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Encyclopedia > Creationism
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Creationism

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History of creationism
Neo-creationism
The history of creationism is tied to the history of religions. ... Neo-creationism is a movement whose goal is to restate creationism in terms more likely to be well received by the public, policy makers, educators, and the scientific community. ...

Types of creationism

Day-age creationism
Gap creationism
Old Earth creationism
Progressive creationism
Theistic evolution
Young Earth creationism
Day-Age Creationism, a type of Old Earth Creationism, is an effort to reconcile the literal Genesis account of Creation with modern scientific theories on the age of the Universe, the Earth, life, and humans. ... Gap creationism, also called Restitution creationism or Ruin-Reconstruction, are terms used to describe a particular set of Christian beliefs about the creation of the Universe and the origin of man. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Progressive creationism is a form of Old Earth creationism that accepts that new species have appeared successively over earths long history but that, to a greater or lesser degree, each species represents a fiat miracle (thus the creationism part), and that the first pair or representatives of species were... Theistic evolution, less commonly known as evolutionary creationism, is the general opinion that some or all classical religious teachings about God and creation are compatible with some or all of the modern scientific understanding about biological evolution. ... Adam and Eve, the first human beings according to Genesis. ...

Other religious views

Hindu · Islamic · Jewish
Deist · Pandeist Within the diverse traditions of Hinduism, creation of the universe and life itself is generally believed to have occurred due to the will of a supreme consciousness or intelligence, often referred to as Brahman[1]. The accounts of the emergence of life within the universe vary in description, but classically... Islamic creationism is the belief that the universe (including humanity) was directly created by God as explained in the Quran or Genesis. ... Jewish views on evolution includes a continuum of views about evolution, creationism, and the origin of life. ... For other uses, see Ceremonial Deism. ... Pandeism (Greek πάν, pan = all and Latin deus = God, in the sense of deism), is a term used at various times to describe religious beliefs. ...

Creation theology

Creation in Genesis
Genesis as an allegory
Framework interpretation
Omphalos hypothesis
THIS IS A FACT Creation is a doctrinal position in many religions and philosophical belief systems which maintains that a single God, or a group of or deities is responsible for creating the universe. ... This article is about the biblical text. ... Allegorical interpretations of Genesis is devoted to historical and contemporary non-literal regarding the book of Genesis. ... The framework interpretation (also known as the literary framework view, framework theory, or framework hypothesis) is an interpretation of the first chapter of the Book of Genesis which holds that the seven-day creation account found therein is not a literal or scientific description of the origins of the universe... The omphalos hypothesis was named after the title of an 1857 book by Philip Henry Gosse in which he argued that in order for the world to be functional, God must have created the Earth with mountains, canyons, trees with growth rings, Adam and Eve with hair, fingernails, and navels...

Creation science

Baraminology
Flood geology
Intelligent design
Creation science is the attempt to find scientific evidence that would justify a literal interpretation of the Biblical account of creation. ... Baraminology, also referred to as typology, is a pseudoscientific theory that classifies animals into created kinds, which are presumed to be isolated from all others. ... Flood geology (also creation geology or diluvial geology) is a prominent subset of beliefs under the umbrella of creationism that assumes the literal truth of a global flood as described in the Genesis account of Noahs Ark. ... For other uses, see Intelligent design (disambiguation). ...

Controversy

Politics of creationism
Public education
History
Teach the Controversy
Associated articles
The creation-evolution controversy (also termed the creation vs. ... The politics of creationism currently primarily concerns what should be taught as science in schools, and what is good science. ... The legal status of creation and evolution in public education is the subject of a great deal of debate in legal, political, and religious circles. ... The creation-evolution controversy has a long history, beginning with challenges made by various naturalists to biblical accounts of creation. ... Teach the Controversy is the name of a Discovery Institute intelligent design campaign to promote intelligent design creationism while discrediting evolution in United States public high school science courses. ... The following is a clearinghouse of articles which refer to terms often used in the context of the creation-evolution controversy: // Origins Main article: Origin beliefs The creation-evolution controversy often is cast as a controversy surrounding the origin beliefs. ...

Creationism Portal ·  v  d  e 

Creationism is a religious belief that humanity, life, the Earth, and the universe were created in their original form by a deity or deities (often the Abrahamic God of Judaism, Christianity and Islam), whose existence is presupposed.[1] In relation to the creation-evolution controversy the term creationism (or strict creationism) is commonly used to refer to religiously-motivated rejection of evolution. This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... This article is about modern humans. ... For other uses, see Life (disambiguation). ... This article is about Earth as a planet. ... For other uses, see Universe (disambiguation). ... THIS IS A FACT Creation is a doctrinal position in many religions and philosophical belief systems which maintains that a single God, or a group of or deities is responsible for creating the universe. ... Look up deity in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Abrahamic religions symbols designating the three prevalent monotheistic religions – Judaism, Christianity, and Islam Abrahamic religion is a term commonly used to designate the three prevalent monotheistic religions – Judaism, Christianity, and Islam[1][2] – which claim Abraham (Hebrew: Avraham אַבְרָהָם ; Arabic: Ibrahim ابراهيم ) as a part of their sacred history. ... This article discusses the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... In linguistics, a presupposition is background belief, relating to an utterance, that: must be mutually known or assumed by the speaker and addressee for the utterance to be considered appropriate in context will generally remain a necessary assumption whether the utterance is placed in the form of an assertion, denial... The creation-evolution controversy (also termed the creation vs. ... This article is about evolution in biology. ...


Such beliefs include young Earth creationism, which takes Genesis literally, while Old Earth creationism accepts geological findings but rejects evolution. The term theistic evolution has been coined to refer to beliefs in creation which are more compatible with the scientific view of evolution and the age of the Earth. Adam and Eve, the first human beings according to Genesis. ... For other uses, see Genesis (disambiguation). ... Biblical literalism is the supposed adherence to the explicit and literal sense of the Bible. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... This article includes a list of works cited but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... Theistic evolution, less commonly known as evolutionary creationism, is the general opinion that some or all classical religious teachings about God and creation are compatible with some or all of the modern scientific understanding about biological evolution. ... Earth as seen from Apollo 17 Modern geologists consider the age of the Earth to be around 4. ...


Creationism in the West is usually based on creation according to Genesis, and in its broad sense covers a wide range of beliefs and interpretations. Through the 19th century the term most commonly referred to direct creation of individual souls, in contrast to traducianism. However, by 1929 in the United States the term became particularly associated with Christian fundamentalist opposition to human evolution and belief in a young Earth.[2] Several states passed laws against the teaching of evolution in public schools, as upheld in the Scopes Trial. Evolution was omitted entirely from school textbooks in much of the United States until the 1960s. Since then, renewed efforts to introduce teaching creationism in public schools in the form of flood geology, creation science, and intelligent design have been consistently held to contravene the constitutional separation of Church and State by a succession of legal judgements.[3] The meaning of the term creationism was contested, but by the 1980s it had been co-opted by proponents of creation science and flood geology.[2] Occident redirects here. ... This article is about the biblical text. ... This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      In Christian theology, traducianism... Fundamentalist Christianity, or Christian fundamentalism, is a movement that arose mainly within British and American Protestantism in the late 19th and early 20th centuries by conservative evangelical Christians, who, in a reaction to modernism, actively affirmed a fundamental set of Christian beliefs: the inerrancy of the Bible, Sola Scriptura, the... For the history of humans on Earth, see History of the world. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... John Scopes, a high school teacher, was arrested on May 5, 1925, for teaching evolution from a chapter in a textbook which showed ideas developed from those set out in Charles Darwins book The Origin of Species. ... The legal status of creation and evolution in public education is the subject of a great deal of debate in legal, political, and religious circles. ... Flood geology (also creation geology or diluvial geology) is a prominent subset of beliefs under the umbrella of creationism that assumes the literal truth of a global flood as described in the Genesis account of Noahs Ark. ... Creation science is the attempt to find scientific evidence that would justify a literal interpretation of the Biblical account of creation. ... For other uses, see Intelligent design (disambiguation). ... Constantines Conversion, depicting the conversion of Emperor Constantine the Great to Christianity, by Peter Paul Rubens. ...


When scientific research produces conclusions which contradict a creationist interpretation of scripture, the strict creationist approach is either to reject the conclusions of the research,[4] its underlying scientific theories,[5] or its methodology.[6] For this reason, both creation science and intelligent design have been labeled as pseudoscience by the mainstream scientific community. The most notable disputes concern the effects of evolution on the development of living organisms, the idea of common descent, the geologic history of the Earth, the formation of the solar system, and the origin of the universe.[7][8][9][10] A typical 18th century phrenology chart. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article is about evolution in biology. ... A group of organisms is said to have common descent if they have a common ancestor. ... Earth as seen from Apollo 17 Modern geologists consider the age of the Earth to be around 4. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Big Bang (disambiguation). ...

Contents

Overview

The term creationism is generally used to describe the belief that creation occurred literally as described in the book of Genesis (for both Jews and Christians) or the Qur'an (for Muslims). The terms creationism and creationist have become particularly associated with beliefs about the time frame of creation, conflicting with scientific understanding of natural history, particularly evolution. This conflict is most prevalent in the United States, where there has been sustained controversy in the public arena, centering over the issue of the science curriculum in public schools. For other uses, see Genesis (disambiguation). ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is... The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... Table of natural history, 1728 Cyclopaedia Natural history is an umbrella term for what are now often viewed as several distinct scientific disciplines of integrative organismal biology. ... This article is about evolution in biology. ... The creation-evolution controversy (also termed the creation vs. ...


In a Christian context, many creationists adopt a literal interpretation of the Biblical creation narratives. This literal interpretation requires the harmonisation of the two creation stories, Genesis 1:1-2:3 and Genesis 2:4-25, which require interpretation to be consistent.[11][12] They sometimes seek to ensure that their belief is taught in science classes, mainly in American schools (see Young Earth Creationism, for example). Opponents reject the claim that the literalistic Biblical view meets the criteria required to be considered scientific. Look up literal, literally in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A magnet levitating above a high-temperature superconductor demonstrates the Meissner effect. ... Adam and Eve, the first human beings according to Genesis. ...


