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Encyclopedia > Crimean Khanate
Qırım Hanlığı
Crimean Khanate

1441 – 1783

The four successor Khanates of the Mongol Empire: Empire of the Great Khan (Yuan Dynasty), Golden Horde, Il-Khanate and Chagatai Khanate The Golden Horde (Mongolian: Altan Orda; Tatar: Altın Urda; Russian: Золотая Орда) was a Mongol[1][2][3][4] - later Turkicized[3] - state established in parts of present-day... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... This page is about the year 1441. ... 1783 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Russia. ... Anthem God Save the Tsar! The Russian Empire in 1914 Capital Saint Petersburg Language(s) Russian Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1721-1725 Peter the Great (first)  - 1894-1917 Nicholas II (last) History  - Established 22 October, 1721  - February Revolution 2 March, 1917 Area  - 1897 22,400,000 km2 8,648,688 sq... Image File history File links Kok_Bayraq. ...


Flag Flag ratio: 1:2 The flag of Crimea is in use since 1992 and was officially adopted on April 21, 1999. ...

Crimean Khanate in 1600
Capital Bakhchisaray
Government Monarchy
History
 - Established 1441
 - Annexed to Russia 1783

The Crimean Khanate or the Khanate of Crimea (Crimean Tatar: Qırım Hanlığı; Russian: Крымское ханство - Krymskoye khanstvo; Ukrainian: Кримське ханство - Kryms'ke khanstvo; Turkish: Kırım Hanlığı) was a Crimean Tatar state from 1441 to 1783. It was by far the longest-lived of the Turkic khanates that succeeded the empire of the Golden Horde. Black Sea Region in 1600 See also Crimean Khanate Categories: Crimean Khanate File links The following pages link to this file: Crimean Khanate Categories: Free use images ... This article is about a city that serves as a center of government and politics. ... Bakhchisaray (Crimean Tatar: Bağçasaray, Ukrainian: , Russian: ), a town in Central Crimea, centre of the Bakhchisaray raion (district), former capital of the Crimean Khanate. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A monarchy, from the Greek μονος, one, and αρχειν, to rule, is a form of government that has a monarch as head of state(KING)In most monarchies the monarch usually reigns as head of state for life; this is... This page is about the year 1441. ... 1783 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... For the Star Trek character see Khan Noonien Singh. ... Motto: Процветание в единстве - Prosperity in unity Anthem: Нивы и горы твои волшебны, Родина - Your fields and mounts are wonderful, Motherland Location of Crimea (red) on the map of Ukraine. ... Crimean Tatar language (Qırımtatar tili, Qırımtatarca), also known as Crimean (Qırım tili, Qırımca) and Crimean Turkish (Qırım Türkçesi) is the language of the Crimean Tatars. ... The Crimean Tatars (sg. ... A state is a set of institutions that possess the authority to make the rules that govern the people in one or more societies, having internal and external sovereignty over a definite territory. ... This page is about the year 1441. ... 1783 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... This article is about the various peoples speaking one of the Turkic languages. ... For the Star Trek character see Khan Noonien Singh. ... The four successor Khanates of the Mongol Empire: Empire of the Great Khan (Yuan Dynasty), Golden Horde, Il-Khanate and Chagatai Khanate The Golden Horde (Mongolian: Altan Orda; Tatar: Altın Urda; Russian: Золотая Орда) was a Mongol[1][2][3][4] - later Turkicized[3] - state established in parts of present-day...

