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Encyclopedia > Crimea
Автономна Республіка Крим
Автономная Республика Крым
Qırım Muhtar Cumhuriyeti
Autonomous Republic of Crimea
Flag of Crimea
Flag Coat of arms
MottoПроцветание в единстве  (Russian)
Protsvetanie v edinstve  (transliteration)
"Prosperity in unity"
AnthemНивы и горы твои волшебны, Родина  (Russian)
Nivy i gory tvoi volshebny, Rodina  (transliteration)
Your fields and mounts are wonderful, Motherland

Location of Crimea (red) with respect to Ukraine (light blue).
Location of Crimea (dark green) with respect to Ukraine (light green) on a map of Europe.
Capital
(and largest city)
Simferopol
44°56′N, 34°6′E
Official languages Ukrainian1
Recognised regional languages Russian, Crimean Tatar
Ethnic groups  58.32% Russians
24.32% Ukrainians
12.10% Crimean Tatars
Government Autonomous republic within Ukraine
 -  Head of State Viktor Yushchenko2
 -  Prime Minister Viktor Plakida
 -  Speaker of
the Parliament

Anatoliy P. Hrytsenko
Autonomy from the Russian Empire / Soviet Union
 -  Established3 October 18, 1921 
 -  Abolished4 June 30, 1945 
 -  Restored5 February 12, 1992 
Area
 -  Total 26,100 km² (148)
10,038 sq mi 
Population
 -  2007 estimate 1,973,185 (148)
 -  2001 census 2,033,700 
 -  Density 75.6/km² (116)
29.3/sq mi
Currency Ukrainian hryvnia (UAH)
Time zone EET (UTC+2)
 -  Summer (DST) EEST (UTC+3)
Internet TLD crimea.ua
Calling code +380
1 Because Ukrainian is the only state language in Ukraine, no other language may be official. But according the Constitution of Autonomous Republic of Crimea Russian is language of interethnic communication. However, government duties are fulfilled mainly in Russian, hence it is a de facto official language. Crimean Tatar is also used.
2 The Head of State of Crimea is the President of Ukraine (currently Viktor Yushchenko).
3 The Crimean ASSR was created as part of the Russian SFSR.
4 The Crimean ASSR's autonomy was removed and transformed into the Crimean Oblast of the RSFSR.
5 The Crimean Oblast was transformed into the Autonomous Republic of Crimea as part of independent Ukraine.

Crimea (IPA: /kraɪˈmiːə/) or the Autonomous Republic of Crimea (Russian: Крым, Автономная Республика Крым, Avtonomnaya Respublika Krym; Ukrainian: Крим, Автономна Республіка Крим, Avtonomna Respublika Krym; Crimean Tatar: Qırım, Qırım Muhtar Cumhuriyeti) is an autonomous republic of Ukraine on the northern coast of the Black Sea occupying a peninsula of the same name. Image File history File links Flag_of_Crimea. ... Image File history File links Crimea_Emblem. ... Flag ratio: 1:2 The flag of Crimea is in use since 1992 and was officially adopted on April 21, 1999. ... The Coat of Arms of Crimea is in use since 1992 and was officially adopted on April 21, 1999. ... For other uses, see Motto (disambiguation). ... Hymn of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea (Ukrainian: , Russian: , Crimean Tatar: ) is the official anthem of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea, Ukraine. ... Transliteration is the practice of transcribing a word or text written in one writing system into another writing system. ... A national anthem is a generally patriotic musical composition that evokes and eulogizes the history, traditions and struggles of its people, recognized either by a countrys government as the official national song, or by convention through use by the people. ... Hymn of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea (Ukrainian: , Russian: , Crimean Tatar: ) is the official anthem of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea, Ukraine. ... Transliteration is the practice of transcribing a word or text written in one writing system into another writing system. ... Download high resolution version (1181x825, 16 KB) Map of Ukraine with highlighted Oblast made by Sven Teschke, Germany, 2004 --Steschke 09:24, 2004 Nov 8 (UTC) see also: english version: Image:Map_of_Ukraine_political_enwiki. ... Image File history File links LocationCrimea. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... Not to be confused with capitol. ... Motto: Процветание в единстве - Prosperity in unity Anthem: Нивы и горы твои волшебны, Родина - Your fields and mounts are wonderful, Motherland Location of Crimea (red) on the map of Ukraine. ... Image File history File links Simferopol-COA.gif‎ Description: COA of Simferopol, Crimea, Ukraine. ... Simferopol (English pronunciation: /ËŒsɪm. ... An official language is a language that is given a special legal status in the countries, states, and other territories. ... A regional language is a language spoken in a part of a country, be it may be a small area, a federal state or province, or a wider area. ... Crimean Tatar language (Qırımtatar tili, Qırımtatarca), also known as Crimean (Qırım tili, Qırımca) and Crimean Turkish (Qırım Türkçesi) is the language of the Crimean Tatars. ... The Crimean Tatars (sg. ... A significant number of autonomous republics can be found within the successor states of the Soviet Union, but the majority are located within Russia. ... Mariyinsky Palace The President of Ukraine (Ukrainian: , Prezydent Ukrayiny) is the head of the state of Ukraine and acts in its name. ... Viktor Andriyovych Yushchenko (Ukrainian:  ) (born February 23, 1954) is the current President of Ukraine. ... The Prime Minister of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea (Ukrainian: , Russian: , Crimean Tatar: ) presides over the Council of Ministers of Crimea and is the prime minister of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea, Ukraine. ... It has been suggested that Speakers of the House be merged into this article or section. ... A significant number of autonomous republics can be found within the successor states of the Soviet Union, but the majority are located within Russia. ... The subject of this article was previously also known as Russia. ... is the 291st day of the year (292nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1921 (MCMXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... is the 181st day of the year (182nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... is the 43rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar). ... This article is about the physical quantity. ... A square metre (US spelling: square meter) is by definition the area enclosed by a square with sides each 1 metre long. ... This is a list of the countries of the world sorted by area. ... A square mile is an English unit of area equal to that of a square with sides each 1 statute mile (≈1,609 m) in length. ... Map of countries by population for the year 2007. ... The first Ukrainian Census after the dissolution of the Soviet Union was carried out by State Statistics Committee of Ukraine on December 5, 2001, twelve years after the last All-Union census in 1989. ... Population density per square kilometre by country, 2006 Population density map of the world in 1994. ... Population density by country, 2006 List of countries and dependencies by population density in inhabitants/km². The list includes sovereign states and self-governing dependent territories that are recognized by the United Nations. ... ISO 4217 Code UAH User(s) Ukraine Inflation 11. ... ISO 4217 is the international standard describing three letter codes (also known as the currency code) to define the names of currencies established by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). ... Timezone and TimeZone redirect here. ... Time zones of Europe: Light colours indicate countries not observing daylight saving Eastern European Time (EET) is one of the names of UTC+2 time zone, 2 hours ahead of Coordinated Universal Time. ... UTC redirects here. ... Although DST is common in Europe and North America, most of the worlds people do not use it. ... Eastern European Summer Time (EEST) is one of the names of UTC+3 time zone, 3 hours ahead of Coordinated Universal Time. ... UTC redirects here. ... A country code top-level domain (ccTLD) is a top-level domain used and reserved for a country or a dependent territory. ... This is a list of country calling codes defined by ITU-T recommendation E.164. ... Country Code: 380 International Call Prefix: 8~10 Ukraine (similarly to most of ex-Soviet Union countries) employs a four-level (local, zone, country, international) open dialing plan. ... Crimean Tatar language (Qırımtatar tili, Qırımtatarca), also known as Crimean (Qırım tili, Qırımca) and Crimean Turkish (Qırım Türkçesi) is the language of the Crimean Tatars. ... Viktor Andriyovych Yushchenko (Ukrainian:  ) (born February 23, 1954) is the current President of Ukraine. ... Crimean Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic (Крымская Автономная Советская Социалистическая Республика) (October 18, 1921—June 30, 1945) was created as part of RSFSR within the Crimean Peninsula, its capital being Simferopol. ... State motto: Russian: Пролетарии всех стран, соединяйтесь! Translation: Workers of the world, unite! Capital Moscow Official language Russian Established In the USSR:  - Since  - Until November 7, 1917 December 30, 1922 December 12, 1991 (independence) Area  - Total  - Water (%) Ranked 1st in the USSR 17,075,200 km² 13% Population  - Total   - Density Ranked 1st in the... The Crimean Oblast (Ukrainian: ; Russian: ) was a former oblast (province) of the former Ukrainian SSR, which was at the time part of the Soviet Union. ... Crimean Tatar language (Qırımtatar tili, Qırımtatarca), also known as Crimean (Qırım tili, Qırımca) and Crimean Turkish (Qırım Türkçesi) is the language of the Crimean Tatars. ... A significant number of autonomous republics can be found within the successor states of the Soviet Union, but the majority are located within Russia. ... For other uses, see Black Sea (disambiguation). ... A peninsula in Croatia A peninsula is a piece of land that is bordered on three or more sides by water. ...


The territory of Crimea was conquered and controlled many times throughout its history. The Cimmerians, Greeks, Iranians, Goths, Huns, Bulgars, Khazars, the state of Kievan Rus', Byzantine Greeks, Kipchaks, and the Mongols all controlled Crimea in its early history. In the 13th century it was partly controlled by the Venetians and by the Genoese; these were followed by the Crimean Khanate and Ottoman Empire in the 15th–18th centuries, the Russian Empire in the 18th–20th centuries, the Russian SFSR and later Ukrainian SSR within Soviet Union in the rest of 20th century, Germany in World War II, and now, the independent Ukrainian state. The Cimmerians (Greek: , Kimmerioi) were ancient equestrian nomads who, according to Herodotus, originally inhabited the region north of the Caucasus and the Black Sea, in what is now Russia and Ukraine, in the 8th and 7th century BC. Assyrian records, however, first place them in the region of what is... The least-powerful, least-known, and paradoxically longest-lived Gothic communities were those that remained in the lands around the Black Sea, especially in the Crimea. ... For other uses, see Hun (disambiguation). ... Not to be confused with Bulgarians. ... The Khazars (Hebrew Kuzari כוזרי Kuzarim כוזרים; Turkish Hazar Hazarlar; Russian Хазарин Хазары; Tatar sing Xäzär Xäzärlär; Crimean Tatar: ; Greek Χαζάροι/Χάζαροι; Persianخزر khazar; Latin Gazari or Cosri) were a semi-nomadic Turkic people from Central Asia, many of whom converted to Judaism. ... Trydent of Yaroslav I Map of the Kievan Rus′, 11th century Capital Kiev Religion Orthodox Christianity Government Monarchy Historical era Middle Ages  - Established 9th century  - Disestablished 12th century Currency Hryvnia Kievan Rus′ was the early, predominantly East Slavic[1] medieval state of Rurikid dynasty dominated by the city of Kiev... Byzantine redirects here. ... Kipchaks in Eurasia circa 1200 C.E. Kipchaks (also spelled as Kypchaks, Qipchaqs, Qypchaqs) (Ukrainian: (polovtsy), Crimean Tatar: , Karachay-Balkar: Къыпчакъ, Uzbek: , Kazakh: Қыпшақ, Kumyk: Къыпчакъ, Kyrgyz: Кыпчак, Nogai: Кыпчак, Turkish: Kıpçak) were an ancient Turkic people, first mentioned in the historical chronicles of Central Asia in the 1st millennium BC. The western... For other uses, see Mongols (disambiguation). ... Borders of the Republic of Venice in 1796 Capital Venice Language(s) Venetian, Latin, Italian Religion Roman Catholic Government Republic Doge  - 1789–97 Ludovico Manin History  - Established 697  - Treaty of Zara June 27, 1358  - Treaty of Leoben April 17, 1797 * Traditionally, the establishment of the Republic is dated to 697. ... Alternate uses, see Genoa (disambiguation). ... Flag Crimean Khanate in 1600 Capital Bakhchisaray Government Monarchy History  - Established 1441  - Annexed to Russia 1783 The Crimean Khanate or the Khanate of Crimea (Crimean Tatar: ; Russian: - Krymskoye khanstvo; Ukrainian: - Krymske khanstvo; Turkish: ) was a Crimean Tatar state from 1441 to 1783. ... Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1683, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–1365) Edirne (1365–1453) Constantinople (1453–1922) Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 (first) Osman I  - 1918–22 (last) Mehmed VI Grand Viziers  - 1320... The subject of this article was previously also known as Russia. ... State motto: Russian: Пролетарии всех стран, соединяйтесь! Translation: Workers of the world, unite! Capital Moscow Official language Russian Established In the USSR:  - Since  - Until November 7, 1917 December 30, 1922 December 12, 1991 (independence) Area  - Total  - Water (%) Ranked 1st in the USSR 17,075,200 km² 13% Population  - Total   - Density Ranked 1st in the... State motto: Ukrainian: Пролетарі всіх країн, єднайтеся! Translation: Workers of the world, unite! Capital Kiev Official language Ukrainian and Russian Established In the USSR:  - Since  - Until December 25, 1917 December 30, 1922 August 24, 1991 Area  - Total  - Water (%) Ranked 3rd in the USSR 603,700 km² negligible Population  - Total   - Density Ranked 2nd in the... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...


