FACTOID # 22: South Dakota has the highest employment ratio in America, but the lowest median earnings of full-time male employees.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
RELATED ARTICLES
People who viewed "Cretinism" also viewed:
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Cretinism

This article is about the medical term. For the Marxist political concept, see Parliamentary cretinism Parliamentary cretinism is a term originally coined by Karl Marx in chapter five of his Eighteenth Brumaire of Louis Bonaparte[1], published in 1852 following Louis Napoleons coup détat in France. ...

Congenital iodine-deficiency syndrome
Classification & external resources
ICD-10 E00.
ICD-9 243
DiseasesDB 6612
eMedicine ped/501 
MeSH C05.116.099.343.347

Cretinism is a condition of severely stunted physical and mental growth due to untreated congenital deficiency of thyroid hormones (hypothyroidism). The term cretin refers to a person so affected and is no longer considered to be politically correct nomenclature. The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (most commonly known by the abbreviation ICD) provides codes to classify diseases and a wide variety of signs, symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances and external causes of injury or disease. ... The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems 10th Revision (ICD-10) is a coding of diseases and signs, symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances and external causes of injury or diseases, as classified by the World Health Organization (WHO). ... // E00-E35 - Endocrine diseases (E00-E07) Disorders of thyroid gland (E00) Congenital iodine-deficiency syndrome (E01) Iodine-deficiency-related thyroid disorders and allied conditions (E02) Subclinical iodine-deficiency hypothyroidism (E03) Other hypothyroidism (E030) Congenital hypothyroidism with diffuse goitre (E031) Congenital hypothyroidism without goitre (E032) Hypothyroidism due to medicaments and other... The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (most commonly known by the abbreviation ICD) provides codes to classify diseases and a wide variety of signs, symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances and external causes of injury or disease. ... The following is a list of codes for International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems. ... The Disease Bold textDatabase is a free website that provides information about the relationships between medical conditions, symptoms, and medications. ... eMedicine is an online clinical medical knowledge base that was founded in 1996. ... Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) is a huge controlled vocabulary (or metadata system) for the purpose of indexing journal articles and books in the life sciences. ... A congenital disorder is any medical condition that is present at birth. ... For other uses, see Hormone (disambiguation). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...

Contents

Etymology and usage of the term

The term cretin was brought into medical use in the 18th century from an Alpine French dialect prevalent in a region where persons with such a condition were especially common (see below). It was used widely as a medical term in the 19th and early 20th centuries, but in recent decades has spread more widely in popular English as a markedly derogatory term for a person who exhibits stupid behaviour. Because of its pejorative connotations in popular speech, the term has been largely abandoned by physicians and health care workers.


The etymology of the word cretin is not known with certainty. Several hypotheses have been proposed. The most common derivation provided in English dictionaries is from the Alpine French dialect pronunciation of the word Chretien - (a) Christian, which functioned as a form of greeting in those parts. According to the Oxford English Dictionary, the translation of the Latin term into "human creature" implies that the label "Christian" is a reminder of the humanity of the afflicted, in contrast to brute beasts [1]. Other sources have suggested "Christian" refers to the "Christ-like" inability of such a person to commit sin, because of an incapacity to distinguish right from wrong [2]. For other uses, see Christian (disambiguation). ... The Oxford English Dictionary print set The Oxford English Dictionary (OED) is a dictionary published by the Oxford University Press (OUP), and is the most successful dictionary of the English language, (not to be confused with the one-volume Oxford Dictionary of English, formerly New Oxford Dictionary of English, of...


Other speculative etymologies have been offered:

  1. From creta, Latin for chalk, because of the pallor of those affected.
  2. From cretira, Grisson-Romance creature, from Latin creatus.
  3. From cretine, French for alluvium (soil deposited by flowing water), an allusion to the suspected origin from inadequate soil.[3]

Sporadic Cretinism due to congenital hypothyroidism

Congenital hypothyroidism can be endemic, genetic, or sporadic. If untreated, it results in mild to severe impairment of both physical and mental growth and development. Congenital hypothyroidism (CHT) is a condition of thyroid hormone deficiency present at birth. ...


Poor length growth is apparent as early as the first year of life. Adult stature without treatment ranges from 1 to 1.6 meters, depending on severity, sex and other genetic factors. Bone maturation and puberty are severely delayed. Ovulation is impeded and infertility common. Bone age is a way of describing the degree of maturation of a childs bones. ... Puberty refers to the process of physical changes by which a childs body becomes an adult body capable of reproduction. ... Ovulation is the process in the menstrual cycle by which a mature ovarian follicle ruptures and discharges an ovum (also known as an oocyte, female gamete, or casually, an egg) that participates in reproduction. ... Infertility primarily refers to the biological inability of a man or a woman to contribute to conception. ...


Neurological impairment may be mild, with reduced muscle tone and coordination, or so severe that the person cannot stand or walk. Cognitive impairment may also range from mild to so severe that the person is nonverbal and dependent on others for basic care. Thought and reflexes are slower.


Other signs may include thickened skin and a protruding abdomen.


