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Encyclopedia > Creative Commons Licenses

Creative Commons licenses are several copyright licenses released on December 16, 2002 by Creative Commons, a U.S. non-profit corporation founded in 2001. Not to be confused with copywriting. ... is the 350th day of the year (351st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... The Creative Commons (CC) is a non-profit organization devoted to expanding the range of creative work available for others legally to build upon and share. ... For other uses of terms redirecting here, see US (disambiguation), USA (disambiguation), and United States (disambiguation) Motto In God We Trust(since 1956) (From Many, One; Latin, traditional) Anthem The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City National language English (de facto)1 Demonym American... A non-profit organization (abbreviated NPO, or non-profit or not-for-profit) is an organization whose primary objective is to support an issue or matter of private interest or public concern for non-commercial purposes, without concern for monetary profit. ... This article is about the year. ...


Many of the licenses, notably all the original licenses, grant certain "baseline rights",[1] such as the right to distribute the copyrighted work without changes, at no charge. Some of the newer licenses do not grant these rights.


Creative Commons licenses are currently available in 43 different jurisdictions worldwide, with more than nineteen others under development.[2] Licenses for jurisdictions outside of the United States are under the purview of Creative Commons International.

Contents

Original licenses

The original set of licenses all grant the "baseline rights". The details of each of these licenses depends on the version, and comprises a selection of four conditions:

Attribution
  • Attribution (by): Licensees may copy, distribute, display and perform the work and make derivative works based on it only if they give the author or licensor the credits in the manner specified by these.
Non-commercial
  • Noncommercial or NonCommercial (nc): Licensees may copy, distribute, display, and perform the work and make derivative works based on it only for noncommercial purposes.
Non-derivative
  • No Derivative Works or NoDerivs (nd): Licensees may copy, distribute, display and perform only verbatim copies of the work, not derivative works based on it.
Share-alike
  • ShareAlike (sa): Licensees may distribute derivative works only under a license identical to the license that governs the original work. (See also copyleft.)

Mixing and matching these conditions produces sixteen possible combinations, of which eleven are valid Creative Commons licenses. Of the five invalid combinations, four include both the "nd" and "sa" clauses, which are mutually exclusive; and one includes none of the clauses. The five of the eleven valid licenses that lack the Attribution element have been phased out because 98% of licensors requested Attribution, but are still available for viewing on the website.[3] There are thus six regularly used licenses: Image File history File links Cc-by_white. ... A non-commercial enterprise is work that values other considerations above and beyond that of making a profit. ... This montage of different images is an example of a derivative work In copyright law, a derivative work is an artistic creation that includes major, basic copyrighted aspects of an original, previously created first work. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... A share-alike copyright license clause requires that any improved version of the work be shared on like terms with everyone else—that is, share and share alike. ... The reversed c in a full circle is the copyleft symbol. ...

  1. Attribution alone (by)
  2. Attribution + Noncommercial (by-nc)
  3. Attribution + NoDerivs (by-nd)
  4. Attribution + ShareAlike (by-sa)
  5. Attribution + Noncommercial + NoDerivs (by-nc-nd)
  6. Attribution + Noncommercial + ShareAlike (by-nc-sa)

Other licenses

A number of additional licenses have been introduced, which are more specialized:

  • Sampling licenses, with two options:
    • Sampling Plus - parts of the work can be copied and modified for any purpose other than advertising, and the entire work can be copied for noncommercial purposes
    • Noncommercial Sampling Plus - the whole work or parts of the work can be copied and modified for noncommercial purposes

Besides licenses, Creative Commons also offers an easy way to release material into the public domain through the Public Domain Dedication, as well as Founder's Copyright, through which the work is released into the public domain after 14 or 28 years. This article is about reusing existing sound recordings in creating new works. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ...


Retired licenses

Due to either disuse or criticism, a number of previously offered Creative Commons licenses has since been retired[4], and are no longer recommended for new works. The retired licenses include all licenses lacking the Attribution element[5], as well as two licenses not allowing non-commercial copying:

  • Sampling – parts of the work can be used for any purpose other than advertising, but the whole work can't be copied or modified
  • DevNations – a Developing Nations license, which only applies to countries deemed by the World Bank as a "non-high-income economy". Full copyright restrictions apply to people in other countries.

A developing country is a country with low average income compared to the world average. ... The World Bank logo The World Bank (the Bank) is a part of the World Bank Group (WBG), is a bank that makes loans to developing countries for development programs with the stated goal of reducing poverty. ...