The total area of the republic is 26,200 km². As of 2007, Crimea has a population of 1,973,185 inhabitants. The capital of Crimea is the city of Simferopol. Simferopol (English pronunciation: /ËŒsɪm. ...


Crimea is the homeland for the Crimean Tatars, an ethnic minority who now make up about 13% of the population. The Crimean Tatars were forcibly expelled to Central Asia by Joseph Stalin's government, but have begun returning to their homeland in recent years.[1] The Crimean Tatars (sg. ... Not by Their Own Will. ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ... Josef Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili (Georgian: , Ioseb Besarionis Dze Jughashvili; Russian: , Iosif Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili) (December 18 [O.S. December 6] 1878[1] – March 5, 1953), better known by his adopted name, Joseph Stalin (alternatively transliterated Josef Stalin), was General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Unions Central Committee from...

Contents

Etymology of the name

The name Crimea takes its origin in the name of a city of Qırım (today's Stary Krym) which served as a capital of the Crimean province of the Golden Horde. Qırım is Crimean Tatar for "my hill" (qır – hill, -ım – my). However, there are other versions of the etymology of Qırım. Russian Krym is a Russified form of Qırım. The ancient Greeks called Crimea Tauris (later Taurica), after its inhabitants, the Tauri. The Greek historian Herodotus mentions that Hercules plowed that land using a huge ox ("Taurus"), hence the name of the land. Stary Krym (Crimean Tatar: Eski Qırım, Ukrainian: , Russian: ) is a small historical town in the Eastern Crimea, approximately 25 km (15 mi. ... The Golden Horde (Mongolian: Altan Ordyn Uls; Tatar: ; Russian: ) is a Russian designation for the Mongol[1][2][3] — later Turkicized[4] — khanate established in the western part of the Mongol Empire after the Mongol invasion of Rus in the 1240s: present-day Russia, Ukraine, Kazakhstan, and the Caucasus. ... Crimean Tatar language (Qırımtatar tili, Qırımtatarca), also known as Crimean (Qırım tili, Qırımca) and Crimean Turkish (Qırım Türkçesi) is the language of the Crimean Tatars. ... The term ancient Greece refers to the periods of Greek history in Classical Antiquity, lasting ca. ... Tauris is a peninsula on the Black Sea. ... The Chersonesus Tauricus of Antiquity, shown on a map printed in London, ca 1770 Taurica (Greek: , Latin: ) also known as Tauris, Taurida, Tauric Chersonese, and Chersonesus Taurica was the name of Crimea in Antiquity. ... The Tauri were the original inhabitants of the southern coast of Crimea, inhabiting the Crimean Mountains and the narrow strip of land between the mountains and the Black Sea. ... Herodotus of Halicarnassus (Greek: HÄ“ródotos Halikarnāsseús) was a Greek historian who lived in the 5th century BC (ca. ... For other uses, see Hercules (disambiguation). ...


In English, Crimea is sometimes referred to with the definite article, the Crimea, as in the Netherlands, the Gambia, etc. However, usage without the article has become more frequent in journalism since the years of the Soviet Union. The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... For other uses, see Netherlands (disambiguation). ...


History

Early history

Main article: Taurica

The earliest inhabitants of whom we have any authentic traces wehge the Cimmerians, who were expelled by the Scythians (Iraniags) during the 7th century BC. The remaining Cimmerians that togok refuge in the mountains later became known as the Tauri. According to other historians, the Tauri were known for their savage rituals and piracy, and were also the earliest, indigenous of the peninsula. In 5th century BC, Greek colonists began to settle along the Black Sea coast, among those were the Dorians from Heraclea who founded a sea port of Chersonesos outside Sevastopol, and the Ionians from Miletus who landed at Feodosiya and Panticapaeum (also called Bosporus). The Chersonesus Tauricus of Antiquity, shown on a map printed in London, ca 1770 Taurica (Greek: , Latin: ) also known as Tauris, Taurida, Tauric Chersonese, and Chersonesus Taurica was the name of Crimea in Antiquity. ... The Cimmerians (Greek: , Kimmerioi) were ancient equestrian nomads who, according to Herodotus, originally inhabited the region north of the Caucasus and the Black Sea, in what is now Russia and Ukraine, in the 8th and 7th century BC. Assyrian records, however, first place them in the region of what is... The Scythians (, also ) or Scyths ([1]; from Greek ), a nation of horse-riding nomadic pastoralists who spoke an Iranian language[2], dominated the Pontic steppe throughout Classical Antiquity. ... (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium) The 7th century BC started on January 1, 700 BC and ended on December 31, 601 BC. // Overview Events Ashurbanipal, king of Assyria who created the the first systematically collected library at Nineveh A 16th century depiction of the Hanging Gardens of... The Tauri were the original inhabitants of the southern coast of Crimea, inhabiting the Crimean Mountains and the narrow strip of land between the mountains and the Black Sea. ... The 5th century BC started the first day of 500 BC and ended the last day of 401 BC. // The Parthenon of Athens seen from the hill of the Pnyx to the west. ... For other uses, see Black Sea (disambiguation). ... Heraclea Pontica (Greek: Ηράκλεια Ποντική; modern day Karadeniz Ereğli, in the Zonguldak Province of Turkey, on the Black Sea), an ancient city on the coast of Bithynia in Asia Minor, at the mouth of the river Lycus. ... The remains of the city of Chersonesos Chersonesos (Greek: , Latin: , Old East Slavic: Корсунь, Korsun, Russian/Ukrainian: Херсонес, Khersones; see also List of traditional Greek place names), also transliterated as Chersonese, Chersonesos, Cherson, was an ancient Greek colony founded approximately 2500 years ago in the southwestern part of Crimea, known then as... Location Map of Ukraine with Sevastopol highlighted. ... Location of Ionia Ionia (Greek Ιωνία; see also list of traditional Greek place names) was an ancient region of southwestern coastal Anatolia (in present-day Turkey, the region nearest İzmir,) on the Aegean Sea. ... The lower half of the benches and the remnants of the scene building of the theater of Miletus (August 2005) Miletus (Carian: Anactoria Hittite: Milawata or Millawanda, Greek: Μίλητος transliterated Miletos, Turkish: Milet) was an ancient city on the western coast of Anatolia (in what is now Aydin Province, Turkey), near... Feodosiya (Ukrainian: , Russian: , Crimean Tatar: ) is a port and resort city in Crimea, Ukraine, located on the Black Sea coast. ... Panticapaeum and other ancient Greek colonies along the north coast of the Black Sea. ... The Cimmerian Bosphorus of Antiquity, shown on a map printed in London, ca 1770 The Cimmerian Bosporus (Bosporus Cimmerius) was the ancient name for the Strait of Kerch that connects the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov. ...

The Greek colony of Chersonesus, Sevastopol.
The Greek colony of Chersonesus, Sevastopol.

Two centuries later (438 BC), the Archon (ruler) of the latter settlers assumed the title of the Kings of Cimmerian Bosporus, a state that maintained close relations with Athens, supplying the city with wheat, honey and other commodities. The last of that line of kings, Paerisades V, being hard-pressed by the Scythians, put himself under the protection of Mithridates VI, the king of Pontus, in 114 BC. After the death of this sovereign, his son, Pharnaces II, was invested by Pompey with the kingdom of Bosporus in 63 BC as a reward for the assistance rendered to the Romans in their war against his father. In 15 BC, it was once again restored to the king of Pontus, but since ranked as a tributary state of Rome. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2048 × 1536 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2048 × 1536 pixel, file size: 1. ... Chersonesus (Херсонес) is an ancient city on the territory of Sevastopol, in the Crimea, Ukraine. ... Location Map of Ukraine with Sevastopol highlighted. ... Here is a list of Rulers of the Cimmerian Bosporus - // Gomer ca. ... This article is about the capital of Greece. ... A silver coin depicting Mithradates VI of Pontus. ... Traditional rural Pontic house A man in traditional clothes from Trabzon, illustration Pontus is the name which was applied, in ancient times, to extensive tracts of country in the northeast of Asia Minor (modern Turkey) bordering on the Euxine (Black Sea), which was often called simply Pontos (the main), by... Pharnaces II of Pontus (63 BC - 47 BC), was the king of Pontus and son of the great Mithridates VI. Pompey had defeated Mithridates VI in 64 BC and gained control of much of Asia Minor, but Pharnaces II attempted to take advantage of the Roman civil war to retake... For other meanings see Pompey (disambiguation). ... The Cimmerian Bosphorus of Antiquity, shown on a map printed in London, ca 1770 The Cimmerian Bosporus (Bosporus Cimmerius) was the ancient name for the Strait of Kerch that connects the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov. ... This article is about the state which existed from the 6th century BC to the 1st century BC. For the state which existed in the 18th century, see Roman Republic (18th century). ... For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ...


Throughout the later centuries, Crimea was invaded or occupied successively by the Goths (AD 250), the Huns (376), the Bulgars 4th-8th century), the Khazars (8th century), the state of Kievan Rus' (10th–11th centuries), the Byzantine Empire (1016), the Kipchaks (the Kumans) (1050), and the Mongols (1237). The least-powerful, least-known, and paradoxically longest-lived Gothic communities were those that remained in the lands around the Black Sea, especially in the Crimea. ... For other uses, see Hun (disambiguation). ... Not to be confused with Bulgarians. ... The Khazars (Hebrew Kuzari כוזרי Kuzarim כוזרים; Turkish Hazar Hazarlar; Russian Хазарин Хазары; Tatar sing Xäzär Xäzärlär; Crimean Tatar: ; Greek Χαζάροι/Χάζαροι; Persianخزر khazar; Latin Gazari or Cosri) were a semi-nomadic Turkic people from Central Asia, many of whom converted to Judaism. ... Trydent of Yaroslav I Map of the Kievan Rus′, 11th century Capital Kiev Religion Orthodox Christianity Government Monarchy Historical era Middle Ages  - Established 9th century  - Disestablished 12th century Currency Hryvnia Kievan Rus′ was the early, predominantly East Slavic[1] medieval state of Rurikid dynasty dominated by the city of Kiev... Byzantine redirects here. ... Kipchaks in Eurasia circa 1200 C.E. Kipchaks (also spelled as Kypchaks, Qipchaqs, Qypchaqs) (Ukrainian: (polovtsy), Crimean Tatar: , Karachay-Balkar: Къыпчакъ, Uzbek: , Kazakh: Қыпшақ, Kumyk: Къыпчакъ, Kyrgyz: Кыпчак, Nogai: Кыпчак, Turkish: Kıpçak) were an ancient Turkic people, first mentioned in the historical chronicles of Central Asia in the 1st millennium BC. The western... For other uses, see Mongols (disambiguation). ...


In the mid-10th century, the eastern area of Crimea was conquered by Prince Sviatoslav I of Kiev and became part of the Kievan Rus' principality of Tmutarakan. In 988, Prince Vladimir I of Kiev also captured the Byzantine town of Chersones (presently part of Sevastopol) where he later converted to Christianity. An impressive Russian Orthodox cathedral marks the location of this historic event. Sviatoslavs meeting with Emperor John by Klavdiy Lebedev, an attempt to visualise Leo the Deacons description of Sviatoslav Sviatoslav I of Kiev (East Slavic: Святослав Игоревич) (c. ... Hermonassa and other Greek colonies along the north coast of the Black Sea in the 5th century BCE. Tmutarakan (Russian: Тмутаракань) is an ancient city that controlled the Cimmerian Bosporus, the passage from the Black Sea to the Sea of Azov. ... Saint Vladimir Svyatoslavich the Great (c. ... Tauric Chersonesos, Greek Χερσονασος (Chersones, Khersones, Korsun, Russian: Херсонес) was the Greek settlement founded approximately 2500 years ago in the southwestern part of Crimean (Taurian) Peninsula. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... The Russian Orthodox Church of the Moscow Patriarchate (Russian: ), also known as the Orthodox Christian Church of Russia, is a body of Christians who are united under the Patriarch of Moscow, who in turn is in communion with the other patriarchs and primates of the Eastern Orthodox Church. ...


In the 13th century, the Republic of Genoa seized the settlements which their rivals, the Venetians, had built along the Crimean coast and established themselves at Cembalo, Soldaia, Cherco and Caffa, gaining control of the Crimean economy and the Black Sea commerce for two centuries. The Republic of Genoa, in full the Most Serene Republic of Genoa (known as the Ligurian Republic from 1798 to 1805) was an independent state in Liguria on the northwestern Italian coast from ca. ... For other uses, see Venice (disambiguation). ... Balaklava (Ukrainian: , Russian: , Crimean Tatar: ) is a town in the Crimea, Ukraine which has an official status of a district of the city of Sevastopol. ... Sudak is city in the Crimea. ... Kerch (Ukrainian: , Russian: , Crimean Tatar: , Old East Slavic: Кърчевъ) is a city (2001 pop 157,000) on the Kerch Peninsula of eastern Crimea, is an important industrial, transport and tourist centre of Ukraine. ... Feodosiya (Ukrainian: , Russian: , Crimean Tatar: ) is a port and resort city in Crimea, Ukraine, located on the Black Sea coast. ...