Many religious sects teach that God created the cosmos. From the days of the early Christian Church Fathers there were allegorical interpretations of Genesis as well as literal aspects.[13] Most contemporary Christian leaders and scholars from mainstream churches, such as Anglicans and Lutherans, reject reading the Bible as though it could shed light on the physics of creation instead of the spiritual meaning of creation. According to the Archbishop of Canterbury, Rowan Williams, "[for] most of the history of Christianity there's been an awareness that a belief that everything depends on the creative act of God, is quite compatible with a degree of uncertainty or latitude about how precisely that unfolds in creative time."[14] Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The Church Fathers, Early Church Fathers... Allegorical interpretations of Genesis is devoted to historical and contemporary non-literal regarding the book of Genesis. ... The term Anglican describes those people and churches following the religious traditions of the Church of England, especially following the Reformation. ... The Lutheran movement is a group of denominations of Protestant Christianity by the original definition. ...


Leaders of the Anglican[15] and Catholic [16][17] churches have made statements in favour of evolutionary theory, as have scholars such as John Polkinghorne, who argue that evolution is one of the principles through which God created living beings. Earlier supporters of evolutionary theory include Frederick Temple, Asa Gray and Charles Kingsley who were enthusiastic supporters of Darwin's theories upon their publication,[18] and the French Jesuit priest and geologist Pierre Teilhard de Chardin saw evolution as confirmation of his Christian beliefs, despite condemnation from Church authorities for his more speculative theories. Another example is that of Liberal theology, which assumes that Genesis is a poetic work, and that just as human understanding of God increases gradually over time, so does the understanding of God's creation. In fact, both Jews and Christians had been considering the idea of the creation history as an allegory (instead of an historical description) long before the development of Darwin's theory of evolution. Two notable examples are Saint Augustine (4th century) who argued on theological grounds that everything in the universe was created by God in the same instant (and not in seven days as a plain account of Genesis would require);[19] and the 1st century Jewish scholar Philo of Alexandria, who wrote that it would be a mistake to think that creation happened in six days, or in any set amount of time.[20] The term Anglican describes those people and churches following the religious traditions of the Church of England, especially following the Reformation. ... John Polkinghorne, KBE, FRS, PhD, ScD, MA, (born October 16, 1930 in Weston-super-Mare, England) is a British particle physicist and theologian. ... Frederick Temple (1821-1902), was one of the best-loved holders of the title of Archbishop of Canterbury, which he held from 1896 until his death. ... Asa Gray (1810-1888) Asa Gray (November 18, 1810 - January 30, 1888) is considered the most important American botanist of the 19th century. ... Charles Kingsley A statue of Charles Kingsley at Bideford, Devon (UK) Charles Kingsley (June 12, 1819 – January 23, 1875) was an English novelist, particularly associated with the West Country. ... This article includes a list of works cited but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... It has been suggested that noogenesis be merged into this article or section. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      Liberal Christianity, sometimes called... Allegorical interpretations of Genesis is devoted to historical and contemporary non-literal regarding the book of Genesis. ... St. ... As a means of recording the passage of time, the 4th century was that century which lasted from 301 to 400. ... The 1st century was that century that lasted from 1 to 100 according the Gregorian calendar. ... Philo (20 BCE - 40 CE) was an Alexandrian Jewish philosopher born in Alexandria, Egypt. ...


Political context

The Truth fish, one of the many creationist responses to the Darwin fish.
The Truth fish, one of the many creationist responses to the Darwin fish.

In the United States, more so than in the rest of the world, creationism has become centered in the political controversy over creation and evolution in public education, and whether teaching creationism in science classes conflicts with the separation of church and state. Currently, the controversy has come in the form of whether advocates of the Intelligent Design movement who wish to "Teach the Controversy" in science classes have conflated science with religion.[21] This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... The traditional ichthys symbol The ichthys symbol, or Jesus fish, typically used to proclaim an affiliation with or affinity for Christianity, is frequently a subject of satire, especially when adorning the bumpers or trunks of automobiles. ... The creation-evolution controversy (also termed the creation vs. ... For other uses, see Politics (disambiguation). ... The creation-evolution controversy (also termed the creation vs. ... The legal status of creation and evolution in public education is the subject of a great deal of debate in legal, political, and religious circles. ... Constantines Conversion, depicting the conversion of Emperor Constantine the Great to Christianity, by Peter Paul Rubens. ... The intelligent design movement is a neo-creationist religious campaign that calls for broad social, academic and political changes derived from the concept of intelligent design. ... Teach the Controversy is the name of a Discovery Institute intelligent design campaign to promote intelligent design creationism while discrediting evolution in United States public high school science courses. ... Religious and scientific modes of knowledge Generally speaking, religion and science use different methods in their effort to ascertain Truth. ...


In such political contexts, creationists argue that their particular religiously-based origin belief is superior to those of other belief systems, in particular those made through secular or scientific rationale. Political creationists are opposed by many individuals and organizations who have made detailed critiques and given testimony in various court cases that the alternatives to scientific reasoning offered by creationists are opposed by the consensus of the scientific community.[22][23] Religion—sometimes used interchangeably with faith or belief system—is commonly defined as belief concerning the supernatural, sacred, or divine, and the moral codes, practices and institutions associated with such belief. ... There have been numerous objections to evolution since alternative evolutionary ideas came to be hotly debated around the start of the nineteenth century. ... Scientific consensus is the collective judgment, position, and opinion of the community of scientists in a particular field of science at a particular time. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


History

Main article: History of creationism

The history of creationism is part of the history of religions, though the term itself is modern. In the 1920s the term became particularly associated with Christian fundamentalist movements that insisted on a literalist interpretation of Creation according to Genesis and likewise opposed the idea of human evolution. These groups succeeded in getting teaching of evolution banned in United States public schools, then from the mid-1960s the young Earth creationists promoted the teaching of "scientific creationism" using "Flood geology" in public school science classes as support for a purely literal reading of Genesis.[24] After the legal judgement of the case Daniel versus Waters (1975) ruled that teaching creationism in public schools contravened constitutional separation of Church and State, the content was stripped of overt biblical references and renamed creation science. When the court case Edwards versus Aguillard (1987) ruled that creation science similarly contravened the constitution, all references to "creation" in a draft school textbook were changed to refer to intelligent design, which was subsequently claimed to be a new scientific theory. The Kitzmiller v. Dover (2005) ruling concluded that intelligent design is not science and contravenes the constitutional restriction on teaching religion in public school science classes.[3] The history of creationism is tied to the history of religions. ... For the academic study of religion in general, see Religious studies. ... Fundamentalist Christianity, or Christian fundamentalism, is a movement that arose mainly within British and American Protestantism in the late 19th and early 20th centuries by conservative evangelical Christians, who, in a reaction to modernism, actively affirmed a fundamental set of Christian beliefs: the inerrancy of the Bible, Sola Scriptura, the... Biblical literalism is the supposed adherence to the explicit and literal sense of the Bible. ... This article is about the biblical text. ... For the history of humans on Earth, see History of the world. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Adam and Eve, the first human beings according to Genesis. ... Flood geology (also creation geology or diluvial geology) is a prominent subset of beliefs under the umbrella of creationism that assumes the literal truth of a global flood as described in the Genesis account of Noahs Ark. ... Daniel v. ... Constantines Conversion, depicting the conversion of Emperor Constantine the Great to Christianity, by Peter Paul Rubens. ... Creation science is the attempt to find scientific evidence that would justify a literal interpretation of the Biblical account of creation. ... Holding Teaching creationism in public schools is unconstitutional because it attempts to advance a particular religion. ... For other uses, see Intelligent design (disambiguation). ... Tammy Kitzmiller, et al. ...


Creation in early and medieval Christianity

Main article: Creation (theology)

To a large extent the early Christian Church Fathers read creation history as an allegory with the spiritual meaning seen as more important than the literal, without denying the literal meaning.[25] In the first century Saint Paul described Genesis 2:24 as an allegory meaning Christ and the Church, and Philo described creation as happening simultaneously, with the six days of creation meeting a need for order and according with a perfect number. Jewish writers such as Abraham ibn Ezra could be described as a creationist, while consistently rejecting overly literal understandings of Genesis. Maimonides explicitly states that parts of Genesis 1-3 cannot be taken literally.[13] THIS IS A FACT Creation is a doctrinal position in many religions and philosophical belief systems which maintains that a single God, or a group of or deities is responsible for creating the universe. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The Church Fathers, Early Church Fathers... Allegorical interpretations of Genesis is devoted to historical and contemporary non-literal regarding the book of Genesis. ... St. ... Philo (20 BC - 50 AD), known also as Philo of Alexandria and as Philo Judaeus And as Yedidia, was a Hellenized Jewish philosopher born in Alexandria, Egypt. ... In mathematics, a perfect number is defined as an integer which is the sum of its proper positive divisors, that is, the sum of the positive divisors not including the number. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Rabbi Abraham Ben Meir Ibn Ezra (also known as Ibn Ezra, or Abenezra) (1092 or 1093-1167), was one of the most distinguished Jewish men of letters and writers of the Middle Ages. ... Commonly used image indicating one artists conception of Maimonidess appearance Maimonides (March 30, 1135 or 1138–December 13, 1204) was a Jewish rabbi, physician, and philosopher in Spain, Morocco and Egypt during the Middle Ages. ...


In response to the second century Gnostic belief that Genesis was purely allegorical, Christian orthodoxy rejected this interpretation without taking a purely literal view of the texts. Thus Origen believes that the physical world is ‘literally’ a creation of God, but does not take the chronology or the days as ‘literal’. Similarly, Saint Basil in the fourth century while literal in many ways, describes creation as instantaneous and timeless, being immeasurable and indivisible. Augustine of Hippo in The Literal Meaning of Genesis is insistent that Genesis describes the creation of physical things, but also has creation occurring simultaneously, with the days of creation being categories for didactic reasons and light being the illumination of angels rather than visible light. In the thirteenth century Thomas Aquinas, like Augustine, asserted the need to hold the truth of Scripture without wavering while cautioning "that since Holy Scripture can be explained in a multiplicity of senses, one should not adhere to a particular explanation, only in such measure as to be ready to abandon it if it be proved with certainty to be false; lest holy Scripture be exposed to the ridicule of unbelievers, and obstacles be placed to their believing."[13] Gnosticism is a blanket term for various religions and sects most prominent in the first few centuries A.D. General characteristics The word gnosticism comes from the Greek word for knowledge, gnosis (γνῶσις), referring to the idea that there is special, hidden mysticism (esoteric knowledge... Origen Origen (Greek: ÅŒrigénÄ“s, 185–ca. ... Basil (ca. ... Augustinus redirects here. ... Saint Thomas Aquinas, O.P.(also Thomas of Aquin, or Aquino; c. ...


