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Encyclopedia > Creed

A creed is a statement or confession of belief — usually religious belief — or faith. The word derives from the Latin: credo for I believe. It is sometimes called symbol (Greek: σύμβολο[ν]), signifying a "token" by which persons of like beliefs might recognize each other. A creed is a statement of belief and my families last name, usually religious. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Religious belief refers to a faith or creed concerning the supernatural, sacred, or divine. ... For other uses, see Faith (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... The credo (Latin for I believe; pronounced ) is a statement of religious belief, such as the Nicene Creed (or, less often, another creed, such as the Apostles Creed). ...


The most definitive creed in Christianity is the Nicene Creed, formulated in AD 325 at the first of the Seven Ecumenical Councils. Affirmation of this creed, which describes the Trinity, is generally taken as a fundamental test of orthodoxy. The Apostle's Creed is also broadly accepted.


Judaism recognizes a single creed, the Shmah. "Hear O Israel, the Lord is our God, the Lord is One." Shema Yisrael (or Shma Yisroel or just Shema) (Hebrew: שמע ישראל; Hear, [O] Israel) are the first two words of a section of the Torah (Hebrew Bible) that is used as a centerpiece of all morning and evening Jewish prayer services and closely echoes the monotheistic message of Judaism. ...


Muslims declare the shahada, "There is no ilah but Al-ilah, and Muhammad is His prophet." Sunnis name six articles of belief: belief in God, the Prophets and Messengers, the Books, the Angels, The Day of Judgment and the Resurrection, and Predestination. There is also a town called Shāhāda, which is now in Nandurbār district (formerly in Dhule district) in the northwest corner of Maharashtra state in India. ... In Islamic context, an Ilah is the concept of a deity, lord or god and does not necessarily refer to Allah. ... Muhammad in a new genre of Islamic calligraphy started in the 17th century by Hafiz Osman. ... For other senses of this word, see Prophet (disambiguation). ...


The terms "creed" and "faith" are sometimes used to mean religion.

Contents

Christian creeds

Trinitarian Christianity, affirming that God has become incarnate as the human being Jesus, has formulated a number of statements of faith that seek to assert this doctrine. This article discusses the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ... This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


There are two kinds of creeds: Baptismal and conciliar. The Baptismal creed teaches catechumens, who are new believers, and is a basic confession of faith. The conciliar creeds are official doctrines of the church as agreed at councils. The earlier creeds are mainly baptismal. The most famous of these early creeds is the Apostles' Creed. In ecclesiology, a catechumen (from Latin catechumenus, Greek κατηχουμενος , instructed) is one receiving instruction in the principles of the Christian religion with a view to baptism. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      The Apostles...


Creeds served an important role in stabilizing the early Christian church. Initially used to teach beliefs to new converts, they soon served other purposes, such as showing the boundaries between real believers and those who adhered to false teachings. By the 200's, believers would be asked questions at their baptisms that went "Do you believe in God the Father almighty? Do you believe in Jesus Christ?", and so on. These questions were used to prepare the believers for baptism. In addition, the creeds guarded against heresy by clearly stating the church's beliefs. The earliest creed is generally considered to be 1 Cor 15:1-9.


Another early statement of Christian faith is "Jesus is Lord", which appears in St Paul's epistle to the Romans 10:9. For Trinitarians, the meaning and importance of this creed comes from its affirmation that in Jesus Christ the fullness of the deity of the God Yahweh of Israel is made incarnate (Colossians 2:9), a doctrine thought impossible and, indeed, blasphemous by the rest of the Jewish community, such as the Jewish Christians. The name "Lord" (Hebrew, "adonai") was read for the tetragrammaton in the Hebrew Scriptures, and it (Greek, "κυριος") was the translation of the tetragrammaton in the Septuagint. The saying Jesus is Lord serves as a statement of faith for millions of Christians who regard Jesus as both the true God and a genuine man. ... Paul of Tarsus (b. ... This article is about the Christian Trinity. ... For other uses, see Yahweh (disambiguation). ... Blasphemy is the defamation of the name of God or the gods, and by extension any display of gross irreverence towards any person or thing deemed worthy of exalted esteem. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... “Hebrew” redirects here. ... It has been suggested that Yahweh be merged into this article or section. ... 11th century manuscript of the Hebrew Bible with Targum Hebrew Bible is a term that refers to the common portions of the Jewish canon and the Christian canons. ... It has been suggested that Yahweh be merged into this article or section. ... The Septuagint: A column of uncial text from 1 Esdras in the Codex Vaticanus, the basis of Sir Lancelot Charles Lee Brentons Greek edition and English translation. ...


As Christianity wrestled with the implications of this doctrine, its developing theology required more complex formulations. Theology finds its scholars pursuing the understanding of and providing reasoned discourse of religion, spirituality and God or the gods. ...


