Slavic colonization, Crimean Tatar began to abandon their homes and move to the Ottoman Empire in continuing waves of emigration. Particularly, the Crimean War of 1853-1856, the laws of 1860-63 and the Ottoman-Russian War of 1877-1878 caused an exodus of the Crimean Tatars. Some researchers estimate that one million Crimeans had to abandon their homeland in the 19th century. Many Crimean Tatars perished in the process of emigration, including those who drowned while crossing the Black Sea. Today the descendants of these Crimeans form the Crimean Tatar diaspora in Bulgaria, Romania and Turkey. The Russo–Turkish War of 1768–1774 was a decisive conflict that brought Southern Ukraine, Northern Caucasus, and Crimea within the orbit of the Russian Empire. ... The Treaty of Kuchuk-Kainarji (Küçük Kaynarca) was signed on July 21, 1774, between Russia (represented by Field-Marshal Rumyantsev) and the Ottoman Empire after the Ottoman Empire was defeated in the Russo-Turkish War of 1768-1774. ... 1783 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Motto: دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem: Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1680, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299-1326) Bursa (1326-1365) Edirne (1365-1453) Constantinople (Istanbul) (1453-1922) Language(s) Ottoman Turkish Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 Osman I  - 1918–1922 Mehmed VI... Combatants United Kingdom France Ottoman Empire Kingdom of Sardinia Russian Empire Casualties 17,500 British 90,000 French 35,000 Turkish 2,050 Sardinian killed, wounded and died of disease 256,000 killed, wounded and died of disease The Crimean War lasted from 1854 until 1 April 1856 and was... 1853 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... 1856 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... 1860 is the leap year starting on Sunday. ... 1863 (MDCCCLXIII) is a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the Julian calendar). ... Plevna Monument near the walls of Kitai-gorod. ... The Crimean Tatar diaspora dates back to the annexation of Crimea by Russia in 1783, after which Crimean Tatars were forced to emigrate in a series of waves spanning the period from 1783 to 1917. ...


İsmail Gaspıralı (1851-1914) was a renowned Crimean Tatar intellectual, whose efforts laid the foundation for the modernization of Muslim culture and the emergence of the Crimean Tatar national identity. The bilingual Crimean Tatar-Russian newspaper Terciman-Perevodchik he published in 1883-1914, functioned as a school through which a national consciousness and modern thinking emerged among the whole Turkic-speaking population of the Russian Empire. His New Method (Usul-ü Cedid) schools, numbered 350 across the Crimean peninsula raised a new Crimean Tatar elite. This new elite, which included Noman Çelebicihan and Cafer Seydamet proclaimed the first democratic republic in the Islamic world named the Crimean People's Republic in December 26, 1917. However, this republic was short-lived and destroyed by the Bolsheviks in January 1918. Ä°smail Gaspıralı (Gasprinskiy) (March 8, 1851-September 11, 1914) was a famous Crimean Tatar intellectual, educator, publisher and political figure. ... 1851 (MDCCCLI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1914 (MCMXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... 1883 (MDCCCLXXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Year 1914 (MCMXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Anthem: God Save the Tsar! Russian Empire in 1913 Capital Saint Petersburg Language(s) Russian Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1721-1725 Peter the Great  - 1894-1917 Nicholas II History  - Established 22 October, 1721  - February Revolution 2 March, 1917 Area  - 1897 22,400,000 km2 8,648,688 sq mi Population  - 1897... Noman Çelebicihan (Numan Çelebi Cihan) (1885-1918) was one of the most popular Crimean Tatar leaders of all time. ... December 26 is the 360th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, 361st in leap years. ... Year 1917 (MCMXVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar (see: 1917 Julian calendar). ... Bolshevik Party Meeting. ... Year 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ...


During Stalin's Great Purge, an entire generation of statesmen and intellectuals, such as Veli Ibraimov and Bekir Çoban-zade (1893-1937), was destroyed on false charges. Iosif (usually anglicized as Joseph) Vissarionovich Stalin (Russian: Иосиф Виссарионович Сталин), original name Ioseb Jughashvili (Georgian: იოსებ ჯუღაშვი&#4314... The Great Purge (Russian: , transliterated Bolshaya chistka) is the name given to campaigns of political repression and persecution in the Soviet Union orchestrated by Joseph Stalin during the late 1930s. ... Bekir Çoban-zade (Sıdqiy) (IPA: ʧo. ...