Natural theology

Main article: Natural theology

From 1517 the Protestant Reformation brought a new emphasis on lay literacy, with Martin Luther advocating the idea that creation took six literal days about 6000 years ago, and claiming that "Moses wrote that uneducated men might have clear accounts of creation", though a German peasant listening to a translation would have different perceptions from a Jew familiar with early Jewish language and culture, and Luther still had to refer to allegorical understandings such as the meaning of the serpent. John Calvin also rejected instantaneous creation, but criticised those who, contradicting the contemporary understanding of nature, asserted that there are "waters above the heavens".[13] Natural theology is the knowledge of God accessible to all rational human beings without recourse to any special or supposedly supernatural revelation. ... Reformation redirects here. ... Martin Luther (November 10, 1483 – February 18, 1546) was a German monk,[1] priest, professor, theologian, and church reformer. ... Cultures throughout history have believed the world formed or was formed at some time in the past, so methods of dating Creation have involved analysing scriptures and some physical data. ... John Calvin (July 10, 1509 – May 27, 1564) was a French Protestant theologian during the Protestant Reformation and was a central developer of the system of Christian theology called Calvinism or Reformed theology. ...


Discoveries of new lands brought knowledge of a huge diversity of life, and a new belief developed that each of these biological species had been individually created by God. In 1605 Francis Bacon emphasised that the works of God in nature teach us how to interpret the word of God in the Bible, and his Baconian method introduced the empirical approach which became central to modern science.[26] Natural theology developed the study of nature with the expectation of finding evidence supporting Christianity, and numerous attempts were made to reconcile new knowledge with Noah's Flood.[27] for the painter see Francis Bacon (painter) For other persons named Francis Bacon, see Francis Bacon (disambiguation). ... The Baconian method is the investigative method developed by Francis Bacon. ... Natural theology is the knowledge of God accessible to all rational human beings without recourse to any special or supposedly supernatural revelation. ... Noah or Nóach (Rest, Standard Hebrew נוֹחַ Nóaḥ, Tiberian Hebrew נֹחַ Nōªḥ; Arabic نوح Nūḥ), son of Lamech and the grandson of Methuselah, built an ark to save his family and a selection of the worlds animals from the Deluge. ...


In 1650 the Archbishop of Armagh, James Ussher, published the Ussher chronology based on Bible history giving a date for Creation of 4004 BC. This was generally accepted, but the development of modern geology in the 18th and 19th centuries found geological strata and fossil sequences indicating an ancient Earth. Catastrophism was favoured in England as supporting the Biblical flood, but this was found to be untenable[27] and by 1850 all geologists and most Evangelical Christians had adopted various forms of old Earth creationism, while continuing to firmly reject evolution.[13] Year 1650 (MDCL) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... In Christianity, an archbishop is an elevated bishop. ... WGS-84 (GPS) Coordinates: 54. ... Archbishop James Ussher (1581-1656) James Ussher (sometimes spelled Usher) (4 January 1581–21 March 1656) was Anglican Archbishop of Armagh and Primate of All Ireland between 1625–1656 and a prolific religious scholar who most famously published a chronology which calculated the date of Creation as 4004 BC. // Ussher... The Ussher chronology is a 17th-century chronology of the history of the world formulated from an interpretative reading of the Bible by James Ussher, the Anglican Archbishop of Armagh (in what is now Northern Ireland). ... This article includes a list of works cited but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... Interstate road cut through limestone and shale strata in eastern Tennessee In geology and related fields, a stratum (plural: strata) is a layer of rock or soil with internally consistent characteristics that distinguishes it from contiguous layers. ... For other uses of the term, see Fossil (disambiguation) Fossils are the mineralized remains of animals or plants or other artifacts such as footprints. ... Catastrophism is the idea that Earth has been affected by sudden, short-lived, violent events that were sometimes worldwide in scope. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... This article is about evolution in biology. ...


Evolution

Main article: History of evolutionary thought

From around the start of the nineteenth century ideas like Lamarck's concept of transmutation of species had gained a small number of supporters in Paris and Edinburgh, mostly amongst anatomists.[13] England at that time was enmeshed in the Napoleonic Wars, and fears of republican revolutions such as the American Revolution and French Revolution led to a harsh repression of such evolutionary ideas which challenged the divine hierarchy justifying the monarchy. Charles Darwin's development of his theory of natural selection at this time was kept closely secret. Repression eased, and the anonymous publication of Vestiges of Creation in 1844 aroused wide public interest with support from Quakers and Unitarians, but strongly criticism by the scientific community, emphasising the need for solidly backed science. In 1859 Darwin's On the Origin of Species provided that evidence from an authoritative and respected source, and gradually convinced scientists that evolution occurs. This was resisted by conservative evangelicals in the Church of England, but their attention quickly turned to the much greater uproar about Essays and Reviews by liberal Anglican theologians, which introduced into the controversy "the higher criticism" begun by Erasmus centuries earlier. This book re-examined the Bible and cast doubt on a literal interpretation.[28] By 1875 most American naturalists supported ideas of theistic evolution, often involving special creation of human beings.[24] Evolutionary thought has roots in antiquity as philosophical ideas conceived during the Ancient Greek and Roman eras, but until the 18th century, biological thought was dominated by essentialism, the idea that living forms are static and unchanging in time. ... Jean-Baptiste Pierre Antoine de Monet, Chevalier de Lamarck (August 1, 1744 - December 28, 1829) was a major 19th century naturalist, who was one of the first to use the term biology in its modern sense. ... Transmutation of species refers to the altering of one species into another. ... This article is about the capital of France. ... For other uses, see Edinburgh (disambiguation). ... Combatants Austria[1] Portugal Prussia[1] Russia[2] Sicily  Spain[3]  Sweden United Kingdom[4] French Empire Holland Italy Naples [5] Duchy of Warsaw Bavaria[6] Saxony[7] Denmark-Norway [8] Commanders Archduke Charles Prince Schwarzenberg Karl Mack von Leiberich João Francisco de Saldanha Oliveira e Daun Gebhard von... John Trumbulls Declaration of Independence, showing the five-man committee in charge of drafting the Declaration in 1776 as it presents its work to the Second Continental Congress in Philadelphia The American Revolution refers to the period during the last half of the 18th century in which the Thirteen... The French Revolution (1789–1815) was a period of political and social upheaval in the political history of France and Europe as a whole, during which the French governmental structure, previously an absolute monarchy with feudal privileges for the aristocracy and Catholic clergy, underwent radical change to forms based on... For other people of the same surname, and places and things named after Charles Darwin, see Darwin. ... The inception of Darwins theory began with a search for explanations of contradictions in current Creationist ideas, and led him to formulate his theory of evolution which was eventually published in his book On the Origin of Species. ... For other uses, see Natural selection (disambiguation). ... Vestiges of the Natural History of Creation was a book published anonymously in England in 1844. ... Quaker redirects here. ... Historic Unitarianism believed in the oneness of God as opposed to traditional Christian belief in the Trinity (Father, Son, and Holy Spirit). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Charles Darwins Origin of Species (publ. ... This article is about evolution in biology. ... The Church of England logo since 1998 The Church of England is the officially established Christian church[1] in England, and acts as the mother and senior branch of the worldwide Anglican Communion, as well as a founding member of the Porvoo Communion. ... Essays and Reviews, published in 1860, is a collection of seven essays on religion, covering topics including the Biblical researches of the German critics, the evidences of Christianity, religious thought in England, and the cosmology of Genesis. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      Liberal Christianity, sometimes called... The higher criticism is a name given to critical studies of the Bible that treat it as a text created by human beings at a particular historical time and for various human motives, in contrast with the treatment of the Bible as the inerrant word of God. ... “Erasmus” redirects here. ... Table of natural history, 1728 Cyclopaedia Natural history is an umbrella term for what are now often viewed as several distinct scientific disciplines of integrative organismal biology. ... Theistic evolution, less commonly known as evolutionary creationism, is the general opinion that some or all classical religious teachings about God and creation are compatible with some or all of the modern scientific understanding about biological evolution. ... Special creation describes a mechanism for producing life on earth that is promoted by special creationists following an agenda known as special creationism. In general, special creation is a type of belief about the origin of life on earth. ...


By the start of the twentieth century, evolution was widely accepted and was beginning to be taught in U.S. public schools. After World War I, stories that German aggression resulted from Darwinismus promoting "survival of the fittest" inspired William Jennings Bryan to campaign against the teaching of Darwinian ideas of human evolution.[24] In the 1920s, the Fundamentalist-Modernist Controversy led to an upsurge of fundamentalist religious fervor in which schools were prevented from teaching evolution through state laws such as Tennessee’s 1925 Butler Act,[29][30] and by getting evolution removed from biology textbooks nationwide. Creationism became associated in common usage with opposition to evolution.[31] This article does not cite any references or sources. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Herbert Spencer coined the phrase, survival of the fittest. ... For other persons of the same name, see William Bryan. ... For the history of humans on Earth, see History of the world. ... The Fundamentalist-Modernist Controversy was a religious controversy within the Presbyterian Church in the USA. It is conventionally dated as beginning with the preaching of Harry Emerson Fosdicks sermon Shall the Fundamentalists Win? in 1922 and ending with J. Gresham Machen and a number of other conservative Presbyterian theologians... Fundamentalist Christianity, or Christian fundamentalism, is a movement that arose mainly within British and American Protestantism in the late 19th and early 20th centuries by conservative evangelical Christians, who, in a reaction to modernism, actively affirmed a fundamental set of Christian beliefs: the inerrancy of the Bible, Sola Scriptura, the... The Butler Act was a 1925 Tennessee law forbidding the teaching of any evolutionary theory which indicated that man descended from lower orders of animals in public schools. ...


