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Encyclopedia > Creek people
Creek
Total population

50,000-60,000

Regions with significant populations
United States (Oklahoma, Alabama)
Language(s)
English, Creek
Religion(s)
Protestantism, other
Related ethnic groups
Muskogean peoples: Alabama, Chickasaw, Choctaw, Coushatta, Miccosukee, Seminole

The Creek are an American Indian people originally from the southeastern United States, also known by their original name Muscogee (or Muskogee), the name they use to identify themselves today.[1] Mvskoke is their name in traditional spelling. Modern Muscogees live primarily in Oklahoma, Alabama, Georgia, and Florida. Their language, Mvskoke, is a member of the Creek branch of the Muskogean language family. The Seminole are close kin to the Muscogee and speak a Creek language as well. The Creeks are one of the Five Civilized Tribes. Official language(s) None Capital Oklahoma City Largest city Oklahoma City Largest metro area Oklahoma City metro area Area  Ranked 20th  - Total 69,898 sq mi (181,196 km²)  - Width 230 miles (370 km)  - Length 298 miles (480 km)  - % water 1. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... The Creek language, also known as Muscogee (Mvskoke in Creek), is a Muskogean language spoken by the Muscogee (Creek) Nation and Seminole Indians in Florida and Oklahoma. ... Protestantism encompasses the forms of Christian faith and practice that originated with the doctrines of the Reformation. ... Pre-contact distribution of Muskogean languages Muskogean (also Muskhogean, Muskogee) is a language family of the Southeastern United States. ... Alabama-Coushatta Reservation welcome sign The Alabama or Alibamu (Albaamaha in the Alabama language) are a Southeastern culture people of Native Americans. ... For other uses, see Chickasaw (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Choctaw (disambiguation). ... The Coushatta (also Koasati) are a Native American people living primarily in the U.S. state of Louisiana. ... --Magicmonster 18:19, 14 August 2005 (UTC) Categories: Possible copyright violations ... For other uses, see Seminole (disambiguation). ... A Sioux in traditional dress including war bonnet, circa 1908. ... Official language(s) None Capital Oklahoma City Largest city Oklahoma City Largest metro area Oklahoma City metro area Area  Ranked 20th  - Total 69,898 sq mi (181,196 km²)  - Width 230 miles (370 km)  - Length 298 miles (480 km)  - % water 1. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... Official language(s) English Capital Tallahassee Largest city Jacksonville Largest metro area Miami metropolitan area Area  Ranked 22nd  - Total 65,795[1] sq mi (170,304[1] km²)  - Width 361 miles (582 km)  - Length 447 miles (721 km)  - % water 17. ... The Creek language, also known as Muscogee (Mvskoke in Creek), is a Muskogean language spoken by the Muscogee (Creek) Nation and Seminole Indians in Florida and Oklahoma. ... Pre-contact distribution of Muskogean languages Muskogean (also Muskhogean, Muskogee) is a language family of the Southeastern United States. ... The Seminole are a Native American Indian people of Florida. ... The Five Civilized Tribes is the term applied to five Native American nations, the Cherokee, Chickasaw, Choctaw, Creek, and Seminole, considered civilized by white Anais because they had adopted many of the colonists customs (including the ownership of plantations and black slaves) and had generally good relations with their neighbors. ...

