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Encyclopedia > Creativity
Look up Creativity in
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Creativity (or "creativeness") is a mental process involving the generation of new ideas or concepts, or new associations of the creative mind between existing ideas or concepts. Creativity may also refer to: The mental phenomenon of Creativity Creativity techniques Total creativity the descriptive term used for creative people. ... Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 151 languages. ... IDEA may refer to: Electronic Directory of the European Institutions IDEA League Improvement and Development Agency Individuals with Disabilities Education Act Indian Distance Education Association Integrated Data Environments Australia Intelligent Database Environment for Advanced Applications IntelliJ IDEA - a Java IDE Interactive Database for Energy-efficient Architecture International IDEA (International Institute... A concept is an abstract, universal psychical entity that serves to designate a category or class of entities, events or relations. ...


From a scientific point of view, the products of creative thought (sometimes referred to as divergent thought) are usually considered to have both originality and appropriateness. An alternative, more everyday conception of creativity is that it is simply the act of making something new. Convergent and divergent production are the two types of human response to a set problem that were identified by J. P. Guilford. ...



Although intuitively a complex phenomenon, it is in fact quite simple. It has been studied from the perspectives of behavioural psychology, social psychology, psychometrics, cognitive science, artificial intelligence, philosophy, history, economics, design research, business, and management, among others. The studies have covered everyday creativity, exceptional creativity and even artificial creativity. Unlike many phenomena in science, there is no single, authoritative perspective or definition of creativity. And unlike many phenomena in psychology, there is no Creativity has been attributed variously to divine intervention, cognitive processes, the social environment, personality traits, and chance ("accident", "serendipity"). It has been associated with genius, mental illness and humour. Some say it is a trait we are born with; others say it can be taught with the application of simple techniques. Behaviorism (or behaviourism) is an approach to psychology based on the proposition that behavior is interesting and worthy of scientific research. ... The scope of social psychological research. ... For the parapsychology phenomenon of distance knowledge, see psychometry. ... Cognitive science is usually defined as the scientific study either of mind or of intelligence (e. ... AI redirects here. ... For other uses, see Philosophy (disambiguation). ... HIStory – Past, Present and Future, Book I is a double album by American singer Michael Jackson released in June 1995 and remains Jacksons most conflicting and controversial release. ... Face-to-face trading interactions on the New York Stock Exchange trading floor. ... Design research emerged as a recognisable field of study in the 1960s, initially marked by a conference on Design methods at Imperial College, London, in 1962. ... In economics, a business (also called firm or enterprise) is a legally recognized organizational entity designed to provide goods and/or services to consumers or corporate entities such as governments, charities or other businesses. ... For other uses, see Management (disambiguation). ... Artificial Creativity is a branch of Artificial Intelligence based on trying to make computers creative or on trying to understand human creativity by doing research in making computers creative. ... Divine intervention is another term for a miracle. ... Cognitive The scientific study of how people obtain, retrieve, store and manipulate information. ... Social refers to human society or its organization. ... Trait theory is an approach to personality theory in psychology. ... Random redirects here. ... Look up Serendipity in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A genius is a person of great intelligence. ... A mental illness or mental disorder refers to one of many mental health conditions characterized by distress, impaired cognitive functioning, atypical behavior, emotional dysregulation, and/or maladaptive behavior. ... For other uses, see Humour (disambiguation). ... In biology, a trait or character is a genetically inherited feature of an organism. ... Creativity techniques are heuristic methods to facilitate creativity in a person or a group of people. ...


Although popularly associated with art and literature, it is also an essential part of innovation and invention and is important in professions such as business, economics, architecture, industrial design, science and engineering. This article is about the philosophical concept of Art. ... For other uses, see Literature (disambiguation). ... For the musical form, see Invention (music). ... In economics, a business (also called firm or enterprise) is a legally recognized organizational entity designed to provide goods and/or services to consumers or corporate entities such as governments, charities or other businesses. ... Face-to-face trading interactions on the New York Stock Exchange trading floor. ... This article is about building architecture. ... Example of industrial design item - hanger chair Industrial design is an applied art whereby the aesthetics and usability of products may be improved for marketability and production. ... A magnet levitating above a high-temperature superconductor demonstrates the Meissner effect. ... Engineering is the discipline and profession of applying scientific knowledge and utilizing natural laws and physical resources in order to design and implement materials, structures, machines, devices, systems, and processes that realize a desired objective and meet specified criteria. ...


Despite, or perhaps because of, the ambiguity and multi-dimensional nature of creativity, entire industries have been spawned from the pursuit of creative ideas and the development of creativity techniques. Creativity techniques are heuristic methods to facilitate creativity in a person or a group of people. ...

Leonardo Da Vinci is well known for his creative works.
Leonardo Da Vinci is well known for his creative works.

Contents

Image File history File links Leonardo_da_Vinci_helicopter_and_lifting_wing. ... “Da Vinci” redirects here. ...

Definitions of creativity

More than 60 different definitions of creativity can be found in the psychological literature,[1] and it is beyond the scope of this article to list them all.


The etymological root of the word in English and most other European languages comes from the Latin creatus, literally "to have grown." Etymologies redirects here. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... For other uses, see Latins and Latin (disambiguation). ...


Perhaps the most widespread conception of creativity in the scholarly literature is that creativity is manifested in the production of a creative work (for example, a new work of art or a scientific hypothesis) that is both original and useful.


Colloquial definitions of creativity are typically descriptive of activity that results:

  • in producing or bringing about something partly or wholly new;
  • in investing an existing object with new properties or characteristics;
  • in imagining new possibilities that were not conceived of before;
  • and in seeing or performing something in a manner different from what was thought possible or normal previously.

A useful distinction has been made by Rhodes[2] between : For other uses, see Imagination (disambiguation). ...

  • the creative person,
  • the creative product,
  • the creative process,
  • and the creative 'press' or environment.

Each of these factors is usually present in creative activity. This has been elaborated by Johnson,[3] who suggested that creative activity may exhibit several dimensions including sensitivity to problems on the part of the creative agent, originality, ingenuity, unusualness, usefulness, and appropriateness in relation to the creative product, and intellectual leadership on the part of the creative agent.


Boden[4] noted that it is important to distinguish between ideas which are psychologically creative (which are novel to the individual mind which had the idea), and those which are historically creative (which are novel with respect to the whole of human history). Drawing on ideas from artificial intelligence, she defines psychologically creative ideas as those which cannot be produced by the same set of generative rules as other, familiar ideas. Margaret Boden did not know the man she married was a sick fuck who was responsible for the destruction of a fine race. ... AI redirects here. ...


Often implied in the notion of creativity is a concomitant presence of inspiration, cognitive leaps, or intuitive insight as a part of creative thought and action.[5] Intuition is an unconscious form of knowledge. ... Look up Insight in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Pop psychology sometimes associates creativity with right or forehead brain activity or even specifically with lateral thinking. Popular psychology refers to concepts and theories about human mental life and behaviour that come from outside the technical study of psychology, but purport to go beyond everyday knowledge. ... The human brain as viewed from above, showing the cerebral hemispheres. ... Lateral thinking is a term coined by Edward de Bono, a Maltese psychologist, physician and writer. ...


Some students of creativity have emphasized an element of chance in the creative process. Linus Pauling, asked at a public lecture how one creates scientific theories, replied that one must endeavor to come up with many ideas — then discard the useless ones. Another adequate definition of creativity is that it is an "Assumptions breaking process". Many creative ideas are generated when somebody discards preconceived assumptions and decides on a new approach or method that might seem to others unthinkable. Random redirects here. ... Linus Carl Pauling (February 28, 1901 – August 19, 1994) was an American scientist, peace activist, author and educator of German ancestry. ... The word theory has a number of distinct meanings in different fields of knowledge, depending on their methodologies and the context of discussion. ...


Distinguishing between creativity and innovation

It is often useful to explicitly distinguish between creativity and innovation.


Creativity is typically used to refer to the act of producing new ideas, approaches or actions, while innovation is the process of both generating and applying such creative ideas in some specific context.


In the context of an organization, therefore, the term innovation is often used to refer to the entire process by which an organization generates creative new ideas and converts them into novel, useful and viable commercial products, services, and business practices, while the term creativity is reserved to apply specifically to the generation of novel ideas by individuals or groups, as a necessary step within the innovation process.


For example, Amabile et al. (1996) suggest that while innovation "begins with creative ideas,"

"...creativity by individuals and teams is a starting point for innovation; the first is a necessary but not sufficient condition for the second."[6]

Alternatively, there is no real difference between these terms, as creativity is both novel and appropriate (which implies successful application). It seems that creativity is preferred in art contexts whereas innovation in business ones.


History of the term and the concept

Main article: History of creativity

The way in which different societies have formulated the concept of creativity has changed throughout history, as has the term "creativity" itself. // [edit] History of the term and the concept The way in which different societies have perceived the concept of creativity has changed throughout history, as has the term creativity itself. ...