Creation science and intelligent design

The effective ban lasted until 1957 when Sputnik raised fears that the U.S. had fallen behind in science, and the 1959 National Defense Education Act promoted science. Biological Sciences Curriculum Study textbooks teaching evolution were used in almost half of U.S. high schools, though the prohibitions were still in place and a 1961 attempt to repeal the Butler Act failed.[3] In 1961 The Genesis Flood by the Baptist engineer Henry M. Morris brought the Seventh-day Adventist biblically literal flood geology of George McCready Price to a wider audience, popularizing a novel idea of Young Earth creationism,[13] and by 1965 the term "scientific creationism" had gained currency.[32] The 1968 Epperson v. Arkansas judgement ruled that state laws prohibiting the teaching of evolution violate the Establishment Clause of the First Amendment of the U.S. Constitution which prohibits state aid to religion.[33] and when in 1975 Daniel v. Waters ruled that a state law requiring biology textbooks discussing "origins or creation of man and his world" to give equal treatment to creation as per Genesis was unconstitutional, this new group identifying themselves as creationists promoted a "Creation science" which omitted explicit biblical references.[3] Sputnik 1 The Sputnik program was a series of unmanned space missions launched by the Soviet Union in the late 1950s to demonstrate the viability of artificial satellites. ... The National Defense Education Act (NDEA) is a United States Act of Congress, passed in 1958 providing aid to education in the United States at all levels, both public and private. ... The Biological Sciences Curriculum Study (BSCS) is an American non-profit organization that develops curricular materials based on science and technology for schools. ... The Genesis Flood: The Biblical Record and its Scientific Implications is a 1961 book by the young earth creationists John C. Whitcomb and Henry M. Morris. ... Henry M. Morris Henry Madison Morris, Ph. ... The Seventh-day Adventist (abbreviated Adventist[1]) Church is a Christian denomination which is distinguished by its observance of Saturday, the seventh day of the week, as the Sabbath. ... Flood geology (also creation geology or diluvial geology) is a prominent subset of beliefs under the umbrella of creationism that assumes the literal truth of a global flood as described in the Genesis account of Noahs Ark. ... George McCready Price (1870 — 1963) was a Canadian creationist. ... Adam and Eve, the first human beings according to Genesis. ... Holding States may not require curricula to align with the views of any particular religion. ... The Establishment Clause of the First Amendment to the United States Constitution states that: Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion Together with the Free Exercise Clause, (or prohibiting the free exercise thereof), these two clauses make up what are commonly known as the religion clauses. ... Page I of the Constitution of the United States of America Page II of the United States Constitution Page III of the United States Constitution Page IV of the United States Constitution The Syng inkstand, with which the Constitution was signed The Constitution of the United States is the supreme... Daniel v. ... For other uses, see Genesis (disambiguation). ... Creation science is the attempt to find scientific evidence that would justify a literal interpretation of the Biblical account of creation. ...


In 1981 the state of Arkansas passed a law, Act 590, mandating that "creation science" be given equal time in public schools with evolution, and defining creation science as positing the “creation of the universe, energy, and life from nothing,” as well as explaining the earth’s geology “by occurrence of a worldwide flood.”[32] This was ruled unconstitutional at McLean v. Arkansas in January 1982 as the creationists' methods were not scientific but took the literal wording of the Book of Genesis and attempted to find scientific support for it.[32] Undaunted, Louisiana introduced similar legislation that year. A series of judgements and appeals led to the 1987 Supreme Court ruling in Edwards v. Aguillard that it too violated the Establishment Clause of the First Amendment.[30] McLean v. ... Holding Teaching creationism in public schools is unconstitutional because it attempts to advance a particular religion. ...


"Creation science" could no longer be taught in public schools, and in drafts of the creation science school textbook Of Pandas and People all references to creation or creationism were changed to refer to intelligent design.[30] Proponents of the intelligent design movement organised widespread campaigning to considerable effect. They officially denied any links to creation or to religion, and indeed claimed that "creationism" only referred to young Earth creationism with flood geology,[34] but in Kitzmiller v. Dover the court found intelligent design to be essentially religious, and unable to dissociate itself from its creationist roots, as part of the ruling that teaching intelligent design in public school science classes was unconstitutional.[30] Of Pandas and People: The Central Question of Biological Origins is a controversial 1989 (2nd edition 1993) school-level textbook written by Percival Davis and Dean H. Kenyon and published by the Texas-based Foundation for Thought and Ethics (FTE). ... For other uses, see Intelligent design (disambiguation). ... The intelligent design movement is a neo-creationist religious campaign that calls for broad social, academic and political changes derived from the concept of intelligent design. ... Tammy Kitzmiller, et al. ...


Types of Christian creationism

Several attempts have been made to categorize the different types of creationism, and create a "taxonomy" of creationists.[35][36][37] Creationism covers a spectrum of beliefs which have been categorized into the broad types listed below. As a matter of popular belief and characterizations by the media, most people labeled "creationists" are those who object to specific parts of science for religious reasons; however many (if not most) people who believe in a divine act of creation do not categorically reject those parts of science. Look up taxonomy in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

Comparison of creationist views
Humanity Biological species Earth Universe
Young Earth creationism Directly created by God. Directly created by God. Macroevolution does not occur. < 10,000 years old. Reshaped by global flood. < 10,000 years old.
Gap creationism Directly created by God. Directly created by God. Macroevolution does not occur. Scientifically accepted age. Reshaped by global flood. Scientifically accepted age.
Progressive creationism Directly created by God (based on primate anatomy). Direct creation + evolution. No single common ancestor. Scientifically accepted age. No global flood. Scientifically accepted age.
Intelligent design N/A Divine intervention at some point in the past, as evidenced by irreducible complexity Some adherents claim the existence of Earth is the result of divine intervention Some adherents believe in the teleological argument, that the existence of Universe is the result of divine intervention
Theistic evolution Evolution from primates. Evolution from single common ancestor. Scientifically accepted age. No global flood. Scientifically accepted age.

Adam and Eve, the first human beings according to Genesis. ... Macroevolution refers to evolution that occurs at or above the level of species, in contrast with microevolution, which refers to smaller evolutionary changes (typically described as changes in allele frequencies) within a species or population. ... Gap creationism, also called Restitution creationism or Ruin-Reconstruction, are terms used to describe a particular set of Christian beliefs about the creation of the Universe and the origin of man. ... Progressive creationism is a form of Old Earth creationism that accepts that new species have appeared successively over earths long history but that, to a greater or lesser degree, each species represents a fiat miracle (thus the creationism part), and that the first pair or representatives of species were... Families 15, See classification A primate is any member of the biological order Primates, the group that contains all the species commonly related to the lemurs, monkeys, and apes, with the latter category including humans. ... For other uses, see Intelligent design (disambiguation). ... Irreducible complexity (IC) is the argument intended to support intelligent design creationism[1] and refute evolution that certain biological systems are too complex to have evolved from simpler, or less complete predecessors, and are at the same time too complex to have arisen naturally through chance mutations. ... A teleological argument, or argument from design, is an argument for the existence of God or a creator based on perceived evidence of order, purpose, design and/or direction in nature. ... Theistic evolution, less commonly known as evolutionary creationism, is the general opinion that some or all classical religious teachings about God and creation are compatible with some or all of the modern scientific understanding about biological evolution. ...

Young Earth creationism

Young Earth creationism is the belief that the Earth was created by God within the last ten thousand years, literally as described in Genesis, within the approximate timeframe of biblical genealogies (detailed for example in the Ussher chronology). Young Earth creationists often believe that the Universe has a similar age as the Earth. Creationist cosmologies are attempts by some creationist thinkers to give the universe an age consistent with the Ussher chronology and other Young-Earth timeframes. Adam and Eve, the first human beings according to Genesis. ... Image File history File links Gnome-globe. ... This article discusses the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ... This article is about the biblical text. ... The Ussher chronology is a 17th-century chronology of the history of the world formulated from an interpretative reading of the Bible by James Ussher, the Anglican Archbishop of Armagh (in what is now Northern Ireland). ... For other uses, see Universe (disambiguation). ... Creationist cosmologies are pseudoscientific arguments by various creationists that a significant portion of the observable universe is a few thousands of years old, and as such, run contrary to the Big Bang Theory, which states that all of the universe is billions of years old. ...


This view is held by many Protestant Christians in the USA. It is also estimated that 47% of Americans hold this view, and almost 10% of Christian colleges teach it.[38] The Christian organizations Institute for Creation Research (ICR), El Cajon, California, USA, and the Creation Research Society (CRS), Saint Joseph, Missouri, USA both promote Young Earth Creationism. Another organization with similar views, Answers in Genesis (AIG) Ministries based in the Greater Cincinnati area, has opened a Creation Museum to promote Young Earth Creationism. The Institute for Creation Research (ICR) is a biblical research institute based in Santee, California that focuses on constructing and teaching a Young Earth Creationist world-view. ... El Cajon (IPA pronunciation in English: ; Spanish: ) is a city in San Diego County, California, United States. ... The Creation Research Society is a young Earth creationist organisation, originally founded in 1963 by Henry M. Morris and nine other like-minded individuals. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Answers in Genesis (AiG) is a non-profit Christian apologetics ministry with a particular focus on Young Earth creationism and a literal, or plain,[1] interpretation of the first chapters of Genesis. ... Answers in Genesis (AiG) is a non-profit Christian apologetics ministry with a particular focus on Young Earth creationism and a literal, or plain,[1] interpretation of the first chapters of Genesis. ...


Modern geocentrism

Main article: Modern geocentrism

Modern geocentrism holds that God recently created a spherical world, and placed it in the center of the universe. The Sun, planets and everything else in the universe revolve around it. Modern geocentrism is a belief currently held by certain groups that the Earth is the center of the universe and does not move. ... Sol redirects here. ... A planet (from the Greek &#960;&#955;&#945;&#957;&#942;&#964;&#951;&#962;, planetes or wanderers) is a body of considerable mass that orbits a star and that produces very little or no energy through nuclear fusion. ...


Omphalos hypothesis

Main article: Omphalos hypothesis

The Omphalos hypothesis argues that in order for the world to be functional, God must have created a mature Earth with mountains and canyons, rock strata, trees with growth rings, and so on; therefore no evidence that we can see of the presumed age of the earth and universe can be taken as reliable.[39] The idea has seen some revival in the twentieth century by some modern creationists, who have extended the argument to light that appears to originate in far-off stars and galaxies. The omphalos hypothesis was named after the title of an 1857 book by Philip Henry Gosse in which he argued that in order for the world to be functional, God must have created the Earth with mountains, canyons, trees with growth rings, Adam and Eve with hair, fingernails, and navels... This article is about Earth as a planet. ... Earth as seen from Apollo 17 Modern geologists consider the age of the Earth to be around 4. ... The age of the universe, in Big Bang cosmology, refers to the time elapsed between the Big Bang and the present day. ... Galaxy Abell 1835 IR1916 is seen as a tiny dot in this photo of distant galaxies. ... This article is about the astronomical object. ... For other uses, see Galaxy (disambiguation). ...