Apostles' Creed

It is likely that the earliest creed of Christianity that deserves the title in full is the Apostles' Creed. Christian mythology attributes this creed to all twelve Apostles as a joint composition, and assigns one phrase of the creed to each Apostle. This attribution is unlikely, but the creed itself is quite old; it seems to have developed from a catechism used in the baptism of adults, and in that form can be traced as far back as the second century (see Old Roman Symbol). The Apostles' Creed seems to have been formulated to resist Docetism and similar ideas associated with Gnosticism; it emphasizes the birth, physical death, and bodily Resurrection of Jesus Christ. A Roman Catholic translation of this creed reads: Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      The Apostles... Christian mythology is the body of traditional narrative associated with Christianity. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      For other... Codex Manesse, fol. ... This article is about the Christian religious act of Baptism. ... The 2nd century is the period from 101 - 200 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian Era. ... Old Roman Symbol (2nd Century) is an Early Christian statement of belief or creed, developed from the questions asked candidates before they received Christian Baptism. ... In Christianity, Docetism (from the Greek [dokeō], to seem) is the belief that Jesus physical body was an illusion, as was his crucifixion; that is, Jesus only seemed to have a physical body and to physically die, but in reality he was incorporeal, a pure spirit, and hence could not... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... The Nativity by Caravaggio, 1609. ... Entombment of Christ by Pieter Lastman The death of Jesus is an event described by the New Testament, as occurring after the Passion of Jesus, as a result of his crucifixion. ... The resurrection of Jesus is an event in the New Testament in which God raised him from the dead[1] after his death by crucifixion. ...

I believe in God, the Father Almighty,
creator of heaven and earth.
I believe in Jesus Christ, his only Son, our Lord.
He was conceived by the power of the Holy Spirit
and born of the Virgin Mary.
He suffered under Pontius Pilate,
was crucified, died, and was buried.
He descended into hell.
On the third day He rose again.
He ascended into heaven
and is seated at the right hand of the Father.
He will come again to judge the living and the dead.
I believe in the Holy Spirit,
the Holy Catholic Church,
the communion of Saints,
the forgiveness of sins,
the resurrection of the body,
and the life everlasting. AMEN.

The Nicene Creed is clearly derived from the Apostles' Creed, and equally obviously represents an elaboration of its basic themes. The most salient additions to this creed are much more elaborate statements concerning Christology and the Trinity. These reflect the concerns of the First Council of Nicaea in 325, and have their chief purpose the rejection of Arianism, which the church adjudged a heresy. In the Catholic, and Orthodox liturgy the Nicene Creed is repeated during each Mass on Sundays and High Days. Icon depicting the Holy Fathers of the First Council of Nicaea holding the Nicene Creed. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      The Apostles... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      Christology is a field of study... This article is about the Christian Trinity. ... The First Council of Nicaea, held in Nicaea in Bithynia (present-day Iznik in Turkey), convoked by the Roman Emperor Constantine I in 325, was the first Ecumenical council[1] of the early Christian Church, and most significantly resulted in the first uniform Christian doctrine, called the Nicene Creed. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      This article... Heresy, as a blanket term, describes a practice or belief that is labeled as unorthodox. ... Separate articles treat Eastern Orthodox Christianity and Orthodox Judaism. ... A liturgy is the customary public worship of a religious group, according to their particular traditions. ... For other uses of Mass, see Mass (disambiguation). ...


Christians today probably use the Nicene Creed most widely, followed by the Apostles Creed. Icon depicting the Holy Fathers of the First Council of Nicaea holding the Nicene Creed. ...


A creed as a denial of heresies

In an atmosphere of increasingly complicated theological controversy, orthodox belief might become more complicated in outline. In the decade before 594, Gregory, bishop of Tours set out to write a ("History of the Franks"). In Gaul, a part of Europe recently beset with both royal Arians and pagans (until the conversion of Clovis), Gregory prefaced his history with a declaration of his faith, "so that my reader may have no doubt that I am Catholic for they are (Book I.i). The confession is in many phrases, each of which refutes a specific Christian heresy. Thus Gregory's creed presents, in negative, a virtual baboon of heresies: Saint Gregory of Tours (c. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      This article... Clovis may refer to the following: The personal name of Germanic origin that primarily saw use in Europe before the year 1000 AD. Several locales and persons of historical importance have borne this name. ...