Crimean Khanate: 1441-1783

Main article: Crimean Khanate
The Hansaray, succession home of the Crimean Khans, in Bakhchisaray.
The Hansaray, succession home of the Crimean Khans, in Bakhchisaray.

A number of Turkic peoples, now collectively known as the Crimean Tatars, have been inhabiting the peninsula since the early Middle Ages. The ethnicity of the Crimean Tatars is quite complex as it absorbed both nomadic Turkic and European components (in the first place, the Goths and the Genoese) which is still reflected in their appearance and language differences. A small enclave of the Karaims, possibly of Khazar (i.e. Turkic) descent but members of a Jewish sect, was founded in the 8th century. It existed among the Muslim Crimean Tatars, primarily in the mountainous Çufut Qale area. Flag Crimean Khanate in 1600 Capital Bakhchisaray Government Monarchy History  - Established 1441  - Annexed to Russia 1783 The Crimean Khanate or the Khanate of Crimea (Crimean Tatar: ; Russian: - Krymskoye khanstvo; Ukrainian: - Krymske khanstvo; Turkish: ) was a Crimean Tatar state from 1441 to 1783. ... General view on the part of the Bakhchisaray Palace ([1]) By Oleksa Haiworonski Copyright 2004 Oleksa Haiworonski; Copyrighted Free License granted Categories: Crimean Khanate File links The following pages link to this file: Bakhchisaray ... General view on the part of the Bakhchisaray Palace ([1]) By Oleksa Haiworonski Copyright 2004 Oleksa Haiworonski; Copyrighted Free License granted Categories: Crimean Khanate File links The following pages link to this file: Bakhchisaray ... Bakhchisaray Palace The Khans Palace or Hansaray is located in the town of Bakhchisaray, Crimea, Ukraine. ... The following is the chronological table of reigns of khans of Crimean Khanate: External links Hansaray. ... Bakhchisaray (Crimean Tatar: Bağçasaray, Ukrainian: , Russian: ), a town in Central Crimea, centre of the Bakhchisaray raion (district), former capital of the Crimean Khanate. ... This article is about the various peoples speaking one of the Turkic languages. ... The Crimean Tatars (sg. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... The least-powerful, least-known, and paradoxically longest-lived Gothic communities were those that remained in the lands around the Black Sea, especially in the Crimea. ... For other uses, see Genoa (disambiguation). ... The Crimean Karaites (Crimean Karaim: sg. ... Çufut Qale or Chufut Kale is a historic fortress in the Crimea, near Bakhchisaray. ...


After the destruction of the Golden Horde by Timur in 1441, the Crimean Tatars founded an independent Crimean Khanate under Hacı I Giray, a descendant of Genghis Khan. He and his successors reigned first at Qırq Yer, and from the beginning of the 15th century, at Bakhchisaray.[2] The Golden Horde (Mongolian: Altan Ordyn Uls; Tatar: ; Russian: ) is a Russian designation for the Mongol[1][2][3] — later Turkicized[4] — khanate established in the western part of the Mongol Empire after the Mongol invasion of Rus in the 1240s: present-day Russia, Ukraine, Kazakhstan, and the Caucasus. ... For the similar-sounding word Timor, see Timor (disambiguation). ... Flag Crimean Khanate in 1600 Capital Bakhchisaray Government Monarchy History  - Established 1441  - Annexed to Russia 1783 The Crimean Khanate or the Khanate of Crimea (Crimean Tatar: ; Russian: - Krymskoye khanstvo; Ukrainian: - Krymske khanstvo; Turkish: ) was a Crimean Tatar state from 1441 to 1783. ... Haci I Giray (Crimean Tatar: ) (died 1466) was the founder and the first ruler of the Crimean Khanate. ... This article is about the person. ... Çufut Qale or Chufut Kale is a historic fortress in the Crimea, near Bakhchisaray. ... Bakhchisaray (Crimean Tatar: Bağçasaray, Ukrainian: , Russian: ), a town in Central Crimea, centre of the Bakhchisaray raion (district), former capital of the Crimean Khanate. ...


The Crimean Tatars controlled the steppes that stretched from the Kuban and to the Dniester River, however, they were unable to take control over commercial Genoese towns. After the Crimean Tatars asked for help from the Ottomans, an Ottoman invasion of the Genoese towns led by Gedik Ahmed Pasha in 1475 brought Kaffa and the other trading towns under their control.[3] Kuban (Ukrainian - Кубань) is an ethnical ukrainian territory. ... The river Dniestr (in Polish and Russian; Nistru in Romanian; Дністер, Dnister in Ukrainian; Tyras in Latin; also known as Dniester) is a river in Eastern Europe. ... For other uses, see Genoa (disambiguation). ... Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1683, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–1365) Edirne (1365–1453) Constantinople (1453–1922) Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 (first) Osman I  - 1918–22 (last) Mehmed VI Grand Viziers  - 1320... Gedik Ahmet Pasha Mosque (1477) in Afyonkarahisar, part of a magnificent religious and educational compound (source&permission: Municioality of Afyonkarahisar). ... Feodosiya (Ukrainian: , Russian: , Crimean Tatar: ) is a port and resort city in Crimea, Ukraine, located on the Black Sea coast. ...


After the capture of Genoese towns, the Ottoman Sultan held Meñli I Giray captive,[4] later releasing him in return for accepting Ottoman sovereignty above the Crimean Khans and allowing them rule as tributary princes of the Ottoman Empire.[3][5] However, the Crimean Khans still had a large amount of autonomy from the Ottoman Empire, particularly, followed the rules they thought were best for them: Crimean Tatars introduced raids into Ukrainian lands, which were used to get slaves to be sold on markets.[3] Meñli I Giray (aka Mengli I Giray) (Crimean Tatar: I Meñli Geray) (1445–1515) was a khan of the Crimean Khanate and the sixth son of the khanate founder Haci Giray. ...


In 1553–1554, Cossack Hetman Dmytro Vyshnevetsky gathered together groups of Cossacks, and constructed a fort designed to obstruct Tatar raids into Ukraine. With this action, he founded the Zaporozhian Sich, with which he would launch a series of attacks on the Crimea peninsula and the Ottoman Turks.[6] In 1774, The Crimean Khans fell under Russian influence with the Treaty of Küçük Kaynarca.[7] In 1783, the entire Crimea was annexed by the Russian Empire.[8] For other uses, see Cossack (disambiguation). ... For the Ukrainian politician, see Vadym Hetman. ... A Ukrainian hryvnia silver coin commemorating Dmytro Vyshnevetsky. ... Zaporizhian Sich or Zaporozhian Sech (Ukrainian: ,Zaporozka Sich) original Slavonic name Zaporizhska Sich was the center of the Cossacks of Zaporizhzhia. ... The Ottoman Turks were the ethnic subdivision of the Turkish people who dominated the ruling class of the Ottoman Empire. ... The Treaty of Küçük Kaynarca (also spelled Kuchuk Kainarji) was signed on July 21, 1774, between the Russian Empire (represented by Field-Marshal Rumyantsev) and the Ottoman Empire after the Ottoman Empire was defeated in the Russo-Turkish War of 1768-1774. ... The subject of this article was previously also known as Russia. ...


Russian Empire and Civil War: 1783-1922

Swallow's Nest, a symbol of Crimea, one of the best-known, romantic castles near Yalta. It was built in 1912 in the Neo-Gothic style by the order of the German Baron Stengel. It was designed by Russian architect A. Sherwood.
Swallow's Nest, a symbol of Crimea, one of the best-known, romantic castles near Yalta. It was built in 1912 in the Neo-Gothic style by the order of the German Baron Stengel. It was designed by Russian architect A. Sherwood.

The Crimean War (1853–1856) devastated much of the economic and social infrastructure of Crimea. The Crimean Tatars had to flee from their homeland en masse, forced by the conditions created by the war, persecution and land expropriations. Those who survived the trip, famine and disease, resettled in Dobruja, Anatolia, and other parts of the Ottoman Empire. For the first time in their history, Crimean Tatars became a minority in their own land, with the majority spread out as a diaspora. Finally, the Russian government decided to stop the process, as the agriculture began to suffer due to the unattended fertile farmland. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2048 × 1536 pixel, file size: 671 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2048 × 1536 pixel, file size: 671 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Overlooking the cape of Ai–Todor, the romantic Swallows Nest castle is situated on top of a 40-metre (130 ft) high Aurora Cliff. ... Yalta (Ukrainian: , Russian: , Crimean Tatar: ) is a city in Crimea, southern Ukraine, on the north coast of the Black Sea. ... Victoria Tower at the Palace of Westminster, London: Gothic details provided by A.W.N. Pugin San Sebastian Church in Manila, Philippines made entirely of steel. ... Combatants Allies: Second French Empire British Empire Ottoman Empire Kingdom of Sardinia Russian Empire Bulgarian volunteers Casualties 90,000 French 35,000 Turkish 17,500 British 2,194 Sardinian killed, wounded and died of disease ~134,000 killed, wounded and died of disease The Crimean War (1853–1856) was fought... The Crimean Tatars (sg. ... Map of Romania with Northern Dobruja highlighted in orange and Bulgaria with Southern Dobruja highlighted in yellow. ... This article is about two nested areas of Turkey, a plateau region within a peninsula. ... Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1683, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–1365) Edirne (1365–1453) Constantinople (1453–1922) Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 (first) Osman I  - 1918–22 (last) Mehmed VI Grand Viziers  - 1320... The Crimean Tatar diaspora dates back to the annexation of Crimea by Russia in 1783, after which Crimean Tatars were forced to emigrate in a series of waves spanning the period from 1783 to 1917. ...


During the Russian Civil War, Crimea was a stronghold of the anti-Bolshevik White Army. It was in Crimea that the White Russians led by General Wrangel made their last stand against Nestor Makhno and the Red Army in 1920. After the resistance was crushed, many of the anti-Communist fighters and civilians had to board the ships and escape to Istanbul. Combatants Local Soviet powers led by Russian SFSR and Red Army Chinese mercenaries White Movement Central Powers (1917-1918): Austria-Hungary Ottoman Empire German Empire Allied Intervention: (1918-1922) Japan Czechoslovakia Greece  United States  Canada Serbia Romania UK  France Foreign volunteers: Polish Italian Local nationalist movements, national states, and decentralist... White Army redirects here. ... Baron Wrangel Baron Pyotr Nikolayevich Wrangel (Пётр Николаевич Врангель) (German: ) (August 15, 1878, Zarasai, Lithuania (then Imperial Russia) — April 25, 1928, Brussels, Belgium), was an officer in the Imperial Russian army and later commanding general of the pro-monarchist White Army in Southern Russia in the later stages of the Russian Civil War. ... Nestor Ivanovich Makhno (Ukrainian: Нестор Іванович Махно, October 26, 1888 – July 25, 1934) was an anarcho-communist Ukrainian revolutionary who refused to align with the Bolsheviks after the October Revolution. ... For other organizations known as the Red Army, see Red Army (disambiguation). ... Istanbul (Turkish: , Greek: , historically Byzantium and later Constantinople; see other names) is Turkeys most populous city, and its cultural and financial center. ...


Soviet Union: 1922-1991

On October 18, 1921, the Crimean Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic was created as part of the Russian SFSR.[5] However, the establishment of the Crimean ASSR did not fully protect the Crimean Tatars from Joseph Stalin's repressions of the 1930s.[5] The Tatars constituted about 25% of the Crimean population.[9] is the 291st day of the year (292nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1921 (MCMXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... Crimean Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic (Крымская Автономная Советская Социалистическая Республика) (October 18, 1921—June 30, 1945) was created as part of RSFSR within the Crimean Peninsula, its capital being Simferopol. ... State motto: Russian: Пролетарии всех стран, соединяйтесь! Translation: Workers of the world, unite! Capital Moscow Official language Russian Established In the USSR:  - Since  - Until November 7, 1917 December 30, 1922 December 12, 1991 (independence) Area  - Total  - Water (%) Ranked 1st in the USSR 17,075,200 km² 13% Population  - Total   - Density Ranked 1st in the... Josef Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili (Georgian: , Ioseb Besarionis Dze Jughashvili; Russian: , Iosif Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili) (December 18 [O.S. December 6] 1878[1] – March 5, 1953), better known by his adopted name, Joseph Stalin (alternatively transliterated Josef Stalin), was General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Unions Central Committee from...


The Greeks were another cultural group that suffered. Their lands were lost during the process of collectivisation, in which farmers were not compensated with wages. Schools which taught Greek were closed and Greek literature was destroyed, because the Soviets considered the Greeks as "counter-revolutionary" with their links to capitalist state Greece, and their independent culture.[5] Collective farming regards a system of agricultural organization in which farm laborers are not compensated via wages. ... // Main article: Ancient Greek literature Ancient Greek literature refers to literature written in Ancient Greek from the oldest surviving written works in the Greek language until the 4th century and the rise of the Byzantine Empire. ... In economics, a capitalist is someone who owns capital, presumably within the economic system of capitalism. ...