Criticism

Debian

The maintainers of Debian GNU/Linux, a Linux distribution known for its adherence to software freedom, do not believe that even the Creative Commons Attribution License, the least restrictive of the licenses, adheres to the Debian Free Software Guidelines due to the license's anti-DRM provisions (which could restrict private redistribution to some extent) and its requirement in section 4a that downstream users remove an author's credit upon request from the author.[6] As the other licenses are identical to the Creative Commons Attribution License with further restrictions, Debian considers them non-free for the same reasons. There have been efforts to remove these problems in the new version 3.0 licenses, so they can be compatible with the DFSG.[7] As of July 2007, it remains to be seen if version 3 of the Attribution and Attribution-ShareAlike licenses will be approved by Debian.[8] Debian, created by the Debian Project, is a widely used distribution of free software developed through the collaboration of volunteers from around the world. ... A Linux distribution (also called GNU/Linux distribution) is a member of the Linux family of Unix-like software distributions. ... This article is about free software as defined by the Free Software Foundation. ... The Debian Free Software Guidelines (DFSG) are a set of guidelines that the Debian Project uses to determine whether a software license is free software license, which in turn is used to determine whether a piece of software can be included in the main, free software distribution of Debian. ... Digital rights management (DRM) is an umbrella term that refers to access control technologies used by publishers and copyright holders to limit usage of digital media or devices. ... July 2007 is the seventh month of that year. ...


Free Software Foundation

The Free Software Foundation accepts the CC-BY v2.0 and the CC-BY-SA v2.0 Creative Commons licenses as being free, though not recommending it for software, but explains that it is vital to avoid the problem with the overly vague statement "I use a Creative Commons license" , without noting the actual license.[9][10] Richard Stallman has criticised particular licenses for not allowing the freedom to make verbatim copies of the work for noncommercial purposes, and said that he no longer supported Creative Commons as an organisation, as the licenses no longer all had this freedom in common.[11] Creative Commons have since retired these licenses, and no longer recommends their use.[12] The Free Software Foundation (FSF) is a non-profit corporation founded in October 1985 by Richard Stallman to support the free software movement (free as in freedom), and in particular the GNU project. ... Computer software (or simply software) refers to one or more computer programs and data held in the storage of a computer for some purpose. ... Richard Matthew Stallman (born March 16, 1953), often abbreviated rms,[2] is an American software freedom activist, hacker,[3] and software developer. ...


Photographers

Freelance photographer Dan Heller claimed that the licenses are created in such a way that if the work was licensed in CC by someone altering the copyright notice of the original work, then the licensee will be held liable to copyright infringement damages, even though the downstream licensees were fooled by original perpetrators, which increases legal risk for CC licensee.[13][14] Furthermore, copyright holder of the registered copyrighted works can game the CC system by withdrawing CC licenses and erase evidence of the issuing such licenses, then sue people who use the copyrighted works.[15] One could argue however, that this would be a limitation of the media upon which the content is stored, not the license itself. One recent development in response to this problem has been the launch of the ImageStamper website. ImageStamper keeps dated, independently verified copies of license conditions associated with creative commons images on behalf of its users.[16] The site is currently being extended to support other media types.


Ad controversy

In 2007, Virgin Mobile launched a bus stop ad campaign promoting their cellphone text messaging service using the work of amateur photographers who uploaded their work to Flickr using a Creative Commons-by (Attribution) license. Users licensing their images this way freed their work for use by any other entity, as long as the original creator was attributed credit, without any other compensation required. Virgin upheld this single restriction by printing a URL leading to the photographer's Flickr page on each of their ads. However, one picture, depicting 15 year-old Alison Chang at a fund-raising carwash for her church,[17] caused some controversy when she sued Virgin Mobile. The photo was taken by Alison's church youth counselor, Justin Ho-Wee Wong, who uploaded the image to Flickr under the Creative Commons license.[17] The Virgin Mobile Worldwide logo. ... A bus stop or omnibus stop is a designated place where a public transport bus stops for the purpose of allowing passengers to board or leave the bus. ... An advertising campaign is a series of advertisement messages that share a single idea and theme which make up an integrated marketing communication (IMC). ... Text messaging on a mobile with keyboard Text messaging, or texting is the common term for the sending of short (160 characters or fewer, including spaces) text messages from mobile phones using the Short Message Service (SMS). ... Flickr is a photo sharing website and web services suite, and an online community platform, which is generally considered an early example of a Web 2. ...

