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Encyclopedia > Crime and Punishment
Crime and Punishment
Author Fyodor Dostoevsky
Original title Преступление и наказание (Prestuplenie i nakazanie)
Country Russia
Language Russian
Genre(s) Philosophical novel
Publication date 1866
Media type Print (Hardback & Paperback)

Crime and Punishment (Russian: Преступление и наказание) is a novel by Russian author Fyodor Dostoevsky (or Dostoyevsky depending on the transliteration), that was first published in the literary journal The Russian Messenger in twelve monthly installments in 1866,[1] and was later published in a single volume.[2] Crime and Punishment can refer to: Crime and Punishment, the novel by Fyodor Dostoevsky Crime & Punishment, the television show Crime and Punishment, the Commodore 64 computer game This is a disambiguation page: a list of articles associated with the same title. ... Fyodor Mikhailovich Dostoevsky (Russian: , Russian pronunciation: , sometimes transliterated Dostoyevsky, Dostoievsky, Dostojevskij or Dostoevski  ) (November 11 [O.S. October 30] 1821 – February 9 [O.S. January 28] 1881) was a Russian novelist and writer of fiction whose works, including Crime and Punishment and The Brothers Karamazov, have had a profound and... For other uses, see Country (disambiguation). ... Philosophical novels are works of fiction in which a significant proportion of the novel is devoted to a discussion of the sort of questions normally addressed in discursive philosophy. ... Hardcover books A hardcover (or hardback or hardbound) is a book bound with rigid protective covers (typically of cardboard covered with cloth, heavy paper, or sometimes leather). ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ... ISBN redirects here. ... For other uses, see Novel (disambiguation). ... Russian literature refers to the literature of Russia or its émigrés, and to the Russian-language literature of several independent nations once a part of what was historically Russia or the Soviet Union. ... Fyodor Mikhailovich Dostoevsky (Russian: , Russian pronunciation: , sometimes transliterated Dostoyevsky, Dostoievsky, Dostojevskij or Dostoevski  ) (November 11 [O.S. October 30] 1821 – February 9 [O.S. January 28] 1881) was a Russian novelist and writer of fiction whose works, including Crime and Punishment and The Brothers Karamazov, have had a profound and...

Crime and Punishment focuses on the mental anguish and moral dilemmas of Rodion Romanovich Raskolnikov, an impoverished St. Petersburg ex-student who formulates and executes a plan to kill a hated, unscrupulous pawnbroker seemingly for her money, thereby solving his financial problems and at the same time, he argues, ridding the world of an evil worthless parasite. Raskolnikov also strives to be an extraordinary being, similar to Napoleon, who can murder without repercussions. Look up Dilemma in Wiktionary, the free dictionary For the Nelly song, see Dilemma (song). ... Rodion Romanovich Raskolnikov (Russian: Родион Романович Раскольников) is the fictional protagonist of Crime and Punishment by Fyodor Dostoevsky. ... Saint Petersburg (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991) and Petrograd (Петрогра́д, 1914–1924), is a city located in Northwestern Russia on the delta of the river Neva at the east end of the Gulf of Finland... This article is about the occupation of a pawnbroker. ... Napoléon I, Emperor of the French (born Napoleone di Buonaparte, changed his name to Napoléon Bonaparte)[1] (15 August 1769; Ajaccio, Corsica – 5 May 1821; Saint Helena) was a general during the French Revolution, the ruler of France as First Consul (Premier Consul) of the French Republic from...



Dostoevsky began work on Crime and Punishment in the summer of 1865. He was in serious financial difficulty from gambling, and also from his efforts to help the family of his brother Mikhail, who had died in early 1864; the author owed large sums of money to creditors. He signed an agreement with the editor Katkov having explained to him that the novel was to be about a young man who kills a pawnbroker in cold blood, and then tries both to escape and to defend his act, but finally confesses. Gamble redirects here. ... Mikhail Nikiforovich Katkov (1818-1887) was a conservative Russian journalist influential during the reign of Alexander III. On finishing his course at the Moscow University Katkov devoted himself to literature and philosophy, and showed so little individuality that during the reign of Nicholas I he never once came into disagreeable...