Crimea experienced two severe famines in the 20th century, the Famine of 1921-1922 and the Holodomor of 1932-1933.[10] A famine is an phenomenon in which a large percentage of the population of a region or country are undernourished and death by starvation becomes increasingly common. ... Help!, a Soviet poster from 1921. ... Child victim of the Holodomor Map of Ukrainian SRR in 1932-1933 (7 Oblast`s (Regions) + Moldavian ASSR) administrative borders given in light grey The Ukrainian famine (1932-1933), or Holodomor (Ukrainian: Голодомор), was one of the largest national catastrophes of the Ukrainian nation in modern history with direct loss of...


During World War II, Crimea was a scene of some of the bloodiest battles. The leaders of the Third Reich were anxious to conquer and colonize the fertile and beautiful peninsula as part of their policy of resettling the Germans in Eastern Europe at the expense of the Slavs. The Germans suffered heavy casualties in the summer of 1941 as they tried to advance through the narrow Isthmus of Perekop linking Crimea to the Ukrainian mainland. Once the German army broke through (Operation Trappenjagd), they occupied most of Crimea, with the exception of the city of Sevastopol, which was later awarded the honorary title of Hero City after the war. Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... The Isthmus of Perekop is the narrow, three to four mile wide strip of land that connects the peninsula of Crimea to the rest of mainland Ukraine. ... Location Map of Ukraine with Sevastopol highlighted. ... Hero City (город-герой or gorod-geroy in Russian) is an honorary title awarded to twelve cities and one city-fortress in the Soviet Union for outstanding heroism during the Great Patriotic War of 1941 to 1945. ...

Sevastopol held out from October 1941 until July 4, 1942 when the Germans finally captured the city. From September 1, 1942, the peninsula was administered as the Generalbezirk Krim (general district of Crimea) und Teilbezirk (and sub-district) Taurien by the Nazi Generalkommissar Alfred Eduard Frauenfeld (1898–1977), under the authority of the three consecutive Reichskommissare for the entire Ukraine. In spite of heavy-handed tactics by the Nazis and the assistance of the Romanian and Italian troops, the Crimean mountains remained an unconquered stronghold of the native resistance (the partisans) until the day when the peninsula was freed from the occupying force. Download high resolution version (740x615, 132 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (740x615, 132 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... This article is about the independent states that comprised the Allies. ... The Big Three at the Yalta Conference, Winston Churchill, Franklin D. Roosevelt and Joseph Stalin. ... Churchill redirects here. ... FDR redirects here. ... Josef Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili (Georgian: , Ioseb Besarionis Dze Jughashvili; Russian: , Iosif Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili) (December 18 [O.S. December 6] 1878[1] – March 5, 1953), better known by his adopted name, Joseph Stalin (alternatively transliterated Josef Stalin), was General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Unions Central Committee from... is the 185th day of the year (186th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 244th day of the year (245th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Reichskommissar (Commissionary of the Empire) was an official title of authorized representative of the Deutsches Reich (after 1871) who was appointed to a special task, e. ...


In 1944, Sevastopol came under the control of troops from the Soviet Union. The so-called "City of Russian Glory" once known for its beautiful architecture was entirely destroyed and had to be rebuilt stone by stone. Due to its enormous historical and symbolic meaning for the Russians, it became a priority for Stalin and the Soviet government to have it restored to its former glory within the shortest time possible.


On May 18, 1944, the entire population of the Crimean Tatars were forcibly deported in the Sürgün (Crimean Tatar for exile) to Central Asia by Stalin's Soviet government as a form of collective punishment on the grounds that they had collaborated with the Nazi occupation forces.[11] An estimated 46% of the deportees died from hunger and disease. On June 26 of the same year Armenian, Bulgar and Greek population was also deported to Central Asia. By the end of summer 1944, the ethnic cleansing of Crimea was complete. In 1967, the Crimean Tatars were rehabilitated, but they were banned from legally returning to their homeland until the last days of the Soviet Union. is the 138th day of the year (139th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Crimean Tatars (sg. ... Involuntary settlements in the Soviet Union took several forms. ... Sürgün (Crimean and Turkish for an exile) was a deportation of the Crimean Tatars in 1944 to Uzbek SSR. A symbol of Sürgün is a steam-engine. ... Iosif (usually anglicized as Joseph) Vissarionovich Stalin (Russian: Иосиф Виссарионович Сталин), original name Ioseb Jughashvili (Georgian: იოსებ ჯუღაშვილი; see Other names section) (December 21, 1879[1] – March 5, 1953) was a Bolshevik revolutionary and leader of the Soviet Union. ... CCCP redirects here. ... Collective punishment is the punishment of a group of people as a result of the behavior of one or more other individuals or groups. ... Nazism in history Nazi ideology Nazism and race Outside Germany Related subjects Lists Politics Portal         Nazism or National Socialism (German: Nationalsozialismus), refers primarily to the ideology and practices of the Nazi Party (National Socialist German Workers Party, German: Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei or NSDAP) under Adolf Hitler. ... is the 177th day of the year (178th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Not to be confused with Bulgarians. ... Year 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For the video game, see Ethnic Cleansing (computer game). ...


The Crimean Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic was abolished in June 30, 1945 and transformed into the Crimean Oblast (province) of the Russian SFSR. On February 19, 1954, the oblast was transferred from the Russian SFSR to the Ukrainian SSR. As it stated in the Supreme Soviet Decree, the transfer was caused by close (1) geographic, (2) economic, and (3) cultural ties to the Ukrainian SSR.[12] The transfer was also meant by the Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev as a symbolic gesture to mark the 300th anniversary of the Treaty of Pereyaslav that unified Russia and Ukraine. There is some controversy with this transfer, because Crimea was transferred without asking the people of Crimea whether they wanted to be a part of Ukraine.[citation needed] is the 181st day of the year (182nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... The Crimean Oblast (Ukrainian: ; Russian: ) was a former oblast (province) of the former Ukrainian SSR, which was at the time part of the Soviet Union. ... Oblast (Czech: oblast, Slovak: oblasÅ¥, Russian and Ukrainian: , Belarusian: , Bulgarian: о́бласт) refers to a subnational entity in some countries. ... State motto: Russian: Пролетарии всех стран, соединяйтесь! Translation: Workers of the world, unite! Capital Moscow Official language Russian Established In the USSR:  - Since  - Until November 7, 1917 December 30, 1922 December 12, 1991 (independence) Area  - Total  - Water (%) Ranked 1st in the USSR 17,075,200 km² 13% Population  - Total   - Density Ranked 1st in the... [[Media:Italic text]]{| style=float:right; |- | |- | |} is the 50th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1954 (MCMLIV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1954 Gregorian calendar). ... State motto: Russian: Пролетарии всех стран, соединяйтесь! Translation: Workers of the world, unite! Capital Moscow Official language Russian Established In the USSR:  - Since  - Until November 7, 1917 December 30, 1922 December 12, 1991 (independence) Area  - Total  - Water (%) Ranked 1st in the USSR 17,075,200 km² 13% Population  - Total   - Density Ranked 1st in the... State motto: Ukrainian: Пролетарі всіх країн, єднайтеся! Translation: Workers of the world, unite! Capital Kiev Official language Ukrainian and Russian Established In the USSR:  - Since  - Until December 25, 1917 December 30, 1922 August 24, 1991 Area  - Total  - Water (%) Ranked 3rd in the USSR 603,700 km² negligible Population  - Total   - Density Ranked 2nd in the... The Supreme Soviet (Russian: , Verhovniy Sovet, literally the Supreme Council) comprised the highest legislative body in the Soviet Union in the interim of the sessions of the Congress of Soviets, and the only one with the power to pass constitutional amendments. ... Khrushchev redirects here. ... Pereyaslav Rada The Treaty of Pereyaslav was concluded in 1654 in the Ukrainian city of Pereyaslav during the meeting known as Pereyaslavska Uhoda (Pereyaslav Treaty). ...


In post-war years, Crimea thrived as a prime tourist destination, built with new attractions and sanatoriums for tourists. Tourists came from all around the Soviet Union and neighbouring countries, particularly from the German Democratic Republic.[5] Also, Crimea's infrastructure and manufacturing also developed, particularly around the sea ports at Kerch and Sevastopol and in the oblast's landlocked capital, Simferopol. Populations of Ukrainians and Russians alike doubled, with more than 1.6 million Russians and 626,000 Ukrainians living on the peninsula by 1989.[5] “East Germany” redirects here. ... Kerch (Ukrainian: , Russian: , Crimean Tatar: , Old East Slavic: Кърчевъ) is a city (2001 pop 157,000) on the Kerch Peninsula of eastern Crimea, is an important industrial, transport and tourist centre of Ukraine. ... Location Map of Ukraine with Sevastopol highlighted. ... Simferopol (English pronunciation: /ˌsɪm. ...


Autonomy within independent Ukraine

With the collapse of the Soviet Union, Crimea became part of the newly independent Ukraine, a situation largely unexpected by its population that was ethnically and culturally Russian for the most part. This led to tensions between Russia and Ukraine. With the Black Sea Fleet based on the peninsula, worries of armed skirmishes were occasionally raised. This is a history of the Soviet Union from 1985 to 1991. ... Black Sea Fleet sleeve ensign The Black Sea Fleet (Russian: Черноморский флот) is a large sub-unit of the Russian (and formerly Soviet) Navy, operating in the Black Sea and the Mediterranean Sea since the early 18th century. ...


After the All-Crimean Referendum was conducted on January 20, 1991, the Crimean Oblast was transformed into the Crimean ASSR as part of the Ukrainian SSR and the city of Sevastopol was granted special government status in the UkSSR.[13] When the results came in on the Ukrainian referendum on independence on December 1, 1991, it showed that 54.19% of residents from Crimea and 57.07% from Sevastopol city voted in favor of Ukrainian independence.[14][15] Based on the resolution of the Verkhovna Rada of Crimea on February 26, 1992, the Crimean ASSR was renamed into the Republic of Crimea. Crimea later proclaimed self-government on May 5, 1992.[16][17] On the next day, the first Crimean constitution was put into effect. On May 19, Crimea agreed to remain as part of Ukraine and its Verkhovna Rada of Crimea annulled their proclamation of self-government. On June 30, Crimean Communists had forced the Kiev government to expand on the already extensive autonomous status of Crimea.[18] is the 20th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the 1991 Gregorian calendar). ... The Crimean Oblast (Ukrainian: ; Russian: ) was a former oblast (province) of the former Ukrainian SSR, which was at the time part of the Soviet Union. ... Crimean Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic (Крымская Автономная Советская Социалистическая Республика) (October 18, 1921—June 30, 1945) was created as part of RSFSR within the Crimean Peninsula, its capital being Simferopol. ... State motto: Ukrainian: Пролетарі всіх країн, єднайтеся! Translation: Workers of the world, unite! Capital Kiev Official language Ukrainian and Russian Established In the USSR:  - Since  - Until December 25, 1917 December 30, 1922 August 24, 1991 Area  - Total  - Water (%) Ranked 3rd in the USSR 603,700 km² negligible Population  - Total   - Density Ranked 2nd in the... The Referendum took place in Ukraine on December 1, 1991. ... is the 335th day of the year (336th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the 1991 Gregorian calendar). ... The Verkhovna Rada of Crimea (Ukrainian: ; English: ) is the official name of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea, Ukraines parliament. ... is the 57th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 125th day of the year (126th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 139th day of the year (140th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 181st day of the year (182nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Map of Ukraine with Kiev highlighted Coordinates: , Country Ukraine Oblast Kiev City Municipality Raion Municipality Government  - Mayor Leonid Chernovetskyi Elevation 179 m (587 ft) Population (2006)  - City 4,450,968  - Density 3,299/km² (8,544. ...


On October 14, 1993, the Crimean Government introduced the post of the President of Crimea, a short-lived post that was later removed. During the second round of voting in the Crimean presidential election held on January 30, 1994, the pro-Russian Yuriy Meshkov was announced the winner of the election. After a long conflict between the Verkhovna Rada of Crimea and the rada's chairmen, the rights of the President of Crimea were annulled on September 7 of the same year. on September 11, President Meshkov disbands the Crimean Parliament and announces his control over Crimea. After amendments to the Constitution of Crimea, the conflict slowly eased off. is the 287th day of the year (288th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1993 Gregorian calendar). ... The President of the Republic of Crimea (Ukrainian: ; Russian: ) was the head of the state of the Republic of Crimea, Ukraine from February 16, 1994 to the time of its liquidation on March 17, 1995. ... is the 30th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1994 (MCMXCIV) The year 1994 was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal by the United Nations. ... is the 250th day of the year (251st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 254th day of the year (255th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


On March 17, 1995, the Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine scraps the Crimean Constitution and removes the post of President of Crimea.[19] With the removal of the post, Yuriy Meshkov became the first and only President of Crimea. On April 4, 1996, a new constitution was put into effect. On December 23, 1998, the currently existing constitution was put into effect along with the name change from the Republic of Crimea to the Autonomous Republic of Crimea. is the 76th day of the year (77th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday. ... Verkhovna Rada. ... is the 94th day of the year (95th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full 1996 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 357th day of the year (358th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ...