The ancient Greeks, who believed that the muses were the source of all inspiration, actually had no terms corresponding to "to create" or "creator." The expression "poiein" ("to make") sufficed. The sole exception was poetry: the poet was seen as making new things — bringing to life a new world — while the artist merely imitated. For the rock band, see Muse (band). ... This article is about the art form. ... This article is about the philosophical concept of Art. ...


In Rome, this Greek view was modified, and Horace wrote that not only poets but painters were entitled to the privilege of daring whatever they wished. Unlike Greek, Latin had a term for "creating" ("creatio") and for "creator", and had two expressions for "to make" — "facere" and "creare".[7] For other people named Horace, see Horace (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Latins and Latin (disambiguation). ...


Although neither the Greeks nor the Romans had any words that directly corresponded to the word creativity, their art, architecture, music, inventions, and discoveries provide numerous examples of what we would today describe as creative works. At the time, the concept of genius probably came closest to describing the creative talents bringing forth these works.[8] A genius is a person of great intelligence. ...


A fundamental change came in the Christian period: "creatio" came to designate God's act of "creation from nothing". "Creatio" thus took on a different meaning than "facere" ("to make"), and ceased to apply to human functions. The ancient view that art is not a domain of creativity persisted in this period.[7] Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ...


Another shift occurred in more modern times. Renaissance men had a sense of their own independence, freedom and creativity, and sought to give voice to this sense of independence and creativity. Baltasar Gracián (1601–1658) wrote: "Art is the completion of nature, as if it were a second Creator...". This article is about the European Renaissance of the 14th-17th centuries. ... Baltasar Gracián y Morales (January 8, 1601 - December 6, 1658), Spanish prose writer, was born at Calatayud (Aragon). ...


By the 18th century and the Age of Enlightenment, the concept of creativity was appearing more often in art theory, and was linked with the concept of imagination.[7] The word Enlightment redirects here. ... For other uses, see Imagination (disambiguation). ...


The Western view of creativity can be contrasted with the Eastern view. For the Hindus, Confucius, Taoists and Buddhists, creation was at most a kind of discovery or mimicry, and the idea of creation from "nothing" had no place in these philosophies and religions.[8] Hinduism is a religious tradition[1] that originated in the Indian subcontinent. ... A Confucian temple in Wuwei, Peoples Republic of China. ... Taoism (pronounced or ; also spelled Daoism) refers to a variety of related philosophical and religious traditions and concepts. ... Buddhism is a variety of teachings, sometimes described as a religion[1] or way of life that attempts to identify the causes of human suffering and offer various ways that are claimed to end, or ease suffering. ...


In the 19th century, not only was art regarded as creativity, but it alone was so regarded. When later, at the turn of the 20th century, there began to be discussion of creativity in the sciences (e.g., Jan Łukasiewicz, 1878–1956) and in nature (e.g., Henri Bergson), this was generally taken as the transference to the sciences of concepts proper to art.[7] // Jan Łukasiewicz (21 December 1878 - 13 February 1956) was a Polish mathematician born in Lemberg, Galicia, Austria-Hungary (now Lviv, Ukraine). ... Henri-Louis Bergson (October 18, 1859–January 4, 1941) was a major French philosopher, influential in the first half of the 20th century. ...


In the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, leading mathematicians and scientists such as Hermann von Helmholtz (1896) and Henri Poincaré (1908) had begun to reflect on and publicly discuss their creative processes, and these insights were built on in early accounts of the creative process by pioneering theorists such as Graham Wallas (1926) and Max Wertheimer (1945). Hermann Ludwig Ferdinand von Helmholtz (August 31, 1821 – September 8, 1894) was a German physician and physicist. ... Jules Henri Poincaré (April 29, 1854 – July 17, 1912) (IPA: [1]) was one of Frances greatest mathematicians and theoretical physicists, and a philosopher of science. ... Graham Wallas (31 May 1858 - 9 August 1932 was a social psychologist, educationalist, and a leader of the Fabian Society. ... Max Wertheimer (Prague, April 15, 1880 - New York, October 12, 1943) was one of the founders of Gestalt psychology. ...


However, the formal starting point for the scientific study of creativity, from the standpoint of orthodox psychological literature, is generally considered to have been J. P. Guilford's 1950 address to the American Psychological Association, which helped popularize the topic[9] and focus on a scientific approach to conceptualising creativity and measuring it by means such as psychometric testing. Psychology (ancient Greek: psyche = soul and logos = word) is the study of mind, thought, and behaviour. ... Joy Paul Guilford (1897–1988) was a US psychologist, best remembered for his study of human intelligence. ... The American Psychological Association (APA) is a professional organization representing psychology in the US. It has around 150,000 members and an annual budget of around $70m. ... Psychometrics is the science of measuring psychological aspects of a person such as knowledge, skills, abilities, or personality. ...


In parallel with these developments, others have taken a more pragmatic approach, teaching practical creativity techniques. Three of the best-known are : Creativity techniques are heuristic methods to facilitate creativity in a person or a group of people. ...

Alex Faickney Osborn (May 24, 1888 – May 4, 1966) was an advertising manager and the author of the creativity technique named brainstorming. ... Look up brainstorming in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Genrih Altshuller Genrikh Saulovich Altshuller (Ге́нрих Сау́лович Альтшу́ллер) (October 15, 1926 - September 24, 1998) was born in Tashkent. ... TRIZ (IPA: ) is a romanized acronym for Russian “” () meaning Theory of solving inventive problems or Theory of inventive problem solving. It was developed by Soviet engineer and researcher Genrich Altshuller and his colleagues starting in 1946. ... Edward de Bono (born May 19, 1933) is a Maltese psychologist and physician. ... Lateral thinking is a term coined by Edward de Bono, a Maltese psychologist, physician and writer. ...

Creativity in psychology & cognitive science

The study of the mental representations and processes underlying creative thought belongs to the domains of psychology and cognitive science. {redirect|Psychological science|the journal|Psychological Science (journal)}} Not to be confused with Phycology. ... Cognitive science is usually defined as the scientific study either of mind or of intelligence (e. ...


A psychodynamic approach to understanding creativity was proposed by Sigmund Freud, who suggested that creativity arises as a result of frustrated desires for fame, fortune, and love, with the energy that was previously tied up in frustration and emotional tension in the neurosis being sublimated into creative activity. Freud later retracted this view.[citation needed] Psychodynamic psychotherapy is a type of psychotherapy, usually meeting about once or twice a week. ... Sigmund Freud (IPA: ), born Sigismund Schlomo Freud (May 6, 1856 – September 23, 1939), was an Austrian neurologist and psychiatrist who founded the psychoanalytic school of psychology. ...


Graham Wallas

Graham Wallas & Richard Smith, in their work Art of Thought, published in 1926, presented one of the first models of the creative process. In the Wallas stage model, creative insights and illuminations may be explained by a process consisting of 5 stages:

(i) preparation (preparatory work on a problem that focuses the individual's mind on the problem and explores the problem's dimensions),
(ii) incubation (where the problem is internalized into the unconscious mind and nothing appears externally to be happening),
(iii) intimation (the creative person gets a 'feeling' that a solution is on its way),
(iv) illumination or insight (where the creative idea bursts forth from its preconscious processing into conscious awareness); and
(v) verification (where the idea is consciously verified, elaborated, and then applied).

In numerous publications, Wallas' model is just treated as four stages, with "intimation" seen as a sub-stage. There has been some empirical research looking at whether, as the concept of "incubation" in Wallas' model implies, a period of interruption or rest from a problem may aid creative problem-solving. Ward[10] lists various hypotheses that have been advanced to explain why incubation may aid creative problem-solving, and notes how some empirical evidence is consistent with the hypothesis that incubation aids creative problem-solving in that it enables "forgetting" of misleading clues. Absence of incubation may lead the problem solver to become fixated on inappropriate strategies of solving the problem.[11] This work disputes the earlier hypothesis that creative solutions to problems arise mysteriously from the unconscious mind while the conscious mind is occupied on other tasks.[12] The Preconscious is a structure of the mind, postulated by Sigmund Freud, containing all memories that can be easily accessed by the conscious mind. ... Look up Fixation in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Wallas considered creativity to be a legacy of the evolutionary process, which allowed humans to quickly adapt to rapidly changing environments. Simonton[13] provides an updated perspective on this view in his book, Origins of genius: Darwinian perspectives on creativity. This article is about evolution in biology. ...


J.P. Guilford

Guilford[14] performed important work in the field of creativity, drawing a distinction between convergent and divergent production (commonly renamed convergent and divergent thinking). Convergent thinking involves aiming for a single, correct solution to a problem, whereas divergent thinking involves creative generation of multiple answers to a set problem. Divergent thinking is sometimes used as a synonym for creativity in psychology literature. Other researchers have occasionally used the terms flexible thinking or fluid intelligence, which are roughly similar to (but not synonymous with) creativity. Joy Paul Guilford (1897–1988) was a US psychologist, best remembered for his study of human intelligence. ... Convergent and divergent production are the two types of human response to a set problem that were identified by J. P. Guilford. ... In psychometric psychology, fluid and crystallized intelligence (abbreviated gF and gC, respectively) are factors of general intelligence identified by Raymond Cattell (1971). ...