Contents

Early history

The early historic Creeks were probably descendants of the mound builders of the Mississippian culture along the Tennessee River in modern Tennessee[2] and Alabama, and possibly related to the Utinahica of southern Georgia. More of a loose confederacy than a single tribe, the Muscogee lived in autonomous villages in river valleys throughout what are today the states of Tennessee, Georgia, and Alabama and consisted of many ethnic groups speaking several distinct languages, such as the Hitchiti, Alabama, and Coushatta. Those who lived along the Ocmulgee River were called "Creek Indians" by British traders from South Carolina; eventually the name was applied to all of the various natives of Creek towns becoming increasingly divided between the Lower Towns of the Georgia frontier on the Chattahoochee River, Ocmulgee River, and Flint River and the Upper Towns of the Alabama River Valley. The Lower Towns included Coweta, Cusseta (Kasihta, Cofitachiqui), Upper Chehaw (Chiaha), Hitchiti, Oconee, Ocmulgee, Okawaigi, Apalachee, Yamasee (Altamaha), Ocfuskee, Sawokli, and Tamali. The Upper Towns included Tuckabatchee, Abhika, Coosa (Kusa; the dominant people of East Tennessee and North Georgia during the Spanish explorations), Itawa (original inhabitants of the Etowah Indian Mounds), Hothliwahi (Ullibahali), Hilibi, Eufaula, Wakokai, Atasi, Alibamu, Coushatta (Koasati; they had absorbed the Kaski/Casqui and the Tali), and Tuskegee ("Napochi" in the de Luna chronicles). The Mississippian culture was a mound-building Native American culture that flourished in the Midwestern, Eastern, and Southeastern United States from approximately 900 to 1500 CE, varying regionally. ... A riverboat passing under the Henley Street Bridge on the Tennessee River. ... Official language(s) English Capital Nashville Largest city Memphis Largest metro area Nashville Metropolitan Area Area  Ranked 36th  - Total 42,169 sq mi (109,247 km²)  - Width 120 miles (195 km)  - Length 440 miles (710 km)  - % water 2. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... The Utinahica were a tribe of American Indians living, in the 17th century, in what would someday be known as Georgia, in the southern United States. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Alabama-Coushatta Reservation welcome sign The Alabama or Alibamu (Albaamaha in the Alabama language) are a Southeastern culture people of Native Americans. ... The Coushatta (also Koasati) are a Native American people living primarily in the U.S. state of Louisiana. ... The Ocmulgee River near Macon The Ocmulgee River (ok-MUHL-gee) is a tributary of the Altamaha River, approximately 255 mi (410 km) long, in the U.S. state of Georgia. ... Official language(s) English Capital Charleston(1670-1789) Columbia(1790-present) Largest city Columbia Largest metro area Columbia Area  Ranked 40th  - Total 34,726 sq mi (82,965 km²)  - Width 200 miles (320 km)  - Length 260 miles (420 km)  - % water 6  - Latitude 32° 2′ N to 35° 13′ N  - Longitude... Map of the Apalachicola River system with the Chattahoochee highlighted. ... The Flint River is an approximately 150 mi (240 km) long river, in the U.S. state of Georgia. ... The Alabama River at Montgomery in 2004 The Alabama River, in the U.S. state of Alabama, is formed by the Tallapoosa and Coosa rivers, which unite about six miles above Montgomery. ... The Coosa River is the major tributary when it joins the Tallapoosa River near Wetumpka, Alabama to form the Alabama River. ... East Tennessee is a name given to approximately the eastern third of the state of Tennessee. ... The mountainous northern region of the State of Georgia; inahabited formerly by the Cherokee, the counties that comprise North Georgia have experience fully every episode in the history of the State, northwest Georgia being the site of several major battles in the War Between the States, such as Chickamauga and... The Etowah Indian Mounds is an archeological site in Bartow County, Georgia south of Cartersville, Georgia in the United States. ...


Cusseta (Kasihta) and Coweta are the two principal towns of the Creek Nation to this day. Traditionally the Cusseta and Coweta bands are considered the earliest members of the Creek Nation.[3]


Revolutionary era

Like many Native American groups east of the Mississippi D Banna And Lil Wizzyana River, the Creeks were divided over which side to take in the American Revolutionary War. The Lower Creeks remained neutral; the Upper Creeks allied with the British and fought the colonial rebels. This article is about military actions only. ...