Contents

Early rulers

The Crimean Khanate was founded when certain clans of the Golden Horde Empire ceased their nomadic life in the Desht-i Kipchak (Kypchak Steppes of today's Ukraine and South Russia), decided to make Crimea their yurt (homeland) and invited a Chingizid contender for the Golden Horde throne, Hacı Giray, to be their khan. Hacı Giray accepted this proposal and came from Lithuania, the place he was exiled. He founded his independent state in 1441 after a long-lasting struggle for independence from the Golden Horde. The khanate included the Crimean peninsula (except the south and southwest coast and ports, controlled by the Republic of Genoa) and the steppes of modern southern Ukraine and Russia, also known as Desht-i Kipchak. The four successor Khanates of the Mongol Empire: Empire of the Great Khan (Yuan Dynasty), Golden Horde, Il-Khanate and Chagatai Khanate The Golden Horde (Mongolian: Altan Orda; Tatar: Altın Urda; Russian: Золотая Орда) was a Mongol[1][2][3][4] - later Turkicized[3] - state established in parts of present-day... Haci I Giray (Crimean Tatar: ) (died 1466) was the founder and the first ruler of the Crimean Khanate. ... The four successor Khanates of the Mongol Empire: Empire of the Great Khan (Yuan Dynasty), Golden Horde, Il-Khanate and Chagatai Khanate The Golden Horde (Mongolian: Altan Orda; Tatar: Altın Urda; Russian: Золотая Орда) was a Mongol[1][2][3][4] - later Turkicized[3] - state established in parts of present-day... The Republic of Genoa, in full the Most Serene Republic of Genoa (known as the Ligurian Republic from 1798 to 1805) was an independent state in Liguria on the northwestern Italian coast from ca. ... A steppe in Western Kazakhstan in early spring In physical geography, a steppe (Russian: - , Ukrainian: - , Kazakh: - ), pronounced in English as , is a plain without trees (apart from those near rivers and lakes); it is similar to a prairie, although a prairie is generally considered as being dominated by tall grasses...


The internal strife among the Hacı's sons followed after his death. The Ottomans interfered and installed Meñli I Giray, a son of Hacı I Giray to the throne. In 1475 the Ottoman forces, under the command of Gedik Ahmet Pasha conquered the Principality of Theodoro and Genoese colonies in Cembalo, Soldaia, and Caffa. The khanate from then on entered the protection of the Ottoman Empire. While the Crimean coast became an Ottoman Kefe sancak, the khans continued to rule in the rest of the peninsula and the northern steppes. The relationship of the Ottomans and the Crimean Tatars were unique. The sultans treated the khans more as allies than subjects. Though the chosen khan had to receive approval to the Sultan, they were not appointees of Constantinople. (Halil İnalcık) The Ottomans also recognized the legitimacy of the khans in the steppes, as descendants of Genghis Khan. The khans continued to have a foreign policy independent from the Ottomans in the steppes of Little Tartary. The relations of the khans and the Ottoman Sultan were governed through diplomatic correspondence. The khans continued to mint coins and use their names in Friday prayers, two important signs of sovereignty. They did not pay tribute to the Ottoman Empire, instead the Ottomans paid them in return for their services of providing skilled outriders and frontline cavalry in their campaigns. (Alexandre Bennigsen) Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1680, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–65) Edirne (1365–1453) Constantinople (Ä°stanbul, 1453–1922) Language(s) Ottoman Turkish Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 Osman I  - 1918–22 Mehmed VI... Meñli I Giray (aka Mengli I Giray) (Crimean Tatar: I Meñli Geray) (1445–1515) was a khan of the Crimean Khanate and the sixth son of the khanate founder Haci Giray. ... Haci I Giray (Crimean Tatar: ) (died 1466) was the founder and the first ruler of the Crimean Khanate. ... 5<sup>Superscript text</sup>7<!-- Comment --><blockquote> Block quote </blockquote>{| class=class=wikitable |- ! header 1 ! header 2 ! header 3 |-{| class=wikitable |- ! header 1 ! header 2 ! header 3{| class=wikitable |- ! header 1 ! header 2 ! header 3 |- | row 1, cell 1 | row 1, cell 2 | row 1, cell 3 |- | row 2... Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1680, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–65) Edirne (1365–1453) Constantinople (Ä°stanbul, 1453–1922) Language(s) Ottoman Turkish Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 Osman I  - 1918–22 Mehmed VI... Gedik Ahmet Pasha was a successful Ottoman army commander, admiral and state man during the reign of Ottoman Sultans Mehmed the Conqueror (March 30, 1432 – May 3, 1481) and Beyazid II (1447-1512). ... Principality of Theodoro (Greek Θεοδόρο) - small principality in South-West of Crimea from 12-14 cc. ... Balaklava (Ukrainian: , Russian: , Crimean Tatar: ) is a town in the Crimea, Ukraine which has an official status of a district of the city of Sevastopol. ... Sudak is city in the Crimea. ... Theodosia (Russian: Феодосия; Ukrainian: Феодосія; Greek: Θεοδωσία; Crimean Tatar/Turkish: Kefe) is a port and resort city in southern Ukraine, located on the Black Sea coast of Crimea at coordinates 45. ... The Ottoman Empire at the height of its power Imperial motto El Muzaffer Daima The Ever Victorious (as written in tugra) Official language Ottoman Turkish Capital &#304;stanbul ( Constantinople/Asitane/Konstantiniyye ) Sovereigns Sultans of the Osmanli Dynasty Population ca 40 million Area 12+ million km² Establishment 1299 Dissolution October 29... The Crimean Tatars (sg. ... Map of Constantinople. ... For other uses, see Genghis Khan (disambiguation). ...