During World War II, the entire Crimean Tatar population in Crimea fell victim to Stalin's oppressive policies. Although a great number of Crimean Tatar men served in the Red Army and took part in the partizan movement in Crimea during the war, the existence of the Tatar Legion in the Nazi army and the collaboration of Crimean Tatar religious and political leaders with Hitler during the German occupation of Crimea provided the Soviets with a pretext for accusing the whole Crimean Tatar population of being Nazi collaborators. Modern researchers also point to the fact that a further reason was the geopolitical position of Crimea where Crimean Tatars were perceived as a threat. This belief is based in part on an analogy with numerous other cases of deportations of non-Russians from boundary territories (see, e.g., Involuntary settlements in the Soviet Union), as well as the fact that other non-Russian populations, such as Greeks, Armenians and Bulgarians have also been removed from Crimea. The short forms Red Army and RKKA refer to the Workers and Peasants Red Army, (in Russian: Рабоче-Крестьянская Красная Армия - Raboche-Krestyanskaya Krasnaya Armiya), the armed forces first organized by the Bolsheviks during the Russian Civil War in 1918. ... National Socialism redirects here. ... Adolf Hitler Adolf Hitler (April 20, 1889 – April 30, 1945, standard German pronunciation in the IPA) was the Führer (leader) of the National Socialist German Workers Party (Nazi Party) and of Nazi Germany from 1933 to 1945. ... Involuntary settlements in the Soviet Union took several forms. ...

Flag of the Crimean Tatar people
Flag of the Crimean Tatar people

All Crimean Tatars were deported en masse, in a form of collective punishment, on 18 May 1944 as special settlers to Uzbek SSR and other distant parts of the Soviet Union. The decree "On Crimean Tatars" describes the resettlement as a very humane procedure. The reality described by the victims in their memoirs was different. 46.3% of the resettled population died of diseases and malnutrition. This event is called Sürgün in the Crimean Tatar language. Image File history File links Kok_Bayraq. ... Image File history File links Kok_Bayraq. ... Collective punishment is a term describing the punishment of a group of people for the crime of a few or even of one. ... May 18 is the 138th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (139th in leap years). ... Year 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (the link is to a full 1944 calendar). ... Involuntary settlements in the Soviet Union took several forms. ... State motto: Uzbek: Бутун дунё пролетарлари, бирлашингиз! Translation: Workers of the world, unite! Capital Tashkent Official language None. ... Crimean Tatar language (Qırımtatar tili, Qırımtatarca), also known as Crimean (Qırım tili, Qırımca) and Crimean Turkish (Qırım Türkçesi) is the language of the Crimean Tatars. ...


Although a 1967 Soviet decree removed the charges against Crimean Tatars, the Soviet government did nothing to facilitate their resettlement in Crimea and to make reparations for lost lives and confiscated property. 1967 (MCMLXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar (the link is to a full 1967 calendar). ...


Today, more than 250,000 Crimean Tatars have returned to their homeland, struggling to re-establish their lives and reclaim their national and cultural rights against many social and economic obstacles.


Mustafa Abdülcemil Qırımoğlu is the political leader of the Crimean Tatars and the Mejlis of the Crimean Tatar People. They endorsed and supported Viktor Yushchenko in the Ukrainian presidential election, 2004. Mustafa Abdülcemil QırımoÄŸlu Mustafa Abdülcemil QırımoÄŸlu (born November 13, 1943 Ay-Serez, Crimea), also known as Mustafa Jemilev (Dzhemilev, Cemilev), is Chairman of the Mejlis of the Crimean Tatar People and a member of the Ukrainian Parliament. ... Viktor Andriyovych Yushchenko (Ukrainian: ) (born February 23, 1954) is the current President of Ukraine. ... The presidential election held in November and December 2004 in Ukraine was mostly a political battle between Prime Minister Viktor Yanukovych and former Prime Minister and opposition leader Viktor Yushchenko. ...