Dostoevsky had, at one point, two ideas for novels: one was to be called "The Drunkards." The other was based on the notion of a "psychological account of a crime". However, the two works soon merged into one; indeed, the Marmeladov family in Crime and Punishment were first conceived with the intention of being characters in "The Drunkards".[3]


The symmetry of Crime and Punishment

Crime and Punishment is divided into six parts, with an epilogue. The notion of duality in Crime and Punishment has been commented upon, with the suggestion that there is a degree of symmetry to the book. The novel has 6 parts, and "certain key episodes" are distributed in one half of the novel, and then again in the other half. Edward Wasiolek has likened the structure of Crime & Punishment to a "flattened X", saying: Image File history File links Crimeandpunishment_symmetry. ... An epilogue, or epilog, is a piece of writing at the end of a work of literature or drama, usually used to bring closure to the work. ... For other uses, see Dualism (disambiguation). ... Sphere symmetry group o. ...

Parts I-III [of Crime and Punishment] present the predominantly rational and proud Raskolnikov: Parts IV-VI, the emerging "irrational" and humble Raskolnikov. The first half of the novel shows the progressive death of the first ruling principle of his character; the last half, the progressive birth of the new ruling principle. The point of change comes in the very middle of the novel.[4]

Crime and Punishment is written from a third-person omniscient perspective.[5] It is told primarily from the point of view of Raskolnikov; however, it does switch to the perspective of Svidrigailov, Razumikhin, and Dunya throughout the novel. The third-person Narrative is narration in the third person. ... For the album by Swans, see Omniscience (album). ...


Dostoevsky wrote various instances of wordplay, or double meanings, into Crime and Punishment.

In the original Russian text, the names of the major characters in Crime and Punishment have something of a double meaning. However, these are not seen when translated to different languages. A double entendre or innuendo is a figure of speech similar to the pun, in which a spoken phrase can be understood in either of two ways. ...

Name Word Meaning (in Russian)
Rodion Romanovich Raskolnikov raskol a schism, or split; "raskolnik" is "one who splits" or "dissenter"
Pyotr Petrovich Luzhin luzha a puddle
Dmitri Prokofych Razumikhin razum reason, intelligence
Alexander Grigorievich Zamyotov zametit to notice, to realize
Semyon Zakharovich Marmeladov marmelad marmalade/jam
Arkady Ivanovich Svidrigailov Svidrigailo a Lithuanian duke

Pillars of Giedymin (Gedimino stulpai) Švitrigaila (alternative spellings: Świdrygiełło, Svitrigaylo, Svidryhajla, Svidrigailo, Swidrigailo; Bolesław; ca 1370 – 10 February 1452 Łuck) was the Grand Prince of Lithuania during 1430 - 1432, Prince of Witebsk 1392 – 1393, 1430 – 1436, Podolia 1400 – 1402, Novhorod-Siversky 1404 – 1408, 1420 – 1438, Czernichow 1419 – 1430...

Plot summary

The novel portrays the murder of a miserly, aged pawnbroker and her younger sister by a destitute Saint Petersburg student named Raskolnikov, and the emotional, mental, and physical effects that follow. This article is about the occupation of a pawnbroker. ... Saint Petersburg (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991) and Petrograd (Петрогра́д, 1914–1924), is a city located in Northwestern Russia on the delta of the river Neva at the east end of the Gulf of Finland... Rodion Romanovitch Raskolnikov is the protagonist of Crime and Punishment by Dostoevsky. ...

After falling ill with fever and lying bedridden for days, Raskolnikov is overcome with paranoia and begins to imagine that everyone he meets suspects him of the murder; the knowledge of his crime eventually compromises his sanity. Prior to the crime he meets, in a tavern, a down-on-his luck former civil servant — Marmeladov, who tells him of his own desperate circumstances — including the circumstances of his only daughter Sonya, who has been forced to become a prostitute to feed her stepbrother and sisters. Raskolnikov becomes the family's benefactor after the death of Marmeladov and becomes fascinated with Sonya. he might even be in love with her. This relationship can be interpreted as an allegory of God's love for fallen humanity — and the redemptive power of that love — but only after Raskolnikov has confessed to the murder and been sent to imprisonment in Siberia. It is there that he realises that he is capable of love — and that he loves Sonya. Apart from Raskolnikov's fate, the novel, with its long and diverse list of characters, deals with themes including charity, family life, atheism, alcoholism, and revolutionary activity, with Dostoevsky highly critical of contemporary Russian society. For other senses of this word, see paranoia (disambiguation). ... This article is about Siberia as a whole. ... Allegorical personification of Charity as a mother with three infants by Anthony van Dyck // The word charity entered the English language through the O.Fr word charite which was derived from the Latin caritas.[1] In Christian theology charity, or love (agapÄ“), is the greatest of the three theological virtues... For other uses, see Family (disambiguation). ... Atheist redirects here. ... Alcoholism is the consumption of, or preoccupation with, alcoholic beverages to the extent that this behavior interferes with the drinkers normal personal, family, social, or work life, and may lead to physical or mental harm. ... For other uses, see Revolution (disambiguation). ...