The alliance of Crimean Tatars and Ottomans was comparable to Polish-Lithuania in its importance and durability. The Crimean cavalry became indispensable for the Ottomans' campaigns in Europe (Poland, Hungary) and Asia (Persia). This made Crimean Tatars dependent on the booty attained after the successful campaigns, and when the Ottoman military campaigns began to fail, the Crimean Tatar economy also began to decline. The Ottoman Empire at the height of its power Imperial motto El Muzaffer Daima The Ever Victorious (as written in tugra) Official language Ottoman Turkish Capital &#304;stanbul ( Constantinople/Asitane/Konstantiniyye ) Sovereigns Sultans of the Osmanli Dynasty Population ca 40 million Area 12+ million km² Establishment 1299 Dissolution October 29... The Persian Empire was a series of historical empires that ruled over the Iranian plateau, the old Persian homeland, and beyond in Western Asia, Central Asia and the Caucasus. ...


In 1502 Meñli I Giray defeated the last khan of the Great Horde putting the end to the Horde's claims on Crimea. In the 16th century the Crimean khanate pretended to be the successor authority of the former Golden Horde territory, Great Horde and hence over the Tatar khanates of Caspian-Volga region, particularly the Kazan Khanate and Astrakhan Khanate. This resulted in rivalry with Muscovy for dominance in the region. A successful campaign of Devlet I Giray to Moscow in 1571 finished with the burning of the Russian capital and he was called Taht-Algan (seizer of the throne) after this event. However the Crimean Khanate eventually lost the dispute for access to the Volga due to its catastrophic defeat in the Battle at Molodi just one year later. Meñli I Giray (aka Mengli I Giray) (Crimean Tatar: I Meñli Geray) (1445–1515) was a khan of the Crimean Khanate and the sixth son of the khanate founder Haci Giray. ... The Great Horde, or Big Horde was the central principality of the Mongol-Tartar Golden Horde, the westernmost successor state of Genghis Khans legacy. ... The four successor Khanates of the Mongol Empire: Empire of the Great Khan (Yuan Dynasty), Golden Horde, Il-Khanate and Chagatai Khanate The Golden Horde (Mongolian: Altan Orda; Tatar: Altın Urda; Russian: Золотая Орда) was a Mongol[1][2][3][4] - later Turkicized[3] - state established in parts of present-day... The Great Horde, or Big Horde was the central principality of the Mongol-Tartar Golden Horde, the westernmost successor state of Genghis Khans legacy. ... Categories: Historical stubs | Former countries | Tatars | Tatarstan history | History of Mongolia ... The Khanate of Astrakhan (Xacitarxan Khanate) was a Tatar feudal state that appeared after the collapse of the Golden Horde. ... Muscovy (Moscow principality (княжество Московское) to Grand Duchy of Moscow (Великое Княжество Московское) to Russian Tsardom (Царство Русское)) is a traditional Western name for the Russian state that existed from the 14th century to the late 17th century. ... Devlet I Giray (Crimean Tatar: I Devlet Geray) (1512–1577) — a khan of the Crimean Khanate in 1551–1577. ... Events January 11 - Austrian nobility is granted Freedom of religion. ... Combatants Crimean Khanate Muscovite Russia Commanders Khan Devlet I Giray Voyevoda Mikhail Vorotynsky Strength 80,000 Crimean Tatars, 33,000 Turks, 7,000 elite janissaries 60,000 - 70,000 Casualties 100,000 - 115,000 unknown The Battle of Molodi (Russian: Молодинская битва) was one of the key battles of Ivan the Terrible...


