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Encyclopedia > Creole peoples

The term Creole and its cognates in other languages — such as crioulo, criollo, créole, kriolu, criol, kreyol, kriulo, kriol, krio, etc. — have been applied to people in different countries and epochs, with rather different meanings. Look up cognate in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Those terms are almost always used in the general area of present or former colonies in other continents, and originally referred to locally-born people with foreign ancestry. It has been suggested that Benign colonialism be merged into this article or section. ...

Contents

Creoles in Africa

The English word creole derives from the French créole, which in turn came from Portuguese crioulo. This word, a derivative of the verb criar ("to raise"), was coined in the 15th century, in the trading and military outposts established by Portugal in West Africa and Cape Verde. It was originally applied to descendants of the Portuguese settlers who were born and "raised" locally. The word then spread to other languages, probably by the Portuguese slave traders who supplied most of the slaves to South America through the 16th century. The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ...


While the Portuguese may have originally reserved the term crioulo to people of strictly European descent, the crioulo population eventually came to be dominated by people of mixed Portuguese and African ancestry. This mixing happened relatively quickly in most Portuguese colonies of the time, due to the scarcity of Portuguese-born women in the settlements, and to a Portuguese Crown policy of encouraging mixed marriages in the colonies.


These crioulos of mixed Portuguese and African descent eventually gave rise to several major ethnic groups in Africa, especially in Cape Verde, Guinea-Bissau, São Tomé e Príncipe, Ziguinchor (Casamance), Angola, Mozambique. However, only a few of these groups have retained the name Crioulo or variations of it: Ziguinchor (from Portuguese Cheguei e choram, I came and they Cry) is the capital of the Casamance region of Senegal, lying on the Casamance River. ... The flag of the Democratic Forces Movement of Casamance was adopted in 1988. ...

Cape Verdean Creole is a language spoken on the islands of Cape Verde. ... Cape Verdean Creole is a language spoken on the islands of Cape Verde. ...

Other Native African Creoles

  • Equatorial Guinea: Arguably Los Fernandinos, also known as Emancipados, were those of native Bubi and Spanish ancestry. It wasn't uncommon for offspring of such unions to be accepted into the indigenous tribe; however, Los Fernandinos were later encouraged to collectively settle in Annobón as well as the Canary Islands, forming their own societies.
It's also purported that a new wave of Creole immigrant descendants of freed slaves of Sierra Leone and Liberia are known as Fernandinos.
  • In Sierra Leone there is the Krio ethnic group whose ancestors were freed slaves from the United States, Canada, the British West Indies and various parts of West Africa. Their offspring (born in the Freetown colony) came to be known as Creoles or its cognate Krio. Some of these Krios or creoles were also of mixed ancestry. Many Krio immigrated into other African countries, like Equatorial Guinea where they are known as Kriollos.

Image:Annobon island. ... Anthem: Arrorró Capital Las Palmas de Gran Canaria and Santa Cruz de Tenerife Official language(s) Spanish Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 13th  7,447 km²  1. ... Krio is a diverse, mainly Christian culture founded by freed African slaves from Britain, Northern America and Jamaica who settled in Freetown in the late 18th century. ... Wiktionary has related dictionary definitions, such as: slave Slave may refer to: Slavery, where people are owned by others, and live to serve their owners without pay Slave (BDSM), a form of sexual and consenual submission Slave clock, in technology, a clock or timer that synchrnonizes to a master clock... Roadtown, Tortola The term British West Indies refers to territories in and around the Caribbean which were colonised by Great Britain. ...  Western Africa (UN subregion)  Maghreb[1] West Africa or Western Africa is the westernmost region of the African continent. ... Freetown, population 1,070,200 (2004), is the capital and largest city of Sierra Leone. ... This article is about a type of political territory. ...