The Russian Navy's Cape Sarych on the northern shore of the Black Sea.
The Russian Navy's Cape Sarych on the northern shore of the Black Sea.

Following the ratification of the May 1997 Treaty of Friendship, Cooperation, and Partnership on friendship and division of the Black Sea Fleet, international tensions have slowly eased off. With the treaty, Moscow recognized Ukraine's borders and territorial integrity, and accepted Ukraine's sovereignty over Crimea and Sevastopol.[20] In a separate agreement, Russia was to receive 80% of the Black Sea Fleet and use of the military facilities in Sevastopol on a 20-year lease.[20] Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1024 × 768 pixel, file size: 141 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1024 × 768 pixel, file size: 141 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... The Russian Navy or VMF (Russian: Военно-Морской Флот (ВМФ) - Voyenno- Morskoy Flot (VMF) or Military Maritime Fleet) is the naval arm of the Russian armed forces. ... The Sarych headland on the southern shore of the Black Sea. ... For other uses, see Black Sea (disambiguation). ... Black Sea Fleet sleeve ensign The Black Sea Fleet (Russian: Черноморский флот) is a large sub-unit of the Russian (and formerly Soviet) Navy, operating in the Black Sea and the Mediterranean Sea since the early 18th century. ... For other uses, see Moscow (disambiguation). ... This article or section should include material from Tenancy agreement A lease is a contract conveying from one person (the lessor) to another person (the lessee) the right to use and control some article of property for a specified period of time (the term), without conveying ownership, in exchange for...


However, other controversies between Ukraine and Russia still remain, including the ownership of a lighthouse on Cape Sarych. Because the Russian Navy controlled 77 geographical objects on the south Crimean Shore, the Sevastopol Government Court ordered the vacation of the objects, which the Russian military did not carry out.[21] Since August 3, 2005, the lighthouse is controlled by the Russian Army.[22] Through the years, there have been various attempts of returning Cape Sarych to Ukrainian territory, all of which were unsuccessful. Eddystone Lighthouse, one of the first wavewashed lighthouses For other uses, see Lighthouse (disambiguation). ... The Sarych headland on the southern shore of the Black Sea. ... The Russian Navy or VMF (Russian: Военно-Морской Флот (ВМФ) - Voyenno- Morskoy Flot (VMF) or Military Maritime Fleet) is the naval arm of the Russian armed forces. ... Location Map of Ukraine with Sevastopol highlighted. ... is the 215th day of the year (216th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... In russian, word army means armed forces in general. ...


In 2006, protests broke out on the peninsula after U.S. Marines[23] arrived to the Crimean city of Feodosiya to take part in the Sea Breeze 2006 Ukraine-NATO military exercise. Protesters greeted the marines with barricades and slogans bearing "Occupiers go home!", and a couple days later, the Crimean parliament declared Crimea a "NATO-free territory". After several days of protest, the U.S. Marines withdrew from the peninsula.[24] The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... The United States Marine Corps (USMC) is a branch of the United States military responsible for providing force projection from the sea,[1] using the mobility of the U.S. Navy to rapidly deliver combined-arms task forces and is one of seven uniformed services. ... Feodosiya (Ukrainian: , Russian: , Crimean Tatar: ) is a port and resort city in Crimea, Ukraine, located on the Black Sea coast. ... This article is about the military alliance. ... USS Kitty Hawk (CV-63) kicks off Exercise Valiant Shield, the largest war games of the United States Navy since the Vietnam War. ... The Verkhovna Rada of Crimea (Ukrainian: ; English: ) is the official name of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea, Ukraines parliament. ...


Another center of conflict on the peninsula is regarding land ownership. Since the Crimean Tatars were forcibly deported from their homeland in May of 1944, other people, particularly Russians, settled the peninsula and took control of the lands formerly belonging to the Crimean Tatars. After the fall of the Soviet Union, Crimean Tatars were allowed to return to Crimea, but conflict arose when they demanded the return of land seized after their deportation.[25]


Government and politics

The Massandra Palace near Yalta is one of the official residences of Ukraine.
The Massandra Palace near Yalta is one of the official residences of Ukraine.

Crimea is a parliamentary republic that has no president. The legislative body is a 100-seat parliament, the Verkhovna Rada of Crimea.[26] Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2272 × 1704 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2272 × 1704 pixel, file size: 1. ... Massandra (Ukrainian: Масандра, Russian: , Crimean Tatar: ) is a townlet in the Yalta region of Crimea. ... Yalta (Ukrainian: , Russian: , Crimean Tatar: ) is a city in Crimea, southern Ukraine, on the north coast of the Black Sea. ... Parliamentary republics around the world, shown in Orange (Parliamentary republics with a non-executive President) and Green (Parliamentary republics with an executive President linked to Parliament). ... President is a title held by many leaders of organizations, companies, trade unions, universities, and countries. ... The Verkhovna Rada of Crimea (Ukrainian: ; English: ) is the official name of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea, Ukraines parliament. ...


The executive power is represented by the Council of Ministers, headed by a Prime Minister who is appointed and dismissed by the Verkhovna Rada, with the consent of the President of Ukraine.[27] The authority and operation of the Verkhovna Rada and the Council of Ministers of Crimea are determined by the Constitution of Ukraine and other the laws of Ukraine, as well as by regular decisions carried out by the Verkhovna Rada of Crimea.[27] The Prime Minister of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea (Ukrainian: , Russian: , Crimean Tatar: ) presides over the Council of Ministers of Crimea and is the prime minister of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea, Ukraine. ... Mariyinsky Palace The President of Ukraine (Ukrainian: , Prezydent Ukrayiny) is the head of the state of Ukraine and acts in its name. ... The Constitution of Ukraine (Ukrainian: ) was adopted at the 5th session of the Verkhovna Rada (parliament) of Ukraine, on June 28, 1996. ...


Justice is administered by courts that belong to the Judicial system of Ukraine.[27] The judicial system of Ukraine consists of four levels, as follows: Local courts of general jurisdiction (combining criminal and civil jurisdiction) consisting of: district, urban district and town courts; regional courts; city courts in Kiev and Sevastopol; administrative local courts. ...


Elections and parties

While not an official body controlling Crimea, the Mejlis of the Crimean Tatar People is a representative body of the Crimean Tatars, which could address grievances to the Ukrainian central government, the Crimean government, and international bodies.[28] The Mejlis of the Crimean Tatar People or parliament (Crimean Tatar: ; Ukrainian: ) is a representative body of the Crimean Tatars, living in their homeland of Crimea, Ukraine. ... Verkhovna Rada. ... The Verkhovna Rada of Crimea (Ukrainian: ; English: ) is the official name of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea, Ukraines parliament. ...


During the 2004 presidential elections, Crimea largely voted for the presidential candidate Viktor Yanukovych and during both the 2006 Ukrainian parliamentary elections and the 2007 Ukrainian parliamentary elections the Yanukovych-led Party of Regions also won most of the votes from the region. The presidential election held in November and December 2004 in Ukraine was mostly a political battle between Prime Minister Viktor Yanukovych and former Prime Minister and opposition leader Viktor Yushchenko. ... Viktor Fedorovych Yanukovych (Ukrainian: ; Russian: ) (born on July 9, 1950 in Yenakiieve, Donetsk Oblast) is the Prime Minister of Ukraine. ... The Ukrainian parliamentary election took place on March 26, 2006. ... Early parliamentary elections in Ukraine are scheduled to take place on September 30, 2007. ... Ukrainian Party of Regions emblem The Party of Regions ( Ukrainian: , Russian: ) is a Ukrainian political party created in March 2001. ...


Following the Crimean parliamentary election, 2006, the following political parties are represented in the Verkhovna Rada bloc: "Za Yanukovycha!" (Party of Regions and the Russian Bloc): 32.55% (44 mandates); party "Soiuz": 7.63% (10 mandates); Kunytsyna Electoral Bloc: 7.63% (10 mandates); Communist Party of Ukraine: 6.55% (9 mandates); People's Movement of Ukraine: 6.26% (8 mandates); Yulia Tymoshenko Electoral Bloc: 6.03% (8 mandates); People's Opposition Bloc of Natalia Vitrenko: 4.97% (7 mandates); Opposition Bloc "Ne Tak": 3.09% (4 mandates).[29] Ukrainian Party of Regions emblem The Party of Regions ( Ukrainian: , Russian: ) is a Ukrainian political party created in March 2001. ... In politics, a mandate is the authority granted by an electorate to act as its representative. ... Simonenko presidential election-2004 poster in Russian The Communist Party of Ukraine (Ukrainian: ) is a political party in Ukraine, currently led by Petro Symonenko. ... Politics of Ukraine Politics of Ukraine Political parties in Ukraine Elections in Ukraine: President: 2004 The Peoples Movement of Ukraine (Narodnyi Ruch Ukrajiny) is a political party in Ukraine. ... Bloc logo in the 2006 campaign. ... The Peoples Opposition Bloc of Natalia Vitrenko, (Ukrainian: ) is a political alliance in Ukraine led by Natalia Vitrenko. ... The Opposition Bloc Ne Tak, (Ukrainian: ) is a political alliance in Ukraine. ...


Administrative divisions

Crimea is subdivided into 25 regions: 14 raions (districts) and 11 city municipalities, officially known as "territories governed by city councils".[30] Each region consists of city, urban-type settlement and village communities. Note that Sevastopol Municipality, the uncolored region immediately to the west of Bakhchisarayskyi Raion (#1) is one of two special municipalities within Ukraine and is not part of Crimea itself. A raion (or rayon) (Russian and Ukrainian: ; Belarusian раён; Azeri: rayon, Latvian: rajons, Georgian: , raioni) is one of two kinds of administrative subdivisions in languages of some post-Soviet states: a subnational entity and a subdivision of a city. ... Local government areas called districts are used, or have been used, in several countries. ... For other uses, see City (disambiguation). ... Urban-type settlement (Russian: , posyolok gorodskogo tipa; Ukrainian: , selyshche miskoho typu; abbreviated as in Russian and as in Ukrainian) is an official designation for a certain type of urban settlements used in some of the countries of the former Soviet Union. ... Masouleh village, Gilan Province, Iran. ... Location Map of Ukraine with Sevastopol highlighted. ...


Raions

Subdivisions of Crimea
1. Bakhchisarayskyi Raion
2. Bilohirskyi Raion
3. Dzhankoiskyi Raion
4. Kirovskyi Raion
5. Krasnohvardiyskyi Raion
6. Krasnoperekopskyi Raion
7. Leninskyi Raion
8. Nizhnohirskyi Raion
9. Pervomaiskyi Raion
10. Rozdolnenskyi Raion
11. Sakskyi Raion
12. Simferopolskyi Raion
13. Sovetskyi Raion
14. Chornomorskyi Raion

Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Bakhchisaray raion (Ukrainian: , Russian: , Crimean Tatar: ) is one of the 25 regions of Crimea. ... Bilohirsk raion (Ukrainian: , Russian: , Crimean Tatar: ) is one of the 25 regions of Crimea. ... Dzhankoy raion (Ukrainian: , Russian: , Crimean Tatar: ) is one of the 25 regions of Crimea. ... Kirovske raion (Ukrainian: , Russian: , Crimean Tatar: ) is one of the 25 regions of Crimea. ... Chernomorsk raion (Ukrainian: , Russian: , Crimean Tatar: ) is one of the 25 regions of Crimea. ...

City municipalities

15. Alushta municipality
16. Armyansk municipality
17. Dzhankoy municipality
18. Eupatoria municipality
19. Kerch municipality
20. Krasnoperekopsk municipality
21. Saky municipality
22. Simferopol municipality
23. Sudak municipality
24. Feodosiya municipality
25. Yalta municipality

Alushta city municipality (Ukrainian: , Russian: , Crimean Tatar: ), officially the territory governed by the Alushta city council, also known as Greater Alushta is one of the 25 regions of Crimea. ... Armyansk city municipality (Ukrainian: , Russian: , Crimean Tatar: ) is one of the 25 regions of Crimea. ... Dzhankoy (Ukrainian and Russian: Джанкой, Crimean Tatar: ) is a city in the north of Crimea, Ukraine, and the capital of Dzhankoy raion. ... Eupatoria city municipality (Ukrainian: , Russian: , Crimean Tatar: ) officially the territory governed by the Eupatoria city council is one of the 25 regions of Crimea. ... Kerch (Ukrainian: Керч, Russian: , Crimean Tatar: , Old East Slavic: Корчев) is a city (2001 pop 157,000) on the Kerch Peninsula of eastern Crimea, an important industrial, transportation and tourist center of Ukraine. ... Krasnoperekopsk (Ukrainian: , Russian: , Crimean Tatar: ) is a city in Crimea, Ukraine which is located on the southern part of the Perekop Isthmus, on the shore of the Stare lake, and about 124km from the Crimean capital, Simferopol. ... Saky (Ukrainian: , Russian: , Crimean Tatar: ) is a city in the Autonomous Republic of Crimea, Ukraine. ... Simferopol city municipality (Ukrainian: , Russian: , Crimean Tatar: ) officially the territory governed by the Simferopol city council is one of the 25 regions of Crimea. ... Sudak city municipality (Ukrainian: , Russian: , Crimean Tatar: ), officially the territory governed by the Sudak city council is one of the 25 regions of Crimea. ... Theodosia city municipality (Ukrainian: , Russian: , Crimean Tatar: ), officially the territory governed by the Theodosia city council, is one of the 25 regions of Crimea. ... Yalta city municipality (Ukrainian: , Russian: , Crimean Tatar: ), officially the territory governed by the Yalta city council, also known as Greater Yalta is one of the 25 regions of Crimea. ...