Arthur Koestler

In The Act of Creation, Arthur Koestler[5] lists three types of creative individual - the Artist, the Sage and the Jester. Arthur Koestler (September 5, 1905, Budapest – March 3, 1983, London) was a Hungarian polymath who became a naturalized British subject. ...


Believers in this trinity hold all three elements necessary in business and can identify them all in "truly creative" companies as well. Koestler introduced the concept of bisociation - that creativity arises as a result of the intersection of two quite different frames of reference. In economics, a business (also called firm or enterprise) is a legally recognized organizational entity designed to provide goods and/or services to consumers or corporate entities such as governments, charities or other businesses. ... The term company may refer to a separate legal entity, as in English law, or may simply refer to a business, as is the common use in the United States. ...


Geneplore model

In 1992 Finke et al. proposed the 'Geneplore' model, in which creativity takes place in two phases: a generative phase, where an individual constructs mental representations called preinventive structures, and an exploratory phase where those structures are used to come up with creative ideas. Weisberg[15] argued, by contrast, that creativity only involves ordinary cognitive processes yielding extraordinary results.


Conceptual blending

In the 90s, various approaches in cognitive science that dealt with metaphor, analogy and structure mapping have been converging, and a new integrative approach to the study of creativity in science, art and humor has emerged under the label conceptual blending. This article is about metaphor in literature and rhetoric. ... Analogy is both the cognitive process of transferring information from a particular subject (the analogue or source) to another particular subject (the target), and a linguistic expression corresponding to such a process. ... Conceptual Blending is a theory of cognition[1]. According to the Theory of Conceptual Blending, elements and vital relations from diverse scenarios are blended in a subconscious process. ...


"Creativity is the ability to illustrate what is outside the box from within the box." -The Ride


Psychological examples from science and mathematics

Jacques Hadamard

Jacques Hadamard, in his book Psychology of Invention in the Mathematical Field, uses introspection to describe mathematical thought processes. In contrast to authors who identify language and cognition, he describes his own mathematical thinking as largely wordless, often accompanied by mental images that represent the entire solution to a problem. He surveyed 100 of the leading physicists of his day (ca. 1900), asking them how they did their work. Many of the responses mirrored his own. This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... This article is about the psychological process of introspecting. ... Look up Cognition in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Mental images are images as seen in the minds eye, which CNN reporter Walter Rogers called the camera in your mind. One complicating factor is the ambiguity of interpretation of an image. ...


Hadamard described the experiences of the mathematicians/theoretical physicists Carl Friedrich Gauss, Hermann von Helmholtz, Henri Poincaré and others as viewing entire solutions with “sudden spontaneity.”[16] Leonhard Euler, considered one of the greatest mathematicians of all time A mathematician is a person whose primary area of study and research is the field of mathematics. ... Theoretical physics attempts to understand the world by making a model of reality, used for rationalizing, explaining, predicting physical phenomena through a physical theory. There are three types of theories in physics; mainstream theories, proposed theories and fringe theories. ... Johann Carl Friedrich Gauss (pronounced ,  ; in German usually Gauß, Latin: ) (30 April 1777 – 23 February 1855) was a German mathematician and scientist who contributed significantly to many fields, including number theory, statistics, analysis, differential geometry, geodesy, electrostatics, astronomy, and optics. ... Hermann Ludwig Ferdinand von Helmholtz (August 31, 1821 – September 8, 1894) was a German physician and physicist. ... Jules Henri Poincaré (April 29, 1854 – July 17, 1912) (IPA: [1]) was one of Frances greatest mathematicians and theoretical physicists, and a philosopher of science. ...


The same has been reported in literature by many others, such as Denis Brian,[17] G. H. Hardy,[18], Walter Heitler,[19] B. L. van der Waerden,[20] and Harold Ruegg.[21] Godfrey Harold Hardy FRS (February 7, 1877 Cranleigh, Surrey, England [1] – December 1, 1947 Cambridge, Cambridgeshire, England [2]) was a prominent English mathematician, known for his achievements in number theory and mathematical analysis. ... Walter Heinrich Heitler (02. ... Bartel Leendert van der Waerden (February 2, 1903 – January 12, 1996) was a Dutch mathematician who born in Amsterdam, Netherlands and died in Zürich, Switzerland. ...


To elaborate on one example, Einstein, after years of fruitless calculations, suddenly had the solution to the general theory of relativity revealed in a dream “like a giant die making an indelible impress, a huge map of the universe outlined itself in one clear vision.” [22] “Einstein” redirects here. ...


Hadamard described the process as having steps (i) preparation, (ii) incubation, (iv) illumination, and (v) verification of the five-step Graham Wallas creative-process model, leaving out (iii) intimation, with the first three cited by Hadamard as also having been put forth by Helmholtz:[23] Graham Wallas (31 May 1858 - 9 August 1932 was a social psychologist, educationalist, and a leader of the Fabian Society. ...


Marie-Louise von Franz

Marie-Louise von Franz, a colleague of the eminent psychiatrist Carl Jung, noted that in these unconscious scientific discoveries the “always recurring and important factor … is the simultaneity with which the complete solution is intuitively perceived and which can be checked later by discursive reasoning.” She attributes the solution presented “as an archetypal pattern or image.”[24] As cited by von Franz,[25] according to Jung, “Archetypes … manifest themselves only through their ability to organize images and ideas, and this is always an unconscious process which cannot be detected until afterwards.”[26] Marie-Louise von Franz (January 4, 1915 - February 17, 1998), the daughter of an Austrian baron and born in Munich, Germany, was a Swiss Jungian Psychologist and scholar. ... Jung redirects here. ... Archetype is defined as the first original model of which all other similar persons, objects, or concepts are merely derivative, copied, patterned, or emulated. ...


Creativity and Affect

Some theories suggest that creativity may be particularly susceptible to affective influence.


Creativity and Positive Affect Relations

According to Isen, positive affect has three primary effects on cognitive activity:

  1. Positive affect makes additional cognitive material available for processing, increasing the number of cognitive elements available for association;
  2. Positive affect leads to defocused attention and a more complex cognitive context, increasing the breadth of those elements that are treated as relevant to the problem;
  3. Positive affect increases cognitive flexibility, increasing the probability that diverse cognitive elements will in fact become associated. Together, these processes lead positive affect to have a positive influence on creativity.

Fredrickson in her Broaden and Build Model suggests that positive emotions such as joy and love broaden a person’s available repertoire of cognitions and actions, thus enhancing creativity.


According to these researchers, positive emotions increasing the number of cognitive elements available for association (attention scope) and the number of elements that are relevant to the problem (cognitive scope).


Creativity and Negative Affect Relations

On the other hand, some theorists have suggested that negative affect leads to greater creativity. A cornerstone of this perspective is empirical evidence of a relationship between affective illness and creativity. In a study of 1,005 prominent 20th century individuals from over 45 different professions, the University of Kentucky’s Arnold Ludwig found a slight but significant correlation between depression and level of creative achievement. In addition, several systematic studies of highly - creative individuals and their relatives have uncovered a higher incidence of affective disorders (primarily bipolar illness and depression) than that found in the general population.


Creativity and Affect at Work

Three patterns may exist between affect and creativity at work: positive (or negative) mood, or change in mood, predictably precedes creativity; creativity predictably precedes mood; and whether affect and creativity occur simultaneously. It was found that not only might affect precede creativity, but creative outcomes might provoke affect as well. At its simplest level, the experience of creativity is itself a work event, and like other events in the organizational context, it could evoke emotion. Qualitative research and anecdotal accounts of creative achievement in the arts and sciences suggest that creative insight is often followed by feelings of elation. For example, Albert Einstein called his 1907 general theory of relativity “the happiest thought of my life.” Empirical evidence on this matter is still very tentative, In contrast to the possible incubation effects of affective state on subsequent creativity, the affective consequences of creativity are likely to be more direct and immediate. In general, affective events provoke immediate and relatively-fleeting emotional reactions. Thus, if creative performance at work is an affective event for the individual doing the creative work, such an effect would likely be evident only in same-day data. Incubation is one of the 4 proposed stages of creativity: preparation, incubation, illumination, and verification [1]. Incubation is defined as a process of unconscious recombination of thought elements that were stimulated through conscious work at one point in time, resulting in novel ideas at some later point in time [2...


Another longitudinal research found several insights regarding the relations between creativity and emotion at work. First - a positive relationship between positive affect and creativity, and no evidence of a negative relationship. The more positive a person’s affect on a given day, the more creative thinking they evidenced that day and the next day – even controlling for that next day’s mood. There was even some evidence of an effect two days later


In addition, the researchers found no evidence that people were more creative when they experienced both positive and negative affect on the same day. The weight of evidence supports a purely linear form of the affect-creativity relationship, at least over the range of affect and creativity covered in our study: the more positive a person’s affect, the higher their creativity in a work setting.