The capital of the Khanate was placed initially in Salaçıq near the Qırq Yer fortress, then moved to Bakhchisaray founded in 1532 by Sahib I Giray. Bakhchisaray (Crimean Tatar: Bağçasaray, Ukrainian: , Russian: ), a town in Central Crimea, centre of the Bakhchisaray raion (district), former capital of the Crimean Khanate. ... Events May 16 - Sir Thomas More resigns as Lord Chancellor of England. ...


Political and economic system

Girays traced their origins to Chingiz Khan, and this made them prevalent among other noble clans. According to the steppe tradition, the ruler was legitimate only if he is of Chingizid royal descent (i.e. ak süyek). Even the Muscovite Tsar claimed Chingizid descent. Instead of the Ottoman ideology of autocracy, the Crimean Khanate followed the Horde tradition. (Schamiloglu) That is, the Giray dynasty was the symbol of government but the khan actually governed with the participation of Qaraçı Beys, the leaders of the noble clans such as Şirin, Barın, Arğın, Qıpçaq, and in the later period, Mansuroğlu and Sicavut. The Nogays who transferred their allegiance to the Crimean khan when the Astrakhan Khanate collapsed in 1556, were an important element of the Crimean Khanate. Circassians and Cossacks also played role at certain times in Crimean politics, transferring their allegiance between the khan and the beys. Giray or Guirey was the Genghisid dynasty reigning in the Khanate of Crimea since its formation in 1427 until its downfall in 1783. ... Genghis Khan (Mongolian: &#1063;&#1080;&#1085;&#1075;&#1080;&#1089; &#1061;&#1072;&#1072;&#1085;, Jenghis Khan, Jinghis Khan, Chinghiz Khan, Jinghiz Khan, Chinggis Khan, Changaiz Khan, original name Tem jin, Temuchin, Mongolian: &#1058;&#1101;&#1084;&#1199;&#1199;&#1078;&#1080;&#1085;) (c. ... Qarachi (Tatar: Qaraçı) was the highest level of noble within Turkic khanates of 14-16 centuries, such as Siberian Khanate and Kazan Khanate. ... Flag of the Nogai people The Nogai, also spelled Nogay, Noghai, and often called the Caucasian Mongols (Caucasian referring to their geographical position in the Caucasus mountains, not to their ethnicity), are a Turkic people and an important ethnic group in the Daghestan region who speak the Turkic Nogai language. ... The Khanate of Astrakhan (Xacitarxan Khanate) was a Tatar feudal state that appeared after the collapse of the Golden Horde. ...

Muscovites at the southern border. Painting by Sergey Vasilievich Ivanov.

Internally, the khanate territory was divided among the beys and beneath the beys were mirzas from noble families. The relationship of peasants or herdsmen to mirzas were not feudal. They were free, and Islamic law protected them from losing their rights. Apportioned by village, the land was worked in common and the tax was assigned to whole village. The tax was one tenth of agricultural product, one twentieh of the livestock and a variable unpaid labour. During the reforms by the last khan Şahin Giray the internal structure was changed following the Turkish pattern: land-ownings of nobility were proclaimed the domain of the khan and reorganized into "qadılıqs" (provinces governed by representatives of the khan). Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1813x1300, 384 KB)Sergei Ivanov (painter) (1864-1910). ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1813x1300, 384 KB)Sergei Ivanov (painter) (1864-1910). ... Sergei V. Ivanov Sergei Vasilyevich Ivanov (Russian: , July 14 (July 4 (O.S.)) 1864— 16 August 1910) was a Russian painter and graphic artist. ...


Crimean law was based on Tatar law, Islamic law and on limited matters the Ottoman law. The leader of the Muslim establishment was the mufti, who was selected among the local Muslim clergy. His major duty was neither judicial nor theological, it was financial. The mufti’s administration controlled all of the vakif lands and their enomous revenues. Another Muslim official, appointed not by the clergy but the Ottoman sultan was the kadıasker. He oversaw the khanate’s judicial districts, each under jurisdiction of a kadi. Kadis theoretically depended on kadiasker but in practice to the clan leaders and the khan. The kadis determined the day to day legal behaviour of the Muslims in the khanate. A waqf (Arabic: وقف) is a religious endowment in Islam, typically devoting a building or plot of land for Muslim religious purposes. ... // Definition Kadi is the name given to the judge of Islam. ...