Major cities

Image File history File links Simferopol-COA.gif‎ Description: COA of Simferopol, Crimea, Ukraine. ... Simferopol (English pronunciation: /ËŒsɪm. ... Image File history File links File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Location Map of Ukraine with Sevastopol highlighted. ... Hero City (город-герой or gorod-geroy in Russian) is an honorary title awarded to twelve cities and one city-fortress in the Soviet Union for outstanding heroism during the Great Patriotic War of 1941 to 1945. ... Black Sea Fleet sleeve ensign The Black Sea Fleet (Russian: Черноморский флот) is a large sub-unit of the Russian (and formerly Soviet) Navy, operating in the Black Sea and the Mediterranean Sea since the early 18th century. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Kerch (Ukrainian: , Russian: , Crimean Tatar: , Old East Slavic: Кърчевъ) is a city (2001 pop 157,000) on the Kerch Peninsula of eastern Crimea, is an important industrial, transport and tourist centre of Ukraine. ... Hero City (город-герой or gorod-geroy in Russian) is an honorary title awarded to twelve cities and one city-fortress in the Soviet Union for outstanding heroism during the Great Patriotic War of 1941 to 1945. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Also Eupatoria or Evpatoria; town in the Crimea. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Feodosiya (Ukrainian: , Russian: , Crimean Tatar: ) is a port and resort city in Crimea, Ukraine, located on the Black Sea coast. ... Image File history File links Yalta-arms. ... Yalta (Ukrainian: , Russian: , Crimean Tatar: ) is a city in Crimea, southern Ukraine, on the north coast of the Black Sea. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Dzhankoy (Ukrainian and Russian: Джанкой, Crimean Tatar: Canköy) is a city in the north of the Crimea, Ukraine. ... Image File history File links Sin_escudo. ... Bakhchisaray (Crimean Tatar: Bağçasaray, Ukrainian: , Russian: ), a town in Central Crimea, centre of the Bakhchisaray raion (district), former capital of the Crimean Khanate. ... Flag Crimean Khanate in 1600 Capital Bakhchisaray Government Monarchy History  - Established 1441  - Annexed to Russia 1783 The Crimean Khanate or the Khanate of Crimea (Crimean Tatar: ; Russian: - Krymskoye khanstvo; Ukrainian: - Krymske khanstvo; Turkish: ) was a Crimean Tatar state from 1441 to 1783. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Krasnoperekopsk (Ukrainian: , Russian: , Crimean Tatar: Krasnoperekopsk) is a city in Crimea, Ukraine which is located on the southern part of the Perekop Isthmus, on the shore of the Stare lake, and about 124km from the Crimean capital, Simferopol. ... Alushta, called Aluston in the Byzantine Empire, is a resort town in the Crimea, situated on the Black Sea on the road from Gurzuf to Sudak. ...

Geography

Map of Crimea with major cities.
Map of Crimea with major cities.
Koktebel
Koktebel

Crimea is located on the northern coast of the Black Sea and on the western coast of the Sea of Azov, bordering Kherson Oblast from the North. Although located in southwestern part of the Crimean peninsula, the city of Sevastopol has a special but separate municipality status within Ukraine. Crimea's total land area is 26,100 km² (10,038 sq mi). Image File history File links Crimeamap. ... Image File history File links Crimeamap. ... For other uses, see Black Sea (disambiguation). ... The shallow Sea of Azov is clearly distinguished from the deeper Black Sea. ... Kherson Oblast (Херсонська область, Khersons’ka oblast’ or Херсонщина, Khersonshchyna in Ukrainian) is an oblast of southern Ukraine, just north of Crimea. ... Location Map of Ukraine with Sevastopol highlighted. ... Ukraine is subdivided into 24 oblasts (Ukrainian singular: область, oblast; plural області, oblasti), one autonomous republic (автономна республіка, avtonomna respublika), and two cities with special status (singular місто зі спеціальним статусом, misto zi spetsialnym statusom). ... “km” redirects here. ... A square mile is an English unit of area equal to that of a square with sides each 1 statute mile (≈1,609 m) in length. ...


Crimea is connected to the mainland by the 5–7 kilometre (3–4 mile) wide Isthmus of Perekop. At the eastern tip is the Kerch Peninsula, which is directly opposite the Taman Peninsula on the Russian mainland. Between the Kerch and Taman peninsulas, lies the 3–13 km (2–9 mi) wide Strait of Kerch, which connects the waters of the Black Sea with the Sea of Azov. The Isthmus of Perekop is the narrow, three to four mile wide strip of land that connects the peninsula of Crimea to the rest of mainland Ukraine. ... The Cimmerian Bosphorus of antiquity, shown on a map printed in London, ca 1770 Landsat satellite photo Kerch Strait. ... 1. ... Kerch Strait. ...


The Crimean coastline is broken by several bays and harbors. These harbors lie west of the Isthmus of Perekop by the Bay of Karkinit; on the southwest by the open Bay of Kalamita, with the ports of Eupatoria and Sevastopol; on the north by the Bay of Arabat of the Isthmus of Yenikale or Kerch; and on the south by the Bay of Caffa or Feodosiya, with the port of Feodosiya. The Isthmus of Perekop is the narrow, three to four mile wide strip of land that connects the peninsula of Crimea to the rest of mainland Ukraine. ... Also Eupatoria or Evpatoria; town in the Crimea. ... Location Map of Ukraine with Sevastopol highlighted. ... East of Crimea by the Azov Sea. ... Kerch (Ukrainian: , Russian: , Crimean Tatar: , Old East Slavic: Кърчевъ) is a city (2001 pop 157,000) on the Kerch Peninsula of eastern Crimea, is an important industrial, transport and tourist centre of Ukraine. ... Feodosiya (Ukrainian: , Russian: , Crimean Tatar: ) is a port and resort city in Crimea, Ukraine, located on the Black Sea coast. ...

Green mountains abruptly fall into the Black Sea near Balaklava.
Green mountains abruptly fall into the Black Sea near Balaklava.

The southeast coast is flanked at a distance of 8–12 km (5–8 mi) from the sea by a parallel range of mountains, the Crimean Mountains.[31] These mountains are backed by secondary parallel ranges. Seventy-five percent of the remaining area of Crimea consists of semiarid prairie lands, a southward continuation of the Pontic steppes, which slope gently to the northwest from the foot of the Crimean Mountains. The main range of these mountains shoots up with extraordinary abruptness from the deep floor of the Black Sea to an altitude of 600–750 metres (2,000–2,500 feet), beginning at the southwest point of the peninsula, called Cape Fiolente. It was believed that this cape was supposedly crowned with the temple of Artemis, where Iphigeneia is said to have officiated as priestess.[32] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (900 × 675 pixel, file size: 246 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Crimea Crimean Mountains... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (900 × 675 pixel, file size: 246 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Crimea Crimean Mountains... For other uses, see Black Sea (disambiguation). ... Balaklava (Ukrainian: , Russian: , Crimean Tatar: ) is a town in the Crimea, Ukraine which has an official status of a district of the city of Sevastopol. ... The Yayla Mountains or Crimean Mountains (Crimean Tatar: , Alpine Meadow mountains; Ukrainian: , translit. ... For other uses, see Prairie (disambiguation). ... Pontic Steppes roughly corresponds to southern Ukraine and is often thought to extend from the Mouth of the Danube, or Dobrugea, to the Kuban River in southern Russia. ... For other uses, see Black Sea (disambiguation). ... A peninsula in Croatia A peninsula is a piece of land that is bordered on three or more sides by water. ... For other uses, see Artemis (disambiguation). ... 112 Iphigenia is an asteroid. ...

The Crimean Mountains near the city of Alushta.
The Crimean Mountains near the city of Alushta.

Numerous kurgans, or burial mounds, of the ancient Scythians are scattered across the Crimean steppes. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (2272 × 1704 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (2272 × 1704 pixel, file size: 1. ... The Yayla Mountains or Crimean Mountains (Crimean Tatar: , Alpine Meadow mountains; Ukrainian: , translit. ... Alushta, called Aluston in the Byzantine Empire, is a resort town in the Crimea, situated on the Black Sea on the road from Gurzuf to Sudak. ... Sarmatian Kurgan 4th c. ... Alternate meanings of barrow: see Barrow_in_Furness for the town of Barrow in Cumbria, England; also Barrow, Alaska in the U.S.; also River Barrow in Ireland. ... Approximate extent of Scythia and Sarmatia in the 1st century BC (the orange background shows the spread of Eastern Iranian languages, among them Scytho-Sarmatian). ...


The terrain that lies beyond the sheltering Crimean Mountain range is of an altogether different character. Here, the narrow strip of coast and the slopes of the mountains are smothered with greenery. This "riviera" stretches along the southeast coast from Cape Sarych, in the extreme south, to Feodosiya, and is studded with summer sea-bathing resorts such as Alupka, Yalta, Gurzuf, Alushta, Sudak, and Feodosiya. During the years of Soviet rule, the resorts and dachas of this coast served as the prime perquisites of the politically loyal. In addition, vineyards and fruit orchards are located in the region. Fishing, mining, and the production of essential oils are also important. Numerous Crimean Tatar villages, mosques, monasteries, and palaces of the Russian imperial family and nobles are found here, as well as picturesque ancient Greek and medieval castles. The Sarych headland on the southern shore of the Black Sea. ... Alupka (Ukrainian: , Russian: , Crimean Tatar: ) is a resort town in Crimea, Ukraine, situated 17 km to the west of Yalta. ... Yalta (Ukrainian: , Russian: , Crimean Tatar: ) is a city in Crimea, southern Ukraine, on the north coast of the Black Sea. ... Gurzuf (Russian:Гурзу́ф) is a settlement on the Crimea peninsula in Ukraine, on the northern coast of the Black Sea. ... Alushta, called Aluston in the Byzantine Empire, is a resort town in the Crimea, situated on the Black Sea on the road from Gurzuf to Sudak. ... Sudak is city in the Crimea. ... Feodosiya (Ukrainian: , Russian: , Crimean Tatar: ) is a port and resort city in Crimea, Ukraine, located on the Black Sea coast. ... CCCP redirects here. ... Dacha of Boris Pasternak in Peredelkino. ... For Crimean Tatar ethos see Crimean Tatars For Crimean Tatar language and alphabet see Crimean Tatar language ... The Masjid al-Haram in Mecca as it exists today A mosque is a place of worship for followers of the Islamic faith. ... This article concerns the buildings occupied by monastics. ... The quintessential medieval European palace: Palais de la Cité, in Paris, the royal palace of France. ...


Economy

The main branches of the Crimean economy are tourism and agriculture. Industrial plants are situated for the most part in the northern regions of the republic. Important industrial cities include Dzhankoy, housing a major railway connection, and Krasnoperekopsk, among others. Dzhankoy (Ukrainian and Russian: Джанкой, Crimean Tatar: Canköy) is a city in the north of the Crimea, Ukraine. ... Krasnoperekopsk (Ukrainian: , Russian: , Crimean Tatar: Krasnoperekopsk) is a city in Crimea, Ukraine which is located on the southern part of the Perekop Isthmus, on the shore of the Stare lake, and about 124km from the Crimean capital, Simferopol. ...


The most important industries in Crimea include, food production, chemical fields, mechanical engineering and metal working, and fuel production industries.[27] Sixty percent of the industry market belongs to food production. There are a total of 291 large industrial enterprises and 1002 small business enterprises.[27]


The main branches of vegetation production in the region include cereals, vegetable-growing, gardening, and wine-making, particularly in the Yalta and Massandra regions. Other agricultural forms include cattle breeding, poultry keeping, and sheep breeding.[27] Other products produced on the Crimea Peninsula include salt, porphyry, limestone, and ironstone (found around Kerch).[33] Grain redirects here. ... Location of Ukraine The wine industry of Ukraine is well-established with long traditions. ... Yalta (Ukrainian: , Russian: , Crimean Tatar: ) is a city in Crimea, southern Ukraine, on the north coast of the Black Sea. ... Massandra (Ukrainian: Масандра, Russian: , Crimean Tatar: ) is a townlet in the Yalta region of Crimea. ... This article is about common table salt. ... A piece of porphyry Porphyry is a variety of igneous rock consisting of large-grained crystals, such as feldspar or quartz, dispersed in a fine-grained feldspathic matrix or groundmass. ... For other uses, see Limestone (disambiguation). ... Black-band ironstone, 2. ... Kerch (Ukrainian: , Russian: , Crimean Tatar: , Old East Slavic: Кърчевъ) is a city (2001 pop 157,000) on the Kerch Peninsula of eastern Crimea, is an important industrial, transport and tourist centre of Ukraine. ...


