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Encyclopedia > Crewe railway station

Crewe station is one of the most historic railway stations in the world. It was the first to be built independently of the need to serve a town. Nowadays, as well as serving the town of Crewe that hs grown near it, it still provides an important junction between West Coast Main Line trains going to Manchester, Liverpool and Wales and those running from north to south; it also serves as the rail gateway to Cheshire and North Wales. Passengers bustle around the typical grand edifice of Londons Broad Street Station in 1865. ... This article is about Crewe in England. ... The WCML running alogside the M1 motorway in Northamptonshire The West Coast Main Line (WCML) is one of the most important intercity railway lines in the United Kingdom, part of the British railway system. ... Manchester is a city in the north-west of England. ... Liverpool is a city and metropolitan borough on Merseyside in north west England, on the north side of the Mersey estuary. ... National motto: Cymru am byth (Welsh: Wales for ever) Waless location within the UK Official languages English(100%), Welsh(20. ... This article is about the English county. ... National motto: Cymru am byth (Welsh: Wales for ever) Waless location within the UK Official languages English(100%), Welsh(20. ...


History

When it was built, Crewe station was truly unqiue, and has set many 'firsts'. It was the first station in the world to have its own railway hotel (The Crewe Arms, 1838, still in use). It was the first to be completely rebuilt owing to the need for expansion. It was the first to form a junction between more than two companies. It was the first to have a completely independent railway system built around it, to ease traffic congestion.


The story begins on 4 July 1837, with the opening of the Grand Junction Railway. The purpose of this railway was to link the four largest cities of England by joining the existing Liverpool and Manchester Railway with the projected London and Birmingham railway. The line, which was the first long-distance railway in the world, ran from Curzon Street Station in Birmingham to Dallam in Warrington, Cheshire, where it made an end-on junction with the Warrington and Newton Railway, a branch of the L& M. July 4 is the 185th day of the year (186th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 180 days remaining. ... 1837 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... The Grand Junction Railway (GJR) was an early railway company in the United Kingdom which existed between 1833 and 1846. ... Royal motto: Dieu et mon droit (French: God and my right) Englands location within the UK Official language English de facto Capital London de facto Largest city London Area - Total Ranked 1st UK 130,395 km² Population - Total (mid-2004) - Density Ranked 1st UK 50. ... The Liverpool and Manchester Railway (LMR) was the worlds first intercity passenger railway operated solely by steam locomotives. ... The London and Birmingham Railway (L&BR) was an early railway company in the United Kingdom, which existed between 1833 and 1846 when it becam a constituent part of the London and North Western Railway. ... This article is about the city in England. ... Warrington, the United Kingdom’s third biggest town (as opposed to city), is a town and borough in North West England, between Manchester and Liverpool. ...


Conceived as a through route, the GJR was not interested in serving towns en-route. Wolverhampton, for instance, was by-passed by half a mile because it did not lie on the intended route, and no central station was built for several years, instead a small station at Wednesfield Heath (now Heath Town) was deemed to suffice. But a station was built in the parish of Monks Coppenhall in Cheshire, at the point where the line crossed the turnpike road linking the Trent and Mersey and the Shropshire Union Canals. Since the land was bought from the Earl of Crewe, whose mansion stood nearby, the station was called Crewe. At this time there was no town at this point, only a few scattered dairy farms. Wolverhampton is an industrial, commercial and university city and metropolitan borough in the English West Midlands, traditionally part of the county of Staffordshire. ... Wednesfield is a town in Wolverhampton, West Midlands. ... Heath Town is a district of Wolverhampton which sprung up in the late 19th century, with many terraced houses being built in the shadow of factories near the main road to Lichfield. ... This article is about Crewe in England. ...


As soon as the station opened it was seen to be at a useful point to begin a branch line to the county town of Chester. A locomotive depot was built at the station, to serve the Chester line, and to provide banking engines to assist trains southwards from Crewe up the Madeley Incline, a modest gradient which was a challenge to the small engines of the day. Chester is the county town of Cheshire in the north-west of England, close to the border with Wales. ...


By 1841 the Chester line was seen as a starting point for a new trunk line to Holyhead, to provide the fastest route to Ireland, and the importance of Crewe as a junction station began to be established. This was given further endorsement when the Manchester and Birmingham Railway, a separate undertaking which had hoped to build a wholly independent line linking the two cities, shorter than the GJR, decided that it would be uneconomical to compete with that line over the greater part of its length, and decided to divert its own line to meet the GJR at Crewe. Teething squabbles between the companies delayed the running of through services for a while, and the M&B had to build a temporary station of their own, part of which survives today as an isolated platform next to the North Junction, at the start of the line to Manchester. 1841 is a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... A panoramic view of Holyhead taken from atop Holyhead Mountain, showing the harbours breakwater on the left Holyhead (Welsh: Caergybi, the fort of St. ... Manchester is a city in the north-west of England. ...