Finally, they found four patterns of affect and creativity affect can operate as an antecedent to creativity; as a direct consequence of creativity; as an indirect consequence of creativity; and affect can occur simultaneously with creative activity. Thus, it appears that people’s feelings and creative cognitions are interwoven in several distinct ways within the complex fabric of their daily work lives.


Creativity and intelligence

Cerebral Cortex
The frontal lobe (shown in blue) is thought to play an important role in creativity

There has been debate in the psychological literature about whether intelligence and creativity are part of the same process (the conjoint hypothesis) or represent distinct mental processes (the disjoint hypothesis). Evidence from attempts to look at correlations between intelligence and creativity from the 1950s onwards, by authors such as Barron, Guilford or Wallach and Kogan, regularly suggested that correlations between these concepts were low enough to justify treating them as distinct concepts. Image File history File links Lobes_of_the_brain_NL.svg‎ Lobes of the brain image without labels. ... {{Infobox Brain| Name = Frontal lobe | Latin = lobus frontalis | GraySubject = 189 | GrayPage = 821 | Map = Cerebrum map| MapPos = | MapCaption = Principal fissures and lobes of the cerebrum viewed laterally. ... The temporal lobes are part of the cerebrum. ... The parietal lobe is a lobe in the brain. ... The occipital lobe is the visual processing center of the mammalian brain, containing most of the anatomical region of the visual cortex. ... {{Infobox Brain| Name = Frontal lobe | Latin = lobus frontalis | GraySubject = 189 | GrayPage = 821 | Map = Cerebrum map| MapPos = | MapCaption = Principal fissures and lobes of the cerebrum viewed laterally. ... For other uses, see Intelligence (disambiguation). ...


Some researchers believe that creativity is the outcome of the same cognitive processes as intelligence, and is only judged as creativity in terms of its consequences, i.e. when the outcome of cognitive processes happens to produce something novel, a view which Perkins has termed the "nothing special" hypothesis.[27]


A very popular model is what has come to be known as "the threshold hypothesis", proposed by Ellis Paul Torrance, which holds that a high degree of intelligence appears to be a necessary but not sufficient condition for high creativity.[14] This means that, in a general sample, there will be a positive correlation between creativity and intelligence, but this correlation will not be found if only a sample of the most highly intelligent people are assessed. Research into the threshold hypothesis, however, has produced mixed results ranging from enthusiastic support to refutation and rejection.[28] Ellis Paul Torrance (born October 8, 1915 in Milledgeville, died July 12, 2003) was an American psychologist. ... This article discusses only the formal meanings of necessary and sufficient causal meanings see causation. ... Several sets of (x, y) points, with the correlation coefficient of x and y for each set. ...


An alternative perspective, Renzulli's three-rings hypothesis, sees giftedness as based on both intelligence and creativity. More on both the threshold hypothesis and Renzulli's work can be found in O'Hara and Sternberg.[27]


Neurobiology of creativity

The neurobiology of creativity has been addressed [29] in the article "Creative Innovation: Possible Brain Mechanisms." The authors write that "creative innovation might require coactivation and communication between regions of the brain that ordinarily are not strongly connected". Highly creative people who excel at creative innovation tend to differ from others in three ways: Neurobiology is the study of cells of the nervous system and the organization of these cells into functional circuits that process information and mediate behavior. ...

Thus, the frontal lobe appears to be the part of the cortex that is most important for creativity. Convergent and divergent production are the two types of human response to a set problem that were identified by J. P. Guilford. ... {{Infobox Brain| Name = Frontal lobe | Latin = lobus frontalis | GraySubject = 189 | GrayPage = 821 | Map = Cerebrum map| MapPos = | MapCaption = Principal fissures and lobes of the cerebrum viewed laterally. ... Neurotransmitters are chemicals that are used to relay, amplify and modulate electrical signals between a presynaptic and a postsynaptic neuron. ... Norepinephrine (INN)(abbr. ... For other uses, see Cortex. ...


This article also explored the links between creativity and sleep, mood and addiction disorders, and depression. A mood disorder is a condition whereby the prevailing emotional mood is distorted or inappropriate to the circumstances. ... This article is about the concept of addiction. ... For other uses, see Depression. ...


In 2005, Alice Flaherty presented a three-factor model of the creative drive. Drawing from evidence in brain imaging, drug studies and lesion analysis, she described the creative drive as resulting from an interaction of the frontal lobes, the temporal lobes, and dopamine from the limbic system. The frontal lobes can be seen as responsible for idea generation, and the temporal lobes for idea editing and evaluation. Abnormalities in the frontal lobe (such as depression or anxiety) generally decrease creativity, while abnormalities in the temporal lobe often increase creativity. High activity in the temporal lobe typically inhibits activity in the frontal lobe, and vice versa. High dopamine levels increase general arousal and goal directed behaviors and reduce latent inhibition, and all three effects increase the drive to generate ideas.[30] The temporal lobes are part of the cerebrum. ... For other uses, see Dopamine (disambiguation). ... The limbic system is a historically defined set of brain structures that support a variety of functions including emotion and memory. ... Arousal is a physiological and psychological state of being awake. ... Latent inhibition is inhibition of the learning of a paired association between a conditioned stimulus and unconditioned stimulus due to prior repeated unpaired exposure of the conditioned stimulus. ...


Working Memory and the Cerebellum

Vandervert [31] described how the brain’s frontal lobes and the cognitive functions of the cerebellum collaborate to produce creativity and innovation. Vandervert’s explanation rests on considerable evidence that all processes of working memory (responsible for processing all thought[32]) are adaptively modeled by the cerebellum [33]. The cerebellum (consisting of 100 billion neurons, which is more that the entirety of the rest of the brain [34]is also widely known to adaptively model all bodily movement. The cerebellum’s adaptive models of working memory processing are then fed back to especially frontal lobe working memory control processes [35] where creative and innovative thoughts arise[36]. (Apparently, creative insight or the ‘’aha’’ experience is then triggered in the temporal lobe[37].) According to Vandervert, the details of creative adaptation begin in ‘’forward’’ cerebellar models which are anticipatory/exploratory controls for movement and thought. These cerebellar processing and control architectures have been termed Hierarchical Modular Selection and Identification for Control (HMOSAIC)[38]. New, hierarchically arranged levels of the cerebellar control architecture (HMOSAIC) develop as mental mulling in working memory is extended over time. These new levels of the control architecture are fed forward to the frontal lobes. Since the cerebellum adaptively models all movement and all levels of thought and emotion[39], Vandervert’s approach helps explain creativity and innovation in sports, art, music, the design of video games, technology, mathematics and thought in general.


Creativity and mental health

A study by psychologist J. Philippe Rushton found creativity to correlate with intelligence and psychoticism.[40] Another study found creativity to be greater in schizotypal than in either normal or schizophrenic individuals. While divergent thinking was associated with bilateral activation of the prefrontal cortex, schizotypal individuals were found to have much greater activation of their right prefrontal cortex.[41] This study hypothesizes that such individuals are better at accessing both hemispheres, allowing them to make novel associations at a faster rate. In agreement with this hypothesis, ambidexterity is also associated with schizotypal and schizophrenic individuals. This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Professor J. Philippe Rushton John Philippe (Phil) Rushton (born December 3, 1943) is a psychology professor at the University of Western Ontario, Canada, who is most widely known for his work on intelligence and racial differences, particularly his book Race, Evolution And Behavior. ... Intelligence is the mental capacity to reason, plan, solve problems, think abstractly, comprehend ideas and language, and learn. ... Psychoticism is one of the three traits used by the psychologist Hans Eysenck in his P-E-N model (psychoticism, extraversion and neuroticism) model of personality. ... Schizotypal personality disorder is a personality disorder that is characterized by a need for social isolation, odd behaviour and thinking, and often unconventional beliefs such as being convinced of having extra sensory abilities. ... For other uses, see Schizophrenia (disambiguation). ... “Prefrontal” redirects here. ... Ambidexterity is the state of being equally adept in the use of both right and left appendages (such as the hands). ... Schizotypal personality disorder is a personality disorder that is characterized by a need for social isolation, odd behaviour and thinking, and often unconventional beliefs such as being convinced of having extra sensory abilities. ... For other uses, see Schizophrenia (disambiguation). ...