Transport

The Škoda-9Tr no.7702 trolleybus from the Crimean Trolleybus line.

Almost every settlement in Crimea is connected with another settlement with bus lines. Crimea contains the longest (96 km or 59 mi) trolleybus route in the world, stretching from Simferopol to Yalta.[34] The trolleybus line starts in near Simferopol's Railway Station through the mountains to Alushta and on to Yalta. Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Škoda Works (Czech: Škodovy závody; today Škoda Holding, a. ... Krymtrolleybus: Škoda 9Tr n. ... Krymtrolleybus: Škoda 9Tr n. ... Simferopol (English pronunciation: /ˌsɪm. ... Alushta, called Aluston in the Byzantine Empire, is a resort town in the Crimea, situated on the Black Sea on the road from Gurzuf to Sudak. ... Yalta (Ukrainian: , Russian: , Crimean Tatar: ) is a city in Crimea, southern Ukraine, on the north coast of the Black Sea. ...


The cities of Yalta, Feodosiya, Kerch, Sevastopol, Chornomorske, and Eupatoria are connected to one another by sea routes. In the cities of Eupatoria and nearby townlet Molochnoye are tram systems. Railroad lines running through Crimea include Armyansk—Kerch (with a link to Feodosiya), and Melitopol—Sevastopol (with a link to Eupatoria), connecting Crimea to the Ukrainian mainland. Feodosiya (Ukrainian: , Russian: , Crimean Tatar: ) is a port and resort city in Crimea, Ukraine, located on the Black Sea coast. ... Kerch (Ukrainian: , Russian: , Crimean Tatar: , Old East Slavic: Кърчевъ) is a city (2001 pop 157,000) on the Kerch Peninsula of eastern Crimea, is an important industrial, transport and tourist centre of Ukraine. ... Location Map of Ukraine with Sevastopol highlighted. ... Also Eupatoria or Evpatoria; town in the Crimea. ... Urban-type settlement (Russian: , posyolok gorodskogo tipa; Ukrainian: , selyshche miskoho typu; abbreviated as in Russian and as in Ukrainian) is an official designation for a certain type of urban settlements used in some of the countries of the former Soviet Union. ... This article refers to public transport vehicles running on rails. ... This is the top-level page of WikiProject trains Rail tracks Rail transport refers to the land transport of passengers and goods along railways or railroads. ... Armyansk (Ukrainian: Армянськ, Russian: , Crimean Tatar: ) is a town in northern Crimea, Ukraine. ... Melitopol (Ukrainian: , translit. ...


Demographics

As of 2005, the total population of Crimea is 1,994,300.


From 1989 to 2001, Crimea's population declined by 396,795 people, representing 16.33% of the 1989 population, despite the return of displaced groups such as Crimean Tatars. From 2001-2005 the population declined by another 39,400 people, representing a decline from 2001 of another 2%. The Crimean Tatars (sg. ...


According to 2001 Ukrainian Census, the population of Crimea was 2,033,700.[35] The nationality structure was comprised the following self-reported ethnic groups: Russians: 58.32%; Ukrainians: 24.32%; Crimean Tatars: 12.1%; Belarusians: 1.44%; Tatars: 0.54%; Armenians: 0.43%; and Jews: 0.22%.[36] The first Ukrainian Census after the dissolution of the Soviet Union was carried out by State Statistics Committee of Ukraine on December 5, 2001, twelve years after the last All-Union census in 1989. ... The Crimean Tatars (sg. ... This article is about the people. ... Languages Historical Jewish languages Hebrew, Yiddish, Ladino, others Liturgical languages: Hebrew and Aramaic Predominant spoken languages: The vernacular language of the home nation in the Diaspora, significantly including English, Hebrew, Yiddish, and Russian Religions Judaism Related ethnic groups Arabs and other Semitic groups For the Jewish religion, see Judaism. ...


Other minorities are Black Sea Germans, Roma people, Bulgarians, Poles, Azerbaijanis, Koreans and Greeks. The Black Sea Germans (German: Schwarzmeerdeutsche) are ethnic Germans who left their homeland in the 18th and 19th centuries, and settled in territories of the northern bank of the Black Sea, mostly in southern Russia. ... Language(s) Romani, languages of native region Religion(s) Romanipen, combined with assimilations from local religions Related ethnic groups South Asians (Desi) This article is about the Indo-Aryan ethnic group. ... Azerbaijanis are a people numbering more than 35 million worldwide. ...


Ukrainian language is the single official state language countrywide, and is the sole language of government in Ukraine. In Crimea government business is still carried out mainly in Russian. Attempts to expand the usage of Ukrainian in education and government affairs been less successful in Crimea than in other areas of the nation. [37] Another language widely spoken is Crimean Tatar. According to the census mentioned, 77% of Crimean inhabitants named Russian as their mother tongue; 11.4% – Crimean Tatar; and 10.1% – Ukrainian.[38] Ukrainian (украї́нська мо́ва, ukrayinska mova, ) is a language of the East Slavic subgroup of the Slavic languages. ... An official language is a language that is given a unique legal status in a country, state, or other territory. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Crimean Tatar language (Qırımtatar tili, Qırımtatarca), also known as Crimean (Qırım tili, Qırımca) and Crimean Turkish (Qırım Türkçesi) is the language of the Crimean Tatars. ...


Predictions

The population of the Crimean peninsula has been consistеntly falling at a rate of 0.4% per year[39]. This is particularly apparent in both the Russian and Ukrainian ethnic populations, whose growth rate has been falling at the rate of 0.6% and 0.12% annually respectively. In comparison, the overall growth rate of the ethnic Crimean Tatar population has been growing at the rate of 0.9% per annum[40].


The growing trend in the Crimean Tatar population has been explained by the continual Crimean Tatar repatriation (mainly Uzbekistan), the high birth rate amongst the resettlers, and the low death rate as few senior citizens have resettled back into their ancestral home.

The list of unrecognized countries enumerates those geo-political entities which lack general diplomatic recognition, but wish to be recognized as sovereign states. ...  Southwest Asia in most contexts. ... The borders of the continents are the limits of the several continents of the Earth, as defined by various geographical, cultural, and political criteria. ...  The North American plate, shown in brown The North American Plate is a tectonic plate covering most of North America, extending eastward to the Mid-Atlantic Ridge and westward to the Cherskiy Range in East Siberia. ...  The African plate, shown in pinkish-orange The African Plate is a tectonic plate covering the continent of Africa and extending westward to the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. ...

See also

Black Sea Fleet sleeve ensign The Black Sea Fleet (Russian: Черноморский флот) is a large sub-unit of the Russian (and formerly Soviet) Navy, operating in the Black Sea and the Mediterranean Sea since the early 18th century. ... Arteks logo since 1990s Artek (Russian: Арте́к) was the All-Union and international Young Pioneer camp in the Soviet Union. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Crimea. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Ukraine. ... Motto: ÐŸÑ€Ð¾Ñ†Ð²ÐµÑ‚ание в единстве(Russian) Protsvetanie v edinstve(transliteration) Prosperity in unity Anthem: ÐÐ¸Ð²Ñ‹ и горы твои волшебны, Родина(Russian) Nivy i gory tvoi volshebny, Rodina(transliteration) Your fields and mounts are wonderful, Motherland Location of Crimea (red) with respect to Ukraine (light blue). ... The Bosporan Kingdom, which was located on the Crimea peninsula, existed in the time of the Roman Empire. ... Approximate extent of Scythia and Sarmatia in the 1st century BC (the orange background shows the spread of Eastern Iranian languages, among them Scytho-Sarmatian). ... Kipchaks in Eurasia circa 1200 C.E. Kipchaks (also spelled as Kypchaks, Qipchaqs, Qypchaqs) (Ukrainian: (polovtsy), Crimean Tatar: , Karachay-Balkar: Къыпчакъ, Uzbek: , Kazakh: Қыпшақ, Kumyk: Къыпчакъ, Kyrgyz: Кыпчак, Nogai: Кыпчак, Turkish: Kıpçak) were an ancient Turkic people, first mentioned in the historical chronicles of Central Asia in the 1st millennium BC. The western... The least-powerful, least-known, and paradoxically longest-lived Gothic communities were those that remained in the lands around the Black Sea, especially in the Crimea. ... The Khazars (Hebrew Kuzari כוזרי Kuzarim כוזרים; Turkish Hazar Hazarlar; Russian Хазарин Хазары; Tatar sing Xäzär Xäzärlär; Crimean Tatar: ; Greek Χαζάροι/Χάζαροι; Persianخزر khazar; Latin Gazari or Cosri) were a semi-nomadic Turkic people from Central Asia, many of whom converted to Judaism. ... Crimean campaigns of 1687 and 1689 (Крымские походы in Russian), military campaigns of the Russian army against the Crimean Khanate. ... Flag Crimean Khanate in 1600 Capital Bakhchisaray Government Monarchy History  - Established 1441  - Annexed to Russia 1783 The Crimean Khanate or the Khanate of Crimea (Crimean Tatar: ; Russian: - Krymskoye khanstvo; Ukrainian: - Krymske khanstvo; Turkish: ) was a Crimean Tatar state from 1441 to 1783. ... Combatants Allies: Second French Empire British Empire Ottoman Empire Kingdom of Sardinia Russian Empire Bulgarian volunteers Casualties 90,000 French 35,000 Turkish 17,500 British 2,194 Sardinian killed, wounded and died of disease ~134,000 killed, wounded and died of disease The Crimean War (1853–1856) was fought... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... Politics of Ukraine takes place in a framework of a semi-presidential representative democratic republic, whereby the Prime Minister of Ukraine is the head of government but shares a lot of these responsibilites with the President of Ukraine, and of a pluriform multi-party system. ... Mariyinsky Palace The President of Ukraine (Ukrainian: , Prezydent Ukrayiny) is the head of the state of Ukraine and acts in its name. ... The Verkhovna Rada of Crimea (Ukrainian: ; English: ) is the official name of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea, Ukraines parliament. ... The Prime Minister of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea (Ukrainian: , Russian: , Crimean Tatar: ) presides over the Council of Ministers of Crimea and is the prime minister of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea, Ukraine. ... The Mejlis of the Crimean Tatar People or parliament (Crimean Tatar: ; Ukrainian: ) is a representative body of the Crimean Tatars, living in their homeland of Crimea, Ukraine. ... The President of the Republic of Crimea (Ukrainian: ; Russian: ) was the head of the state of the Republic of Crimea, Ukraine from February 16, 1994 to the time of its liquidation on March 17, 1995. ... This article should include material from Ukrainian Orthodox Church - Kiev Patriarchy, Ukrainian Autocephalous Orthodox Church, Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church, and Patriarch Filaret (Mykhailo Denysenko). ... The Ukrainian Orthodox Church (Ukrainian: ; Russian: ) is an autonomous church of Eastern Orthodoxy in Ukraine, under the ecclesiastic link to the Moscow Patriarchy. ... Ukrainian Orthodox Church - Kiev Patriarchy (Ukrainian: ; Ukrainian Orthodox Church of the Kievan Patriarchate or UOC-KP) is one of the two major Orthodox churches in Ukraine [1] The modern history of the church begins in August, 1989, when the parish of the Church of Sts. ... In 1921 a Synod created the Ukrainian Autocephalous Orthodox Church (UAOC) in Kiev and ordained Metropolitan Vasyl (Lypkivsky) as its head. ... The Roman Catholic Church in Ukraine is part of the worldwide Roman Catholic Church, under the spiritual leadership of the Pope and curia in Rome. ... The Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church (UGCC), also known as the Ukrainian Catholic Church, is one of the successor Churches to the acceptance of Christianity by Grand Prince Vladimir the Great (Ukrainian Volodymyr) of Kiev (Kyiv), in 988. ... Protestants in Ukraine constitute about 600 - 700 thousands (2007), nearly 1% of total population. ... Muslims in Ukraine make up about 4% of the total population. ... History of the Jews in Ukraine // Kievan Rus’ Main article: Kievan Rus’ Halych-Volynia Main article: Halych-Volynia 14th Century Main article: 14th century Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth Main article: Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth From the founding of the Kingdom of Poland in the 10th century through the creation of the Polish... Raions of Ukraine (Ukrainian: ) are small territorial units of subdivision of Ukraine. ... As of January 1, 2006 there are 457 cities (Ukrainian: мiсто, misto) in Ukraine. ... As of January 1, 2006 there are 886 urban-type settlements (Ukrainian: , translit. ... The Arabat Spit (Ukrainian: , Russian: , Crimean Tatar: ) is a spit (narrow strip of land) in Azov Sea, which separates a large, shallow and very salty system of gulfs named Syvash. ... East of Crimea by the Azov Sea. ... The Yayla Mountains or Crimean Mountains (Crimean Tatar: , Alpine Meadow mountains; Ukrainian: , translit. ... The Isthmus of Perekop is the narrow, three to four mile wide strip of land that connects the peninsula of Crimea to the rest of mainland Ukraine. ... The shallow Sea of Azov is clearly distinguished from the deeper Black Sea. ... Kerch Strait. ... Crimea Soviet soldiers crossing the Sivash during World War II. Syvash or Sivash also known as the Rotten Sea (Ukrainian: ; Russian: ; Crimean Tatar: ), is a large system of shallow bays on the west coast of the Sea of Azov (northeastern coast of the Crimean Peninsula, Ukraine). ... Vyalova caves system is a system of 3 caves that are located on a lower plato of the Chatyrdag mountain, Crimea. ... Crimea Air is an airline based in Simferopol, Ukraine. ... Krymtrolleybus: Å koda 9Tr n. ... Motto: ÐŸÑ€Ð¾Ñ†Ð²ÐµÑ‚ание в единстве(Russian) Protsvetanie v edinstve(transliteration) Prosperity in unity Anthem: ÐÐ¸Ð²Ñ‹ и горы твои волшебны, Родина(Russian) Nivy i gory tvoi volshebny, Rodina(transliteration) Your fields and mounts are wonderful, Motherland Location of Crimea (red) with respect to Ukraine (light blue). ... Crimean Tatar language (Qırımtatar tili, Qırımtatarca), also known as Crimean (Qırım tili, Qırımca) and Crimean Turkish (Qırım Türkçesi) is the language of the Crimean Tatars. ... Krymchak is the Crimean Tatar language dialect spoken by the Krymchaks - Rabbanite Jews of the Crimea. ... The Crimean Tatars (sg. ... Crimean Tatars in alphabetical order: Cetin Altan Refat Appazov Idris Asanin Sabri Ayvazov Ali Bekmambet Kemal Karpat Ismail H.A.Ziyaeddin Newzat Yusuf Sarigol Sevki Bektore Numan Celebicihan Resat Cemilev Bekir Sidki Cobanzade Refat Chubarov Cengiz Dagci Ismail Bey Gaspirali Sefika Gaspirali Hamdi Giraybay Necip Hablemitoglu Abdulhakim Hilmi Halil Inalcik... The Krymchaks (Krymchak: sg. ... The Crimean Karaites (Crimean Karaim: sg. ... The least-powerful, least-known, and paradoxically longest-lived Gothic communities were those that remained in the lands around the Black Sea, especially in the Crimea. ... Flag ratio: 1:2 The flag of Crimea is in use since 1992 and was officially adopted on April 21, 1999. ... The Coat of Arms of Crimea is in use since 1992 and was officially adopted on April 21, 1999. ... Hymn of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea (Ukrainian: , Russian: , Crimean Tatar: ) is the official anthem of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea, Ukraine. ... The Crimea national football team is not internationally recognized. ...