In 1842 the GJR decided to move its locomotive works from Edge Hill in Liverpool to Crewe, siting the works to the north of the junction between the Warrington and Chester lines. To house the workforce and company management the town of Crewe was built by the company to the north of the works. 1842 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Liverpool is a city and metropolitan borough on Merseyside in north west England, on the north side of the Mersey estuary. ...


In 1845 the GJR merged with the London and Birmingham and the Liverpool and Manchester railways to form the London and North Western Railway Company, which until its demise in 1923 was the largest company in the world. The new company extended the existing lines to Holyhead, the Warrington line to Lancaster and Carlisle, the Manchester line to Leeds, and built a new line to Shrewsbury to join the Shrewsbury and Hereford lines which provided connections to South Wales. The North Staffordshire railway built a line from Stoke, joining the LNWR from the South East. Crewe was therefore the centre of a wide-ranging railway network, and freight-handling facilities grew up to the south of the station. 1845 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... The London and North Western Railway (LNWR) was formed in 1846 by the merger of three railway companies - the Grand Junction Railway, London and Birmingham and Manchester and Birmingham. ... 1923 was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... Map sources for Shrewsbury at grid reference SJ4912 Porthill Bridge crossing the Severn at Shrewsbury Shrewsburys Old Market Hall and The Square Market Street, behind the Old Market Hall, with the Music Hall on the left Shrewsbury (pronounced both Shroozbury and Shrowzbury) is the county town of the county...


To cope with the increase of traffic, the station was rebuilt in 1861, the buildings facing each other on the present platforms 5 and 6 dating from this time. At the same time the works was extensively redeveloped and enlarged, and the town also considerably enlarged, under the leadership of John Ramsbottom, a Stockport man who had become Locomotive Superintendent for the whole company. Locomotive construction, hitherto divided with Wolverton (on the L&B) was concentrated at Crewe. Ramsbottom also built a steelworks, the first in the world to make large-scale use of the Bessemer process, as only the LNWR required enough steel to keep a Bessemer plant continuously occupied. He also introduced mass-production techniques, whereby as many parts as possible were identical between one engine and another. Bessemer Converter, Schematic Diagram The Bessemer process was the first inexpensive industrial process for the mass-production of steel from molten pig iron. ...


Ramsbottom retired in 1871 and was succeeded by the legendary Frank Webb, a colourful and controversial figure who was known as 'The Uncrowned King of Crewe'.


By the 1890s Crewe junctions had become so busy that a survey revealed 1,000 trains passing within a 24-hour period. Since half of these were freight trains which did not need to call at the station, the company decided to build a completely separate four-track railway line passing to the west of the station, joining the existing lines beyond the north and south junctions, burrowing beneath them and avoiding them completely. This huge undertaking also included a vast marshalling yard to the south of the station at Basford Hall, a revolutionary 'tranship shed' which allowed fast transfer of freight from wagons to road vehicles under cover, and the increase in the size of the passenger station by one-half again. A classification yard or marshalling yard (including hump yards) is a railroad yard found at some freight train stations, used to separate railroad cars on to one of several tracks. ...


In 1923 the LNWR became part of the London, Midland and Scottish railway group. Crewe remained the centre for locomotive construction. In 1938-39 the signal boxes at North and South Junctions were completely reconstructed as massive concrete structures to withstand air raids, and remained in use until the resignalling project in 1985 -- the North Junction signalbox can now be visited as part of the Crewe Heritage Centre. In 1948 the LMS was nationalised as British Railways London Midland Region. These changes had less effect on Crewe than the reduction in station use caused by the end of steam traction on Britain's railways. Trains did not need to stop to change locomotives, and many smaller branch lines had closed, which resulted in fewer trains terminating at Crewe. In 1985 the entire track layout was modernised, simplified and reduced, eliminating a vast array of points and crossings and allowing 80 mph running over the North Junction. At the same time all but one of the 1902 extension platforms were taken out of use. 1923 was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... The London, Midland and Scottish Railway (LMS1) was a British railway company. ... Logo of British Rail British Railways (BR), later rebranded as British Rail, ran the British railway system from the nationalisation of the Big Four British railway companies in 1948 until its privatisation in stages between 1994 and 1997. ... 1985 is a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Modern Main-Line Services