Particularly strong links have been identified between creativity and mood disorders, particularly manic-depressive disorder (a.k.a. bipolar disorder) and depressive disorder (a.k.a. unipolar disorder). In Touched with Fire: Manic-Depressive Illness and the Artistic Temperament, Kay Redfield Jamison summarizes studies of mood-disorder rates in writers, poets and artists. She also explores research that identifies mood disorders in such famous writers and artists as Ernest Hemingway (who shot himself after electroconvulsive treatment), Virginia Woolf (who drowned herself when she felt a depressive episode coming on), composer Robert Schumann (who died in a mental institution), and even the famed visual artist Michelangelo. A mood disorder is a condition whereby the prevailing emotional mood is distorted or inappropriate to the circumstances. ... Bipolar disorder, still often referred to colloquially as manic depression, is a mood disorder marked by episodes of clinically significant impairment due to mania or depression. ... For other uses, see Bipolar. ... It is common to feel sad, discouraged , or down once in a while, and anyone in this state might say they are suffering from depression. ... It is common to feel sad, discouraged , or down once in a while, and anyone in this state might say they are suffering from depression. ... Kay Redfield Jamison (born October 14, 1946) is an American psychologist and science writer who is an expert on bipolar disorder. ... Though anyone who creates a written work may be called a writer, the term is usually reserved for those who write creatively or professionally, or those who have written in many different forms. ... Poets are authors of poems. ... An artist is someone who employs creative talent to produce works of art. ... A mood disorder is a condition whereby the prevailing emotional mood is distorted or inappropriate to the circumstances. ... Ernest Miller Hemingway (July 21, 1899 — July 2, 1961) was an American novelist, short-story writer, and journalist. ... Electroconvulsive therapy, also known as electroshock or ECT, is a controversial type of psychiatric shock therapy involving the induction of an artificial seizure in a patient by passing electricity through the brain. ... For the American writer, see Virginia Euwer Wolff. ... For other persons named Robert Schumann, see Robert Schumann (disambiguation). ... Many times, the term art is used to refer to the visual arts. ... For other uses, see Michelangelo (disambiguation). ...


Creativity & the Body

A number of experts are suggesting that because all creativity is an embodied experience, then body practices such as dance, yoga,martial arts, and various forms of body-based meditative practices, will help enhance creativity. These experts also suggest that increasing somatic awareness (i.e., awareness of the body) can help people become more creative.[42] For other uses such as Yoga postures, see Yoga (disambiguation) Statue of Shiva performing Yogic meditation Yoga (Sanskrit: योग Yoga, IPA: ) is a group of ancient spiritual practices originating in India. ... Hawaiian State Grappling Championships. ...


Measuring Creativity

Creativity Quotient

Several attempts have been made to develop a creativity quotient of an individual similar to the Intelligence quotient (IQ), however these have been unsuccessful.[43] Most measures of creativity are dependent on the personal judgement of the tester, so a standardized measure is difficult, if not impossible, to develop. IQ redirects here. ...


Psychometric approach

J. P. Guilford's group,[14] which pioneered the modern psychometric study of creativity, constructed several tests to measure creativity in 1967: Joy Paul Guilford (1897–1988) was a US psychologist, best remembered for his study of human intelligence. ... Psychometrics is the science of measuring psychological aspects of a person such as knowledge, skills, abilities, or personality. ...

  • Plot Titles, where participants are given the plot of a story and asked to write original titles.
  • Quick Responses is a word-association test scored for uncommonness.
  • Figure Concepts, where participants were given simple drawings of objects and individuals and asked to find qualities or features that are common by two or more drawings; these were scored for uncommonness.
  • Unusual Uses is finding unusual uses for common everyday objects such as bricks.
  • Remote Associations, where participants are asked to find a word between two given words (e.g. Hand _____ Call)
  • Remote Consequences, where participants are asked to generate a list of consequences of unexpected events (e.g. loss of gravity)

Building on Guilford's work, Torrance[44] developed the Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking in 1974. They involved simple tests of divergent thinking and other problem-solving skills, which were scored on: Ellis Paul Torrance (born October 8, 1915 in Milledgeville, died July 12, 2003) was an American psychologist. ...

  • Fluency. The total number of interpretable, meaningful, and relevant ideas generated in response to the stimulus.
  • Flexibility. The number of different categories of relevant responses.
  • Originality. The statistical rarity of the responses among the test subjects.
  • Elaboration. The amount of detail in the responses.

The Creativity Achievement Questionnaire, a self-report test that measures creative achievement across 10 domains, was described in 2005 and shown to be reliable and valid when compared to other measures of creativity and to independent evaluation of creative output.[45]


Social-personality approach

Some researchers have taken a social-personality approach to the measurement of creativity. In these studies, personality traits such as independence of judgement, self-confidence, attraction to complexity, aesthetic orientation and risk-taking are used as measures of the creativity of individuals.[9] Other researchers[46] have related creativity to the trait, openness to experience. In psychology, the Big Five personality traits are five broad factors or dimensions of personality discovered through empirical research (Goldberg, 1993). ...


Other approaches to measurement

Genrich Altshuller in the 1950s introduced approaching creativity as an exact science with TRIZ and a Level-of-Invention measure. Genrih Altshuller Genrikh Saulovich Altshuller (Ге́нрих Сау́лович Альтшу́ллер IPA: ) (October 15, 1926 - September 24, 1998), penname Genrikh Altov was born in Tashkent. ... TRIZ (IPA: ) is a romanized acronym for Russian “” () meaning Theory of solving inventive problems or Theory of inventive problem solving. It was developed by Soviet engineer and researcher Genrich Altshuller and his colleagues starting in 1946. ... Level of Invention or Degree of Inventiveness or Level of Solution is degree of an solution of inventive problem (one containing a contradiction) defined and introduced by TRIZ author G. S. Altshuller. ...


The creativity of thousands of Japanese, expressed in terms of their problem-solving and problem-recognizing capabilities, has been measured in Japanese firms.[47]


Howard Gruber insisted on a case-study approach that expresses the existential and unique quality of the creator. Creativity to Gruber was the product of purposeful work and this work could be described only as a confluence of forces in the specifics of the case.


Creativity in various contexts

Creativity has been studied from a variety of perspectives and is important in numerous contexts. Most of these approaches are undisciplinary, and it is therefore difficult to form a coherent overall view.[9] The following sections examine some of the areas in which creativity is seen as being important.


Creativity in diverse cultures

Creativity is a scientific concept which is mostly rooted within a Western creationist perspective. Francois Jullien in 'Process and Creation, 1989' is inviting us to look at that concept from a Chinese cultural point of view.


Todd Lubart has studied extensively the cultural aspects of creativity and innovation.


Rody Roderick Klein together with Metis Reflective Community have also published a few papers on Metis, a sort of cosmogonic approach to creativity rooted on a concept of universe where everything is both a constraint and/or an opportunity, interconnected. A universe without totality, a continuous creation process. Metis bare its name from the work of Destiennes and Vernant on our Greek heritage displaying a special outlook on wisdom, creativity and intelligence. It is a constant holistic creation process and the human self perception of his contribution to this process could be enhanced by a trace composer.


Pierre Lévy has created recently the Information Economy MetaLanguage [1] : This computable language could be used in order to reach an interdisciplinary view of creativity, innovation and intelligence.

Henry Moore's Reclining Figure
Henry Moore's Reclining Figure

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1176x640, 298 KB) Henry Moore, Reclining Figure (1951), painted plaster. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1176x640, 298 KB) Henry Moore, Reclining Figure (1951), painted plaster. ... Henry Moore photographed by Lothar Wolleh is in a park in Moores county of Yorkshire. ...

Creativity in art & literature

Most people associate creativity with the fields of art and literature. In these fields, originality is considered to be a sufficient condition for creativity, unlike other fields where both originality and appropriateness are necessary.[48] This article is about the philosophical concept of Art. ... For other uses, see Literature (disambiguation). ...


Within the different modes of artistic expression, one can postulate a continuum extending from "interpretation" to "innovation". Established artistic movements and genres pull practitioners to the "interpretation" end of the scale, whereas original thinkers strive towards the "innovation" pole. Note that we conventionally expect some "creative" people (dancers, actors, orchestral members, etc.) to perform (interpret) while allowing others (writers, painters, composers, etc.) more freedom to express the new and the different. An art movement is a tendency or style in art with a specific common philosophy or goal, followed by a group of artists during a restricted period of time (usually a few months, years or decades). ... For the gay mens lifestyle magazine, see Genre (magazine). ...


Contrast alternative theories, for example:

  • artistic inspiration, which provides the transmission of visions from divine sources such as the Muses; a taste of the Divine. Compare with invention.
  • artistic evolution, which stresses obeying established ("classical") rules and imitating or appropriating to produce subtly different but unshockingly understandable work. Compare with crafts.
  • artistic conversation, as in Urrealism, which stresses the depth of communication when the creative product is the language.

In the art practice and theory of Davor Dzalto, human creativity is taken as a basic feature of both the personal existence of human being and art production. ķ Look up inspiration in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... In religion, visions comprise inspirational renderings, generally of a future state and/or of a mythical being, and are believed (by followers of the religion) to come from a deity, directly or indirectly via prophets, and serve to inspire or prod believers as part of a revelation or an epiphany. ... For other uses, see Muse (disambiguation). ... For the musical form, see Invention (music). ... This article is about evolution in biology. ... Composition with Fruit, Guitar and Glass. ... Arts and crafts comprise a whole host of activities and hobbies that are related to making things with ones own hands and skill. ... This article is about the philosophical concept of Art. ... Look up practice, practise in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The word theory has a number of distinct meanings in different fields of knowledge, depending on their methodologies and the context of discussion. ... Davor Dzalto (Davor Džalto, Давор Џалто) is an artist, art historian and theoretician, born in Travnik (Bosnia and Herzegovina) on May 17th 1980. ... For the philosophical movement, see Existentialism. ... Human beings are defined variously in biological, spiritual, and cultural terms, or in combinations thereof. ... This article is about the philosophical concept of Art. ...