The non-Muslim minorities (Greeks, Armenians, Adyghe (Cherkessians), Genoeses, Crimean Karaites and Qırımçaq Jews) lived in the cities and villages, sometimes having different quarters. They had their own religious and judicial institutions according to the millet system. They controlled the financial occupations and trade, and paid tax in return for which they did not serve in the military. There is no evidence that they faced any discrimination, they lived like Crimean Tatars, and spoke dialects of Crimean Tatar. (Alan Fisher, 1978) The Crimean Karaites (Crimean Karaim: sg. ... Millet (stress on the e) is an Ottoman Turkish term for a legally protected religious minority. ... Alan Fisher is a journalist, currently working as the London correspondent for Al Jazeera International. ...


The nomadic part of the Crimean Tatars and all the Nogays were cattle-breeders. Crimea had important trading ports where the goods carried through Silk Road were exported to the Ottoman Empire and Europe. Crimean Khanate had many sizeable, beautiful and lively cities such as Bakhchisaray - the capital, Kezlev, Karasubazar and Aqmescit having numerous caravansarais, hans and merchant quarters, leather-manufactures, mills. The settled Crimean Tatars were engaged in trade, agriculture, and artisanry. Crimea was a center of wine and tobacco production, and fruit farming. The Bakhchisaray kilims (oriental rugs) were exported to Poland, and knives made by Crimean Tatar artisans were thought to be best among the Caucasian tribes. Crimean Tatars were famous Silkworm cultivation, and honey production. One of the major sources of incomes of Crimean Tatar and Nogay nobility was booty attained from campaigns to the neighbouring countries and slave trade. (Brian G. Williams) Bakhchisaray (Crimean Tatar: Bağçasaray, Ukrainian: , Russian: ), a town in Central Crimea, centre of the Bakhchisaray raion (district), former capital of the Crimean Khanate. ... Eupatoria (Russian: , Ukrainian: , Crimean Tatar: Kezlev), also known as Yevpatoria or Evpatoria, as pronounced in Russian and Ukrainian, is a town in the Crimea. ... Belogorsk (Crimean Tatar: Qarasuvbazar, Ukrainian: , Russian: ) (both Russian and Ukrainian names mean white mountains), formerly Karasubazar, is a town of Ukraine, at the Crimea, in 45° 3 north and 340 26 east, 25 miles east-northeast of Simferopol. ... Simferopol (Ukrainian: ; Russian: ; Crimean Tatar: , literally: The white mosque) is the capital of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea in southern Ukraine. ... This article is about the roadside inns. ... Bakhchisaray (Crimean Tatar: Bağçasaray, Ukrainian: , Russian: ), a town in Central Crimea, centre of the Bakhchisaray raion (district), former capital of the Crimean Khanate. ... A Shahsavan kilim with typical geometrical symbols some of them of mythological inspiration such as the crab or scarabeus A Kilim is a flatwoven rug, taking its name from the Turkish word for prayer rug. ...


Golden Age

The Crimean Khanate was undoubtedly one of the strongest powers in Eastern Europe until the 18th century. Crimean Tatars played an invaluable role in defending the borders of Islam, especially against the Muscovites and Poles. In order to prevent the Slavic settlement in the steppes, Crimean Tatar raiding parties (chambuls), in cooperation with the Nogais, engaged in raids on the Danubian principalities, Poland-Lithuania, and Muscovy. The Nogais, also spelled Nogay, Noghai, and often called the Caucasian Mongols (Caucasian refers to their geographic position, in the Caucasus mountains, not to their ethnicity), are a Turkic people, and an important ethnic group in the Daghestan region who speak the Turkic Nogai language. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Anthem Hymn of the Russian Federation Capital (and largest city) Moscow Official languages Russian official throughout nation; thirty others co-official in various regions Government Semi-presidential federal republic  -  President Vladimir Putin  -  Prime Minister Mikhail Fradkov Formation  -  Declared June 12, 1990   -  Finalized December 25, 1991  Area  -  Total 17,075,400...


