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Encyclopedia > Creative industries

Creative Industries (or sometimes Creative Economy) refers to a set of interlocking industry sectors, and are often cited as being a growing part of the global economy. The creative industries are often defined as those that focus on creating and exploiting intellectual property products; such as the arts, films, games or fashion designs, or providing business-to-business creative services such as advertising. The tertiary sector of industry (also known as the service sector or the service industry) is one of the three main industrial categories of a developed economy, the others being the secondary industry (manufacturing), and primary industry (extraction such as mining, agriculture and fishing). ... Globalization is a term used to describe the changes in societies and the world economy that are the result of dramatically increased trade and cultural exchange. ... For the 2006 film, see Intellectual Property (film). ... This article is about the philosophical concept of Art. ... This article is about motion pictures. ... Computer and video games redirects here. ... Fashion design is the applied art dedicated to the design of clothing and lifestyle accessories created within the cultural and social influences of a specific time. ... Creative Services are a subsector of the creative industries, a part of the economy that creates wealth by offering creativity for hire to other businesses. ... Advert redirects here. ...

Contents

Demarcation of the sector

The UK Government Department for Culture, Media and Sport (DCMS) define the Creative Industries as: DCMS Logo DCMS headquarters in Cockspur Street The Department for Culture, Media and Sport (sometimes abbreviated DCMS) is a department of the British government. ...

“those industries which have their origin in individual creativity, skill and talent and which have a potential for wealth and job creation through the generation and exploitation of intellectual property.” (DCMS 2001, p. 04)

The current DCMS definition recognises eleven creative sectors

The DCMS list has been influential, and many other nations have formally adopted it. It has not, however, been immune from criticism. It has been argued that the division into sectors obscures a divide between lifestyle business, non-profits, and larger businesses, and between those who receive state subsidies (e.g., film) and those who do not (e.g., computer games). The inclusion of the antiques trade is often questioned, since it does not generally involve production except of reproductions and fakes. The inclusion of all computer services has also been questioned. Advert redirects here. ... For other uses, see Architect (disambiguation). ... For the province in the Philippines, see Antique (province) and for the band, see Antique (duo). ... Conservation is the profession devoted to the preservation of cultural property for the future. ... A handicraft shop in Delhi, India Handicraft, also known as craftwork or simply craft, is a type of work where useful and decorative devices are made completely by hand or using only simple tools. ... All Saints Chapel in the Cathedral Basilica of St. ... Communication design is a sub-discipline of design (sometimes referred to as Graphic Design) which is concerned with how media intermission such as, print and digital pieces of work communicate with people in a visual way. ... For other uses, see Fashion (disambiguation). ... Cinema admissions in 1995 The film industry consists of the technological and commercial institutions of filmmaking: i. ... Videography refers to the process of capturing moving images on electronic media (e. ... Photography [fәtɑgrәfi:],[foʊtɑgrәfi:] is the process of recording pictures by means of capturing light on a light-sensitive medium, such as a film or electronic sensor. ... Computer software (or simply software) refers to one or more computer programs and data held in the storage of a computer for some purpose. ... This article needs a complete rewrite for the reasons listed on the talk page. ... Electronic publishing includes the digital publication of ebooks and electronic articles, and the development of digital libraries. ... The music industry is the industry that creates, performs, promotes, and preserves music. ... The performing arts are those forms of art which differ from the plastic arts insofar as the former uses the artists own body, face and presence as a medium, and the latter uses materials such as clay, metal or paint which can be molded or transformed to create some... “Publisher” redirects here. ... Lifestyle Businesses are businesses that are set up and run by their founders primarily with the aim of sustaining a particular level of income and no more; or to provide a foundation from which to enjoy a particular lifestyle. ...


Some nations, such as Hong Kong, have preferred to shape their policy around a tighter focus on copyright ownership in the value chain. They adopt the WIPO's classifications, which divide the Creative Industries up according to who owns the copyrights at various stages during the production & distribution of creative content. Popular Visualization The value chain, also known as value chain analysis, is a concept from business management that was first described and popularized by Michael Porter in his 1985 best-seller, Competitive Advantage: Creating and Sustaining Superior Performance. ... The World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) is one of the specialized agencies of the United Nations, and has as its core objectives the promotion of creative intellectual activity and the facilitation of the transfer of technology related to intellectual property to the developing countries in order to accelerate economic, social...