This sketch by John Trumbull shows Creek leader Hopothle Mico, probably at the time of the signing of the Treaty of New York in 1790. (more)

After the rebellion officially ended in 1783, the Creeks discovered Great Britain had ceded Creek lands to the new United States. The State of Georgia began to expand into Creek territory. Creek statesman Alexander McGillivray rose to prominence as he organized pan-Indian resistance to this encroachment and received arms from the Spanish in Florida to fight trespassing Georgians. McGillivray worked to create a sense of Creek nationalism and to centralize Creek authority, struggling against village leaders who individually sold land to the United States. With the Treaty of New York in 1790, McGillivray ceded a significant portion of Creek lands to the United States under the administration of George Washington in exchange for federal recognition of Creek sovereignty within the remaining territory. However, McGillivray died in 1793 and Georgia continued to expand into Creek territory. Image File history File links AMcgillvray. ... Image File history File links AMcgillvray. ... This article is about the American painter. ... The Treaty of New york was a treaty, signed in 1790 between leaders of the Native American Creek people, and Henry Knox, then Secretary of War for the United States. ... Alexander McGillivray (1750 – 17 February 1793) was a leader of the Creek (Muscogee) Indians during and after the American Revolution who worked to establish a Creek national identity and centralized leadership as a means of resisting American expansion onto Creek territory. ... Spanish Florida (Florida Española) refers to the Spanish colony of Florida. ... The Treaty of New york was a treaty, signed in 1790 between leaders of the Native American Creek people, and Henry Knox, then Secretary of War for the United States. ... George Washington (February 22, 1732 – December 14, 1799)[1] led Americas Continental Army to victory over Britain in the American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), and in 1789 was elected the first President of the United States of America. ...


Red Stick War

The Creek War of 1813-1814, also known as the Red Stick War, began as a civil war within the Creek Nation, only to become enmeshed within the War of 1812. Inspired by the fiery eloquence of the Shawnee leader Tecumseh and their own religious leaders, Creeks from the Upper Towns, known to the Americans as Red Sticks, sought to aggressively resist white immigration and the "civilizing programs" administered by U.S. Indian Agent Benjamin Hawkins. Red Stick leaders William Weatherford (Red Eagle), Peter McQueen and Menawa violently clashed with the Lower Creeks led by William McIntosh, who were allied with the Americans. Combatants United States Lower Creeks Cherokees Red Sticks (Creek Indians) Commanders Andrew Jackson John Coffee William McIntosh William Weatherford Menawa Peter McQueen Strength 7,000 4,000 Casualties 500 Settlers 125 Soldiers 1,900 The Creek War (1813–1814), also known as the Red Stick War and the Creek Civil... A civil war is a war in which parties within the same culture, society or nationality fight against each other for the control of political power. ... This article is about the U.S. – U.K. war. ... This article is about the Native American tribe. ... This 1848 drawing of Tecumseh was based on a sketch done from life in 1808. ... Red Sticks is the English term for a faction of Creek Indians (known as mvskoke in the language). ... Sen. ... William Red Eagle Weatherford, (1780 – March 24, 1824), was a Creek (Muscogee) Indian who led the Creek War offensive against the United States. ... Peter McQueen ca. ... Menawas portrait was painted by Charles Bird King when Menawa visited Washington, D.C. in 1826 to protest the Treaty of Indian Springs. ... William McIntosh William McIntosh (1775-1825), also known as White Warrior, was the son of Captain William McIntosh, a member of a prominent Savannah, Georgia family sent into the Creek Nation to recruit them to fight for the British during the Revolutionary War {Captain McIntoshs mother was a sister...


On August 30, 1813, Red Sticks led by Red Eagle attacked the American outpost of Fort Mims near Mobile, Alabama, where white Americans and their Indian allies had gathered. The Red Sticks took the fort and a bloody clash ensued, as prisoners — including women and children — were killed. Nearly 250 people were killed, spreading panic throughout the American southwestern frontier. is the 242nd day of the year (243rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1813 (MDCCCXIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar). ... Fort Mims Massacre External Links A Drawing of Fort Mims Description of Massacre at Rootsweb Categories: Battles of the Creek War | 1813 ... It has been suggested that List of people from Mobile, Alabama be merged into this article or section. ...