Footnotes and references

  1. ^ Deportation of Crimean Tatars by Stalin
  2. ^ The Tatar Khanate of Crimea
  3. ^ a b c Subtelny, Orest (2000). Ukraine: A History. University of Toronto Press, 78. ISBN 0-8020-8390-0. 
  4. ^ Soldier Khan
  5. ^ a b c d e f History (English). blacksea-crimea.com. Retrieved on March 28, [[2007]].
  6. ^ Subtelny, 109.
  7. ^ Subelny, 176.
  8. ^ Subelny, 176.
  9. ^ Crimea: History
  10. ^ Famine in Crimea
  11. ^ Subtelny, 483.
  12. ^ The Transfer of Crimea to Ukraine (English). International Committee for Crimea (July 2005). Retrieved on March 25, [[2007]].
  13. ^ Day in history - 20 January (Russian). RIA Novosti (January 8, 2006). Retrieved on August 6, [[2007]].
  14. ^ Subtelny, 585.
  15. ^ Lalpychak, Chrystyna (December 8, 1991). Ukraine's vote for freedom (English). The Ukrainian Weekly. Retrieved on March 25, [[2007]].
  16. ^ Wolczuk, Kataryna (August 31, 2004). Catching up with 'Europe'? Constitutional Debates on the Territorial-Administrative Model in Independent Ukraine (English). Taylor & Francis Group. Retrieved on December 16, [[2006]].
  17. ^ Wydra, Doris (November 11, 2004). The Crimea Conundrum: The Tug of War Between Russia and Ukraine on the Questions of Autonomy and Self-Determination (English). SpringerLink. Retrieved on March 25, [[2007]].
  18. ^ Subtelny, 587.
  19. ^ Laws of Ukraine. Verkhovna Rada law No. 93/95-вр: On the termination of the Constitution and some laws of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea. Passed on 1995-03-17. (Ukrainian)
  20. ^ a b Subtelny, 600.
  21. ^ Access to Ukrainians is prohibited.. (Ukrainian). Zakryta Zona. Retrieved on February 24, 2007.
  22. ^ The owner of the "sarych" lighthouse came back with a blank document to the President of Ukraine (Ukrainian). CPCFPU. Retrieved on February 24, 2007.
  23. ^ Page, Jeremy (June 08). Anti-Nato protests threaten eastward expansion (English). The Times Online. Retrieved on March 25, [[2007]].
  24. ^ Tensions rise in Crimea over NATO (English). EuroNews (June 7, 2006). Retrieved on March 25, [[2007]].
  25. ^ Tatars push to regain their historic lands in Crimea (English). Today's Zaman (March 31, 2006). Retrieved on March 31, [[2007]].
  26. ^ The Verkhovna Rada of Crimea should not be confused with the national Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine.
  27. ^ a b c d e f Autonomous Republic of Crimea - Information card (English). Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine. Retrieved on February 22, [[2007]].
  28. ^ Ziad, Waleed; Laryssa Chomiak (February 20, 2007). A lesson in stifling violent extremism (English). CS Monitor. Retrieved on March 26, [[2007]].
  29. ^ Results of the Verkhovna Rada of Crimea elections are accepted (Russian). REGNUM (April 19, 2006). Retrieved on April 28, [[2007]].
  30. ^ Infobox card — Avtonomna Respublika Krym (Ukrainian). Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine. Retrieved on February 23, 2007.
  31. ^ The Crimean Mountains may also be referred to as the Yaylâ Dağ or Alpine Meadow Mountains.
  32. ^ See the article "Crimea" in the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition.
  33. ^ Bealby, John T. (1911). Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition. Cambridge University Press, 449. 
  34. ^ The longest trolleybus line in the world! (English). blacksea-crimea.com. Retrieved on January 15, [[2007]].
  35. ^ Regions of Ukraine / Autonomous Republic of Crimea (English). 2001 Ukrainian Census. Retrieved on December 16, [[2006]].
  36. ^ Results / General results of the census / National composition of population (English). 2001 Ukrainian Census. Retrieved on December 16, [[2006]].
  37. ^ Bondaruk, Halyna (March 3, 2007). Yushchenko Appeals to Crimean Authority Not to Speculate on Language (English). Ukrayinska Pravda. Retrieved on March 25, 2007.
  38. ^ Results / General results of the census / Linguistic composition of the population / Autonomous Republic of Crimea (English). 2001 Ukrainian Census. Retrieved on December 16, [[2006]].
  39. ^ Falling Population growth rate in Crimea (in Ukrainian)
  40. ^ Population growth in Crimea (in Ukrainian)

Orest Subtelny - Ukrainian historian, professor at Department of History and Political Science, York University. ... The University of Toronto Press is a publishing house and a division of the University of Toronto that engages in academic publishing. ... is the 87th day of the year (88th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 84th day of the year (85th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... RIA (Russian Information Agency) Novosti is a Russian press agency based in Moscow. ... is the 8th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 218th day of the year (219th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 342nd day of the year (343rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the 1991 Gregorian calendar). ... The Ukrainian Weekly is the oldest newspaper of the Ukrainian diaspora in the United States, and North America, which is published weekly in English language. ... is the 84th day of the year (85th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 243rd day of the year (244th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 350th day of the year (351st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 315th day of the year (316th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 84th day of the year (85th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Verkhovna Rada. ... Year 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday. ... is the 76th day of the year (77th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... June 8 is the 159th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (160th in leap years), with 206 days remaining. ... The Times is a national newspaper published daily in the United Kingdom (and the Kingdom of Great Britain before the United Kingdom existed) since 1788 when it was known as The Daily Universal Register. ... is the 84th day of the year (85th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... EuroNews is a multilingual and pan-European television news channel launched on January 1, 1993. ... is the 158th day of the year (159th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 84th day of the year (85th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 90th day of the year (91st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 90th day of the year (91st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... The Verkhovna Rada of Crimea (Ukrainian: ; English: ) is the official name of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea, Ukraines parliament. ... Verkhovna Rada. ... Cabinet of Ministers The Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine is the highest body in the system of bodies of executive power in Ukraine. ... is the 53rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 51st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... March 26 is the 85th day of the year (86th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 109th day of the year (110th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 118th day of the year (119th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Verkhovna Rada. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... The Yayla Mountains or Crimean Mountains (Crimean Tatar: , Alpine Meadow mountains; Ukrainian: , translit. ... Encyclopædia Britannica, the eleventh edition The Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition (1910–1911) is perhaps the most famous edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. ... Encyclopædia Britannica, the eleventh edition The Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition (1910–1911) is perhaps the most famous edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. ... The headquarters of the Cambridge University Press, in Trumpington Street, Cambridge. ... is the 15th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... The first Ukrainian Census after the dissolution of the Soviet Union was carried out by State Statistics Committee of Ukraine on December 5, 2001, twelve years after the last All-Union census in 1989. ... is the 350th day of the year (351st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The first Ukrainian Census after the dissolution of the Soviet Union was carried out by State Statistics Committee of Ukraine on December 5, 2001, twelve years after the last All-Union census in 1989. ... is the 350th day of the year (351st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 62nd day of the year (63rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Ukrayinska Pravda (Українська правда Ukrainian: Ukrainian Truth) is an anti-Kuchma internet newspaper partially funded by NED. Ukrayinska Pravda online (English) Ukrayinska Pravda online (Ukrainian) Ukrayinska Pravda online (Russian) Categories: Newspaper stubs | Ukrainian newspapers | English-language newspapers ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... The first Ukrainian Census after the dissolution of the Soviet Union was carried out by State Statistics Committee of Ukraine on December 5, 2001, twelve years after the last All-Union census in 1989. ... is the 350th day of the year (351st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Orest Subtelny - Ukrainian historian, professor at Department of History and Political Science, York University. ... The University of Toronto Press is a publishing house and a division of the University of Toronto that engages in academic publishing. ... Cabinet of Ministers The Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine is the highest body in the system of bodies of executive power in Ukraine. ... is the 53rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Encyclopædia Britannica, the eleventh edition The Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition (1910–1911) is perhaps the most famous edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ...

External links

Find more about Crimea on Wikipedia's sister projects:
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Crimea Portal 

Official links Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Image File history File links Wikibooks-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikiquote-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Image File history File links WikiNews-Logo. ... Image File history File links Wikiversity-logo-Snorky. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Crimea. ...

  • crimea-portal.gov.ua — Official portal of the Council of Ministers of Crimea (English)/(Ukrainian)/(Russian)/(French)
  • rada.crimea.ua — Official web-site of the Verkhovna Rada of Crimea

Informational links

  • Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine — Information card of the region
  • WikiTravel — Guide to Crimea
  • Wikimedia Atlas of Crimea
  • United Nations Crimea Integration and Development Programme
  • Maps of all Crimea cities, towns and villages
  • Old map of Crimea
  • Detailed Map of Crimea


  Results from FactBites:
 
Crimea - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2010 words)
Crimea /kraɪˈmia/ or the Autonomous Republic of Crimea (Ukrainian: Крим, Автономна Республіка Крим - Avtonomna Respublika Krym, Russian: Крым, Автономная Республика Крым - Avtonomnaya Respublika Krym, Crimean Tatar: Qırım, Qırım Muhtar Cumhuriyeti) is an autonomous republic of Ukraine on the northern coast of the Black Sea, and a peninsula of the same name.
Crimea borders the Kherson region from the North; the rest of the border is the Black Sea in the South and West and the Sea of Azov in the East.
Crimea is connected to the mainland by the 5–7 kilometre (3–4 mile) wide Isthmus of Perekop.
Crimea - definition of Crimea in Encyclopedia (1252 words)
The Crimea (officially Autonomous Republic of Crimea, Ukrainian transliteration: Avtonomna Respublika Krym, Ukrainian: Автономна Республіка Крим, Russian: Автономная Республика Крым, pronounced cry-MEE-ah in English) is a peninsula and an autonomous republic of Ukraine on the northern coast of the Black Sea.
Crimea is connected to the Ukrainian mainland by the 5–7 kilometre (3–4 mile) wide Isthmus of Perekop.
In the Soviet era, Crimea was governed as a part of the Russian SFSR until, in 1954, it was transferred by Khrushchev to the Ukrainian SSR as a gift to mark the 300th anniversary of unification of Russia and Ukraine.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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