Preceding station National Rail Lines Following station
Warrington Bank Quay   Virgin Trains
(West Coast Main Line (Crewe to Scotland)
  Stafford
Runcorn   Virgin Trains
(West Coast Main Line (Crewe to Liverpool)
  Stafford
Wilmslow   Virgin Trains
(West Coast Main Line (Crewe to Manchester and Preston)
  Stafford
Chester   Virgin Trains
(West Coast Main Line (North Wales Coast Line)
  Stafford
Winsford   Central Trains
(West Coast Main Line (Liverpool to Birmingham)
  Stafford
Terminus   Central Trains
Crewe to Stoke-on-Trent, Derby, Nottingham, Skegness
  Alsager
Terminus   Northern Rail
Crewe to Manchester, Manchester Airport
  Sandbach


National Rail uses the BR double-arrow logo National Rail is a brand name describing the passenger rail service previously provided by British Rail, the now-defunct UK state-owned rail operator. ... Warrington Bank Quay is a mainline train station serving the U.K. town of Warrington. ... Virgin Trains is a train operating company in the United Kingdom. ... The WCML running alogside the M1 motorway in Northamptonshire The West Coast Main Line (WCML) is one of the most important intercity railway lines in the United Kingdom, part of the British railway system. ... Virgin Trains is a train operating company in the United Kingdom. ... The WCML running alogside the M1 motorway in Northamptonshire The West Coast Main Line (WCML) is one of the most important intercity railway lines in the United Kingdom, part of the British railway system. ... Virgin Trains is a train operating company in the United Kingdom. ... The WCML running alogside the M1 motorway in Northamptonshire The West Coast Main Line (WCML) is one of the most important intercity railway lines in the United Kingdom, part of the British railway system. ... Virgin Trains is a train operating company in the United Kingdom. ... The WCML running alogside the M1 motorway in Northamptonshire The West Coast Main Line (WCML) is one of the most important intercity railway lines in the United Kingdom, part of the British railway system. ... A Central Trains Class 158/0 unit Central Trains is a train operating company in the United Kingdom, running local and cross-country trains in central England. ... The WCML running alogside the M1 motorway in Northamptonshire The West Coast Main Line (WCML) is one of the most important intercity railway lines in the United Kingdom, part of the British railway system. ... A Central Trains Class 158/0 unit Central Trains is a train operating company in the United Kingdom, running local and cross-country trains in central England. ... Northern Rail is the new name of the passenger rail franchise operating local services in the North of England. ...


External links

  National Rail uses the BR double-arrow logo National Rail is a brand name describing the passenger rail service previously provided by British Rail, the now-defunct UK state-owned rail operator. ... Multimap. ...

UK railway stations:

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z Station Name Postcode External links to Map of station at MultiMap Code External links to livedepartureboards. ... Station Name Postcode External links to Map of station at MultiMap Code External links to livedepartureboards. ... Categories: British railway stations | Lists of places ... Station Name Postcode External links to Map of station at MultiMap Code External links to livedepartureboards. ... Station Name Postcode External links to Map of station at MultiMap Code External links to livedepartureboards. ... Station Name Postcode External links to Map of station at MultiMap Code External links to livedepartureboards. ... Station Name Postcode External links to Map of station at MultiMap Code External links to livedepartureboards. ... Station Name Postcode External links to Map of station at MultiMap Code External links to livedepartureboards. ... Categories: British railway stations | Lists of places ... Categories: British railway stations | Lists of places ... Categories: British railway stations | Lists of places ... Station Name Postcode External links to Map of station at MultiMap Code External links to livedepartureboards. ... Station Name Postcode External links to Map of station at MultiMap Code External links to livedepartureboards. ... Categories: British railway stations | Lists of places ... Categories: British railway stations | Lists of places ... Categories: British railway stations | Lists of places ... Categories: British railway stations | Lists of places ... Station Name Postcode External links to Map of station at MultiMap Code External links to livedepartureboards. ... Categories: British railway stations | Lists of places ... Station Name Postcode External links to Map of station at MultiMap Code External links to livedepartureboards. ... Categories: British railway stations | Lists of places ... Categories: British railway stations | Lists of places ... Station Name Postcode External links to Map of station at MultiMap Code External links to livedepartureboards. ... Categories: British railway stations | Lists of places ...


 
 

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