In response to the massacre at Fort Mims, Tennessee, Georgia, and the Mississippi Territory sent armies deep into Creek country. Outnumbered and poorly armed, the Red Sticks put up a desperate fight from their wilderness strongholds. On March 27, 1814, General Andrew Jackson's Tennessee militia, aided by the 39th U. S. Infantry Regiment and Cherokee and Creek allies, finally crushed Red Stick resistance at the Battle of Horseshoe Bend on the Tallapoosa River. Official language(s) English Capital Nashville Largest city Memphis Largest metro area Nashville Metropolitan Area Area  Ranked 36th  - Total 42,169 sq mi (109,247 km²)  - Width 120 miles (195 km)  - Length 440 miles (710 km)  - % water 2. ... all about mississippi! Mississippi state bird is a mocking bird mississippi state tree is mangoila tree ... is the 86th day of the year (87th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1814 (MDCCCXIV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... For other uses, see Andrew Jackson (disambiguation). ... Lebanese Kataeb militia A Militia is an army composed of ordinary [1] citizens to provide defense, emergency or paramilitary service, or those engaged in such activity. ... For other uses, see Cherokee (disambiguation). ... Combatants Creek Indians Red Sticks United States Cherokee Creek allies Commanders Menawa Andrew Jackson Strength 1,000 Red Stick Creek about 2,000 infantry 700 mounted infantry 600 Cherokee and Lower Creeks Casualties 800 49 killed 154 wounded // Although having nothing to do with the British or Canadians, the battle... The Tallapoosa River runs from the southern end of the Appalachian Mountains in Georgia in the United States south and west into Alabama. ...


Though the Red Sticks had been crushed — altogether, about 3,000 Upper Creeks died in the war — the remnants of the Upper Creek resistance held out for several months. In August of 1814, exhausted and starving, they surrendered to Jackson at Wetumpka (near the present city of Montgomery, Alabama). On August 9, 1814, the Creeks were forced to sign the Treaty of Fort Jackson, which ended the conflict and required them to cede some 20 million acres (81,000 km²) of land - more than half of their ancestral territorial holdings - to the United States. Even those Creek who had fought alongside Jackson were compelled to cede territory, as Jackson held them responsible for allowing the Red Sticks to rise up. The State of Alabama was carved out of this domain and admitted to the United States in 1819. Wetumpka is a city in Elmore County, Alabama, United States. ... Coordinates: , Country State County Montgomery Incorporated December 3, 1819 Government  - Mayor Bobby Bright Area  - City  156. ... is the 221st day of the year (222nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1814 (MDCCCXIV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... The Treaty of Fort Jackson, also known as the Treaty with the Creeks, 1814 was signed on August 9, 1814 at Fort Jackson near Wetumpka, Alabama following the defeat of the Red Stick ( Upper Creek) resistance by United States forces at the Battle of Horseshoe Bend on the banks of...


Some of the Creeks migrated to Florida in the aftermath of the war, where some of them allied with the Seminoles and British against the Americans. They would later be involved in both sides of the Seminole War in Florida. Osceola, Seminole leader, detail from an 1838 lithograph The Seminole Wars were three wars or conflicts in Florida between the Seminole Native American tribe and the United States. ...


Removal to the West

After the War of 1812, some Creek leaders such as William McIntosh signed a number of treaties that ceded more and more land to Georgia. Eventually, the Creek Confederacy enacted a law that made further land cessions a capital offense. Nevertheless, on February 12, 1825, McIntosh and other chiefs signed the Treaty of Indian Springs, which gave up most of the remaining Creek lands in Georgia. [1] William McIntosh William McIntosh (1775-1825), also known as White Warrior, was the son of Captain William McIntosh, a member of a prominent Savannah, Georgia family sent into the Creek Nation to recruit them to fight for the British during the Revolutionary War {Captain McIntoshs mother was a sister... is the 43rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Opening of the Stockton and Darlington Railway 1825 (MDCCCXXV) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Treaty of Indian Springs - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ...

Menawa visited Washington, D.C. in 1826 to protest the Treaty of Indian Springs. Painted by Charles Bird King.