Raskolnikov theorized that there are two types of men, ordinary and extraordinary. He believed that since he was of the latter or a "super-human," that he could justifiably perform what society considered a despicable act — the killing of the pawn broker — if it led to his being able to do more good through the act. Throughout the book there are examples: he mentions Napoleon many times, thinking that for all the blood he spilled, he was not morally culpable, as he was "above" the conventions of society. Raskolnikov believed that he could transcend this moral boundary by killing the money lender, gaining her money, and using it to do good. He argued that had Isaac Newton or Johannes Kepler needed to kill one or even a hundred men in order to enlighten humanity with their laws and ideas, it would be worth it. Thus he is thrown into a depressed state over the death of the pawnbroker's sister. Never at any time in the novel is he repentant over the death of the pawnbroker. The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... For other uses, see Napoleon (disambiguation). ... Sir Isaac Newton FRS (4 January 1643 – 31 March 1727) [ OS: 25 December 1642 – 20 March 1727][1] was an English physicist, mathematician, astronomer, natural philosopher, and alchemist. ... Kepler redirects here. ...

Raskolnikov's real punishment is not the labour camp he is condemned to, but the torment he endures throughout the novel. This torment manifests itself in the aforementioned paranoia. He is unable to engage in 'normal' human relationships and it is only when imprisoned and away from the distraction of Petersburg that he is able to realise that he too is able to fully love another — Sonya and he is then able to engage with the world once more. It is the resolution of the inner battle within himself — between his inhuman philosophy and his distinctly human character — that allows his redemption.

Characters in "Crime and Punishment"

Rodion Romanovich Raskolnikov

Main article Raskolnikov Rodion Romanovich Raskolnikov (Russian: Родион Романович Раскольников) is the fictional protagonist of Crime and Punishment by Fyodor Dostoevsky. ...

Rodion Romanovich Raskolnikov, (Russian: Родион Романович Раскольников) variously called Rodya and Rodka, is the protagonist from whose perspective the story is primarily told. He was a student, but due to his abject poverty, had to leave the university. He resides in a small and squalid top-floor flat in the slums of Saint Petersburg. Despite the name of the novel it does not so much deal with his crime and its formal punishment as with Raskolnikov's internal struggle. In the main, his punishment results more from his conscience than from the law. He commits the murder in the belief that he possesses enough intellectual and emotional fortitude to deal with a murder [based on his paper/thesis, "On Crime"], that he is a Napoleon, but his paranoia and guilt soon engulf him. It is only in the epilogue that his formal punishment is realized, having decided to confess and end his alienation. His name derives from the Russian word raskolnik, meaning “schismatic” or “divided,” an allusion to Raskolnikov's self-imposed schism from Russian society, as well as his own split personality and constantly changing emotional state. Rodion Romanovich Raskolnikov (Russian: Родион Романович Раскольников) is the fictional protagonist of Crime and Punishment by Fyodor Dostoevsky. ... A protagonist is the main figure of a piece of literature or drama and has the main part or role. ... For other uses, see Napoleon (disambiguation). ...

Sonya Semyonovna Marmeladova

Sonya Semyonovna Marmeladova, (Russian: Софья Семёновна Мармеладова) variously called Sonya and Sonechka, is the daughter of a drunk, Semyon Zakharovich Marmeladov, whom Raskolnikov meets in a tavern at the beginning of the novel. It is not until Semyon's death, and Sonya's thanks for Raskolnikov's generosity, that the two characters meet. She has been driven into prostitution by the habits of her father, but she is still strongly religious. Rodion finds himself drawn to her to such an extent, that she becomes the first person to whom he confesses his crime. She supports him even though she is friends with one of the victims (Lizaveta). For most of the novel, Sonya serves as the spiritual guide for Raskolnikov; she encourages him to take up faith and confess. He does, and after his confession she follows him to Siberia where she lives in the same town as the prison; it is here that Raskolnikov begins his spiritual rebirth.