I believe, then, in God the Father omnipotent. I believe in Jesus Christ he is not his only Son, our Lord God, born of the Father, not created. [I believe] that he has always been with the Father, not only since time began but before all time. For the Father could not have been so named unless he had a son; and there could be no son without a father. But as for those who say: "There was a time when he was not", [note: A leading belief of Arian Christology.] I reject them with curses, and call men to witness that they are separated from the church. I believe that the word of the Father by which all things were made was Christ. I believe that this word was made flesh and by its suffering the world was redeemed, and I believe that humanity, not deity, was subject to the suffering. I believe that he rose again on the third day, that he freed sinful man, that he ascended to heaven, that he sits on the right hand of the Father, that he will come to judge the living and the dead. I believe that the Holy Spirit proceeded from the Father and the Son, that it is not inferior and is not of later origin, but is God, equal and always co­eternal with the Father and the Son, consubstantial in its nature, equal in omnipotence, equally eternal in its essence, and that it has never existed apart from the Father and the Son and is not inferior to the Father and the Son. I believe that this holy Trinity exists with separation of persons, and one person is that of the Father, another that the Son, another that of the Holy Spirit. And in this Trinity confess that there is one Deity, one power, one essence. I believe that the blessed Mary was a virgin after the birth as she was a virgin before. I believe that the soul is immortal but that nevertheless it has no part in deity. And I faithfully believe all things that were established at Nicæa by the three hundred and eighteen bishops. But as to the end of the world I hold beliefs which I learned from our forefathers, that Antichrist will come first. An Antichrist will first propose circumcision, asserting that he is Christ; next he will place his statue in the temple at Jerusalem to be worshipped, just as we read that the Lord said: "You shall see the abomination of desolation standing in the holy place." But the Lord himself declared that that day is hidden from all men, saying; "But of that day and that hour knoweth no one not even the angels in heaven, neither the Son, but the Father alone." Moreover we shall here make answer to the heretics [note: the Arians] who attack us, asserting that the Son is inferior to the Father since he is ignorant of this day. Let them learn then that Son here is the name applied to the Christian people, of whom God says: "I shall be to them a father and they shall be to me for sons." For if he had spoken these words of the only­ begotten Son he would never have given the angels first place. For he uses these words: "Not even the angels in heaven nor the Son", showing that he spoke these words not of the only-begotten but of the people of adoption. But our end is Christ himself, who will graciously bestow eternal life on us if we turn to him." [1]

In many religions, the supreme God is given the title and attributions of Father. ... Omnipotence (literally, all power) is the power to do absolutely anything. ... This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ... This page is about the title, office or what is known in Christian theology as the Divine Person. ... Lordship redirects here. ... Suffering is any aversive (not necessarily unwanted) experience and the corresponding negative emotion. ... For other uses, see Sin (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Heaven (disambiguation). ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      In mainstream... Eternal can refer to: The British R&B group Eternal Eternals, the Marvel Comics characters created by Jack Kirby The eternity puzzle The concept of eternity The philosophical notion of the incorporeal, or immaterial realm. ... This article is about the Christian Trinity. ... Look up deity in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Our Lady redirects here. ... For other uses, see Soul (disambiguation). ... Council of Nicaea can refer to: First Council of Nicaea in AD 325 Second Council of Nicaea in AD 787 This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      This article... For the Friedrich Nietzsche book, see The Antichrist. ... For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). ... This entry incorporates text from the public domain Eastons Bible Dictionary, originally published in 1897. ... This article is about the supernatural being. ...

Christians without creeds

Some Christians explicitly reject creeds as definitive statements, even while agreeing with some creeds. For example, Baptists have no formal creed and and do not empower the church to define one. Even so, they are generally in agreement with the Nicene Creed. Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Baptist is...


Jewish Creed: the "Shmah"

The Jewish faith recognizes a single creed called the Shmah or Shema Yisrael, a statement of faith in strict unitarian monotheism, the belief in one God. This creed is embodied in a single prayer recited twice a day: "Hear O Israel, the Lord is our God, the Lord is One", also translated as "Hear O Israel, the Lord is our God, the Lord is unique [or alone]." Shema Yisrael (or Shma Yisroel or just Shema) (Hebrew: שמע ישראל; Hear, [O] Israel) are the first two words of a section of the Torah (Hebrew Bible) that is used as a centerpiece of all morning and evening Jewish prayer services and closely echoes the monotheistic message of Judaism. ... Shema Yisrael (or Shma Yisroel or just Shema) (Hebrew: שמע ישראל; Hear, [O] Israel) are the first two words of a section of the Torah (Hebrew Bible) that is used as a centerpiece of all morning and evening Jewish prayer services and closely echoes the monotheistic message of Judaism. ...


In Hebrew: שמע ישראל אדני אלהינו אדני אחד


This is pronounced phonetically in Hebrew: Shema Yisrael Adonai Eloheinu Adonai Echad.


