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Encyclopedia > Crimean Tatar language
Crimean Tatar
Qırımtatar tili
Spoken in: Crimea, Turkey, Uzbekistan, Romania, Bulgaria 
Region: Black Sea
Total speakers: about 300,000
Language family: Altaic (disputed)
 Turkic
  Kypchak (Northwestern)
   Ponto-Caspian
    Crimean Tatar
Language codes
ISO 639-1: none
ISO 639-2: crh
ISO/DIS 639-3: crh 

Crimean Tatar language (Qırımtatar tili, Qırımtatarca), also known as Crimean (Qırım tili, Qırımca) and Crimean Turkish (Qırım Türkçesi) is the language of the Crimean Tatars. It is spoken in Crimea, the former Soviet Union, and the Crimean Tatar diasporas in Turkey, Romania, Bulgaria. Motto: Процветание в единстве - Prosperity in unity Anthem: Нивы и горы твои волшебны, Родина - Your fields amd mounts are wonderful, Motherland Capital Simferopol Largest cities Simferopol, Eupatoria, Kerch, Theodosia, Yalta Official language Ukrainian. ... Map of the Black Sea. ... Current distribution of Human Language Families Most languages are known to belong to language families. ... Altaic is a proposed language family which includes 60 languages spoken by about 250 million people, mostly in and around Central Asia and Far East. ... The Turkic languages constitute a language family of some thirty languages, spoken across a vast area from Eastern Europe to Siberia and Western China with an estimated 140 million native speakers and tens of millions of second-language speakers. ... ISO 639-1 is the first part of the ISO 639 international-standard language-code family. ... ISO 639-2:1998 Codes for the representation of names of languages — Part 2: Alpha-3 code Twenty-two of the languages have two three-letter codes: a code for bibliographic use (ISO 639-2/B) a code for terminological use (ISO 639-2/T). ... ISO 639-3 is in process of development as an international standard for language codes. ... The International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) is a system of phonetic notation devised by linguists to accurately and uniquely represent each of the wide variety of sounds (phones or phonemes) used in spoken human language. ... Phonetics (from the Greek word φωνή, phone = sound/voice) is the study of sounds (voice). ... Due to technical limitations, some web browsers may not display some special characters in this article. ... This is a concise version of the International Phonetic Alphabet for English sounds. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... The Crimean Tatars (Qırımtatar (aka Qırım, Qırımlı and Qırım türkü), Pl. ... Motto: Процветание в единстве - Prosperity in unity Anthem: Нивы и горы твои волшебны, Родина - Your fields amd mounts are wonderful, Motherland Capital Simferopol Largest cities Simferopol, Eupatoria, Kerch, Theodosia, Yalta Official language Ukrainian. ... The Crimean Tatar diaspora dates back to the annexation of Crimea by Russia in 1783, after which Crimean Tatars were forced to emigrate in a series of waves spanning the period from 1783 to 1917. ...

Contents


Number of speakers

Today, more than 250,000 Crimean Tatars are living in the Crimea, and another 250,000 are still in exile in Central Asia. There is an estimated 5 million people of Crimean origin living in Turkey, descendants of those who emigrated in the 19th and early 20th centuries. Smaller Crimean Tatar communities are also found in Romania, Poland, Finland, the United States, and Central Asia, especially Uzbekistan.


Dialects

Each of the three sub ethnic groups of the Crimean Tatars has its own dialect. The dialect of the Noğays - former inhabitants of the Crimean steppe (should not be confused with Nogai people) - is of Kypchak origin, Yalıboylus who lived on the southern coast of Crimea before 1944 speak an Oghuz dialect very close to Turkish, and the middle dialect of the Tats from the Crimean Mountains (should not be confused with Tat people) is a mixture of the two. This dialect is a direct descendant of the Cuman language, but it has been strongly influenced by the Oghuz Turkic. Modern Crimean Tatar written language is based on this middle dialect as the Tats comprise about 55% of total Crimean Tatar population and their dialect is equally understandable for the speakers of the others. Flag of the Nogai people The Nogais, also spelled Nogay, Noghai, and often called the Caucasian Mongols (Caucasian refers to their geographic position, in the Caucasus mountains, not to their ethnicity), are a Turkic people, and an important ethnic group in the Daghestan region who speak the Turkic Nogai language. ... Kypchaks (also Kipchaks, Qipchaqs) are an ancient Turkic people, first mentioned in historical chronicles of Central Asia in the 1st millennium BC. The western Kypchaks were also named Kuman, Kun and Polovtsian (pl. ... For all Turkic groupings and Turkic history, see Turkic peoples. ... The Tat are an Iranian ethnic group from the Caucasus. ... Cuman language was a Turkic language spoken by the Kipchaks (also known as the Cumans) similar to todays Crimean Tatar language. ...