Creative industries & services

Today, creativity forms the core activity of a growing section of the global economy — the so-called "creative industries" — capitalistically generating (generally non-tangible) wealth through the creation and exploitation of intellectual property or through the provision of creative services. The Creative Industries Mapping Document 2001 provides an overview of the creative industries in the UK. The creative professional workforce is becoming a more integral part of industrialized nations' economies. The world economy can be represented various ways, and broken down in various ways. ... Creative Industries (or sometimes Creative Economy) refers to a set of interlocking industry sectors, and are often cited as being a growing part of the global economy. ... For the business meaning, see Wealth (economics). ... Exploitation means many different things. ... For the 2006 film, see Intellectual Property (film). ... Creative Services are a subsector of the creative industries, a part of the economy that creates wealth by offering creativity for hire to other businesses. ... Although creative professionals--people who work full-time in creative endeavors--have been a part of the workforce for more than 500 years, several events during the past decade have altered industry and public perception of these workers. ...


Creative professions include writing, art, design, theater, television, radio, motion pictures, related crafts, as well as marketing, strategy, some aspects of scientific research and development, product development, some types of teaching and curriculum design, and more. Since many creative professionals (actors and writers, for example) are also employed in secondary professions, estimates of creative professionals are often inaccurate. By some estimates, approximately 10 million US workers are creative professionals; depending upon the depth and breadth of the definition, this estimate may be double.


Creativity in other professions

Isaac Newton's law of gravity is popularly attributed to a creative leap he experienced when observing a falling apple.
Isaac Newton's law of gravity is popularly attributed to a creative leap he experienced when observing a falling apple.

Creativity is also seen as being increasingly important in a variety of other professions. Architecture and industrial design are the fields most often associated with creativity, and more generally the fields of design and design research. These fields explicitly value creativity, and journals such as Design Studies have published many studies on creativity and creative problem solving.[49] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1266x842, 646 KB)Isaac Newtons own first edition copy of his Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica with his handwritten corrections for the second edition. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1266x842, 646 KB)Isaac Newtons own first edition copy of his Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica with his handwritten corrections for the second edition. ... Sir Isaac Newton FRS (4 January 1643 – 31 March 1727) [ OS: 25 December 1642 – 20 March 1727][1] was an English physicist, mathematician, astronomer, natural philosopher, and alchemist. ... This article is about building architecture. ... Example of industrial design item - hanger chair Industrial design is an applied art whereby the aesthetics and usability of products may be improved for marketability and production. ... All Saints Chapel in the Cathedral Basilica of St. ... Design research emerged as a recognisable field of study in the 1960s, initially marked by a conference on Design methods at Imperial College, London, in 1962. ...


Fields such as science and engineering have, by contrast, experienced a less explicit (but arguably no less important) relation to creativity. Simonton[13] shows how some of the major scientific advances of the 20th century can be attributed to the creativity of individuals. This ability will also be seen as increasingly important for engineers in years to come.[50] A magnet levitating above a high-temperature superconductor demonstrates the Meissner effect. ... Engineering is the discipline and profession of applying scientific knowledge and utilizing natural laws and physical resources in order to design and implement materials, structures, machines, devices, systems, and processes that realize a desired objective and meet specified criteria. ...


Accounting has also been associated with creativity with the popular euphemism creative accounting. Although this term often implies unethical practices, Amabile[48] has suggested that even this profession can benefit from the (ethical) application of creative thinking. Creative accounting and earnings management are euphemisms referring to accounting practices that may or may not follow the letter of the rules of standard accounting practices but certainly deviate from the spirit of those rules. ...


Creativity in organizations

Amabile[48] argued that to enhance creativity in business, three components were needed:

  • Expertise (technical, procedural & intellectual knowledge),
  • Creative thinking skills (how flexibly and imaginatively people approach problems),
  • and Motivation (especially intrinsic motivation).

Nonaka, who examined several successful Japanese companies, similarly saw creativity and knowledge creation as being important to the success of organizations.[51] In particular, he emphasized the role that tacit knowledge has to play in the creative process. Intrinsic motivation is evident when people engage in an activity for its own sake, without some obvious external incentive present. ... The concept of tacit knowing comes from scientist and philosopher Michael Polanyi. ...


Economic views of creativity

In the early 20th century, Joseph Schumpeter introduced the economic theory of creative destruction, to describe the way in which old ways of doing things are endogenously destroyed and replaced by the new. Joseph Alois Schumpeter (February 8, 1883 – January 8, 1950) was economist and political scientist born in Moravia. ... Creative destruction, introduced in 1942 by the economist Joseph Schumpeter, describes the process of transformation that accompanies radical innovation. ...


Creativity is also seen by economists such as Paul Romer as an important element in the recombination of elements to produce new technologies and products and, consequently, economic growth. Creativity leads to capital, and creative products are protected by intellectual property laws. Paul Michael Romer is an economist and professor at Stanford University. ... Not to be confused with capitol. ... For the 2006 film, see Intellectual Property (film). ...


Creativity is also an important aspect to understanding Entrepreneurship. Entrepreneurship is the practice of starting new organizations or revitalizing mature organizations, particularly new businesses generally in response to identified opportunities. ...


The creative class is seen by some to be an important driver of modern economies. In his 2002 book, The Rise of the Creative Class, economist Richard Florida popularized the notion that regions with "3 T's of economic development: Technology, Talent and Tolerance" also have high concentrations of creative professionals and tend to have a higher level of economic development. The creative class is a group of people that social scientist Dr. Richard Florida, Hirst Professor of Public Policy at George Mason University, believes are a key driving force for economic development of post-industrial cities in the USA. The Creative Class concept is controversial, as is Floridas methodology. ... Alan Greenspan, former chairman, United States Federal Reserve. ... Richard Florida (1957, Newark NJ) is an American sociologist and economist. ... Although creative professionals--people who work full-time in creative endeavors--have been a part of the workforce for more than 500 years, several events during the past decade have altered industry and public perception of these workers. ...


Fostering creativity

Main article: creativity techniques

Daniel Pink, in his 2005 book A Whole New Mind, repeating arguments posed throughout the 20th century, argues that we are entering a new age where creativity is becoming increasingly important. In this conceptual age, we will need to foster and encourage right-directed thinking (representing creativity and emotion) over left-directed thinking (representing logical, analytical thought). Creativity techniques are heuristic methods to facilitate creativity in a person or a group of people. ...


Nickerson[52] provides a summary of the various creativity techniques that have been proposed. These include approaches that have been developed by both academia and industry:

  1. Establishing purpose and intention
  2. Building basic skills
  3. Encouraging acquisitions of domain-specific knowledge
  4. Stimulating and rewarding curiosity and exploration
  5. Building motivation, especially internal motivation
  6. Encouraging confidence and a willingness to take risks
  7. Focusing on mastery and self-competition
  8. Promoting supportable beliefs about creativity
  9. Providing opportunities for choice and discovery
  10. Developing self-management (metacognitive skills)
  11. Teaching techniques and strategies for facilitating creative performance
  12. Providing balance

Some see the conventional system of schooling as "stifling" of creativity and attempt (particularly in the pre-school/kindergarten and early school years) to provide a creativity-friendly, rich, imagination-fostering environment for young children. Compare Waldorf School. This article is about institutional education. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Day care. ... For other uses, see Kindergarten (disambiguation). ... Waldorf Schools (also known as Steiner schools) state as their mission educating the whole child, with a strong emphasis on balancing the childs natural stages of development with creativity and academic excellence. ...


A growing number of psychologists are supporting the idea that there are methods of increasing the creativity of an individual. Several different researchers have proposed approaches to prop up this idea, ranging from psychological-cognitive, such as: {redirect|Psychological science|the journal|Psychological Science (journal)}} Not to be confused with Phycology. ...

and Creative Problem Solving begins when knowledge and simply thinking about a problem fails. ... Synectics is a relatively unknown problem solving approach that stimulates thought processes of which the subject is generally unaware. ...

to the highly-structured, such as: Lateral thinking is a term coined by Edward de Bono, a Maltese psychologist, physician and writer. ... Edward de Bono (born May 19, 1933) is a Maltese psychologist and physician. ...

TRIZ (IPA: ) is a romanized acronym for Russian “” () meaning Theory of solving inventive problems or Theory of inventive problem solving. It was developed by Soviet engineer and researcher Genrich Altshuller and his colleagues starting in 1946. ... ARIZ - (russ. ... ARIZ (russ. ... Genrih Altshuller Genrikh Saulovich Altshuller (Ге́нрих Сау́лович Альтшу́ллер IPA: ) (October 15, 1926 - September 24, 1998), penname Genrikh Altov was born in Tashkent. ... For other senses of this word see morphology. ...

Enhancing the Creative Process with New Technologies

Exploring how to enhance and assist the creative process with new Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) is a growing field of research.