Other characters

  • Porfiry Petrovich (Порфирий Петрович) - The detective in charge of solving Raskolnikov's murders who, along with Sonya, guides Raskolnikov towards confession. Unlike Sonya, however, Petrovich does this through detrimental mind games, contributing to Raskolnikov's mental instability. Despite the lack of evidence he becomes certain Raskolnikov is the murderer following several conversations with him, but gives Raskolnikov the chance to confess voluntarily. He is very interested in the psychology behind the motives of criminals. After the heinous double murder, Raskolnikov is terribly disturbed by bouts of illness and fainting, his recurrent nightmares, the smell of fresh paint (painters were working in the pawnbroker's building when he killed her), and the memory of the blood-spattered crime scene. Porfiry attempts to confuse and provoke the unstable Raskolnikov in an attempt to coerce him to confess. Porfiry's piercing eyes, along with his absurd body language and rapier accusations, help drive Raskolnikov to his confession.
  • Avdotya Romanovna Raskolnikova (Авдотья Романовна Раскольникова) - Raskolnikov's strong willed and self-sacrificing sister, called Dunya, Dounia or Dunechka for short. She initially plans to marry the wealthy, yet somewhat smug and self-possessed, Luzhin to save the family from financial destitution but is followed to St. Petersburg by the disturbed Svidrigailov, who seeks to win her back through blackmail. She rejects both men in favour of Raskolnikov's loyal friend, Razumikhin.
  • Arkady Ivanovich Svidrigailov (Аркадий Иванович Свидригайлов) - Sensual, depraved, and wealthy former employer and current pursuer of Dunya, Svidrigailov is suspected of multiple acts of murder, and overhears Raskolnikov's confessions to Sonya. With this knowledge he torments both Dunya and Raskolnikov but does not inform the police. When Dunya tells him she could never love him (after attempting to shoot him) he lets her go and commits suicide. Whereas Sonya represents the path to salvation, Svidrigailov represents the other path towards suicide. Despite his apparent malevolence, Svidrigailov is similar to Raskolnikov in regard to his random acts of charity. He fronts the money for the Marmeladov children to enter an orphanage (after both their parents die) and leaves the rest of his money to his juvenile fiancée.
  • Dmitri Prokofich Razumikhin (Дмитрий Прокофьич Разумихин) - Raskolnikov's loyal, good-natured and only friend. Raskolnikov repeatedly entrusts the care of his family over to Razumikhin, who lives up to his word. He and Dunya ultimately fall in love and marry. In terms of Razumikhin's contribution to Dostoyevsky's anti-radical thematics, he is intended to represent something of a reconciliation of the pervasive thematic conflict between faith and reason. The fact that his name means reason shows Dostoyevsky's desire to employ this faculty as a foundational basis for his Christian faith in God.
  • Katerina Ivanovna Marmeladova (Катерина Ивановна Мармеладова) - Semyon Marmeladov's consumptive and ill-tempered second wife, stepmother to Sonya. She drives Sonya into prostitution in a fit of rage, but later regrets it, and beats her children mercilessly, but works ferociously to improve their standard of living. She is obsessed with demonstrating that slum life is far below her station, exaggerating her father's influence and insisting that she be treated as "genteel, one might say aristocratic." Following Marmeladov's death, she uses Raskolnikov's money to hold a funeral. At the funeral dinner, she gets in a fight with the other boarders in her building and suffers a coughing fit, throwing up liters of blood, and dying shortly after.
  • Semyon Zakharovich Marmeladov (Семён Захарович Мармеладов) - Hopeless but amiable drunk who indulges in his own suffering, and father of Sonya. In the bar he informs Raskolnikov of his familial situation and how he feels incapable of helping them. Marmeladov is run over by a carriage and killed, but this may have been a suicide. Raskolnikov identifies the man's body in the street and, despite of the fear and panic presented from the blood in murder, he holds him in the street, getting blood on himself; Raskolnikov donates all of his money (which was obtained by his mother as a loan for her pension and sent to Raskolnikov just prior to her arrival to Petersburg) to Marmeladov's family to help with funerary expenses. Marmeladov could be seen as a Russian equivalent of the character of Micawber in Charles Dickens' novel, David Copperfield.
  • Pulkheria Alexandrovna Raskolnikova (Пульхерия Александровна Раскольникова) - Raskolnikov's relatively clueless, hopeful mother. She informs him of his sister's plans to marry Luzhin. Following Raskolnikov's sentence, she falls ill (mentally and physically) and eventually dies. She hints in her dying stages that she is slightly more aware of her son's fate, which was hidden from her by Dunya and Razumikhin.
  • Pyotr Petrovich Luzhin (Пётр Петрович Лужин) - Despicable man who wants to marry Dunya so she'll be completely subservient to him. Raskolnikov does not take kindly to him and Luzhin is embittered, eventually growing to hate Raskolnikov. To exact his revenge, he attempts to frame Sonya for theft, but the plot is uncovered by Lebezyatnikov and he leaves St. Petersburg in shame.
  • Andrey Semyenovich Lebezyatnikov (Андрей Семёнович Лебезятников) - Luzhin's utopian socialist roommate who witnesses his attempt to frame Sonya and subsequently exposes him.
  • Alyona Ivanovna (Алёна Ивановна) - Suspicious old pawnbroker who hoards money and is merciless to her patrons. She is Raskolnikov's intended target for murder.
  • Lizaveta Ivanovna (Лизавета Ивановна) - Alyona's simple and innocent sister who arrives during the murder, and is subsequently killed. She was a friend of Sonya's. Is noted to be 'constantly pregnant', yet no mention is made of her children.
  • Zosimov (Зосимов) - A friend of Razumikhin and a doctor who cared for Raskolnikov.
  • Nastasya Petrovna (Настасья Петровна) - Raskolnikov's landlady's servant and a friend of Raskolnikov.
  • Nikodim Fomich (Никодим Фомич)- The amiable Chief of Police.
  • Ilya Petrovich (Илья Петрович) - A police official and Fomich's assistant, often referred to as "Lieutenant Gunpowder" or "Explosive Lieutenant" in regards to his short temper. He is also the officer deliberately chosen by Raskolnikov to confess to.
  • Alexander Grigorievich Zametov (Александр Григорьевич Заметов) - Corrupt head clerk at the police station and friend to Razumikhin. Raskolnikov arrouses Zametov's suspicions by explaining how he, Raskolnikov, would have committed various crimes, although Zametov later apologizes, believing, much to Raskolnikov's amusement, that it was all a farce to expose how ridiculous the suspicions were. This scene illustrates the argument of Raskolnikov's belief in his own superiority as Übermensch.
  • Nikolai Dementiev (Николай Дементьев) - A painter and sectarian who admits to the murder, since his sect holds it to be supremely virtuous to suffer for another person's crime.
  • Polina Mikhailovna Marmeladova (Полина Михайловна Мармеладова) - Ten-year-old adopted daughter of Semyon Zakharovich Marmeladov and younger stepsister to Sonya, sometimes known as Polenka.