History

The forming of the Crimean Tatar spoken dialects began with the first Turkic invasions to Crimea and ended during the period of the Crimean Khanate. However, official written languages of the Crimean Khanate were Chagatai and Ottoman Turkish. After the Islamization Crimean Tatars wrote with a Persian-Arab script. The Crimean Khanate (Khanate of Crimea; Crimean Tatar: Qırım Hanlığı; Russian: Крымское ханство [Krymskoe khanstvo]; Ukrainian: Кримський ханат [Krymskyj chanat]; Turkish: Kırım Hanlığı) was a Crimean Tatar state from 1441 to 1783. ... The Chagatai language is an extinct Turkic language which was once widely spoken in Central Asia. ... Ottoman Turkish (Turkish: Osmanlıca, Ottoman Turkish:لسان عثمانی) is the variant of the Turkish language which was used as the administrative and literary language of the Ottoman Empire, containing extensive borrowings from Persian, which in turn had been permeated with Arabic borrowings. ... Islamization or Islamification is a neologism coined to describe the process of a societys conversion to the religion of Islam, or the increase in observance by an already Muslim society. ...


In 1876 different Turkish Crimean dialects were made into a uniform written language by İsmail Gaspıralı. A preference was given to the Oghuz dialect of Yalıboylus in order to break the link between the Crimeans and the Turks of the Ottoman Empire. In 1928 it was reoriented to the middle dialect. 1876 (MDCCCLXXVI) is a leap year starting on Saturday. ... Ä°smail Gaspıralı (Gasprinskiy) (March 8, 1851-September 11, 1914) was a famous Crimean Tatar intellectual, educator, publisher and political figure. ... It has been suggested that Lifestyle of the Ottoman Empire be merged into this article or section. ... 1928 (MCMXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ...


In 1928 the alphabet was replaced with the Uniform Turkic Alphabet based on the Latin alphabet. The Uniform Turkic Alphabet was itself replaced in 1938 by a modified Cyrillic alphabet. 1928 (MCMXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... Uniform Turkic Alphabet was a Latin based alphabet used by the most of non-Slavic peoples of USSR in 1930s, common for all peoples. ... The Latin alphabet, also called the Roman alphabet, is the most widely used alphabetic writing system in the world today. ... 1938 (MCMXXXVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ... The Cyrillic alphabet (or azbuka, from the old name of the first two letters) is an alphabet used to write six natural Slavic languages (Belarusian, Bulgarian, Macedonian, Russian, Serbian, and Ukrainian) and many other languages of the former Soviet Union, Asia and Eastern Europe. ...


Crimean Tatar was the native language of the poet Bekir Sıdkı Çobanzade. Bekir Sıdkı Çobanzade (pronounced cho-ban-za-de) (May 15, 1893–October 13, 1937) was a Crimean Tatar poet and professor of Turkic languages who was one of the victims of the Great Purge. ...


Current Situation

After the repatriation of the Crimean Tatars, the alphabet was Latinized again. The current Latin-based Crimean Tatar alphabet is the same as the Turkish alphabet with two additional characters: Ñ ñ and Q q. The current 29-letter Turkish alphabet, used for the Turkish language, was established by law in Turkey on November 1, 1928 (Yazım Kılavuzu). ... Ñ or enye, (Spanish eñe) represents a palatal nasal (IPA: ). This is reminiscent of as in onion IPA: . It is the fifteenth letter of the Spanish alphabet, alphabetized between N and O. Though English keyboard schemes classify it as an N with a tilde, it is a separate letter in... Q is the seventeenth letter of the Latin alphabet. ...


Currently, Crimean Tatar does not have an official language status in Crimea. Before the Sürgün, it had an official language status in the Crimean Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic. Crimean Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic (Крымская Автономная Советская Социалистическая Республика) (October 18, 1921—June 30, 1945) was created as part of RSFSR within the Crimean Peninsula, its capital being Simferopol. ...