McIntosh was a cousin of Georgia governor George Troup, who saw the Creeks as a threat to white expansion in the region, and had been elected for the Democratic party on a platform of Indian removal. McIntosh's motives have been variously interpreted. Some believed he had been bribed to sell out his people; others insisted he had realized that the Creeks were going to lose their lands eventually, and that he got the best possible deal for them. After the U.S. Senate ratified the treaty, McIntosh was assassinated (31 May 1825) by Creeks led by Menawa. (Major Ridge of the Cherokees later made the same choices as McIntosh, and paid the same price.) Image File history File links Painting by Charles Bird King, early 1800s. ... Image File history File links Painting by Charles Bird King, early 1800s. ... Menawas portrait was painted by Charles Bird King when Menawa visited Washington, D.C. in 1826 to protest the Treaty of Indian Springs. ... Treaty of Indian Springs - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Charles Bird King (September 26, 1785, Newport, Rhode Island - March 18, 1862, Washington, DC) was a United States painter, remembered for his portraits of prominent native Americans as well as society figures in Washington, DC during the 1820s. ... George M. Troup George Michael Troup (September 8, 1780 – April 26, 1856) was an American politician who served as the Governor of Georgia during the mid-1820s. ... Indian Removal was a nineteenth century policy of the government of the United States that sought to relocate Native American tribes living east of the Mississippi River to lands west of the river. ... The United States Senate is the upper house of the U.S. Congress, smaller than the United States House of Representatives. ... is the 151st day of the year (152nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Opening of the Stockton and Darlington Railway 1825 (MDCCCXXV) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... This portrait of Major Ridge was painted by Charles Bird King in 1834. ... For other uses, see Cherokee (disambiguation). ...


The Creek National Council, led by Opothle Yohola, protested to the United States that the Treaty of Indian Springs was fraudulent. President John Quincy Adams was sympathetic, and eventually the treaty was nullified in a new agreement, the Treaty of Washington (1826). [2] Writes historian R. Douglas Hurt: "The Creeks had accomplished what no Indian nation had ever done or would do again — achieve the annulment of a ratified treaty."[4] Portrait of Opothleyahola during the 1830s Opothleyahola, also spelled Opothle Yohola, Opothleyoholo, Hu-pui-hilth Yahola, and Hopoeitheyohola, (about 1798 – March 27, 1863) was a Muscogee Creek Indian chief, noted as a brilliant orator and spokesperson of the Upper Creek Council. ... John Quincy Adams (July 11, 1767 – February 23, 1848) was a diplomat, politician, and the sixth President of the United States (March 4, 1825 – March 4, 1829). ... Opothleyahola The 1826 Treaty of Washington was a settlement between the United States government and the Creek National Council of Native Americans, led by their spokesman Opothleyahola. ...


However, Governor Troup of Georgia ignored the new treaty and began to forcibly remove the Indians under the terms of the earlier treaty. At first, President Adams attempted to intervene with federal troops, but Troup called out the militia, and Adams, fearful of a civil war, conceded. As he explained to his intimates, "The Indians are not worth going to war over."


Although the Creeks had been forced from Georgia, with many Lower Creeks moving to the Indian Territory, there were still about 20,000 Upper Creeks living in Alabama. However, the state moved to abolish tribal governments and extend state laws over the Creeks. Opothle Yohola appealed to the administration of President Andrew Jackson for protection from Alabama; when none was forthcoming, the Treaty of Cusseta was signed on 24 March 1832, which divided up Creek lands into individual allotments. [3] Creeks could either sell their allotments and received funds to remove to the west, or stay in Alabama and submit to state laws. Land speculators and squatters began to defraud Creeks out of their allotments, and violence broke out, leading to the so-called "Creek War of 1836." Secretary of War Lewis Cass dispatched General Winfield Scott to end the violence by forcibly removing the Creeks to the Indian Territory west of the Mississippi River. Indian Territory in 1836 Indian Country redirects here. ... Portrait of Opothleyahola during the 1830s Opothleyahola, also spelled Opothle Yohola, Opothleyoholo, Hu-pui-hilth Yahola, and Hopoeitheyohola, (about 1798 – March 27, 1863) was a Muscogee Creek Indian chief, noted as a brilliant orator and spokesperson of the Upper Creek Council. ... For other uses, see Andrew Jackson (disambiguation). ... Creek land ceded by the Treaty of Cusseta is shaded in blue. ... is the 83rd day of the year (84th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1832 (MDCCCXXXII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Friday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... The Creek War of 1836 Although the Creek people had been forced from Georgia, with many Lower Creeks moving to the Indian Territory, there were still about 20,000 Upper Creeks living in Alabama. ... The Secretary of War was a member of the United States Presidents Cabinet, beginning with George Washingtons administration. ... Lewis Cass (October 9, 1782 – June 17, 1866) was an American military officer and politician. ... For other uses of Winfield Scott, see Winfield Scott (disambiguation). ... Indian Territory in 1836 Indian Country redirects here. ... For the river in Canada, see Mississippi River (Ontario). ...