Spanish American Criollos

In Spanish-speaking Latin America, the word criollo (cognate and closest equivalent of English Creole) generally refers to people of unmixed European (typically Spanish) descent born in the New World. According to the Spanish American caste system, people with European and indigenous origin who possessed 1/8th or less of Amerindian ancestry, were also considered criollos (unlike people with mainly European and some black African ancestry, who were deemed to be mulatto or mixed-raced). In any case, the expression Spanish American criollo is only applicable to people born in the New World. In the Spanish colonial caste system (castas), a criollo was a person of unmixed Spanish ancestry born in the colonies. ... Latin America consists of the countries of South America and some of North America (including Central America and some the islands of the Caribbean) whose inhabitants mostly speak Romance languages, although Native American languages are also spoken. ... The European peoples are the various nations and ethnic groups of Europe. ... Frontispiece of Peter Martyr dAnghieras De orbe novo (On the New World). Carte dAmérique, Guillaume Delisle, 1722. ... The word Caste is derived from the Portuguese word casta, meaning lineage, breed or race. ... Native Americans redirects here. ... Native Americans (also Indians, Aboriginal Peoples, American Indians, First Nations, Alaskan Natives, or Indigenous Peoples of America) are the indigenous inhabitants of The Americas prior to the European colonization, and their modern descendants. ... A Masai man in Kenya Black people or blacks is a political, social or cultural classification of people. ... Mulatto (Spanish mulato, small mule, person of mixed race, mulatto, from mulo, mule, from Old Spanish, from Latin mūlus. ...


Throughout the colonial period, a caste system was effectively in force, where the local-born criollos ranked strictly lower than governing peninsulares ("born in the Iberian Peninsula"), despite both being of European ancestry. By the 19th century, this discrimination eventually led the criollo to rebel against the Spanish rule. With the support of the even lower classes — castizos, mestizos, cholos, mulattos, amerindians, zambos, and ultimately blacks — they engaged Spain in the Mexican War of Independence (1810–1821) and the South American Wars of Independence (1810–1826), which ended with the break-up of former Spanish Empire in America into a number of independent republics. The Spanish colonization of the Americas began with the arrival in the Western Hemisphere of Christopher Columbus (Cristóbal Colón) in 1492. ... The word Caste is derived from the Portuguese word casta, meaning lineage, breed or race. ... The Iberian Peninsula, or Iberia, is located in the extreme southwest of Europe, and includes modern day Spain, Portugal, Andorra and Gibraltar. ... Castizo is a Spanish word with a general meaning of genuine. It has other more concrete meanings. ... Languages Predominantly Spanish, (with a minority of other languages), while Mestizos speaks Portuguese Religions Christianity (Predominantly Roman Catholic, with a minority of Protestant and other Religions) Related ethnic groups Other Spanish people, Italian people, French people, Portuguese people, Amerindian, African people, Austronesian people, Hispanics and Latinos Mestizo (Portuguese, Mestiço... For the Choloa language, see Emberá languages. ... Mulatto (Spanish mulato, small mule, person of mixed race, mulatto, from mulo, mule, from Old Spanish, from Latin mÅ«lus. ... Native Americans (also Indians, Aboriginal Peoples, American Indians, First Nations, Alaskan Natives, or Indigenous Peoples of America) are the indigenous inhabitants of The Americas prior to the European colonization, and their modern descendants. ... A representation of Zambos in Pintura de Castas during the Latin American colonial period. ... Look up black in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Combatants Mexico Spain Commanders Miguel Hidalgo José María Morelos Vicente Guerrero Spanish colonial authorities Strength  ?  ? Casualties  ?  ? Mexican War of Independence (1810-1821), was an armed conflict between the people of Mexico and Spanish colonial authorities, which started on September 16, 1810. ... The South American Wars of Independence were waged in South America during the 1810s and 1820s in an effort to liberate the American colonies of Spain and Portugal from colonial rule. ...


Brazilian Crioulos

In Brazil, the word crioulo came to mean dark skinned person, that is, a person of predominantly African ancestry. In the Colony it was common to refer to a slave born in Brazil as a "crioulo" and to a slave from Africa as an "African".So the word "crioulo" in Brazil was not more used to people of European descent born and raised there, but instead used to slaves born and raised in Brazil. Later, the word "crioulo" would refer to all people of African ancestry.


African slaves were imported into the country from the 17th century until the first half of the 19th century. Due to their multiple ethnic roots and to the extension of the country, the Brazilian slaves and their descendants did not constitute a cohesive ethnic group. On the other hand, as in the Portuguese colonies in Africa, people of mixed Portuguese and African ancestry soon came to constitute a large segment of the population, in which there were no sharp class divisions based on degrees of "Africaness".