Crimean Tatar in comparison with other languages

Because of its history, this language has often been counted as being descended from Kypchak Turkic. Actually, Crimean Tatar is similar to both Kypchak and Oghuz Turkic languages. A Crimean Tatar speaker can understand languages of both Kypchak and Oghuz origin. Among the living Turkic languages, the closest to Crimean Tatar are Turkish, Urum of the Oghuz group, Kumyk, and Karachay-Balkar of the Kypchak group. Crimean Karaim and Krymchak languages are often cosidered to be variants of Crimean Tatar. The Kipchak language was an extinct Turkic language of Kipchak-Bolghar group. ... Urum is a Turkic language spoken by several thousand people who inhabit a few villages in the Southeastern Ukraine and in Georgia. ... Kumyk (also Qumuq, Kumuk, Kumuklar, and Kumyki) is a Turkic language, spoken by about 200 thousands speakers (the Kumyks) in the Dagestan republic of Russian Federation. ... The Karachay-Balkar language (Къарачай-Малкъар /Qarachay-Malqar/) is a Turkic language of the Karachays and Balkars. ... The Karaim language is a Turkic language with Hebrew influences, in a similar manner to Yiddish or Ladino. ... Krymchak is the Crimean Tatar language dialect spoken by the Krymchaks - Rabbanite Jews of the Crimea. ...


Crimean Tatar and Turkish

The following newspaper report compares the Crimean Tatar and Turkish languages:

Crimean Tatar Turkish
Meclis Haberleri 10.09.2003// Qırımtatar Milliy Meclisiniñ 120-cı toplaşuvı olıp keçti

2003 senesi 7 sentâbr künü Aqmescitteki İslâm Merkeziniñ binasında Qırımtatar Milliy Meclisiniñ 120-cı toplaşuvı olıp keçti. Toplaşuvda...

Meclis Haberleri 10.09.2003// Kırım Tatar Millî Meclisi’nin 120. toplantısı yapıldı

7 Eylül 2003 tarihinde Akmescit’teki İslam Merkezi binasında Kırım Tatar Millî Meclisi’nin genişletilmiş 120. toplantısı gerçerkleşti. Toplantıda...

As can be seen these languages are quite similar.


Crimean Tatar and Tatar

Because of its common name, Crimean Tatar is sometimes considered to be a dialect of the Tatar language. This is absolutely incorrect. Of course, these tongues are related (as both are Turkic), but as it was mentioned above, the Kypchak tongues closest to Crimean Tatar are Kumyk and Karachay-Balkar, not the Tatar language. The Tatar language (Tatar tele, Tatarça, Татар теле, Татарча) is a Turkic language belonging to the Altaic branch of the Ural-Altaic family of languages. ... Kumyk (also Qumuq, Kumuk, Kumuklar, and Kumyki) is a Turkic language, spoken by about 200 thousands speakers (the Kumyks) in the Dagestan republic of Russian Federation. ... The Karachay-Balkar language (Къарачай-Малкъар /Qarachay-Malqar/) is a Turkic language of the Karachays and Balkars. ...


External links

  • Mejlis of the Crimean Tatar People (English)
  • Kırımtatar Dili (Turkish)

  Results from FactBites:
 
Crimean Tatar language - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (534 words)
It is spoken in Crimea, the former Soviet Union, and the Crimean Tatar diasporas in Turkey, Romania, Bulgaria.
The spoken language of the Crimean Tatars has existed since the 13th century, and consists of three main dialects: "Kypchak-Tatar" from the Crimean Mountains, "Kypchak-Nogay" from the northern steppes, and the coastal "Crimea-Osman".
Crimean Tatar was the native language of the poet Bekir Sıdkı Çobanzade.
Crimean Tatar language - definition of Crimean Tatar language in Encyclopedia (493 words)
Kırım Tatarçası (Crimean Tatar) and from the Turkish: Qırım Tatar Türkçesi resp.
The spoken language of the Crimean Tatars is known since the 13th century and divides into three main dialects: "Kypchak-Tatar" from the Crimea; "Kypchak-Nogay" from the northern steppes; and the coastal "Crimea-Osman".
Crimean Tatar is the native language of the Crimean Tatar poet Bekir Sidki Çobanzade.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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