Creation science

Main article: Creation science

Creation science is the attempt to present scientific evidence interpreted with Genesis axioms that supports the claims of creationism. Various claims of "creation scientists" include such ideas as creationist cosmologies which accommodate a universe on the order of thousands of years old, attacks on the science of radiometric dating through a technical argument about radiohalos, explanations for the fossil record as a record of the destruction of the global flood recorded in Genesis (see flood geology), and explanations for the present diversity as a result of pre-designed genetic variability and partially due to the rapid degradation of the perfect genomes God placed in "created kinds" or "Baramin" (see creation biology) due to mutations. Creation science is the attempt to find scientific evidence that would justify a literal interpretation of the Biblical account of creation. ... Creationist cosmologies are pseudoscientific arguments by various creationists that a significant portion of the observable universe is a few thousands of years old, and as such, run contrary to the Big Bang Theory, which states that all of the universe is billions of years old. ... Radiometric dating (often called radioactive dating) is a technique used to date materials, based on a comparison between the observed abundance of particular naturally occurring radioactive isotopes and their known decay rates. ... Radiohalos are microscopic, spherical shells of discoloration in rocks, such as granite, or wood caused by the inclusion of radioactive grains in the rock or by deposition of radioactive material in them. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Fossil. ... This article is on mythology involving great floods. ... For other uses, see Genesis (disambiguation). ... Flood geology (also creation geology or diluvial geology) is a prominent subset of beliefs under the umbrella of creationism that assumes the literal truth of a global flood as described in the Genesis account of Noahs Ark. ... Rainforests are among the most biodiverse ecosystems on earth Biodiversity is the variation of taxonomic life forms within a given ecosystem, biome or for the entire Earth. ... In biology the genome of an organism is the whole hereditary information of an organism that is encoded in the DNA (or, for some viruses, RNA). ... In creation biology, created kinds are believed to be the original forms of life as they were created by God. ... Creation biology,examines biology from a creationist perspective which assumes that God created all life on the planet as described in the Genesis account of Creation, in a finite number of discrete created kinds or baramins. ... This article is about mutation in biology, for other meanings see: mutation (disambiguation). ...


Old Earth creationism

Main article: Old Earth creationism

Old Earth creationism holds that the physical universe was created by God, but that the creation event of Genesis is not to be taken strictly literally. This group generally believes that the age of the Universe and the age of the Earth are as described by astronomers and geologists, but that details of the evolutionary theory are questionable. This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... For other uses, see Universe (disambiguation). ... The age of the universe, in Big Bang cosmology, refers to the time elapsed between the Big Bang and the present day. ... Earth as seen from Apollo 17 Modern geologists consider the age of the Earth to be around 4. ... An astronomer or astrophysicist is a scientist whose area of research is astronomy or astrophysics. ... A geologist is a contributor to the science of geology. ... This article is about biological evolution. ...


Old-Earth creationism itself comes in at least four types:


Gap creationism

Main article: Gap creationism

Gap creationism, also called "Restitution creationism", holds that life was recently created on a pre-existing old Earth. This theory relies on a particular interpretation of Genesis 1:1-2. It is considered that the words formless and void in fact denote waste and ruin, taking into account the original Hebrew and other places these words are used in the Old Testament. Genesis 1:1-2 is consequently translated: Gap creationism, also called Restitution creationism or Ruin-Reconstruction, are terms used to describe a particular set of Christian beliefs about the creation of the Universe and the origin of man. ... Note: Judaism commonly uses the term Tanakh to refer to its canon, which corresponds to the Protestant Old Testament. ...

"In the beginning God created the heavens and the earth." (Original act of creation.)
"Now the earth became waste and ruin, darkness was over the surface of the deep, and the Spirit of God was hovering over the waters."

Thus, the six days of creation (verse 3 onwards) start sometime after the Earth became "waste and ruin". This allows an indefinite "gap" of time to be inserted after the original creation of the universe, but prior to creation week (when present biological species and humanity were created). Gap theorists can therefore agree with the scientific consensus regarding the age of the Earth and universe, while maintaining a literal interpretation of the biblical text. This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ...


Some gap theorists expand the basic theory by proposing a "primordial creation" of biological life within the "gap" of time. This is thought to be "the world that then was" mentioned in 2 Peter 3:3-7.[40] Discoveries of fossils and archaeological ruins older than 10,000 years are generally ascribed to this "world that then was", which may also be associated with Lucifer's rebellion. These views became popular with publications of Hebrew Lexicons such as the Strong's Concordance, and Bible commentaries such as the Scofield Reference Bible and the Companion Bible. The Second Epistle of Peter is a book of the New Testament of the Bible. ... For other uses, see Fossil (disambiguation). ... This article is about the star or fallen angel. ... James Strong (1822-1894) Strongs Concordance (strictly Strongs Exhaustive Concordance of the Bible) is a concordance of the King James Bible (KJV) that was constructed under the direction of Dr. James Strong (1822–1894) and first published in 1890. ... The Scofield Reference Bible is a widely circulated annotated study Bible edited and annotated by the American Bible student Cyrus I. Scofield. ... Ethelbert William Bullinger (December 15, 1837 - June 6, 1913) was an ordained Anglican clergyman, Biblical scholar, and dispensationalist theologian. ...


Day-age creationism

Main article: Day-Age Creationism

Day-age creationism holds that the "six days" of Genesis are not ordinary twenty-four-hour days, but rather much longer periods (for instance, each "day" could be the equivalent of millions, or billions of years of human time). This theory often states that the Hebrew word "yôm", in the context of Genesis 1, can be properly interpreted as "age." Some adherents claim we are still living in the seventh age ("seventh day"). Day-Age Creationism, a type of Old Earth Creationism, is an effort to reconcile the literal Genesis account of Creation with modern scientific theories on the age of the Universe, the Earth, life, and humans. ... For other uses, see Genesis (disambiguation). ... “Hebrew” redirects here. ...


Strictly speaking, day-age creationism is not so much a creationist theory as a hermeneutic option which may be combined with theories such as progressive creationism. Hermeneutics (Hermeneutic means interpretive), is a branch of philosophy concerned with human understanding and the interpretation of texts. ...


Progressive creationism

Progressive creationism holds that species have changed or evolved in a process continuously guided by God, with various ideas as to how the process operated—though it is generally taken that God directly intervened in the natural order at key moments in Earth/life's history. This view accepts most of modern physical science including the age of the earth, but rejects much of modern evolutionary biology or looks to it for evidence that evolution by natural selection alone is incorrect. Organizations such as Reasons to Believe, founded by Hugh Ross, promote this theory. Progressive creationism is a form of Old Earth creationism that accepts that new species have appeared successively over earths long history but that, to a greater or lesser degree, each species represents a fiat miracle (thus the creationism part), and that the first pair or representatives of species were... Earth as seen from Apollo 17 Modern geologists consider the age of the Earth to be around 4. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... This article is about evolution in biology. ... For other uses, see Natural selection (disambiguation). ... Hugh Ross Hugh Norman Ross (born July 24, 1945) is a Canadian-born Old Earth creationist and Christian apologist. ... Hugh Ross Hugh N. Ross (born 1945) is a Canadian-born Old Earth Creationist. ...


Progressive creationism can be held in conjunction with hermeneutic approaches to Genesis chapter 1 such as the day-age theory or framework/metaphoric/poetic views. Hermeneutics (Hermeneutic means interpretive), is a branch of philosophy concerned with human understanding and the interpretation of texts. ... Genesis (Greek: Γένεσις, having the meanings of birth, creation, cause, beginning, source and origin) is the first book of the Torah (five books of Moses) and hence the first book of the Tanakh, part of the Hebrew Bible; it is also the first book of the Christian Old Testament. ... Day-Age Creationism, a type of Old Earth Creationism, is an effort to reconcile the literal Genesis account of Creation with modern scientific theories on the age of the Universe, the Earth, life, and humans. ... The framework interpretation (also known as the literary framework view, framework theory, or framework hypothesis) is an interpretation of Genesis chapter 1 which holds that the seven-day creation account found therein is not a literal or scientific description of the origins of the universe; rather, it is an ancient...


This view of natural history runs counter to current scientific understanding, is unsupported by peer-reviewed articles in respected scientific journals, and is considered pseudoscience.


Neo-Creationism

Main article: Neo-Creationism

Neo-Creationists intentionally distance themselves from other forms of creationism, preferring to be known as wholly separate from creationism as a philosophy. Its goal is to restate creationism in terms more likely to be well received by the public, education policy makers and the scientific community. It aims to re-frame the debate over the origins of life in non-religious terms and without appeals to scripture, and to bring the debate before the public. Neo-creationism is a movement whose goal is to restate creationism in terms more likely to be well received by the public, policy makers, educators, and the scientific community. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


One of its principal claims is that ostensibly objective orthodox science is actually a dogmatically atheistic religion. Its proponents argue that the scientific method excludes certain explanations of phenomena, particularly where they point towards supernatural elements. They argue that this effectively excludes any possible religious insight from contributing to a scientific understanding of the universe. Neo-Creationists also argue that science, as an "atheistic enterprise," is at the root of many of contemporary society's ills including social unrest and family breakdown. In science, the ideal of objectivity is an essential aspect of the scientific method, and is generally considered by the scientific community to come about as a result of strict observance of the scientific method, including the scientists willingness to submit their methods and results to an open debate by... “Atheist” redirects here. ... Scientific method is a body of techniques for investigating phenomena, acquiring new knowledge, or correcting and integrating previous knowledge. ... For other uses, see Universe (disambiguation). ...


The most recognized form of Neo-Creationism in the United States is the Intelligent Design movement. Unlike their philosophical forebears, Neo-Creationists largely do not believe in many of the traditional cornerstones of creationism such a young Earth, or in a dogmatically literal interpretation of the Bible. Common to all forms of Neo-Creationism is a rejection of naturalism, usually made together with a tacit admission of supernaturalism, and an open and often hostile opposition to what they term "Darwinism", which generally is meant to refer to evolution. The intelligent design movement is a neo-creationist religious campaign that calls for broad social, academic and political changes derived from the concept of intelligent design. ... Adam and Eve, the first human beings according to Genesis. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      Biblical inerrancy is the doctrinal position... This article is about methodological naturalism. ... The supernatural refers to conscious magical, religious or unknown forces that cannot ordinarily be perceived except through their effects. ... Charles Darwin Darwinism is a term for the underlying theory in those ideas of Charles Darwin concerning evolution and natural selection. ... This article is about evolution in biology. ...