Gumshoe redirects here. ... For other uses, see Suicide (disambiguation). ... // An orphanage is an institution or asylum for the care of a child bereaved of both father and mother; sometimes, also, a child who has but one parent living. ... “Engaged” redirects here. ... (UTC):This page is about loyalty as faithfulness to a cause. ... Tuberculosis (abbreviated as TB for tubercle bacillus or Tuberculosis) is a common and deadly infectious disease caused by mycobacteria, mainly Mycobacterium tuberculosis. ... The Drunkenness of Noah by Giovanni Bellini Drunkenness is the state of being intoxicated by consumption of alcohol to a degree that mental and physical facilities are noticeably impaired. ... Wilkins Micawber is a fictional character from Charles Dickens novel David Copperfield. ... Dickens redirects here. ... For other uses, see David Copperfield. ... Utopian socialism is a term used to define the first currents of modern Socialist thought. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ...


The Dreams

Rodya's dreams always have a symbolic meaning, which suggests a psychological view. In the dream about the horse, the mare has to sacrifice itself for the men who are too much in a rush to wait. This could be symbolic of women sacrificing themselves for men, just like Rodya's belief that Dunya is sacrificing herself for Rodya by marrying Luzhin. Some critics have suggested this dream is the fullest single expression of the whole novel,[6] containing the nihilistic destruction of an innocent creature and Rodion's suppressed sympathy for it (although the young Rodion in the dream runs to the horse, he still murders the pawnbroker soon after waking). The dream is also mentioned when Rodya talks to Marmeladov. He states that his daughter, Sonya, has to sell her body to earn a living for their family. The dream is also a blatant warning for the impending murder.