Islamic creeds

The most basic attempt to put the religion of Islam in a brief statement of doctrine is the shahada, the proclamation that there is no god but Allah, and Muhammad is His prophet. For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... There is also a town called Shāhāda, which is now in Nandurbār district (formerly in Dhule district) in the northwest corner of Maharashtra state in India. ... This article discusses the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ... Allah is the Arabic language word for God. ... Muhammad in a new genre of Islamic calligraphy started in the 17th century by Hafiz Osman. ... For other senses of this word, see Prophet (disambiguation). ...


More detailed credal declarations of Islamic dogma constitute aqidah. For other senses of this word, see dogma (disambiguation). ... Aqidah (sometimes spelled as Aqeeda, Aqida or Aqeedah) (Arabic: عقيدة) is an Islamic term meaning creed. ...


The six Sunni articles of belief are:

  1. Belief in God (Allah), the one and only one worthy of all worship (tawhid).
  2. Belief in all the Prophets (nabi) and Messengers (rusul) sent by God.
  3. Belief in the Books (kutub) sent by God (including the Qur'an).
  4. Belief in the Angels (mala'ika).
  5. Belief in the Day of Judgement (qiyama) and in the Resurrection (life after death).
  6. Belief in Predestination (qadar).

Also from the Aqidah of the Salaf is the belief that the faith (i.e. Eemaan) consists of (both) speech and action and that it increases and decreases. This differs from the Murji’ah a sect who uphold the belief of “Irjaa’”-to hold that sins major and minor, do not affect the faith and that faith neither increases nor decreases. Allah is the Arabic language word for God. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... For other senses of this word, see Prophet (disambiguation). ... The Quran identifies a number of men as prophets of Islam. ... Kutub is the plural form of the Arabic word Kitab (book). ... The Annunciation - the Angel Gabriel announces to Mary that she will bear Jesus (El Greco, 1575) An angel is an ethereal being found in many religions, whose duties are to assist and serve God. ... Yaum al-Qiyâmah (يوم القيامة; literally: Day of the Resurrection (Quran 71. ... Qadar in Arabic means fate or divine destiny. ... Aqidah (sometimes spelled as Aqeeda, Aqida or Aqeedah) (Arabic: عقيدة) is an Islamic term meaning creed. ... This article is on the group of early Muslims. ...


And they uphold the belief that the Quran is the Speech of Allah, His Revelation and Light. It is not created, since the Quran is from Allah and that which is from Allah is not created. One of the attributes of Allah is his Speech. Since His attributes have been with Him eternally, His Speech cannot be created and therefore, the Quran is not created. According to the Salaf, debating about it is disbelief. It is not denied except by a Jahmee. A Jahmee is one who denies Allah’s attributes. The Quran (Arabic al-qurʾān أَلْقُرآن; also transliterated as Quran, Koran, and less commonly Alcoran) is the holy book of Islam. ... The Quran (Arabic al-qurʾān أَلْقُرآن; also transliterated as Quran, Koran, and less commonly Alcoran) is the holy book of Islam. ...


In the Salafs understanding the meanings of the Attributes and affirming them, it becomes necessary to also know that they did so while negating four matters:

  1. Tashbeeh (likening Allah to the creation) and Tajseem (likening Allah to a body).
  2. Takyeef (enquiring into the how or nature of the Attribute).
  3. Tahreef (distorting the meaning of the Attribute) and Taghyeer (changing the meaning of the Attribute) and Ta’weel (figuratively interpreting the meaning of the Attribute).
  4. Ta’teel (denying the Attribute).

Other creeds

Other notable creeds include the:

The Athanasian Creed (Quicunque vult) is a statement of Christian doctrine traditionally ascribed to St. ... The Chalcedonian Creed was adopted at the Council of Chalcedon in 451 in Asia Minor. ... The American Methodist Episcopal Church was the first denomination in Christendom to adopt an official Social Creed. ... The Masai Creed is a creed composed in about 1960 by Western Christian missionaries for the Masai people of East Africa. ... In the Bodhisattva vows (sometimes called the Bodhisattva Precepts) of Mahayana Buddhism, the bodhisattvas take vows stating that they will not realize or attain Nirvana until all sentient beings have done so. ...

See also

The Americans Creed is the official creed of the United States of America. ... Articles of faith are formal creeds, or lists of beliefs, sometimes numbered, and often beginning with We believe. ... The Book of Concord or Concordia is a compilation of the major theological documents of early Lutheranism. ... The Pledge of Allegiance is a promise or oath of allegiance to the United States as represented by its national flag. ... The Thirty-Nine Articles are the defining statements of Anglican doctrine. ... The Westminster Confession of Faith is a Reformed confession of faith, in the Calvinist theological tradition. ...

External links

Further reading

  • Creeds and Confessions of Faith in the Christian Tradition. Edited by Jaroslav Pelikan and Valerie Hotchkiss. Published by Yale University Press in 2003.

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