Earlier research work includes :

More recent work has been conducted by Rody Klein and the Metis Global Reflective Community. This intercultural, global and interdisciplinary team is designing a trace composer interface meant to increase awareness of single and cooperative users (and co-designers) during the collective creative process conducted by a global virtual team involved in the production of an advertainment movie for Beijing Humanistics Olympics 2008. ARIZ - (russ. ... ARIZ (russ. ... Genrih Altshuller Genrikh Saulovich Altshuller (Ге́нрих Сау́лович Альтшу́ллер IPA: ) (October 15, 1926 - September 24, 1998), penname Genrikh Altov was born in Tashkent. ... For other senses of this word see morphology. ...


Cybertigi and Moulin projects are ongoing projects in Mali, exploring the complex relationship of mobile and digital technologies with oral traditions and creative commons of rural communities non connected to Internet. A Wikipedia offline on a single CD was designed as a first step bridging the digital divide between the web arena and unconnected rural communities. The next step would be to find ways to convey creative commons and more contributions from those unconnected rural areas to Wikipedia Online.


A simple but accurate review on this new Human-Computer Interactions (HCI) angle for promoting creativity has been written by Todd Lubart, an invitation full of creative ideas to develop further this new field.


The Creativity and Cognition conference series, sponsored by the ACM and running since 1993 has been an important venue for publishing research on the intersection between technology and creativity. The conference now runs biannually, next taking place in 2009.


Social attitudes to creativity

Although the benefits of creativity to society as a whole have been noted,[53] social attitudes about this topic remain divided. The wealth of literature regarding the development of creativity[54] and the profusion of creativity techniques indicate wide acceptance, at least among academics, that creativity is desirable. Creativity techniques are heuristic methods to facilitate creativity in a person or a group of people. ...


There is, however, a dark side to creativity, in that it represents a "quest for a radical autonomy apart from the constraints of social responsibility".[55] In other words, by encouraging creativity we are encouraging a departure from society's existing norms and values. Expectation of conformity runs contrary to the spirit of creativity. Nevertheless, employers are increasingly valuing creative skills. A report by the Business Council of Australia, for example, has called for a higher level of creativity in graduates.[56] The ability to "think outside the box" is highly sought after. However, the above-mentioned paradox may well imply that firms pay lip service to thinking outside the box while maintaining traditional, hierarchical organization structures in which individual creativity is not rewarded. Thinking outside the box is a cliché or catchphrase used to refer to looking at a problem from a new perspective without preconceptions, sometimes called a process of lateral thought. ...


See Also

  • Invention, e.g., Artistic Invention such as in Visual Art
  • The heroic theory of invention and scientific development

For the musical form, see Invention (music). ...

Notes

  1. ^ (Taylor, 1988)
  2. ^ (Rhodes, 1961)
  3. ^ (Johnson, 1972)
  4. ^ (Boden, 2004)
  5. ^ a b (Koestler, 1964)
  6. ^ Amabile, T. M., R. Conti, H. Coon, et al. (1996). "Assessing the work environment for creativity". Academy of Management Review 39 (5): 1154-1184. 
  7. ^ a b c d (Tatarkiewicz, 1980)
  8. ^ a b (Albert & Runco, 1999)
  9. ^ a b c (Sternberg, 1999)
  10. ^ (Ward, 2003)
  11. ^ (Smith, 1981)
  12. ^ (Anderson, 2000)
  13. ^ a b (Simonton, 1999)
  14. ^ a b c (Guilford, 1967)
  15. ^ (Weisberg, 1993)
  16. ^ Hadamard, 1954, pp. 13-16.
  17. ^ Brian, 1996, p. 159.
  18. ^ G. H. Hardy cited how the mathematician Srinivasa Ramanujan had “moments of sudden illumination.” See Kanigel, 1992, pp. 285-286.
  19. ^ Interview with Walter Heitler by John Heilbron (March 18, 1963. Archives for the History of Quantum Physics), as cited in and quoted from in Gavroglu, Kostas Fritz London: A Scientific Biography p. 45 (Cambridge, 2005).
  20. ^ von Franz, 1992, p. 297 and 314. Cited work: B. L. van der Waerden, Einfall und Überlegung: Drei kleine Beiträge zur Psychologie des mathematischen Denkens (Gasel & Stuttgart, 1954).
  21. ^ von Franz, 1992, p. 297 and 314. Cited work: Harold Ruegg, Imagination: An Inquiry into the Sources and Conditions That Stimulate Creativity (New York: Harper, 1954).
  22. ^ Brian, 1996, p. 159.
  23. ^ Hadamard, 1954, p. 56.
  24. ^ von Franz, 1992, pp. 297-298.
  25. ^ von Franz, 1992 297-298 and 314.
  26. ^ Jung, 1981, paragraph 440, p. 231.
  27. ^ a b (O'Hara & Sternberg, 1999)
  28. ^ (Plucker & Renzulli, 1999)
  29. ^ (Kenneth M Heilman, MD, Stephen E. Nadeau, MD, and David O. Beversdorf, MD. "Creative Innovation: Possible Brain Mechanisms" Neurocase (2003)
  30. ^ (Flaherty, 2005)
  31. ^ Vandervert 2003a, 2003b; Vandervert, Schimpf & Liu, 2007
  32. ^ Miyake & Shah, 1999
  33. ^ Schmahmann, 1997, 2004
  34. ^ Andersen, Korbo & Pakkenberg, 1992
  35. ^ Miller & Cohen, 2001
  36. ^ Vandervert, 2003a
  37. ^ Jung-Beeman, Bowden, Haberman, Frymiare, Arambel-Liu, Greenblatt, Reber & Kounios, 2004
  38. ^ Imamizu, Kuroda, Miyauchi, Yoshioka & Kawato, 2003
  39. ^ Schmahmann, 2004,
  40. ^ (Rushton, 1990)
  41. ^ http://exploration.vanderbilt.edu/news/news_schizotypes.htm (Actual paper)
  42. ^ [Speaking of Creativity]
  43. ^ (Kraft, 2005)
  44. ^ (Torrance, 1974)
  45. ^ (Carson, 2005)
  46. ^ for example McCrae (1987)
  47. ^ Details: http://iccincsm.at.infoseek.co.jp
  48. ^ a b c (Amabile, 1998)
  49. ^ for a typical example see (Dorst et al., 2001)
  50. ^ (National Academy of Engineering 2005)
  51. ^ (Nonaka, 1991)
  52. ^ (Nickerson, 1999)
  53. ^ (Runco 2004)
  54. ^ see (Feldman, 1999) for example
  55. ^ (McLaren, 1999)
  56. ^ (BCA, 2006)

Ramanujan redirects here. ... Fritz Wolfgang London (March 7, 1900–March 30, 1954) was a German-born American physicist for whom the London force is named. ...