Intelligent design

Main article: Intelligent design

Intelligent design (ID) is the claim that "certain features of the universe and of living things are best explained by an intelligent cause, not an undirected process such as natural selection."[41]. All of its leading proponents are associated with the Discovery Institute,[42] a think tank whose Wedge strategy aims to replace the scientific method with "a science consonant with Christian and theistic convictions" which accepts supernatural explanations.[43][30] It is widely accepted in the scientific and academic communities that intelligent design is a form of creationism,[44][45][46][47] and some have even begun referring to it as "intelligent design creationism".[48][49][50] For other uses, see Intelligent design (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Natural selection (disambiguation). ... The Discovery Institute is a think tank based in Seattle, Washington best known for its advocacy of intelligent design and its Teach the Controversy campaign to teach creationist beliefs in United States public high school science courses. ... The wedge strategy is a political and social action plan authored by the Discovery Institute, an organization that works to promote a Neo-Creationist religious agenda centering on Intelligent design, and is the hub of the Intelligent design movement. ... Scientific method is a body of techniques for investigating phenomena, acquiring new knowledge, or correcting and integrating previous knowledge. ...


ID originated as a re-branding of creation science in an attempt to get round a series of court decisions ruling out the teaching of creationism in U.S. public schools, and the Discovery Institute has run a series of campaigns to change school curricula.[3] In Australia, where curricula are under the control of State governments rather than local school boards, there was a public outcry when the notion of ID being taught in science classes was raised by the Federal Education Minister Brendan Nelson; the minister quickly conceded that the correct forum for ID, if it were to be taught, is in religious or philosophy classes.[51] Creation science is the attempt to find scientific evidence that would justify a literal interpretation of the Biblical account of creation. ... Discovery Institute intelligent design campaigns are a series of related public relations campaigns conducted by the Discovery Institute which seek to promote intelligent design while discrediting evolution, which the Institute terms Darwinism. ... Dr. Brendan John Nelson (born 19 August 1958), Australian politician, has been a Liberal Party of Australia member of the Australian House of Representatives since March 1996, representing the Division of Bradfield, New South Wales. ...


In the United States, teaching of Intelligent Design in public schools has been decisively ruled by a Federal District court to be in violation of the Establishment Clause of the First Amendment to the United States Constitution. In Kitzmiller v. Dover Area School District, the court found that intelligent design is not science and "cannot uncouple itself from its creationist, and thus religious, antecedents.", and hence cannot be taught as an alternative to Evolution in public school science classrooms under the jurisdiction of that court. This sets a persuasive precedent, based on previous Supreme Court decisions in Edwards v. Aguillard and Epperson v. Arkansas, and by the application of the Lemon test, that creates a legal hurdle to teaching Intelligent Design in public school districts in other Federal court jurisdictions.[21][30] The first ten Amendments to the U.S. Constitution make up the Bill of Rights. ... “First Amendment” redirects here. ... Tammy Kitzmiller, et al. ... This article is about evolution in biology. ... Precedent that is not binding on the court; but the judge may consider that it is the correct principle, so he is persuaded that he should follow it. ... Holding Teaching creationism in public schools is unconstitutional because it attempts to advance a particular religion. ... Holding States may not require curricula to align with the views of any particular religion. ... Holding For a law to be considered constitutional under the Establishment Clause of the First Amendment, the law must have a legitimate secular purpose, must not have the primary effect of either advancing or inhibiting religion, and must not result in an excessive entanglement of government and religion. ...


Theistic evolution

Main article: Theistic evolution

Theistic evolution, also known as "evolutionary creationism", is the general view that, instead of faith being in opposition to biological evolution, some or all classical religious teachings about God and creation are compatible with some or all of modern scientific theory, including specifically evolution. It generally views evolution as a tool used by God, who is both the first cause and immanent sustainer/upholder of the universe; it is therefore well accepted by people of strong theistic (as opposed to deistic) convictions. Theistic evolution can synthesize with the day-age interpretation of the Genesis creation account; however most adherents consider that the first chapters of Genesis should not be interpreted as a "literal" description, but rather as a literary framework or allegory. Theistic evolution, less commonly known as evolutionary creationism, is the general opinion that some or all classical religious teachings about God and creation are compatible with some or all of the modern scientific understanding about biological evolution. ... This article discusses the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ... Creation is a doctrinal position in many religions which maintains that one or a group of gods or deities is responsible for creating the universe. ... In mathematics, theory is used informally to refer to a body of knowledge about mathematics. ... This article is about evolution in biology. ... Categories: Wikipedia cleanup | Stub | Philosophy of science | Religious Philosophy | Theology ... Immanence is a religious and philosophical concept. ... Theism is the belief in the existence of one or more divinities or deities. ... For other uses, see Ceremonial Deism. ... Day-Age Creationism, a type of Old Earth Creationism, is an effort to reconcile the literal Genesis account of Creation with modern scientific theories on the age of the Universe, the Earth, life, and humans. ... This article is about the biblical text. ... The framework interpretation (also known as the literary framework view, framework theory, or framework hypothesis) is an interpretation of Genesis chapter 1 which holds that the seven-day creation account found therein is not a literal or scientific description of the origins of the universe; rather, it is an ancient... Allegory of Music by Filippino Lippi. ...


In one form or another, theistic evolution is the view of creation taught at the majority of mainline Protestant seminaries[52] For Catholics, human evolution is not a matter of religious teaching, and must stand or fall on its own scientific merits. Evolution and the Roman Catholic Church are not in conflict. The Catechism of the Catholic Church comments positively on the theory of evolution, which is neither precluded nor required by the sources of faith, stating that scientific studies "have splendidly enriched our knowledge of the age and dimensions of the cosmos, the development of life-forms and the appearance of man."[53] Roman Catholic schools teach evolution without controversy on the basis that scientific knowledge does not extend beyond the physical, and scientific truth and religious truth cannot be in conflict.[54] Theistic evolution can be described as "creationism" in holding that divine intervention brought about the origin of life or that divine Laws govern formation of species, though many creationists (in the strict sense) would deny that the position is creationism at all. In the creation-evolution controversy its proponents generally take the "evolutionist" side. This sentiment was expressed by Fr. George Coyne, (Vatican's chief astronomer between 1978 and 2006): Protestantism encompasses the forms of Christian faith and practice that originated with the doctrines of the Reformation. ... For the history of humans on Earth, see History of the world. ... The position of the Roman Catholic Church on the theory of evolution has changed over the last two centuries from a large period of no official mention, to a statement of neutrality in the 1950s, to a more explicit acceptance in recent years. ... The Catechism of the Catholic Church, or CCC, is an official exposition of the teachings of the Catholic Church, first published in French in 1992 by the authority of Pope John Paul II.[1] Subsequently, in 1997, a Latin text was issued which is now the official text of reference... This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The creation-evolution controversy (also termed the creation vs. ... Fr. ...

...in America, creationism has come to mean some fundamentalistic, literal, scientific interpretation of Genesis. Judaic-Christian faith is radically creationist, but in a totally different sense. It is rooted in a belief that everything depends upon God, or better, all is a gift from God.[55]

While supporting the methodological naturalism inherent in modern science, the proponents of theistic evolution reject the implication taken by some atheists that this gives credence to ontological materialism. In fact, many modern philosophers of science,[56] including atheists,[57] refer to the long standing convention in the scientific method that observable events in nature should be explained by natural causes, with the distinction that it does not assume the actual existence or non-existence of the supernatural. This article is about methodological naturalism. ... “Atheist” redirects here. ... This article is about ontology in philosophy. ... In philosophy, materialism is that form of physicalism which holds that the only thing that can truly be said to exist is matter; that fundamentally, all things are composed of material and all phenomena are the result of material interactions; that matter is the only substance. ... Scientific method is a body of techniques for investigating phenomena, acquiring new knowledge, or correcting and integrating previous knowledge. ... For other uses, see Observation (disambiguation). ... “Natural” redirects here. ...


Non-Christian creationist movements

There are creationist movements based in religious traditions other than Christianity.


Hinduism and creationism

A variety of theories exist regarding the universe, but in general the Hindu view of the cosmos is as eternal and cyclic. Vedic texts teach that humans have lived in unchanged form on the earth for many millions of years[citation needed]. An account is recorded in the scriptures according to which the universe, the Earth, along with humans and other creatures undergo repeated cycles of creation and destruction (pralaya). Within the diverse traditions of Hinduism, creation of the universe and life itself is generally believed to have occurred due to the will of a supreme consciousness or intelligence, often referred to as Brahman[1]. The accounts of the emergence of life within the universe vary in description, but classically... Veda redirects here. ... Pralaya , in Hindu theosophy , is a period of time of the cycle of existence of the planets where activity does not occur. ...


In general, many Hindus believe in biological evolution in some form, [58] while others believe in puranic story of god Brahma being the creator. Some Hindu religious and political organizations have been charged with promoting creationism (or other pseudo-scientific ideas) based on interpretations of Hindu scriptures.[citation needed] A typical 18th century phrenology chart. ...


Islamic creationism

Main article: Islamic creationism

There is a growing movement of Islamic creationism. Similar to Christian creationism, there is concern regarding the perceived conflicts between the Qur'an and the tenets of evolutionary theory. Islamic creationism is the belief that the universe (including humanity) was directly created by God as explained in the Quran or Genesis. ... Islamic creationism is the belief that the universe (including humanity) was directly created by God as explained in the Quran or Genesis. ... The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ... This article is about evolution in biology. ...