Others have suggested a distinction between those industries that are open to mass production and distribution (film and video; videogames; broadcasting; publishing), and those that are primarily craft-based and are meant to be consumed in a particular place and moment (visual arts; performing arts; cultural heritage). The Mona Lisa is one of the most recognizable artistic paintings in the Western world. ... The performing arts are those forms of art which differ from the plastic arts insofar as the former uses the artists own body, face and presence as a medium, and the latter uses materials such as clay, metal or paint which can be molded or transformed to create some...


Predecessors and comparators of the DCMS method

The DCMS approach has antecedents in earlier, international, attempts to measure creative activity, notably

  • the Leading European Group (LEG).[citation needed]
  • The Canadian statistical office (needs expansion)
  • UNESCO (needs expansion)

How creative workers are counted

The DCMS classifies enterprises and occupations as creative according to what the enterprise primarily produces, and what the worker primarily does. Thus, a company which produces records would be classified as belonging to the music industrial sector, and a worker who plays piano would be classified as a musician. The industrial sector is generally defined as manufacturing, construction, mining, agriculture, fishing and forestry establishments. ... “Instrumentalist” redirects here. ...


The primary purpose of this is to quantify - for example it can be used to count the number of firms, and the number of workers, creatively employed in any given location, and hence to identify places with particularly high concentrations of creative activities.


It leads to some complications which are not immediately obvious. For example, a security guard working for a music company would be classified as a creative employee, although not as creatively occupied.


The total number of creative employees is then calculated as the sum of:

  • all workers employed in creative industries, whether or not creatively occupied (eg all musicians, security guards, cleaners, accountants, managers, etc working for a record company)
  • all workers that are creatively occupied, and are not employed in creative industries (for example, a piano teacher in a school). This includes people whose second job is creative, for example somebody who does weekend gigs, writes books, or produces artwork in her spare time

Gig is the term commonly used by bands with reference to their live shows. ...

Properties or characteristics of Creative Industries

A toy cat produced in a South-African township, made from used plastic bags and old wire
A toy cat produced in a South-African township, made from used plastic bags and old wire

According to Caves (2000), creative industries are characterized by 7 economic properties: Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 398 × 599 pixelsFull resolution‎ (2,000 × 3,008 pixels, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 398 × 599 pixelsFull resolution‎ (2,000 × 3,008 pixels, file size: 1. ...


1. Nobody knows principle: Demand uncertainty exists because consumer reactions to a product are neither known beforehand, nor easily understood afterwards.


2. Art for art’s sake: Workers care about originality, technical professional skill, harmony, etc. of creative goods and are willing to settle for lower wages than offered by 'humdrum' jobs.


3. Motley crew principle: For relative complex creative products (e.g., films), the production requirs diversely skilled inputs. Each skilled input must be present and perform at some minimum level to produce a valuable outcome.


4. Infinite variety: Products are differentiated by quality and by uniqueness: each product is a distinct combination of inputs leading to infinite variety options.


5. A list/B list: Skills are vertically differentiated. Artists are ranked on their skills, originality, and proficiency in creative processes and/or products. Small differences in skills and talent may yield huge differences in (financial) success.


6. Time flies: When coordinating complex projects with diversely skilled inputs, time is of the essence.


7. Ars longa: Some creative products have durability aspects that invoke copyright protection, allowing a creator or performer to collect rents. Not to be confused with copywriting. ...


The properties of Caves have been criticized for being too rigid (Towse, 2000). Not all creative workers are purely driven by 'art for art's sake'. The 'ars longa' property also holds for certain noncreative products (i.e., licensed products). The 'time flies' property also holds for large construction projects. Creative industries are therefore not unique, but they score generally higher on these properties relative to non-creative industries.


Difference from the 'Cultural Industries'