In the final pages, Raskolnikov, who at this point is in the prison infirmary, has a feverish dream about a plague of nihilism, that enters Russia and Europe from the east and which spreads senseless dissent (Raskolnikov's name alludes to "raskol", dissent) and fanatic dedication to "new ideas": it finally engulfs all of mankind. Though we don't learn anything about the content of these ideas they clearly disrupt society forever and are seen as exclusively critical assaults on ordinary thinking: it is clear that Dostoevsky was envisaging the new, politically and culturally nihilist ideas which were entering Russian literature and society in this watershed decade, and with which Dostoevsky would be in debate for the rest of his life (cp. Chernyshevsky's What Is to Be Done?, Dobrolyubov's abrasive journalism, Turgenev's Fathers and Sons and Dostoesvsky's own The Possessed). Just like the novel demonstrates and argues Dostoevsky's conviction that "if God doesn't exist (or is not recognized) then anything is permissible" the dream sums up his fear that if men won't check their thinking against the realities of life and nature, and if they are unwilling to listen to reason or authority, then no ideas or cultural institutions will last and only brute barbarism can be the result. Janko Lavrin, who took part in the revolutions of the WWI era, knew Lenin and Trotsky and many others, and later would spend years writing and researching on Dostoevsky and other Russian classics, called this final dream "prophetic in its symbolism". What is to be Done? (orig. ... Nikolay Aleksandrovich Dobrolyubov (Russian: Николай Александрович Добролюбов) (January 24 (N.S. February 5), 1836 - November 17(29), 1861) was a Russian literary critic, publicist, and revolutionary democrat. ... Ivan Turgenev, photo by Félix Nadar (1820-1910) “Turgenev” redirects here. ... For the short story by Ernest Hemingway, see The Snows of Kilimanjaro (book). ... For the theatrical adaptation by Albert Camus, see The Possessed (play). ... Vladimir Ilyich Lenin ( Russian: Влади́мир Ильи́ч Ле́нин  listen?), original surname Ulyanov (Улья́нов) ( April 22 (April 10 ( O.S.)), 1870 – January 21, 1924), was a Russian revolutionary, the leader of the Bolshevik party, the first Premier of the Soviet Union, and the founder of the ideology of Leninism. ... 1915 passport photo of Trotsky Leon Davidovich Trotsky (Russian: Лев Давидович Троцкий; also transliterated Trotskii, Trotski, Trotzky) (October 26 (O.S.) = November 7 (N.S.), 1879 - August 21, 1940), born Lev Davidovich Bronstein (Лев Давидович Бронштейн), was a Bolshevik revolutionary and Marxist intellectual. ...

The Cross

Sonya gives Rodya a cross when he goes to turn himself in. This cross represents suffering.[citation needed] He takes his pain upon him by carrying the cross through town, like Jesus; in an allusion to the account of the Crucifixion,[citation needed] he falls to his knees in the town square on the way to his confession. Sonya carried the cross up until then, which indicates that, as literally mentioned in the book, she suffers for him, in a semi-Christ-like manner. Sonya and Lizaveta had exchanged crosses and become spiritual sisters, originally the cross was Lizaveta's - so Sonya carries Lizaveta's cross, the cross of Rodya's innocent victim, whom he didn't intend to kill. Also, Rodya sees that the cross is made of cypress, which symbolizes the ordinary and plain population.[citation needed] By taking that particular cross he then admits that he's an ordinary man, and not one of the 'great men' of his theory.[citation needed] For other uses, see Crucifixion (disambiguation). ...

St. Petersburg

This could be a symbol for Rodya's mind or his mental state. It is very confusing, dirty and disgusting. Even Rodya gets disgusted by the sight of it. The city is filled with prostitutes, symbolizing its utter social decadence. Sidney Monas likened its appearance to imagery found in T. S. Eliot's The Waste Land,[6] another example of its grotesque demeanor. Indeed, the city plays such an important part in the novel that it is almost a character in itself. For other persons named Thomas Eliot, see Thomas Eliot (disambiguation). ... The Waste Land (1922)[1] is a highly influential 434-line modernist poem by T. S. Eliot. ...

Many of the characters in the novel might be said to be symbolic doubles of Raskolnikov: they share some of his personal traits or something in his situation: his pride and sense of ambition (Dunya), his ongoing moral dilapidation (Svidrigailov), the threat of sinking into destitution and going under (Marmeladov), the loyalty to one's family (Sonya; this feeling is undermined in him by the crime, but the opening scene when Rodion reads the letter from home makes it clear that the bond between him and his mother and, in particular, his sister, has always been a strong one, and Dunya is, after Sonya, the second person to whom he confesses his crime).

English translations

There have been several translations of Crime and Punishment into English by:

Constance Garnett (née Black) (December 19, 1861 - December 17, 1946) was an English translator whose translations of nineteenth-century Russian classics first introduced them on a wide basis to the English public. ... David McDuff, a Scottish publicist, was born in Sale, Cheshire, England in 1945. ... Richard Pevear is an American-born poet and translator who frequently collaborates with his wife, Larissa Volokhonsky, on translations of Russian novels. ... Larissa Volokhonsky is a Russian-born translator who frequently collaborates with her American-born husband, Richard Pevear, on translations of works mainly in Russian, but also French, Italian, and Greek. ... David Magarshack (23 December 1899 – 1977) was a Latvian-born translator and biography of Russian authors, best known for his translations of Dostoevsky. ... Professor Michael Scamell is an academic, author and translator of Slavic literature. ...