Jewish creationism

Main article: Judaism and evolution

Judaism has a continuum of views about creation, the origin of life and the role of evolution in the formation of species. The major Jewish denominations, including many Orthodox Jewish groups, accept evolutionary creationism or theistic evolution. Reform and Conservative Judaism do not take the Torah as a literal text, but rather as a symbolic or open-ended work. For Orthodox Jews who seek to reconcile discrepancies between science and the Bible, the notion that science and the Bible should even be reconciled through traditional scientific means is questioned. To these groups, science is as true as the Torah and if there seems to be a problem, our own epistemological limits are to blame for any apparent irreconcilable point. They point to various discrepancies between what is expected and what actually is to demonstrate that things are not always as they appear. They point out the fact that the even root word for "world" in the Hebrew language — עולם (oh•luhm) — means hidden. Just as they believe God created man and trees and the light on its way from the stars in their adult state, so too can they believe that the world was created in its "adult" state, with the understanding that there are, and can be, no physical ways to verify this. This belief has been advanced by Rabbi Dr. Dovid Gottlieb, former philosophy professor at Johns Hopkins University. Also, relatively old Kabbalistic sources from well before the scientifically apparent age of the universe was first determined are in close concord with modern scientific estimates of the age of the universe, according to Rabbi Aryeh Kaplan. Other interesting parallels are brought down from, among other sources, Nachmanides, who expounds that there was a Neanderthal-like species with which Adam mated (he did this long before Neanderthals had even been discovered scientifically).[59][60][61][62] Jewish views on evolution includes a continuum of views about evolution, creationism, and the origin of life. ... Several groups, sometimes called denominations, branches, or movements, have developed among Jews of the modern era, especially Ashkenazi Jews living in anglophone countries. ... The Torah () is the most important document in Judaism, revered as the inspired word of G-d (the vocal is never spelled), traditionally said to have been revealed to Moses. ... “Hebrew” redirects here. ... For the comic-book writer, see Arie Kaplan. ... Nahmanides is the common name for Moshe ben Nahman Gerondi; the name is a Greek translation of the Hebrew Ben Nahman, meaning Son of Nahman. He is also commomly known as Ramban, being an acronym of his Hebrew name and title, Rabbi Moshe ben Nahman, and by his Catalan name... For other uses, see Neanderthal (disambiguation). ... Michelangelos Creation of Adam, from the Sistine Chapel. ...


Prevalence

For the scientific evidence supporting evolution, see Evidence of evolution. ...

United States

Anti-evolution car in Athens, Georgia
Anti-evolution car in Athens, Georgia

According to a 2007 Gallup poll,[63] about 43% of Americans believe that "God created human beings pretty much in their present form at one time within the last 10,000 years or so." This is only slightly less than the 46% reported in a 2006 Gallup poll.[64] Only 14% believe that "human beings have developed over millions of years from less advanced forms of life, but God had no part in this process."[63] Belief in creationism is inversely correlated to education; of those with post-graduate degrees, only 22% believe in strict creationism.[64] A poll in the year 2000 done for People for the American Way found 70% of the American public felt that evolution was compatible with a belief in God.[65] Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1024x768, 227 KB) Summary Creationist car spotted on Broad Street in Athens, Georgia Image by Amy Watts Licensing File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1024x768, 227 KB) Summary Creationist car spotted on Broad Street in Athens, Georgia Image by Amy Watts Licensing File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... For other uses, see Athens (disambiguation). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... See: Gallup poll (opinion poll) Gallup, New Mexico ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... See: Gallup poll (opinion poll) Gallup, New Mexico ... People For the American Way (PFAW) is a liberal, self described progressive advocacy organization in the United States. ...


In 1987, Newsweek reported: "By one count there are some 700 scientists with respectable academic credentials (out of a total of 480,000 U.S. earth and life scientists) who give credence to creation-science, the general theory that complex life forms did not evolve but appeared 'abruptly.'"[66][67] Year 1987 (MCMLXXXVII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link displays 1987 Gregorian calendar). ... The Newsweek logo Newsweek is a weekly news magazine published in New York City and distributed throughout the United States and internationally. ...


In 2000, a poll by People For the American Way[65] estimated that: Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full 2000 Gregorian calendar). ... People For the American Way (PFAW) is a liberal, self described progressive advocacy organization in the United States. ...

20% of Americans believe public schools should teach evolution only;
17% of Americans believe that only evolution should be taught in science classes—religious explanations should be taught in another class;
29% of Americans believe that Creationism should be discussed in science class as a 'belief,' not a scientific theory;
13% of Americans believe that Creationism and evolution should be taught as 'scientific theories' in science class;
16% of Americans believe that only Creationism should be taught;

According to a study published in Science, between 1985 and 2005 the number of adult Americans who accept evolution declined from 45% to 40%, the number of adults who reject evolution declined from 48% to 39% and the number of people who were unsure increased from 7% to 21%. Besides the United States the study also compared data from 32 European countries, Turkey ,and Japan. The only country where acceptance of evolution was lower than in the United States was Turkey (25%).[68] (See the chart) Science is the journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS). ...


Less-direct anecdotal evidence of the popularity of creationism is reflected in the response of IMAX theaters to the availability of Volcanoes of the Deep Sea, an IMAX film which makes a connection between human DNA and microbes inside undersea volcanoes. The film's distributor reported that the only U.S. states with theaters which chose not to show the film were Texas, Georgia, North Carolina, and South Carolina: Anecdotal evidence is an informal account of evidence in the form of an anecdote, or hearsay. ... IMAX theatre at the Melbourne Museum complex, Australia BFI London IMAX by night IMAX dome in Guayaquil, Ecuador IMAX Theater in SM Mall of Asia, Philippines IMAX (short for Image Maximum) is a film format created by Canadas IMAX Corporation that has the capacity to display images of far... Volcanoes of the Deep Sea (2003) directed by Stephen Low of Montreal, Canada. ... The structure of part of a DNA double helix Deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA, is a nucleic acid molecule that contains the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms. ... A microorganism or microbe is an organism that is so small that it is microscopic (invisible to the naked eye). ... Cleveland Volcano in the Aleutian Islands of Alaska photographed from the International Space Station For other uses, see Volcano (disambiguation). ... Official language(s) No official language See languages of Texas Capital Austin Largest city Houston Largest metro area Dallas–Fort Worth–Arlington Area  Ranked 2nd  - Total 261,797 sq mi (678,051 km²)  - Width 773 miles (1,244 km)  - Length 790 miles (1,270 km)  - % water 2. ... Official language(s) English Capital Raleigh Largest city Charlotte Largest metro area Charlotte metro area Area  Ranked 28th  - Total 53,865 sq mi (139,509 km²)  - Width 150 miles (240 km)  - Length 560[1] miles (901 km)  - % water 9. ... Official language(s) English Capital Columbia Largest city Columbia Largest metro area Columbia Area  Ranked 40th  - Total 34,726 sq mi (82,965 km²)  - Width 200 miles (320 km)  - Length 260 miles (420 km)  - % water 6  - Latitude 32° 2′ N to 35° 13′ N  - Longitude 78° 32′ W to 83...

"We've got to pick a film that's going to sell in our area. If it's not going to sell, we're not going to take it," said the director of an IMAX theater in Charleston that is not showing the movie. "Many people here believe in creationism, not evolution."[69]

The western world outside the United States

Most vocal strict creationists are from the United States, and strict creationist views are much less common elsewhere in the western world.


According to a PBS documentary on evolution, Australian Young Earth Creationists claimed that “five percent of the Australian population now believe that Earth is thousands, rather than billions, of years old.” The documentary further states that “Australia is a particular stronghold of the creationist movement.”[70] Taking these claims at face value, Young Earth Creationism is very much a minority position in Western countries. Not to be confused with Public Broadcasting Services in Malta. ...


In Europe, strict creationism is a less well-defined phenomenon, and regular polls are not available. However, evolution is taught as scientific fact in most schools. In countries with a Roman Catholic majority, papal acceptance of evolution as worthy of study has essentially ended debate on the matter for many people. In the United Kingdom the Emmanuel Schools Foundation (previously the Vardy Foundation), which runs three government-funded 13 to 19 schools in the north of England (out of several thousand in the country) and plans to open several more, teaches that creationism and evolution are equally valid “faith positions”. One exam board (OCR) also specifically mentions and deals with creationism in its biology syllabus.[71] However, this deals with it as a historical belief and addresses hostility towards evolution rather than promoting it as an alternative to naturalistic evolution. Mainstream scientific accounts are expressed as fact. In Italy, former prime minister Silvio Berlusconi wanted to retire evolution from schools in the middle level; after one week of massive protests, he reversed his opinion.[72] For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The Pope (from Latin... The Emmanuel Schools Foundation (previously the Vardy Foundation after its founder, Sir Peter Vardy) intends to set up a total of seven specialist independent schools in the UK under the Governments City Academies Initiative. ...   (born September 29, 1936) is an Italian politician, entrepreneur, and media proprietor. ...


According to a study published in Science, a survey over the United States, Turkey, Japan and Europe showed that public acceptance of evolution is most prevalent in Iceland, Denmark and Sweden at 80% of the population.[68] (See the chart) Science is the journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS). ...


Of particular note for Eastern Europe, Serbia suspended the teaching of evolution for one week in 2004, under education minister Ljiljana Čolić, only allowing schools to reintroduce evolution into the curriculum if they also taught creationism.[73] "After a deluge of protest from scientists, teachers and opposition parties" says the BBC report, Čolić's deputy made the statement, "I have come here to confirm Charles Darwin is still alive" and announced that the decision was reversed.[74] Čolić resigned after the government said that she had caused "problems that had started to reflect on the work of the entire government."[75] Poland saw a major controversy over creationism in 2006 when the deputy education minister, Mirosław Orzechowski, denounced evolution as "one of many lies" taught in Polish schools. His superior, Minister of Education Roman Giertych, has stated that the theory of evolution would continue to be taught in Polish schools, "as long as most scientists in our country say that it is the right theory." Giertych's father, Member of the European Parliament Maciej Giertych, has however opposed the teaching of evolution and has claimed that dinosaurs and humans co-existed.[76] Pre-1989 division between the West (grey) and Eastern Bloc (orange) superimposed on current national boundaries: Russia (dark orange), other countries of the former USSR (medium orange),members of the Warsaw pact (light orange), and other former Communist regimes not aligned with Moscow (lightest orange). ... Not to be confused with Republika Srpska. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Ljiljana ÄŒolić (Serbian Cyrillic: Љиљана Чолић) (born 1956), professor of linguistics on University of Belgrade, an Orthodox Christian, is the former Minister of Education and Sport in the Government of Serbia. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... MirosÅ‚aw Orzechowski (born September 28, 1957 in Łódź) is a Polish politician. ... Roman Giertych Roman Giertych, (IPA: [], born 27 February 1971 in Åšrem, Poland) is a Polish politician, Deputy Prime Minister and, since May 5, 2006, Minister of Education. ... A Member of the European Parliament (English abbreviation MEP)[1] is a member of the European Unions directly-elected legislative body, the European Parliament. ... Maciej Marian Giertych (born March 24, 1936 in Warsaw) is a Polish politician with extreme conservative social views and in favor of state intervention in the economy. ...


