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The Creeks are an American Indian people originally from the southeastern United States, also known by their original name Muscogee (or Muskogee), the name they use to identify themselves today. Mvskoke is their name in traditional spelling. Modern Muscogees live primarily in Oklahoma, Alabama, and Florida. Mvskoke is a member of the Creek branch of the Muskogean language family. The Seminole are close kin to the Muscogee and speak a Creek language as well. The Creeks are one of the Five Civilized Tribes. A Sioux in traditional dress including war bonnet, circa 1908. ... Oklahoma is a South Central state of the United States (with strong Southern, Western, and Midwestern influences) and its U.S. postal abbreviation is OK; others abbreviate the states name Okla. ... State nickname: Camellia State, The Heart of Dixie¹, Yellowhammer State, The Roy Moore State Other U.S. States Capital Montgomery Largest city Birmingham Governor Bob Riley (R) Senators Richard Shelby (R) Jeff Sessions (R) Official languages English Area 52,423 mi²/135,775 km² (30th)  - Land 50,750 mi²/131... Jump to: navigation, search State nickname: Sunshine State Other U.S. States Capital Tallahassee Largest city Jacksonville Governor Jeb Bush (R) Senators Bill Nelson (D) Mel Martinez (R) Official languages English Area 170,451 km² (22nd)  - Land 137,374 km²  - Water 30,486 km² (17. ... Muskogean (also Muskhogean, Muskogee) is a language family of the Northern American Southeast. ... Jump to: navigation, search The Seminole are a Native American Indian people of Florida. ... The Five Civilized Tribes is the term applied to five Aboriginal American nations which lived in the Southeastern United States before their removal to other parts of country, especially the future Oklahoma. ...

Flag of the Muscogee (Creek) Nation
Flag of the Muscogee (Creek) Nation

Contents

This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ...


Removal to the West

After the War of 1812, some Creek leaders such as William McIntosh signed a number of treaties that ceded more and more land to Georgia. Eventually, the Creek Confederacy enacted a law that made further land cessions a capital offense. Nevertheless, on February 12, 1825, McIntosh and other chiefs signed the Treaty of Indian Springs, which gave up most of the remaining Creek lands in Georgia. [1] William McIntosh William McIntosh, also known as White Warrior, was the son of Captain William McIntosh, a member of a prominent Savannah, Georgia family sent into the Creek Nation to recruit them to fight for the British during the Revolutionary War. ... Jump to: navigation, search February 12 is the 43rd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1825 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Treaty of Indian Springs - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ...


McIntosh was a cousin of Georgia governor George Troup, who saw the Creeks as a threat to white expansion in the region, and had been elected for the Democratic party on a platform of Indian removal. McIntosh's motives have been variously interpreted. Some believed he had been bribed to sell out his people; others insisted he had realized that the Creeks were going to lose their lands eventually, and that he got the best possible deal for them. [2] After the U.S. Senate ratified the treaty, McIntosh was assassinated (31 May 1825) by Creeks led by Menawa. (Major Ridge of the Cherokees later made the same choices as McIntosh, and paid the same price.) George M. Troup George Michael Troup (September 8, 1780 – April 26, 1856) was an American politician who served as the Governor of Georgia during the mid-1820s. ... Indian Removal refers to the nineteenth century policy of the government of the United States to relocate American Indian tribes living east of the Mississippi River to lands west of the river. ... The United States Senate is the upper house of the U.S. Congress, smaller than the United States House of Representatives. ... Jump to: navigation, search May 31 is the 151st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (152nd in leap years), with 214 days remaining, as the last day of May. ... 1825 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... This portrait of Major Ridge was painted by Charles Bird King in 1834. ... Jump to: navigation, search For other uses, see Cherokee (disambiguation). ...