In a process called "harvesting of the steppe" they enslaved many Slavic peasants, and acquired booty, from which the khan received a fixed share (savğa) of 10 or 20%. The campaigns by Crimean forces could be divided into "sefers" - officially declared military operations led by the khans themselves - and "çapuls" - raids undertaken by separate groups of noblemen (sometimes illegal and banned because they contravened the treaties concluded by the khans with the neighbor rulers). For a long time, until the early 18th century, the khanate maintained a massive slave trade with the Ottoman Empire and the Middle East. Kefe was one of the best known and significant trading ports and slave markets. This is a disambiguation page &#8212; a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Theodosia (Ukrainian: , Russian: , Crimean Tatar: ) is a port and resort city in Crimea, Ukraine, located on the Black Sea coast. ...


The Crimean Khanate also made several alliances with Polish-Lithuania and the Polish-Lithuanian Cossacks against growing Muscovy, which made competing claims to Golden Horde territories. The region in dispute was highly valued by Muscovy since it would allow the settlement of Russians to fertile areas where the growing season is longer than the more northerly areas which Muscovy depended on. It is speculated that with this soil, agriculture in Russia would have been rich enough to allow for a quicker decline of serfdom in the 17th century. In any case the permanent warfare in the borderland and the fast increase of the Russian nobles' armies contributed to increased exploitation of the Russian peasants.


Some researchers estimate that altogether more than 3 million people, predominantly Ukrainians but also Circassians, Russians, Belarusians and Poles, were captured and enslaved during the time of the Crimean Khanate. One of their most famous victims was Roxelana (Khurem Sultan), who later became the wife of Suleyman the Magnificent and achieved great power in the Ottoman court. A constant threat from Crimean Tatars supported the appearance of Cossackdom. Circassians is a term derived from the Turkic Cherkess (Çerkes), and is not the self-designation of any people. ... Roxelana Roxelana, Roxolana, Roxelane, Rossa, Ruziac, known also by her Turkish name of Khourrem (or Hürrem or Karima), meaning the cheerful one, (circa 1500 - April 18, 1558) was the wife of sultan Süleyman the Magnificent of the Ottoman Empire. ... Suleiman the Magnificent Suleiman I (November 6, 1494 &#8211; September 5/6, 1566); in Turkish Süleyman , (nicknamed the Magnificent in Europe and the Lawgiver in the Islamic World, in Turkish Kanuni) was the sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1520 to 1566 and successor to Selim I. He was... This article needs cleanup. ...


Perfecting their raiding tactics, Crimean Tatars chose routes along watersheds. The main way to Moscow was Muravski shliach, going from Crimean Perekop up to Tula between the rivers Dnieper and Seversky Donets. Having gone deep into the populated area for 100-200 kilometers, the Tatars turned back and looted and captured slaves. Annually Moscow mobilized in the spring up to 65 thousand soldiers for border service, which was a heavy burden for the state. The defensive Russian lines consisted of the circuit of earthen shafts, fallen trees, trenches and fortresses such as Belev, Odoev, and Tula. The coast of the river Oka near to Moscow served as last line of defense. Cossacks and gentry (дети боярские) were organized into sentry and patrol services that observed Crimean Tatars on the steppe. (Source: Vasily Klyuchevsky, "The course of Russian History".) Perekop may refer to the following objects located basically at the same site. ... Tula (Russian: ) is an industrial city in the European part of Russia, located 165 km to the south of Moscow, on the river Upa, at . ... The Dnieper River (also known as: Dnepr, Dniapro, or Dnipro) is a river which flows from Russia, through Belarus and Ukraine, ending its flow in the Black Sea. ... Length 1,050 km Elevation of the source - m Average discharge - m³/s Area watershed - km² Origin Russia Mouth Don River Basin countries Russia, Ukraine Donets (&#1044;&#1086;&#1085;&#1077;&#1094;), is a tributary of Don River, Russia. ... Oka (Russian: Ока́) is a great river in Russia, the biggest right confluent of the Volga. ... Vasily Osipovich Klyuchevsky (January 16, 1841 - May 12, 1911) dominated the Russian historiography at the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries. ...