There is often a question mark over the boundaries between Creative Industries and the similar term of Cultural industries. Cultural Industries are best described as an adjunct-sector of the Creative Industries, including activities such as: Cultural tourism & Heritage; Museums & Libraries; Sports & Outdoor activities; through a variety of 'way of life' activities that arguably range from local pet shows to a host of hobbyist concerns. The possible difference would thus be that the Cultural Industries are more concerned about delivering other kinds of value to society than simply monetary value, such as Cultural Wealth or Social Wealth. According to international organisations such as UNESCO and GATT, cultural industries (sometimes also known as creative industries) combine the creation, production, and distribution of goods and services that are cultural in nature and usually protected by intellectual property rights. ... Cultural tourism (or culture tourism) is the subset of tourism concerned with a country or regions culture, especially its arts. ... Cultural heritage (national heritage or just heritage) is the legacy of physical artifacts and intangible attributes of a group or society that are inherited from past generations, maintained in the present and bestowed for the benefit of future generations. ... The Palais du Louvre in Paris, which houses the Musée du Louvre, one of the worlds most famous museums, and most certainly the largest. ... Julio Pérez Ferrero Library - Cúcuta, Colombia A modern-style library in Chambéry A library is a collection of information, sources, resources, and services: it is organized for use and maintained by a public body, an institution, or a private individual. ... Outdoor activities usually mean activities done in nature away from civilization, such as hill walking, trekking, canoeing, kayaking, climbing, caving, and arguably broader groups such as watersports and snowsport. ... This article is about pastimes. ...


The creative class

Some authors, such as the American Richard Florida, argue for a wider focus on the products of knowledge workers and judge the 'creative class' (his own term) to include nearly all those offering professional knowledge-based services. Richard Florida (1957, Newark NJ) is an American sociologist and economist. ... Knowledge worker, a term coined by Peter Drucker in 1959, is one who works primarily with information or one who develops and uses knowledge in the workplace. ... The creative class is a group of people that social scientist Dr. Richard Florida, Hirst Professor of Public Policy at George Mason University, believes are a key driving force for economic development of post-industrial cities in the USA. The Creative Class concept is controversial, as is Floridas methodology. ...


Difference from the 'Knowledge Industries'

At that point, the term begins to elide with Knowledge Economy and questions of Intellectual Property ownership in general. A knowledge economy is either economy of knowledge focused on the economy of the producing and management of knowledge, or a knowledge-based economy. ... For the 2006 film, see Intellectual Property (film). ...


The creative class and diversity

Florida's focus leads him to pay particular attention to the nature of the creative workforce. In a study of why particular US cities such as San Francisco seem to attract creative producers, Florida argues that high proportion of workers from the 'creative class' provide a key input to creative production, which enterprises seek out. He seeks to establish, quantitatively, the importance of diversity and multiculturalism in the cities concerned, for example the existence of a significant public gay community, ethnic and religious variety, and tolerance. (Florida 2002) The workforce is the labour pool in employment. ... The creative class is a group of people that social scientist Dr. Richard Florida, Hirst Professor of Public Policy at George Mason University, believes are a key driving force for economic development of post-industrial cities in the USA. The Creative Class concept is controversial, as is Floridas methodology. ... The term multiculturalism generally refers to a state of both cultural and ethnic diversity within the demographics of a particular social space. ... The term multiculturalism generally refers to a state of both cultural and ethnic diversity within the demographics of a particular social space. ...


Economic contribution

Globally, Creative Industries excluding software and general scientific Research and Development are said to have accounted for around 4% of the world's economic output in 1999, which is the last year for which comprehensive figures are currently available. Estimates of the output corresponding to scientific Research and Development suggest that an additional 4-9% might be attributable to the sector if its definition is extended to include such activities, though the figures vary significantly between different countries. The phrase research and development (also R and D or, more often, R&D), according to the Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development, refers to creative work undertaken on a systematic basis in order to increase the stock of knowledge, including knowledge of man, culture and society, and the use... This article is about the year. ... The phrase research and development (also R and D or, more often, R&D), according to the Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development, refers to creative work undertaken on a systematic basis in order to increase the stock of knowledge, including knowledge of man, culture and society, and the use...


Taking the UK as an example, in the context of other sectors, the Creative Industries make a far more significant contribution to output than Hospitality or Utilities and deliver four times the output due to Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry. In terms of employment and depending on the definition of activities included, the sector is a major employer of between 4-6% of the UK's Working Population, though this is still significantly less than employment due to traditional areas of work such as Retail and Manufacturing. For the Venetian Snares album, see Hospitality (album). ... A public utility is a company that maintains the infrastructure for a public service. ... A fishery (plural: fisheries) is an organized effort by humans to catch fish or other aquatic species, an activity known as fishing. ... A decidous beech forest in Slovenia. ... Drawing of a self-service store. ... Manufacturing (from Latin manu factura, making by hand) is the use of tools and labor to make things for use or sale. ...


Within the Creative Industries sector and again taking the UK as an example, the three largest sub-sectors are Design, Publishing and Television/Radio. Together these account for around 75% of revenues and 50% of employment. All Saints Chapel in the Cathedral Basilica of St. ... “Publisher” redirects here. ...