The Creek National Council, led by Opothle Yohola, protested to the United States that the Treaty of Indian Springs was fraudulent. President John Quincy Adams was sympathetic, and eventually the treaty was nullified in a new agreement, the Treaty of Washington (1826). [3] Writes historian R. Douglas Hurt: "The Creeks had accomplished what no Indian nation had ever done or would do again — achieve the annulment of a ratified treaty."1 Portrait of Opothleyahola during the 1830s Opothleyahola, also spelled Opothle Yohola, Opothleyoholo, Hu-pui-hilth Yahola, and Hopoeitheyohola, (about 1798 – March 27, 1863) was a Muscogee Creek Indian chief, noted as a brilliant orator and spokesperson of the Upper Creek Council. ... Jump to: navigation, search John Quincy Adams (July 11, 1767 – February 23, 1848) was the sixth (1825-1829) President of the United States. ... Opothleyahola The 1826 Treaty of Washington was a settlement between the United States government and the Creek National Council of Native Americans, led by their spokesman Opothleyahola. ...


However, Governor Troup of Georgia ignored the new treaty and began to forcibly remove the Indians under the terms of the earlier treaty. At first, President Adams attempted to intervene with federal troops, but Troup called out the militia, and Adams, fearful of a civil war, conceded. As he explained to his intimates, "The Indians are not worth going to war over."


Although the Creeks had been forced from Georgia, with many Lower Creeks moving to the Indian Territory, there were still about 20,000 Upper Creeks living in Alabama. However, the state moved to abolish tribal governments and extend state laws over the Creeks. Opothle Yohola appealed to the administration of President Andrew Jackson for protection from Alabama; when none was forthcoming, the Treaty of Cusseta was signed on 24 March 1832, which divided up Creek lands into individual allotments. [4] Creeks could either sell their allotments and received funds to remove to the west, or stay in Alabama and submit to state laws. Land speculators and squatters began to defraud Creeks out of their allotments, and violence broke out, leading to the so-called "Creek War of 1836." Secretary of War Lewis Cass dispatched General Winfield Scott to end the violence by forcibly removing the Creeks to the Indian Territory west of the Mississippi River. Indian Territory in 1836 Indian Territory in 1891 Indian Territory, also known as Indian Country, Indian territory or the Indian territories, was the land set aside within the United States for the use of American Indians (Native Americans). The general borders were set by the Indian Intercourse Act of 1834. ... Portrait of Opothleyahola during the 1830s Opothleyahola, also spelled Opothle Yohola, Opothleyoholo, Hu-pui-hilth Yahola, and Hopoeitheyohola, (about 1798 – March 27, 1863) was a Muscogee Creek Indian chief, noted as a brilliant orator and spokesperson of the Upper Creek Council. ... Jump to: navigation, search Andrew Jackson (March 15, 1767 – June 8, 1845), one of the founders of the Democratic Party, was the seventh President of the United States, serving from 1829 to 1837. ... Jump to: navigation, search Creek land ceded by the Treaty of Cusseta is shaded in blue. ... March 24 is the 83rd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (84th in Leap years). ... 1832 was a leap year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... The Secretary of War was a member of the Presidents Cabinet, beginning with George Washingtons administration. ... Lewis Cass Campaign poster for 12th United States Presidential campaign, 1848. ... Jump to: navigation, search Winfield Scott Winfield Scott (June 13, 1786 – May 29, 1866) was a United States lieutenant general, diplomat, and presidential candidate. ... Indian Territory in 1836 Indian Territory in 1891 Indian Territory, also known as Indian Country, Indian territory or the Indian territories, was the land set aside within the United States for the use of American Indians (Native Americans). The general borders were set by the Indian Intercourse Act of 1834. ... Length 6,270 km Elevation of the source 450 m Average discharge Saint Louis¹: 5,500 m³/s Vicksburg²: 16,800 m³/s Baton Rouge³: 12,800 m³/s Area watershed 2,980,000 km² Origin  Lake Itasca Mouth  Gulf of Mexico Basin countries United States (98. ...