Film versions

There have been dozens of film adaptations of the novel. Some of the best-known are:

Peter Lorre (June 26, 1904 – March 23, 1964), born László Löwenstein, was an Hungarian[1] - Austrian - American actor frequently typecast as a sinister foreigner. ... Arnold in City That Never Sleeps Edward Arnold (February 18, 1890 - April 26, 1956) was an American character actor. ... Violet Ethelred Krauth (also known as Marian Marsh, Marian Morgan and later, by her married name, Marian Henderson) (born October 17, 1913 - died November 9, 2006) was a Hollywood actress, and later, environmentalist, most well known for films in the 1930s such as the Howard Hughes film, Hells Angels... Lino Ventura (born Angiolino Joseph Pascal Ventura on July 14, 1919 - October 22, 1987) in Parma, northern Italy, was an Italian actor who starred in French movies. ... For other uses, see Gabin. ... Crime and Punishment ) is a manga by Osamu Tezuka, based on Fyodor Dostoevskys book, that was published in 1953. ... This article is about the comics created in Japan. ... A clock designed by Osamu Tezuka, which stands in the Kyoto Station. ... Timothy West CBE (born October 20, 1934) is a British film, stage and television actor. ... Vanessa Redgrave, CBE (born 30 January 1937) is an Academy Award winning English actress and member of the Redgrave family, one of the enduring theatrical dynasties. ... For the singer, see Mississippi John Hurt. ... Aki Olavi Kaurismäki ( ) (born April 4, 1957 in Orimattila, Finland) is a Finnish script writer and film director. ... Location of Helsinki in Northern Europe Coordinates: , Country Province Region Uusimaa Sub-region Helsinki Charter 1550 Capital city 1812 Government  - Mayor Jussi Pajunen Area  - Total 187. ... Patrick Galen Dempsey (born January 13, 1966) is a Golden Globe Award-nominated American actor who first became prominent in Hollywood during the late 1980s. ... Sir Ben Kingsley, CBE (born December 31, 1943) is a British actor. ... Julie Delpy (born December 21, 1969) is a French/American actress, singer and Academy Award-nominated screenwriter. ... Crime and Punishment in Suburbia is a 2000 film directed by Rob Schmidt and starring Monica Keena (as Roseanne Skolnick), Ellen Barkin (as Maggie Skolnick), Michael Ironside (as Fred Skolnick), and Vincent Kartheiser (as Vincent). ... For the Scarling. ... For the singer, see Mississippi John Hurt. ... Vanessa Redgrave, CBE (born 30 January 1937) is an Academy Award winning English actress and member of the Redgrave family, one of the enduring theatrical dynasties. ... Margot Kidder (born October 17, 1948) is a Canadian-American film and television actress who achieved fame playing Lois Lane in the Superman movies of the 1970s and 1980s. ... John Ronald Simm (born 10 July 1970 in Leeds, West Yorkshire) is an English actor and musician. ... Ian McDiarmid (born August 11, 1944) is a Tony Award-winning Scottish actor born in Carnoustie. ... Robert Bresson (French IPA: ) (September 25, 1901 – December 18, 1999) was a French film director known for his spiritual, ascetic style. ... Pickpocket is a 1959 film by the French director Robert Bresson. ...


  1. ^ University of Minnesota - Study notes for Crime and Punishment - (retrieved on 1 May 2006)
  2. ^ About: Crime and Punishment - List of Top 10 editions of Crime and Punishment (retrieved on 1 May 2006)
  3. ^ "ClassicNote: About Crime and Punishment" - Literary notes for Crime and Punishment (retrieved 4 May 2006)
  4. ^ "On the Structure of Crime and Punishment, " in: PMLA, March 1959, vol. LXXIV, No. 1, p. 132-133.
  5. ^ "Sparknotes: Crime and Punishment: Key Facts" - Literary notes about Crime and Punishment (retrieved 1 May 2006)
  6. ^ a b Monas, Sidney, "Afterword: The Dream of the Suffering Horse," from his translation

is the 121st day of the year (122nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 121st day of the year (122nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 124th day of the year (125th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 121st day of the year (122nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...



  • Dostoevsky, Fyodor translation by McDuff, David (2002). Crime and Punishment. London: Penguin Books.