The case hinges on privacy, the right of people not to have their likeness used in an ad without permission. So, while Mr. Wong may have given away his rights as a photographer, he did not, and could not, give away Alison's rights. In the lawsuit, which Mr. Wong is also a party to, there is an argument that Virgin did not honor all the terms of the nonrestrictive license.[17]

See also

Free software portal

Image File history File links Free_Software_Portal_Logo. ... The BSD license is a permissive license and is one of the most widely used free software licenses. ... Not to be confused with copywriting. ... The reversed c in a full circle is the copyleft symbol. ... Free content is any kind of functional work, artwork, or other creative content upon which no legal restriction has been placed that significantly interferes with peoples freedom to use, understand, redistribute, improve, and share the content. ... Free software is software which grants recipients the freedom to modify and redistribute the software. ... GNU (pronounced ) is a computer operating system composed entirely of free software. ... Open content, coined by analogy with open source, (though technically it is actually share-alike) describes any kind of creative work including articles, pictures, audio, and video that is published in a format that explicitly allows the copying of the information. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Software license. ... The term non-commercial educational (NCE) applies to a radio station that does not accept or air advertisements, as defined in the U.S. by the FCC. NCE stations do not pay licensing fees for their non-profit use of the radio spectrum. ...

References

  1. ^ Baseline rights and restrictions in CC licenses
  2. ^ Creative Commons International
  3. ^ Creative Commons Licenses
  4. ^ Lessig, Lawrence (2007-06-04). Retiring standalone DevNations and one Sampling license. Creative Commons. Retrieved on 2007-07-05.
  5. ^ Retired Licenses. Creative Commons. Retrieved on 2007-07-05.
  6. ^ debian-legal Summary of Creative Commons 2.0 Licenses by Evan Prodromou
  7. ^ Garlick, Mia (2007-02-23). Version 3.0 Launched. Creative Commons. Retrieved on 2007-07-05.
  8. ^ Creative Commons Version 3.0 Licenses — A Brief Explanation: Debian. Creative Commons. Retrieved on 2007-07-05.
  9. ^ FSF's page on licenses for works other than software and documentation
  10. ^ Stallman explains his stance in Brazil, 2006
  11. ^ Free Software Foundation blog
  12. ^ Retiring standalone DevNations and one Sampling license - Creative Commons
  13. ^ The Creative Commons and Photography
  14. ^ Follow-up: Creative Commons and Photography
  15. ^ Gaming the Creative Commons for Profit
  16. ^ Creative Commons News: ImageStamper
  17. ^ a b c "Use My Photo? Not Without Permission.", New York Times. Retrieved on 2007-09-25. "One moment, Alison Chang, a 15-year-old student from Dallas, is cheerfully goofing around at a local church-sponsored car wash, posing with a friend for a photo. Weeks later, that photo is posted online and catches the eye of an ad agency in Australia, and the altered image of Alison appears on a billboard in Adelaide as part of a Virgin Mobile advertising campaign." 

Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 155th day of the year (156th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 186th day of the year (187th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 186th day of the year (187th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 54th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 186th day of the year (187th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 186th day of the year (187th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 268th day of the year (269th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Virgin Mobile Worldwide logo. ...

Bibliography

  • Portions of this article are taken from the Creative Commons website, published under the Creative Commons Attribution License v1.0.

External links

Wikisource has original text related to this article:
Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... The original Wikisource logo. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Creative Commons Malaysia » Frequently Asked Questions (7181 words)
Creative Commons prefers that copyright be respected in the old fashioned way, by a common and mutual respect for copyrighted works and of the freedoms and limits prescribed by the author and enforced by the law.
What Creative Commons seeks to do is to provide an easy and simple means for creators to adopt a license which allows them to maintain certain exclusive rights to their works and at the same time, let others know that they can use some of the exclusive rights in accordance with the license terms.
Creative Commons licenses expressly reserve rights to request the user to remove from the collective work and/or derivative work any credit or attribution to you and the user must comply with the request, to the extent practicable, when the request is made.
Creative Commons - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (954 words)
The Creative Commons website enables copyright holders to grant some of their rights to the public while retaining others through a variety of licensing and contract schemes including dedication to the public domain or open content licensing terms.
The initial set of Creative Commons licenses was published on December 16, 2002.
The main Creative Commons licenses are written with the U.S. legal model in mind, and therefore the wording may not mesh perfectly with existing law in other countries.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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