The official website of the Muscogees describes the next phase in their history:

In the new nation the Lower Muscogees located their farms and plantations on the Arkansas and Verdigris rivers. The Upper Muscogees re-established their ancient towns on the Canadian River and its northern branches. The tribal towns of both groups continued to send representatives to a National Council which met near High Springs. The Muscogee Nation as a whole began to experience a new prosperity. [5]

The Muscogee Today

Most Muscogees were removed to Indian Territory, although some remained behind. There are a number of Muscogees in Alabama living near Poarch Creek Reservation in Atmore (northeast of Mobile), as well as a number of Creeks in essentially undocumented ethnic towns in Florida. Additionally, Muscogee descendants of varying degrees of acculturation live throughout the southeastern United States. The reservation includes a bingo hall and holds an annual powwow on Thanksgiving. Indian Territory in 1836 Indian Territory in 1891 Indian Territory, also known as Indian Country, Indian territory or the Indian territories, was the land set aside within the United States for the use of American Indians (Native Americans). The general borders were set by the Indian Intercourse Act of 1834. ... State nickname: Camellia State, The Heart of Dixie¹, Yellowhammer State, The Roy Moore State Other U.S. States Capital Montgomery Largest city Birmingham Governor Bob Riley (R) Senators Richard Shelby (R) Jeff Sessions (R) Official languages English Area 52,423 mi²/135,775 km² (30th)  - Land 50,750 mi²/131... Atmore is a city located in Escambia County, Alabama. ... Nickname: The Azalea City Location in Alabama Founded  -Incorporated 1702 1814  County Mobile County Mayor Mike Dow Area  - Total  - Water 412. ... Jump to: navigation, search State nickname: Sunshine State Other U.S. States Capital Tallahassee Largest city Jacksonville Governor Jeb Bush (R) Senators Bill Nelson (D) Mel Martinez (R) Official languages English Area 170,451 km² (22nd)  - Land 137,374 km²  - Water 30,486 km² (17. ... In 1987 the U.S. Supreme Court recognized that as sovereign political entities, Native American tribes could operate gaming facilities free of state regulation. ... This article is about a Native American gathering. ... The First Thanksgiving, after the painting by Jean Louis Gerome Ferris (1863–1930) Thanksgiving, or Thanksgiving Day, is an annual holiday celebrated in much of North America, generally observed as an expression of gratitude, usually to God. ...


Though the Creek Confederacy was one of the largest Native groups, their unpopularity after the Creek War may have made them more likely to attempt assimilation into other tribes and white culture.


See also

The earthlodge at Ocmulgee Ocmulgee National Monument is a U.S. National Monument located just east of Macon, Georgia. ... Portrait of Opothleyahola during the 1830s Opothleyahola, also spelled Opothle Yohola, Opothleyoholo, Hu-pui-hilth Yahola, and Hopoeitheyohola, (about 1798 – March 27, 1863) was a Muscogee Creek Indian chief, noted as a brilliant orator and spokesperson of the Upper Creek Council. ...

Notes

Note 1: Hurt, R. Douglas, The Indian Frontier: 1763-1846 (Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 2002), p. 148.


External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Creek people - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1635 words)
The early historic Creeks were probably descendants of the mound builders of the Mississippian culture, and possibly related to the Utinahica of southern Georgia.
Creek statesman Alexander McGillivray rose to prominence as he organized pan-Indian resistance to this encroachment and received arms from the Spanish in Florida to fight trespassing Georgians.
The Creek National Council, led by Opothle Yohola, protested to the United States that the Treaty of Indian Springs was fraudulent.
BIGpedia - Creek (people) - Encyclopedia and Dictionary Online (1495 words)
The Creeks are a Native American people originally from the southeastern United States, also known by their original name Muscogee or Muskogee (in traditional spelling Mvskoke), the name they use to identify themselves today.
The early historic Creek were probably descendants of the mound builders of the Mississippian culture.
On August 9, 1814, the Creek were forced to sign the Treaty of Fort Jackson, which ended the conflict and required the Creek to cede some 20 million acres (81,000 kmandsup2) of land - more than half of their ancestral territorial holdings - to the United States.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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