As a consequence, the term crioulo never became the name of an ethnic group. Instead it became simply a racial label, that is now considered highly offensive — roughly with the same connotations that nigger has in the US. // Nigger is a racial slur used to refer to dark-skinned people, especially those of African ancestry. ... Motto: (Out Of Many, One) (traditional) In God We Trust (1956 to date) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington D.C. Largest city New York City None at federal level (English de facto) Government Federal constitutional republic  - President George Walker Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence from...


Philippine Criollos (Insulares)

During the colonial era of the Philippines, the Spanish term criollo was used with the same sense as Spanish America, namely, in reference to a person born in the Philippines with wholly Spanish ancestry. However, the term was not widely used, and instead were more commonly called insulares ("from the islands"), to contrast them with the higher-ranking peninsulares born on the Iberian Peninsula. However, the most common term was Filipinos ("from the Philippines"). The Iberian Peninsula, or Iberia, is located in the extreme southwest of Europe, and includes modern day Spain, Portugal, Andorra and Gibraltar. ...


The meaning of Filipino changed drastically during the Philippine Revolution. It was adopted by nationalist movements and transformed into a national designation that encompassed the entire population of the Philippines, especially the descendants of the native Austronesian peoples. In fact, the meaning of Filipino today is the opposite of its colonial meaning, since it tends to include the mestizos of mixed Spanish descent, who are seen as foreigners; as well as the non-mixed criollos. Combatants Filipino independence movement Spanish Empire Commanders Andres Bonifacio, Emilio Aguinaldo Spanish Governor-General of the Philippines Strength 80,000 soldiers unknown Casualties unknown unknown The Philippine Revolution (1896—1898) was an armed conflict between the Spanish colonial regime and the Katipunan, which sought Philippine independence from Spain. ...


Louisiana Creoles

In the United States, the word "Creole" usually refers to people of any race or mixture thereof who are descended from settlers in colonial French Louisiana before it became part of the United States in 1803 with the Louisiana Purchase. Some writers from other parts of the country have mistakenly assumed the term to refer only to people of mixed racial descent, but this is not the traditional Louisiana usage. It is now accepted that Creoles form a broad cultural group of people of all races who share a French or Spanish background. Louisianans who identify themselves as "Creole" are most commonly from historically Francophone communities with some ancestors who came to Louisiana either directly from France or via the French colonies in the Caribbean. (Those descended from the Acadians of French Canada usually identify as Cajuns, rather than Creoles.) The term is also often used to mean simply "pertaining to New Orleans". The general perception of a Creole is usually of an olive toned individual and has been connoted more recently to be a person with strong African-American consanguine relations. While this is true for a number of the Creole population, not all have these ties and many are White New Orleanians or Whites in Southeast Louisiana. Others show a range of races native to post and pre-colonial settlement of Louisiana, notably Native American. This article is about an ethnic culture in Louisiana, USA. For uses of the term Creole in other countries and cultures, see Creole (disambiguation). ... Louisiana sold in 1803 by Napoléon to USA, which was a portion of the historical extent of French Louisiana Louisiana (French language: La Louisiane) was the name of an administrative district of New France in the 17th and 18th centuries. ... 1803 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... For the musical, see Louisiana Purchase (musical) and Louisiana Purchase (film). ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... French (français, langue française) is one of the most important Romance languages, outnumbered in speakers only by Spanish and Portuguese. ... “West Indian” redirects here. ... The Acadians (French: Acadiens) are the descendants of the 17th-century French colonists (and eventual Metis) who settled in Acadia (located on the northern portion of North Americas east coast). ... Cajuns are an ethnic group mainly living in Louisiana, consisting of the descendants of Acadian exiles and peoples of other ethnicities with whom the Acadians eventually intermarried on the semitropical frontier. ... New Orleans is the largest city in the state of Louisiana, United States of America. ...