See also

The Crimean Tatar diaspora dates back to the annexation of Crimea by Russia in 1783, after which Crimean Tatars were forced to emigrate in a series of waves spanning the period from 1783 to 1917. ... Crimean Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic (Крымская Автономная Советская Социалистическая Республика) (October 18, 1921—June 30, 1945) was created as part of RSFSR within the Crimean Peninsula, its capital being Simferopol. ... The Crimea (officially Autonomous Republic of Crimea, Ukrainian transliteration: Avtonomna Respublika Krym, Ukrainian: Автономна Республіка Крим, Russian: Автономная Ре&#1089... The Crimean Khanate or the Khanate of Crimea (Crimean Tatar: ; Russian: - Krymskoye khanstvo; Ukrainian: - Krymske khanstvo; Turkish: ) was a Crimean Tatar state from 1441 to 1783. ... Kültigin Monument where first mention of Tatar people is inscribed Tatars (Tatar: Tatarlar/Татарлар), sometimes spelled Tartar (more about the name), is a collective name applied to the Turkic speaking people of Eastern Europe and Central Asia. ... The Krymchaks are a community of Rabbinical Jews of the Crimean peninsula. ... The Crimean Karaites (Crimean Karaim: sg. ... Crimean Tatars in alphabetical order: Cetin Altan Refat Appazov Idris Asanin Sabri Ayvazov Ali Bekmambet Kemal Karpat Ismail H.A.Ziyaeddin Newzat Yusuf Sarigol Sevki Bektore Numan Celebicihan Resat Cemilev Bekir Sidki Cobanzade Refat Chubarov Cengiz Dagci Ismail Bey Gaspirali Sefika Gaspirali Hamdi Giraybay Necip Hablemitoglu Abdulhakim Hilmi Halil Inalcik... Royal dynasty. ... The term Nogai can refer to more than one thing: Nogai Khan was a Khan of the Golden Horde. ... Ogier Ghislain de Busbecq from a 17th century engraving Ogier Ghiselin de Busbecq (1520 or 1521-October 28, 1592; Latin: Augerius Gislenius Busbequius; sometimes Augier Ghislain de Busbecq) was a writer, herbalist and diplomat in the employ of three generations of Austrian monarchs. ... The Crimean Gothic language is dialect of the Gothic language that was spoken by the Crimean Goths in some isolated locations in Crimea (now Ukraine) perhaps until as late as the 18th century. ...

Wikisource

References

Literature

  • Fisher, Alan W. 1978. The Crimean Tatars. Stanford, CA: Hoover Institution Press. (ISBN 0-8179-6661-7)
  • Fisher, Alan W. 1998. Between Russians, Ottomans and Turks: Crimea and Crimean Tatars (Istanbul: Isis Press, 1998). (ISBN 975-428-126-2)
  • Robert Conquest. 1970. The Nation Killers: The Soviet Deportation of Nationalities (London: MacMillan). (ISBN 0-333-10575-3)
  • Alexander Nekrich. 1978. The Punished Peoples: The Deportation and Fate of Soviet Minorities at the End of the Second World War (New York: W. W. Norton). (ISBN 0-393-00068-0)
  • (Russian) Valery Vozgrin "Исторические судьбы крымских татар"

External links

  • Mejlis of the Crimean Tatar People
  • Crimean Youth Site
  • Former Palace of the Crimean Khans
  • Qirimtatar.Org
  • International Committee for Crimea
  • Crimean Tatars by H. B. Paksoy
  • Ismail Bey Gaspirali
  • Tatar.Net
  • UNDP Crimea Integration and Development Programme
  • Crimea-L mailing list
  • Crimean Tatar Home Page
  • Crimean Tatars
  • Crimean Tatars of Romania

  Results from FactBites:
 
Chapter 2: Crimean (6626 words)
One Tatar enclave, overlooking the road to Simferopol, is representative of the approximately 270 such settlements that are scattered across the peninsula.
In 1996, Tatars were split almost evenly in geographic distribution-with half of the 500,000-strong nation having returned to the Crimea and the rest living in sections of Central Asia and Siberia.
Tatar perceptions of their predicament tends to be based not on how others are living, but on how Tatars' themselves used to live during their years in Central Asia.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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