Decline

The decline of the Crimean Khanate was tied to the weakening of the Ottoman empire and a change in the balance of power in Eastern Europe that favoured the Christian kingdoms. Crimean Tatars returned from the Ottoman campaigns empty-handed, while the Tatar cavalry without sufficient guns suffered great loss against European and Russian modern armies. By the late 17th century, Muscovite Russia became too strong a power for Crimea to pillage it. From then on, Crimean Tatars were not able to conducts raids for attaining slaves or booty to Ukraine and Russia and this cut one of the economic sources of the khanate. The support of the khan by noble clans also began to erode as a result of these external failures, and internal conflict for power ensued. The Nogays, who provided a significant portion of the Crimean military forces, also took back their support from the khans towards the end of the empire. (16th century - 17th century - 18th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 17th century was that century which lasted from 1601-1700. ...


The united Russian and Ukrainian forces attacked the Khanate during the Chigirin Campaigns and the Crimean Campaigns. It was during the Russo-Turkish War, 1735-1739 that the Russians under command of Field-Marshal Munnich finally managed to penetrate the Crimean Peninsula itself. Russo-Turkish War of 1676-1681, a war between Russia and the Ottoman Empire, caused by the spreading Turkish aggression in the second half of the 17th century. ... Crimean campaigns of 1687 and 1689 (&#1050;&#1088;&#1099;&#1084;&#1089;&#1082;&#1080;&#1077; &#1087;&#1086;&#1093;&#1086;&#1076;&#1099; in Russian), military campaigns of the Russian army against the Crimean Khanate. ... Russo-Turkish War of 1735-1739, a war between Russia and the Ottoman Empire, caused by intensified contradictions over the results of the War of the Polish Succession of 1733-1735 and endless raids by the Crimean Tatars. ... Count Burkhard Christoph von Munnich (1683 - 1767) was a Russian field marshal and political figure. ...


More warfare ensued during the reign of Catherine II. The Russo-Turkish War, 1768-1774 resulted in the Treaty of Kuchuk-Kainarji, which made the Crimean Khanate independent from the Ottoman Empire, and aligned it with the Russian Empire. Catherine the Great redirects here. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... The Treaty of Kuchuk-Kainarji (Küçük Kaynarca) was signed on July 21, 1774, between Russia (represented by Field-Marshal Rumyantsev) and the Ottoman Empire after the Ottoman Empire was defeated in the Russo-Turkish War of 1768-1774. ... Anthem God Save the Tsar! The Russian Empire in 1914 Capital Saint Petersburg Language(s) Russian Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1721-1725 Peter the Great (first)  - 1894-1917 Nicholas II (last) History  - Established 22 October, 1721  - February Revolution 2 March, 1917 Area  - 1897 22,400,000 km2 8,648,688 sq...


The rule of the last Crimean khan Şahin Giray was marked with increasing Russian influence and outbursts of violence from the side of the khan administration towards internal opposition. On 8 April 1783, in violation of the treaty, Catherine II interfered into the civil war, de facto annexing the whole peninsula into the Russian Empire. In 1787, Şahin Giray took refuge in the Ottoman empire and was eventually executed by the Ottoman authorities for betrayal in Rhodes, although the royal Giray family survives to this day. April 8 is the 98th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (99th in leap years). ... 1783 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Catherine the Great redirects here. ... Year 1787 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Rhodes (Greek: Ρόδος (pron. ... Giray or Guirey was the Genghisid dynasty reigning in the Khanate of Crimea since its formation in 1427 until its downfall in 1783. ...


See also

The following is the chronological table of reigns of khans of Crimean Khanate: External links Hansaray. ... Muscovites at the southern border. ...

External links

  • The Bağçasaray Palace of the Crimean Khans
  • Tatar.Net
  • Annexation of the Crimean Khanate

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Crimean Khanate (73 words)
Tatar state in the Crimean Peninsula, bordering on the southern
Horde; after its demise, beginning with the mid-15th century, the khanate was an independent state ruled by the
In 1478 it became a vassal state of Turkey, and from 1774 it was under the protection of Russia, which finally occupied it in 1783.
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