Alaska Creoles

People of mixed Native American (especially Alaskan) and European (esp. Russian) ancestry. The intermingling of promyshleniki men and Aleut women in the late 18th century gave rise to a people who assumed a prominent position in the economy of fur trading in the northern Pacific. This article is about the people indigenous to the United States. ... Official language(s) English[1] Spoken language(s) English 85. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... Languages English, Russian, Aleut Religions Christianity, Shamanism Related ethnic groups Inuit, Yupik The Aleuts (self-denomination: , Unangan or Unanga) are the indigenous people of the Aleutian Islands of Alaska, United States and Kamchatka Krai, Russia. ... For other meanings of Pacific, see Pacific (disambiguation). ...


Caribbean Creoles

In the Caribbean region, the term Creole is sometimes used to describe anyone, regardless of race or ethnicity, who was born and raised in the region. It is sometimes used to refer to persons of European, African, or mixed Afro-European descent, in contradistinction to other ethnicities such as East Indians in Trinidad and Guyana, Afro-Portuguese in Barbados or Mestizos in Belize. It also refers to the syncretism of the various cultures (African, French, British and Spanish among others) which influenced the area. This is also referred to as the creolization of society "due to its ability to suggest some of the complex sociocultural issues also involved in the process" (Manuel, p. 14). Creole, 'Kreyol' or 'Kweyol' also refers to languages in the Caribbean that are derived from a fusion of African and European languages, dialects and syntax. “West Indian” redirects here. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... World map showing location of Africa A satellite composite image of Africa Africa is the worlds second_largest continent in both area and population, after Asia. ...


Indian Ocean Creoles

In Mauritius, in the Indian ocean, the term denotes someone whose ancestry is so mixed that they don't belong to the other categories (small white, big white, Indian, Chinese, and so on).[original research?]


In Reunion island, creole is a more inclusive term that denotes all those born on the island. Réunion is an island and overseas département (département doutre-mer, or DOM) of France, located in the Indian Ocean east of Madagascar, about 200 km southwest of Mauritius. ...


See also

The creole elites were inhabitants of the colonies established by Spain and Portugal in Iberian peninsula. ... Kriolu, also known as Crioulo, are Creole languages based on Portuguese. ... Criollo is a Spanish term (feminine criolla, plural criollos/criollas) which may refer to: The Criollos, a caste in the Spanish colonial caste system. ... The Cape Verdean Crioulo is a dialect continuum spoken on the islands of Cape Verde, whose extremes lie at the islands of Santiago and that of Santo Antão. ... Krio is a language spoken in Sierra Leone. ... Kriol is an Australian creole which developed out of the contact between European settlers and Indigenous people in the northern regions of Australia. ... Haitian Creole (Kreyòl ayisyen) is a creole language based on the French language. ... Languages Predominantly Spanish, (with a minority of other languages), while Mestizos speaks Portuguese Religions Christianity (Predominantly Roman Catholic, with a minority of Protestant and other Religions) Related ethnic groups Other Spanish people, Italian people, French people, Portuguese people, Amerindian, African people, Austronesian people, Hispanics and Latinos Mestizo (Portuguese, Mestiço... The Kristang or Cristão people are an ethnic group of people, mostly in Malacca (Malaysia) and Singapore. ... This is a list of terms for multiraciality used worldwide for people of various types, kinds and degrees of multiracial backgrounds. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Louisiana Creole people - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (492 words)
Louisiana Creole refers to people of any race or mixture thereof who are descended from settlers in colonial French Louisiana before it became part of the United States in 1803 with the Louisiana Purchase, or to the culture and Creole cuisine typical of these people.
Creole is now accepted as a broad cultural group of people of all races who share a French or Spanish background.
Louisianans who identify themselves as "Creole" are most commonly from historically Francophone communities with some ancestors who came to Louisiana either directly from France or via the French colonies in the Caribbean; those descended from the Acadians of French Canada are more likely to identify themselves as Cajun than Creole.
Creole Translations (1564 words)
Creole is a language spoken by the entire population of Haiti (estimated at seven million people).
Unfortunately article 5 of the 1987 constitution proclaiming that Creole is the sole language uniting all Haitians and one of the two official languages of the country is not yet seriously implemented in government offices.
But this is not due to the Creole language itself, but to a long tradition of violation of human and constitutional rights of farmers, workers, ordinary people, women, children, poor people etc...
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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