The official website of the Muscogees describes the next phase in their history:

In the new nation the Lower Muscogees located their farms and plantations on the Arkansas and Verdigris rivers. The Upper Muscogees re-established their ancient towns on the Canadian River and its northern branches. The tribal towns of both groups continued to send representatives to a National Council which met near High Springs. The Muscogee Nation as a whole began to experience a new prosperity. [4]

Muscogees today

A Creek U.S. Army soldier preparing frybread during a 2004 pow-wow in Iraq.
A Creek U.S. Army soldier preparing frybread during a 2004 pow-wow in Iraq.

Most Muscogees were removed to Indian Territory, although some remained behind. There are a number of Muscogees in Alabama living near Poarch Creek Reservation in Atmore (northeast of Mobile), as well as a number of Creeks in essentially undocumented ethnic towns in Florida. The Alabama reservation includes a bingo hall and holds an annual powwow on Thanksgiving. Additionally, Muscogee descendants of varying degrees of acculturation live throughout the southeastern United States. Image File history File links Making_Frybread. ... Image File history File links Making_Frybread. ... The United States Army is the largest and oldest branch of the armed forces of the United States. ... Spc. ... This article is about a Native American gathering. ... Indian Territory in 1836 Indian Country redirects here. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... The Poarch Creek Indian Reservation is a Creek Indian reservation in the state of Alabama. ... Atmore is a city located in Escambia County, Alabama. ... It has been suggested that List of people from Mobile, Alabama be merged into this article or section. ... Official language(s) English Capital Tallahassee Largest city Jacksonville Largest metro area Miami metropolitan area Area  Ranked 22nd  - Total 65,795[1] sq mi (170,304[1] km²)  - Width 361 miles (582 km)  - Length 447 miles (721 km)  - % water 17. ... In 1987 the U.S. Supreme Court recognized that as sovereign political entities, Native American tribes could operate gaming facilities free of state regulation. ... This article is about a Native American gathering. ... The First Thanksgiving, painted by Jean Leon Gerome Ferris (1863-1930). ...


The tribal government operates a budget in excess of $106 million, has over 2,400 employees, and maintains tribal facilities and programs in eight administrative districts. The Nation operates several significant tribal enterprises, including the Muscogee Document Imaging Company; travel plazas in Okmulgee, Muskogee and Cromwell, Oklahoma; construction, technology and staffing services; and major casinos in Tulsa and Okmulgee. The tribal population is fully integrated into the larger culture and economy of Oklahoma, with Muscogee Nation citizens making significant contributions in every field of endeavor, while continuing to preserve and share a vibrant tribal identity through events such as annual festivals, ball-games, and language classes. The Nation's historic old Council House, built in 1878 and located in downtown Okmulgee, was completely restored in the 1990's and now serves as a museum of tribal history. // Native American gambling enterprises comprise gambling businesses operated on Indian reservations or tribal land, which have limited sovereignty and therefore the ability to exist outside of direct state regulation. ... Downtown Tulsa Tulsa is the second-largest city in Oklahoma. ...