Sporadic and genetic cretinism results from abnormal development or function of the fetal thyroid gland. This type of cretinism has been almost completely eliminated in developed countries by early diagnosis by newborn screening programs followed by lifelong treatment with thyroxine or T4. Newborn screening is the process of testing newborn babies for treatable genetic, endocrinologic, metabolic and hematologic diseases. ... Thyroxine, or 3:5,3:5 tetra­iodothyronine (often abbreviated as T4) is the major hormone secreted by the follicular cells of the thyroid gland. ...


Thyroxine must be dosed to as tablets only, even to newborns, as the liquid oral suspensions and compounded forms cannot be depended on for reliable dosing. In the case of dosing infants, the T4 tablets are generally crushed and mixed with breast milk, formula or water. The medication should not be mixed with any formulas containing iron or soy as these substances may alter the bioavailability of thyroid hormone from the gut. Frequent monitoring (every 2-3 weeks during the first months of life) is recommended to ensure that infants with congenital hypothyroidism remain within the high end of normal range, or euthyroid. Thyroxine, or 3:5,3:5 tetra­iodothyronine (often abbreviated as T4) is the major hormone secreted by the follicular cells of the thyroid gland. ... The state of having normal thyroid gland function. ...


Endemic Cretinism and Iodine Deficiency

Endemic cretinism arises from a diet deficient in iodine and has affected far more people worldwide and continues to be a major public health problem in many countries. Iodine is an essential trace element, necessary primarily for the synthesis of thyroid hormones. Although it is found in many foods it is not universally present in all soils in adequate amounts. The soils of many inland areas on all continents are iodine deficient, and plants and animals grown there are correspondingly deficient. Populations living in those areas without outside food sources are most at risk for iodine deficiency diseases.[4] For other uses, see Iodine (disambiguation). ... Public health is concerned with threats to the overall health of a community based on population health analysis. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Iodine deficiency results in the impairments of varying degrees of physical and mental development. It also causes gradual enlargement of the thyroid gland, referred to as a Goitre. It is being combatted in many countries by public health campaigns of iodine administration. A goitre (BrE), or goiter (AmE) (Latin struma), also called a bronchocele, is a swelling in the neck (just below Adams apple or larynx) due to an enlarged thyroid gland. ...


History

Endemic cretinism was especially common in areas of southern Europe around the Alps and was described by Roman writers, and often depicted by medieval artists. Alpine cretinism was described from a medical perspective by several travellers and physicians in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. At that time the cause was not known and it was often attributed to "stagnant air" in mountain valleys or "bad water". The proportion of people affected varied markedly throughout southern Europe and even within very small areas it might be common in one valley and not another. The number of severely affected persons was always a minority and most persons affected by cretinism to the extent of having a goiter and some degree of reduced cognition and growth were still socially functional in their pastoral villages.


More mildly affected areas of Europe and North America in the 19th century were referred to as "goiter belts". The degree of iodine deficiency was milder and manifested primarily as thyroid enlargement rather than severe mental and physical impairment. In Switzerland, for example, where soil is poor in iodine, the cases of cretinism were very abundant and even were considered to be genetically caused. As the variety of food sources dramatically increased in Europe and North America and the populations became less completely dependent on locally grown food, the prevalence of endemic goiter diminished.


In the early 20th century the relationships of sporadic cretinism with congenital hypothyroidism, and endemic cretinism with hypothyroidism due to iodine deficiency were discovered and both have been largely eliminated in the developed world.


See also

Congenital hypothyroidism (CHT) is a condition of thyroid hormone deficiency present at birth. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...

References

  1. ^ "cretin". Oxford English Dictionary. Retrieved on 2005-12-11.
  2. ^ Brockett, Linus P (Feb 1858). Cretins And Idiots. The Atlantic Monthly. Retrieved on 2005-12-11.
  3. ^ Medvei, VC (1993). The History of Clinical Endocrinology. Pearl River, New York: Parthenon Publishing Group. 
  4. ^ Epidemiology of Iodine Deficiency; Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism 3(5), 170-175, 1992

Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... December 11 is the 345th day of the year (346th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Atlantic redirects here; for the ocean, see Atlantic Ocean. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... December 11 is the 345th day of the year (346th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

  • Network for Sustained Elimination of Iodine Deficiency

  Results from FactBites:
 
Cretinism - MSN Encarta (252 words)
Cretinism, deficiency disease caused by congenital absence of thyroxine, a hormone secreted by the thyroid gland, and characterized by defective mental and physical development.
Treatment of adult cretins with thyroxine or thyroid extract results in some improvement; early treatment in infancy results in cure of the disease and normal development of the individual, provided the treatment is continued throughout life.
Endemic cretinism is found associated with goiter throughout the world, especially in certain valleys of the Alps and Pyrenees Mountains, and in Syria, India, and China.
Cretinism - LoveToKnow 1911 (1239 words)
CRETINISM, the term given to a chronic disease, either sporadic or endemic, arising in early childhood, and due to absence or deficiency of the normal secretion of the thyroid gland.
The endemic form of cretinism prevails in certain districts, as in the valleys of central Switzerland, Tirol and the Pyrenees.
In Scotland cretins and cases of goitre have been seen in Perthshire, on the east coast of Fife, in Roxburgh, the upper portions of Peebles and Selkirk, near Lanark and Dumfries, in the east of Ayrshire, in the west of Berwick, the east of Wigtown, and in Kirkcudbright.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m