See also

Match Point is an Academy Award-nominated 2005 film written and directed by Woody Allen and starring Jonathan Rhys Meyers, Scarlett Johansson, Emily Mortimer, Matthew Goode, Brian Cox and Penelope Wilton. ... Woody Allen (born Allen Stewart Konigsberg; December 1, 1935) is a three-time Academy Award-winning American film director, writer, actor, jazz musician, comedian and playwright. ... For other uses, see Fable (disambiguation). ... Scarlett Johansson (born November 22, 1984) is an American actress. ... Jonathan Rhys Meyers (born 27 July 1977) is an Irish Golden Globe-winning actor and fashion model. ... This article is about the actor. ... Emily Mortimer (born 1 December 1971) is an English actress. ... Fyodor Dostoevsky. ... F.M. (russian: ) is a new book by Boris Akunin, is planned to reach the bookstores in Russia on the 20th of May 2006. ... Boris Akunin (born May 20, 1956) (Russian: ) is the pen name of Grigory Shalvovich Chkhartishvili (Григорий Шалвович Чхартишвили). Akunin is a Russian essayist, literary translator, and fiction writer. ... This article is about the television series. ... Another Toothpick is the 31st episode of the HBO original series, The Sopranos. ... Terence Winter is an American screenwriter and television producer most notably known for his work on the HBO series, The Sopranos which he joined the writing staff during the shows second season. ... Sin and Punishment: Successor of the Earth (罪と罰 tsumi to batsu) is a video game by Treasure Co. ... The Nintendo 64, often abbreviated as N64, is Nintendos third home video game console for the international market. ... This article or section may contain original research or unverified claims. ...

External links

Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:
Wikisource has original text related to this article:
Crime and Punishment

Study Guides Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Wikiquote is one of a family of wiki-based projects run by the Wikimedia Foundation, running on MediaWiki software. ... Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... The original Wikisource logo. ...

Online Text

  • Full text, translated by Constance Garnett
  • Dual Language E-Book - Crime and Punishment English and Russian texts side-by-side.
  • Full text in the original Russian
  • Crime and Punishment, available at Project Gutenberg.

Project Gutenberg, abbreviated as PG, is a volunteer effort to digitize, archive and distribute cultural works. ... Fyodor Mikhailovich Dostoevsky (Russian: , Russian pronunciation: , sometimes transliterated Dostoyevsky, Dostoievsky, Dostojevskij or Dostoevski  ) (November 11 [O.S. October 30] 1821 – February 9 [O.S. January 28] 1881) was a Russian novelist and writer of fiction whose works, including Crime and Punishment and The Brothers Karamazov, have had a profound and... Poor Folk was first novel by Fyodor Dostoevsky, which he wrote over the span of nine months. ... The name Netochka Nezvanova, which can be translated roughly as nameless nobody, is widely believed to be a pseudonym taken from the name of the eponymous title character in Fyodor Dostoevskys early unfinished novel. ... The Village of Stepanchikovo is a book written by Fyodor Dostoevsky and first published in 1859. ... The Insulted and Humiliated (also known as The Insulted and the Injured) is a novella by Fyodor Dostoevsky, first published in 1861, is a book about the huge contradictions present in life. ... Penguin Edition of the House of the Dead The House of the Dead, Notes from the Dead House or Memoirs from the House of The Dead is a novel published in 1862 by Russian author Fyodor Dostoevsky, which portrays the life of convicts in a Siberian prison camp. ... This article is about the short novel by Fyodor Dostoevsky. ... The Gambler is a novel by Fyodor Dostoyevsky about a young tutor in the employment of a formerly wealthy Russian General. ... The Idiot is a novel written by the Russian author Fyodor Dostoevsky and first published in 1869. ... For the theatrical adaptation by Albert Camus, see The Possessed (play). ... The Raw Youth or The Adolescent (Russian: Подросток), is a novel of Russian writer Fyodor Dostoevsky. ... For other uses, see The Brothers Karamazov (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Dostoevsky. ... This article is about the Dostoevsky short story. ... A Christmas Tree and a Wedding is a short story by Dostoevsky. ... An Honest Thief is an 1848 short story by Dostoevsky. ... The Peasant Marey is a short story by Fyodor Dostoevsky written in 1876. ... The Dream of a Ridiculous Man is a short story by Fyodor Dostoevsky written in 1877. ... A Gentle Creature, sometimes also translated as The Meek One, is a short story written by Fyodor Dostoevsky in 1876. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... An English translation of A Writers Diary A Writers Diary is a novel by Fyodor Dostoevsky. ... Standalone copy of the chapter The Grand Inquisitor Wikisource has original text related to this article: The Grand Inquisitor The Grand Inquisitor is a parable told by Ivan to Alyosha in Fyodor Dostoevskys novel, The Brothers Karamazov (1879-1880). ... Rodion Romanovich Raskolnikov (Russian: Родион Романович Раскольников) is the fictional protagonist of Crime and Punishment by Fyodor Dostoevsky. ... Nastasya Filippovna is the principle heroine in Fyodor Dostoevskys novel The Idiot. ...

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