Famous Creek

Acee Blue Eagle (Alex McIntosh; Chebon Ah Bu Lah, Laughing Boy; Lumhee Holattee, Blue Eagle) Creek-Pawnee, 1907 - 1959 Studied at Chilocco Indian School;Bacone College; University of Oklahoma,Norman; Oklahoma State Technical School, Okmulgee; Haskell Institute, Lawerence,Kansas. ... Cytherea (born September 27, 1981, in Salt Lake City, Utah, United States) is an American pornographic actress and model who is best known for her long-distance female ejaculation, or squirting, attained during orgasm. ... Joy Harjo (b. ... Suzan Shown Harjo, is a Hodulgee Muscogee Creek/Cheyenne Indian and well-known Indian activist. ... Jim Pepper (b. ... Will Sampson (September 27, 1933 - June 3, 1987) was a Native American Muscogee (Creek) actor and artist from Hitchita, Oklahoma. ... One Flew Over the Cuckoos Nest is a 1975 film directed by Miloš Forman. ... Carrie Marie Underwood (born March 10, 1983) is an American pop country music singer who won the fourth season of American Idol. ... Grammy Award statuette The Grammy Awards, presented by the Recording Academy (an association of Americans professionally involved in the recorded music industry) for outstanding achievements in the recording industry, is one of four major music awards shows held annually in the United States (the Billboard Music Awards, the American Music... This article includes a list of works cited but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... For other uses, see Singer (disambiguation). ... Greg T. Walker was an American bassist who played with Southern US country rock band Lynyrd Skynyrd between 1970 and 1971. ... Southern rock is a subgenre of rock music. ... Blackfoot are a Southern rock band from Jacksonville, Florida. ...

See also

The Creek language, also known as Muscogee (Mvskoke in Creek), is a Muskogean language spoken by the Muscogee (Creek) Nation and Seminole Indians in Florida and Oklahoma. ... The Creek are a tribe of Native Americans from the southeastern United States. ... The earthlodge at Ocmulgee Ocmulgee National Monument is a U.S. National Monument located just east of Macon, Georgia. ... Portrait of Opothleyahola during the 1830s Opothleyahola, also spelled Opothle Yohola, Opothleyoholo, Hu-pui-hilth Yahola, and Hopoeitheyohola, (about 1798 – March 27, 1863) was a Muscogee Creek Indian chief, noted as a brilliant orator and spokesperson of the Upper Creek Council. ...

References

  • Jackson, Harvey H. III (1995). Rivers of History-Life on the Coosa, Tallapoosa, Cahaba and Alabama. Tuscaloosa, Alabama: The University of Alabama Press. ISBN 0817307710. 

Notes

  1. ^ Transcribed documents Sequoyah Research Center and the American Native Press Archives
  2. ^ Finger, John R. (2001). Tennessee Frontiers: Three Regions in Transition. Indiana University Press, p. 19. ISBN 0-253-33985-5. 
  3. ^ Transcribed documents Sequoyah Research Center and the American Native Press Archives
  4. ^ Hurt, R. Douglas (2002). The Indian Frontier, 1763-1846 (Histories of the American Frontier). Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, p. 148. ISBN 0826319661. 
  5. ^ Creek Nation tribal member Carrie Underwood wins 2 Grammy Awards, Red Lake Net news, Retrieved on 2007-03-10.

Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the. ... March 10 is the 69th day of the year (70th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Creek people - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1635 words)
The early historic Creeks were probably descendants of the mound builders of the Mississippian culture, and possibly related to the Utinahica of southern Georgia.
Creek statesman Alexander McGillivray rose to prominence as he organized pan-Indian resistance to this encroachment and received arms from the Spanish in Florida to fight trespassing Georgians.
The Creek National Council, led by Opothle Yohola, protested to the United States that the Treaty of Indian Springs was fraudulent.
BIGpedia - Creek (people) - Encyclopedia and Dictionary Online (1495 words)
The Creeks are a Native American people originally from the southeastern United States, also known by their original name Muscogee or Muskogee (in traditional spelling Mvskoke), the name they use to identify themselves today.
The early historic Creek were probably descendants of the mound builders of the Mississippian culture.
On August 9, 1814, the Creek were forced to sign the Treaty of Fort Jackson, which ended the conflict and required the Creek to cede some 20 million acres (81,000 kmandsup2) of land - more than half of their ancestral territorial holdings - to the United States.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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