The complex Supply Chains in the Creative Industries sometimes make it challenging to calculate accurate figures for the Gross Value Added by each sub-sector. This is particularly the case for the service-focused sub-sectors such as Advertising, whereas it is more straightforward in product-focused sub-sectors such as Crafts. Not surprisingly, perhaps, competition in product-focused areas tends to be more intense with a tendency to drive the production end of the supply chain to become a Commodity Business. The Gross value added is GDP - taxes on products + subsidies on products = GVA GVA + taxes on products - subsidies on products = GDP See also Measures of national income and output External links GVA - Gross Value Added ... Advert redirects here. ... Arts and crafts comprise a whole host of activities and hobbies that are related to making things with ones own hands and skill. ...


There may be a tendency for publicly-funded Creative Industries development services to inaccurately estimate the number of creative businesses during the mapping process. There is also imprecision in nearly all tax code systems that determine a person's profession, since many creative people operate simultaneously in multiple roles and jobs. Both these factors mean that official statistics relating to the Creative Industries should be treated with caution.


Wider role

As some first world countries struggle to compete in traditional markets such as Manufacturing, many now see the Creative Industries as a key component in a new Knowledge Economy, capable perhaps of delivering urban regeneration, often through initiatives linked to exploitation of cultural heritage that leads to increased tourism. It is often argued that, in future, the ideas and imagination of countries like the United Kingdom will be their greatest asset. Indeed, UK government figures reveal that the UK's creative industries account for over a million jobs and brought in £112.5 billion to the UK economy (DCMS Creative Industries Mapping Document 2001), although the data sets underlying these figures are open to question. Manufacturing (from Latin manu factura, making by hand) is the use of tools and labor to make things for use or sale. ... A knowledge economy is either economy of knowledge focused on the economy of the producing and management of knowledge, or a knowledge-based economy. ... Urban regeneration (also called urban renewal in American English) is a movement in urban planning that reached its peak in the United States from the late 1940s through the early 1970s. ... Cultural heritage (national heritage or just heritage) is the legacy of physical artifacts and intangible attributes of a group or society that are inherited from past generations, maintained in the present and bestowed for the benefit of future generations. ... Tourist redirects here. ...


Alternative Definitions

A wide variety of definitions of the creative industries have been adopted as a growing number of national and international agencies have become aware of their economic significance.


Evolution of the DCMS framework

An earlier DCMS definition[citation needed] provides for:

The 2001 definition recognised fourteen creative sectors Advert redirects here. ... A broadcast network is an organization, such as a corporation or other association, that provides live or recorded content, such as movies, newscasts, sports, and public affairs programs for broadcast over a group of radio or television stations. ... All Saints Chapel in the Cathedral Basilica of St. ... For other uses, see Architect (disambiguation). ... Communication design is a sub-discipline of design (sometimes referred to as Graphic Design) which is concerned with how media intermission such as, print and digital pieces of work communicate with people in a visual way. ... Haute couture (French for high sewing or high dressmaking; IPA: ) refers to the creation of exclusive custom-fitted fashions. ... Look up editorial, op-ed in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A critic (derived from the ancient Greek word krites meaning a judge) is a person who offers a value judgement or an interpretation. ... Journalism is a discipline of gathering, writing and reporting news, and broadly it includes the process of editing and presenting the news articles. ... Cinema admissions in 1995 The film industry consists of the technological and commercial institutions of filmmaking: i. ... Videography refers to the process of capturing moving images on electronic media (e. ... Illustration by Jessie Willcox Smith. ... A game developer is a person or business involved in game development, the process of designing and creating games. ... Arts and crafts comprise a whole host of activities and hobbies that are related to making things with ones own hands and skill. ... For the province in the Philippines, see Antique (province) and for the band, see Antique (duo). ... Conservation is the profession devoted to the preservation of cultural property for the future. ... Look up Market in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The music industry is the industry that creates, performs, promotes, and preserves music. ... The performing arts are those forms of art which differ from the plastic arts insofar as the former uses the artists own body, face and presence as a medium, and the latter uses materials such as clay, metal or paint which can be molded or transformed to create some... “Publisher” redirects here. ... “Software development” redirects here. ... Outsourcing is the delegation of tasks or jobs from internal production to an external entity (such as a subcontractor). ...