References

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  • Alvino, Carlos Eduardo Paladino, Silvia Regina Winetzki, Jethro de LoxLok, Verônica de Thule M.A. (2007). in ed. Núcleo de Inteligência: Tratado de Alquimia. Núcleo de Inteligência. 
  • Ayan, Jordan (1997). Aha! - 10 Ways To Free Your Creative Spirit and Find Your Great Ideas. Random House. 
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  • BCA (2006). New Concepts in Innovation: The Keys to a Growing Australia. Business Council of Australia. 
  • Brian, Denis, Einstein: A Life (John Wiley and Sons, 1996) ISBN 0-471-11459-6
  • Boden, M.A. (2004). The Creative Mind: Myths And Mechanisms. Routledge. 
  • Carson, S.H.; Peterson, J.B., Higgins, D.M. (2005). "Reliability, Validity, and Factor Structure of the Creative Achievement Questionnaire". Creativity Research Journal 17 (1): 37-50. doi:10.1207/s15326934crj1701_4. 
  • Craft, A. (2005). Creativity in Schools: tensions and dilemmas. Routledge. 
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  • Feldman, D.H. (1999). "The Development of Creativity", in ed. Sternberg, R.J.: Handbook of Creativity. Cambridge University Press. 
  • Finke, R.; Ward, T.B. & Smith, S.M. (1992). Creative cognition: Theory, research, and applications. MIT Press. 
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  • Florida, R. (2002). The Rise of the Creative Class: And How It's Transforming Work, Leisure, Community and Everyday Life. Basic Books. 
  • Guilford, J.P. (1967). The Nature of Human Intelligence. 
  • Hadamard, Jacques, The Psychology of Invention in the Mathematical Field (Dover, 1954) ISBN 0-486-20107-4
  • Helmholtz, H. v. L. (1896). Vortrage und reden (5th Auffl.). Friederich Vieweg und Sohn. 
  • Jeffery. G. (2005). The Creative College: building a successful learning culture in the arts. Trentham Books. 
  • Johnson, D.M. (1972). Systematic introduction to the psychology of thinking. Harper & Row. 
  • Jullien, F.; Paula M. Varsano (Translator) (2004). In Praise of Blandness: Proceeding from Chinese Thought and Aesthetics. Zone Books,U.S..  ISBN-10: 1890951412; ISBN-13: 978-1890951412
  • Jung, C. G., The Collected Works of C. G. Jung. Volume 8. The Structure and Dynamics of the Psyche. (Princeton, 1981) ISBN 0-691-09774-7
  • Kanigel, Robert, The Man Who Knew Infinity: A Life of the Genius Ramanujan (Washington Square Press, 1992) ISBN 0-671-75061-5
  • Kraft, U. (2005). "Unleashing Creativity". Scientific American Mind April: 16-23. 
  • Koestler, A. (1964). The Act of Creation. 
  • McLaren, R.B. (1999). "Dark Side of Creativity", in ed. Runco, M.A. & Pritzker, S.R.: Encyclopedia of Creativity. Academic Press. 
  • McCrae, R.R. (1987). "Creativity, Divergent Thinking, and Openness to Experience". Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 52 (6): 1258-1265. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.52.6.1258. 
  • Michalko, M.. Cracking Creativity: The Secrets of Creative Genius. 
  • Nachmanovitch, Stephen (1990). Free Play: Improvisation in Life and Art. Penguin-Putnam. 
  • National Academy of Engineering (2005). Educating the engineer of 2020 : adapting engineering education to the new century. National Academies Press. 
  • Nickerson, R.S. (1999). "Enhancing Creativity", in ed. Sternberg, R.J.: Handbook of Creativity. Cambridge University Press. 
  • Nonaka, I. (1991). "The Knowledge-Creating Company". Harvard Business Review 69 (6): 96-104. 
  • O'Hara, L.A. & Sternberg, R.J. (1999). "Creativity and Intelligence", in ed. Sternberg, R.J.: Handbook of Creativity. Cambridge University Press. 
  • Pink, D.H. (2005). A Whole New Mind: Moving from the information age into the conceptual age. Allen & Unwin. 
  • Plucker, J.A. & Renzulli, J.S. (1999). "Psychometric Approaches to the Study of Human Creativity", in ed. Sternberg, R.J.: Handbook of Creativity. Cambridge University Press. 
  • Poincaré, H. (1908/1952). "Mathematical creation", in ed. Ghiselin, B.: The Creative Process: A Symposium. Mentor. 
  • Rhodes, M. (1961). "An analysis of creativity". Phi Delta Kappan 42: 305-311. 
  • Rushton, J.P. (1990). "Creativity, intelligence, and psychoticism". Personality and Individual Differences 11: 1291-1298. doi:10.1016/0191-8869(90)90156-L. 
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  • Simonton, D.K. (1999). Origins of genius: Darwinian perspectives on creativity. Oxford University Press. 
  • Smith, S.M. & Blakenship, S.E. (1991). "Incubation and the persistence of fixation in problem solving". American Journal of Psychology 104: 61–87. doi:10.2307/1422851. 
  • Sternberg, R.J.; Lubart, T.I. (1999). "The Concept of Creativity: Prospects and Paradigms", in ed. Sternberg, R.J.: Handbook of Creativity. Cambridge University Press. 
  • Tatarkiewicz, Władysław (1980). A History of Six Ideas: an Essay in Aesthetics. Translated from the Polish by Christopher Kasparek, The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff. 
  • Taylor, C.W. (1988). "Various approaches to and definitions of creativity", in ed. Sternberg, R.J.: The nature of creativity: Contemporary psychological perspectives. Cambridge University Press. 
  • Torrance, E.P. (1974). Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking. Personnel Press. 
  • von Franz, Marie-Louise, Psyche and Matter (Shambhala, 1992) ISBN 0-87773-902-1
  • Wallas, G. (1926). Art of Thought. 
  • Weisberg, R.W. (1993). Creativity: Beyond the myth of genius. Freeman. 
  • Ward, T. (2003). "Creativity", in ed. Nagel, L.: Encyclopaedia of Cognition. New York: Macmillan. 
  • Andersen, B., Korbo, L., & Pakkenberg, B. (1992). A quantitative study of the human cerebellum with unbiased stereological techniques. The Journal of Comparative Neurology, 326, 549-560.
  • Imamizu, H., Kuroda, T., Miyauchi, S., Yoshioka, T., & Kawato, M. (2003). Modular organization of internal models of tools in the cerebellum. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science, 100, (9), 5461-5466.
  • Jung-Beeman, M., Bowden, E., Haberman, J., Frymiare, J., Arambel-Liu, S., Greenblatt, R., Reber, P., & Kounios, J. (2004). Neural activity when people solve verbal problems with insight. PLOS Biology, 2, 500-510.
  • Miller, E., & Cohen, J. (2001). An integrative theory of prefrontal cortex function. Annual Review of Neuroscience, 24, 167-202.
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  • Schmahmann, J. (Ed.). (1997). The cerebellum and cognition. New York: Academic Press.
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  • Vandervert, L. (2003a). How working memory and cognitive modeling functions of the cerebellum contribute to discoveries in mathematics. New Ideas in Psychology, 21, 159-175.
  • Vandervert, L. (2003b). The neurophysiological basis of innovation. In L. V. Shavinina (Ed.) The international handbook on innovation (pp. 17-30). Oxford, England: Elsevier Science.
  • Vandervert, L., Schimpf, P., & Liu, H. (2007). How working memory and the cerebellum collaborate to produce creativity and innovation [Special Issue]. Creativity Research Journal, 19(1), 1-19.

December 2006 issue of the Harvard Business Review. ... Margaret Boden did not know the man she married was a sick fuck who was responsible for the destruction of a fine race. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Richard Florida (1957, Newark NJ) is an American sociologist and economist. ... Joy Paul Guilford (1897–1988) was a US psychologist, best remembered for his study of human intelligence. ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... Jung redirects here. ... Scientific American Mind is a bimonthly American popular science magazine concentrated on brain and cognitive sciences. ... Arthur Koestler (September 5, 1905, Budapest – March 3, 1983, London) was a Hungarian polymath who became a naturalized British subject. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Founded in 1964, the National Academy of Engineering (NAE) in the United States provides engineering leadership in service to the nation. ... Professor J. Philippe Rushton John Philippe (Phil) Rushton (born December 3, 1943) is a psychology professor at the University of Western Ontario, Canada, who is most widely known for his work on intelligence and racial differences, particularly his book Race, Evolution And Behavior. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Robert J. Sternberg (8 December 1949-) is the Dean of Arts and Sciences at Tufts University and is the former IBM Professor of Psychology and Education at Yale University. ... Władysław Tatarkiewicz Władysław Tatarkiewicz (April 3, 1886, Warsaw – April 4, 1980, Warsaw) was a Polish philosopher, historian of philosophy, historian of art, esthetician, and author of works in ethics. ... Christopher Kasparek (born 1945) is a writer and a translator from Polish into English. ... Ellis Paul Torrance (born October 8, 1915 in Milledgeville, died July 12, 2003) was an American psychologist. ... Marie-Louise von Franz (January 4, 1915 - February 17, 1998), the daughter of an Austrian baron and born in Munich, Germany, was a Swiss Jungian Psychologist and scholar. ... Graham Wallas (31 May 1858 - 9 August 1932 was a social psychologist, educationalist, and a leader of the Fabian Society. ...

References

  • Amabile, Teresa M; Barsade, Sigal G; Mueller, Jennifer S; Staw, Barry M. Affect and creativity at work. Administrative Science Quarterly. 2005. v. 50, p. 367-403.
  • Fredrickson, B. L. (2001). The role of positive emotions in positive psychology: The broaden-and-build theory of positive emotions. American Psychologist, 56, 218-226.
  • Isen, A. M., Daubman, K. A., & Nowicki, G. P. (1987). Positive affect facilitates creative problem solving. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 52, 1122-1131.

External links

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  • http://www.fekreno.org/englishLISTFEK.HTM
  • http://about-creativity.com interviews with working artists about what works

Professional societies:

  • http://www.BeCreative.org/ American Creativity Association
  • http://www.crea-italia.com/ CREA Italia, Creativity European Association, non-profit, based in Italy

Videos

  • Do schools kill creativity - Sir Ken Robinson
  • CREA Conference 2006 video

Other

  • Speaking of Creativity
  • Explore, Express & Discuss 'Inherent Creative Ability'
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  Results from FactBites:
 
Creativity at Work: The interplay of business, art and science (312 words)
Linda Naiman, founder of Creativity at Work, is known internationally for pioneering the use of arts-based learning to develop creativity, innovation, and collaborative leadership in organizations, through consulting, training and coaching.
Our focus is on creativity, collaborative leadership, and cultivating environments that foster innovation.
Our focus is on developing business creativity, collaborative leadership and innovation through arts-based training, coaching and research-based consulting.
The 6 Myths Of Creativity (1544 words)
Creativity depends on a number of things: experience, including knowledge and technical skills; talent; an ability to think in new ways; and the capacity to push through uncreative dry spells.
Creativity requires an incubation period; people need time to soak in a problem and let the ideas bubble up.
And we found that creativity is positively associated with joy and love and negatively associated with anger, fear, and anxiety.
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