More recent publications, for example the DCMS Creative Industries Statistical Estimates Statistical Bulletin (DCMS 2006) reduced this to eleven sectors: Advert redirects here. ... For other uses, see Architect (disambiguation). ... For the province in the Philippines, see Antique (province) and for the band, see Antique (duo). ... Conservation is the profession devoted to the preservation of cultural property for the future. ... A handicraft shop in Delhi, India Handicraft, also known as craftwork or simply craft, is a type of work where useful and decorative devices are made completely by hand or using only simple tools. ... All Saints Chapel in the Cathedral Basilica of St. ... Communication design is a sub-discipline of design (sometimes referred to as Graphic Design) which is concerned with how media intermission such as, print and digital pieces of work communicate with people in a visual way. ... For other uses, see Fashion (disambiguation). ... Cinema admissions in 1995 The film industry consists of the technological and commercial institutions of filmmaking: i. ... Videography refers to the process of capturing moving images on electronic media (e. ... The music industry is the industry that creates, performs, promotes, and preserves music. ... The performing arts are those forms of art which differ from the plastic arts insofar as the former uses the artists own body, face and presence as a medium, and the latter uses materials such as clay, metal or paint which can be molded or transformed to create some... “Publisher” redirects here. ... Outsourcing is the delegation of tasks or jobs from internal production to an external entity (such as a subcontractor). ...

  • 'Film and Video' became 'Film, Video and Photography
  • 'Music' and 'Performing Arts' were combined to form 'Music and the Visual and Performing Arts'
  • 'Interactive Leisure Software' was combined with 'Computer Services' to form 'Software, Computer Games and Electronic Publishing'

Photography [fәtɑgrәfi:],[foʊtɑgrәfi:] is the process of recording pictures by means of capturing light on a light-sensitive medium, such as a film or electronic sensor. ...

References

  • Florida (2002), The Rise of the Creative Class. And How It's Transforming Work, Leisure and Everyday Life, Basic Books
  • DCMS (2001), written at London, UK, Creative Industries Mapping Document 2001 (2 ed.), Department of Culture, Media and Sport, <http://www.culture.gov.uk/Reference_library/Publications/archive_2001/ci_mapping_doc_2001.htm>. Retrieved on 2007-05-26
  • DCMS (2006), written at London, UK, Creative Industries Statistical Estimates Statistical Bulletin, Department of Culture, Media and Sport, <http://www.culture.gov.uk/NR/rdonlyres/70156235-8AB8-48F9-B15B-78A326A8BFC4/0/CreativeIndustriesEconomicEstimates2006.pdf>. Retrieved on 2007-05-26
  • The Creative Economy (BusinessWeek magazine) (2000-08-28). Retrieved on 2006-08-18.
  • Caves, Richard E. (2000). Creative Industries: Contracts between Art and Commerce. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press.
  • Towse, Ruth (2002). Book Review of Creative Industries. Journal of Political Economy, 110: 234-237.

Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full 2000 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 240th day of the year (241st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 230th day of the year (231st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Australia: http://www.creativeindustries.qut.edu.au/
National Institute for Excellence in the Creative Industries™ (NIECI), UK:

  • http://www.bangor.ac.uk/creative_industries/

Department of Culture, Media and Sport, UK: http://www.culture.gov.uk


Allen J Scott 2005, ON HOLLYWOOD: THE PLACE THE INDUSTRY Princeton University Press


Transition Tradition Magazine and Directory of Creative Industry Resources: http://www.transitiontradition.com/


  Results from FactBites:
 
Creative industries - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1564 words)
The Creative Industries are a set of interlocking sectors, and are a growing part of the global economy.
Cultural Industries are best described as an adjunct-sector of the Creative Industries, including activities such as: Cultural tourism and Heritage; Museums and Libraries; Sports and Outdoor activities; through a variety of 'way of life' activities that arguably range from local pet shows to a host of hobbyist concerns.
Globally, Creative Industries excluding software and general scientific Research and Development are said to have accounted for around 4% of the world's economic output in 1999, which is the last year for which comprehensive figures are available.
Creative industries - definition of Creative industries in Encyclopedia (785 words)
The Creative Industries are a growing sector of the global economy, focussed on creating and exploiting intellectual property products such as films, games or fashion designs, or providing creative services, usually to other businesses.
Firms in the Creative industries encounter a series of barriers to growth as they mature and there is no inevitable ladder that stretches from micro-business to public company.
Long-term success and sustainability for firms operating in the Creative industries depends on balancing the creative-, commercial- and social-capital building urges of the key individuals involved.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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