In the United Kingdom, it is notable that The Archbishop of Canterbury, and head of the worldwide Anglican Communion, Rowan Williams views the idea of teaching creationism in schools as a mistake.[77]. A 2006 poll on the "origin and development of life" asked participants to choose between three different perspectives on the origin of life: 22% chose creationism, 17% opted for intelligent design, 48% selected evolution theory and the rest did not know. The poll had the effect of reinforcing a culture war false dichotomy on the subject in an attempt by the news organization to demonstrate the extent of the controversy. As the poll lacked nuanced survey techniques and equivocated on origin definitions as well as forced participants to make choices as though there were only three options, its results do not necessarily indicate the views of the general public concerning mainstream science or religious alternatives.[78][79] For the English boxer, see Rowan Anthony Williams. ... The culture war (or culture wars) in American usage is a metaphor used to claim that political conflict is based on sets of conflicting values. ... The creation-evolution controversy (also termed the creation vs. ... Statistical surveys are used to collect quantitative information about items in a population. ... The creation-evolution controversy (also termed the creation vs. ...


There continues to be scattered and possibly mounting efforts on the part of religious fundamentalists throughout Europe to introduce creationism into public education.[80] In response, the Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe has released a draft report entitled The dangers of creationism in education on June 8, 2007, [81] reinforced by a further proposal of banning it in schools dated October 4th, 2007. [82] Anthem Ode to Joy (orchestral)  ten founding members joined subsequently observer at the Parliamentary Assembly observer at the Committee of Ministers  official candidate Seat Strasbourg, France Membership 47 European states 5 observers (Council) 3 observers (Assembly) Leaders  -  Secretary General Terry Davis  -  President of the Parliamentary Assembly Rene van der Linden...


Criticism

The Christian critique

In March 2006, Archbishop of Canterbury Rowan Williams, the leader of the world's Anglicans, stated his discomfort about teaching creationism, saying that creationism was "a kind of category mistake, as if the Bible were a theory like other theories." He also said: "My worry is creationism can end up reducing the doctrine of creation rather than enhancing it." For the English boxer, see Rowan Anthony Williams. ...


The views of the Episcopal Church, the American branch of the Anglican Communion, on teaching creationism are also the same as Williams.[83]


In "Intelligent Design as a Theological Problem", George Murphy argues against the common view that life on Earth in all its forms is direct evidence of God's act of creation (Murphy quotes Phillip Johnson's claim that he is speaking "of a God who acted openly and left his fingerprints on all the evidence."). Murphy argues that this view of God is incompatible with the Christian understanding of God as "the one revealed in the cross and resurrection of Jesus." The basis of this theology is Isaiah 45:15, "Truly, thou art a God who hidest thyself, O God of Israel, the Savior." This verse inspired Blaise Pascal to write, "What meets our eyes denotes neither a total absence nor a manifest presence of the divine, but the presence of a God who conceals himself." In the Heidelberg Disputation, Martin Luther referred to the same Biblical verse to propose his "theology of the cross": "That person does not deserve to be called a theologian who looks upon the invisible things of God as though they were clearly perceptible in those things which have actually happened ... He deserves to be called a theologian, however, who comprehends the visible and manifest things of God seen through suffering and the cross." This article is about the tv programme Life on Earth. ... Isaiah the Prophet in Hebrew Scriptures was depicted on the Sistine Chapel ceiling by Michelangelo. ... Blaise Pascal (pronounced ), (June 19, 1623 – August 19, 1662) was a French mathematician, physicist, and religious philosopher. ... Martin Luther (November 10, 1483 – February 18, 1546) was a German monk,[1] priest, professor, theologian, and church reformer. ...


Luther opposes his theology of the cross to what he called the "theology of glory": The Theology of the Cross (Theologia Crucis) is a term used by Martin Luther in the sermon on the Two Kinds of Righteousness and which refers to a theology which places trust in Gods unmerited grace given for Christs sake instead of ones own righteous acts as... The Theology of Glory (Theologia Gloriae) is a term used by Martin Luther in the sermon on the Two Kinds of Righteousness and which refers to a theology which places trust in ones own righteous acts before God rather than any grace or mercy of God Himself as assurance...

A theologian of glory does not recognize, along with the Apostle, the crucified and hidden God alone [I Cor. 2:2]. He sees and speaks of God's glorious manifestation among the heathen, how his invisible nature can be known from the things which are visible [Cf. Rom. 1:20] and how he is present and powerful in all things everywhere.

For Murphy, Creationists are modern-day theologians of glory. Following Luther, Murphy argues that a true Christian cannot discover God from clues in creation, but only from the crucified Christ.


Murphy observes that the execution of a Jewish carpenter by Roman authorities is in and of itself an ordinary event and did not require Divine action. On the contrary, for the crucifixion to occur, God had to limit or "empty" Himself. It was for this reason that Paul wrote, in Philippians 2:5-8,

Have this mind among yourselves, which is yours in Christ Jesus, who, though he was in the form of God, did not count equality with God a thing to be grasped, but emptied himself, taking the form of a servant, being born in the likeness of men. And being found in human form he humbled himself and became obedient unto death, even death on a cross.

Murphy concludes that,

Just as the son of God limited himself by taking human form and dying on the cross, God limits divine action in the world to be in accord with rational laws God has chosen. This enables us to understand the world on its own terms, but it also means that natural processes hide God from scientific observation.

For Murphy, a theology of the cross requires that Christians accept a methodological naturalism, meaning that one cannot invoke God to explain natural phenomena, while recognizing that such acceptance does not require one to accept a metaphysical naturalism, which proposes that nature is all that there is.[84]


Scientific critique

As creationism is based on religious faith rather than evidence acquired through experiment and observation, it cannot be evaluated by science, which does not attempt to address issues of supernatural intervention in natural phenomena. The scientific consensus rejects any attempt to teach creationism as science.[85][86][87] The creation-evolution controversy (also termed the creation vs. ...


See also

Creationism Portal

map showing the prevalence of Abrahamic (purple) and Dharmic (yellow) religions in each country. ... Adnan Oktar, nom de plume Harun Yahya (a. ... Agent detection is the inclination for animals and humans to presume the purposeful intervention of an intelligent agent in situations that may or may not involve an intelligent agent. ... Allegorical interpretations of Genesis is devoted to historical and contemporary non-literal regarding the book of Genesis. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      Biblical inerrancy is the doctrinal position... Biblical literalism is the supposed adherence to the explicit and literal sense of the Bible. ... The Clockmaker hypothesis is a tenet of deism that states that some higher power, such as God, created the universe (for example, in the Big Bang) and then stepped aside after the moment of creation. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The cosmological argument is a metaphysical argument for the existence of God, traditionally known as an argument from universal causation, an argument from first cause, and also as an uncaused cause argument. ... Dilmun (sometimes transliterated Telmun) is an ancient civilization usually associated with archaeological sites on the islands of Bahrain in the Persian Gulf. ... Creation science is the attempt to find scientific evidence that would justify a literal interpretation of the Biblical account of creation. ... THIS IS A FACT Creation is a doctrinal position in many religions and philosophical belief systems which maintains that a single God, or a group of or deities is responsible for creating the universe. ... Image File history File links Portal. ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... Cultures throughout history have believed the world formed or was formed at some time in the past, so methods of dating Creation have involved analysing scriptures and some physical data. ... The term devolution, which normally means a delegation of powers, is sometimes erroneously used to refer to the evolution of a species into more primitive forms. ... In theology, the doctrine of divine simplicity says that God is without parts. ... Bobby Henderson redirects here. ... This list of creationist museums includes both current and planned museums that present creationist material. ... This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Quote mining is the practice of compiling quotes from large volumes of literature or spoken word. ... Natural theology is the knowledge of God accessible to all rational human beings without recourse to any special or supposedly supernatural revelation. ... A teleological argument, or argument from design, is an argument for the existence of God or a creator based on perceived evidence of order, purpose, design and/or direction in nature. ... The watchmaker analogy, or watchmaker argument, is a teleological argument for the existence of God. ...

References

  1. ^ Hayward 1998, p. 11
  2. ^ a b Ronald L. Numbers. Antievolutionists and Creationists. Creationism History. Counterbalance Meta-Library. Retrieved on 2007-08-15.
  3. ^ a b c d e Creationism/ID, A Short Legal History By Lenny Flank, Talk Reason
  4. ^ http://www.answersingenesis.org/creation/v18/i1/earth.asp
  5. ^ http://www.creationontheweb.com/images/pdfs/tj/v17n1_proteins.pdf
  6. ^ http://www.creationontheweb.com/content/view/2480
  7. ^ http://www.royalsoc.ac.uk/news.asp?year=&id=4298
  8. ^ National Association of Biology Teachers Statement on Teaching Evolution
  9. ^ IAP Statement on the Teaching of Evolution Joint statement issued by the national science academies of 67 countries, including the United Kingdom's Royal Society (PDF file)
  10. ^ From the American Association for the Advancement of Science, the world's largest general scientific society: 2006 Statement on the Teaching of EvolutionPDF (44.8 KiB), AAAS Denounces Anti-Evolution Laws
  11. ^ Wayne Jackson. Are There Two Creation Accounts in Genesis?. Retrieved on 2007-05-23.
  12. ^ The Creation Myths: Internal Difficulties. Retrieved on 2007-05-23.
  13. ^ a b c d e f g Forster, Roger & Marston, Dr Paul (2001), "Chapter 7 - Genesis Through History", Reason Science and Faith, Chester, England: Monarch Books, ISBN 1854244418, <http://www.ivycottage.org/group/group.aspx?id=6826>. Retrieved on 2007-06-30.
  14. ^ Archbishop of Canterbury, Transcript of interview with the Guardian
  15. ^ Archbishop of Canterbury backs evolution: Well, he is a Primate, Chris Williams, The Register, Tuesday 21 March 2006
  16. ^ What Catholics Think of Evolution? They don't not believe in it, Keelin McDonell, Explainer, Slate Magazine, July 12, 2005.
  17. ^ See also the article Evolution and the Roman Catholic Church.
  18. ^ see eg John Polkinghorne's Science and Theology pp6-7
  19. ^ http://www.asa3.org/ASA/topics/Bible-Science/PSCF3-88Young.html Davis A. Young, "The Contemporary Relevance of Augustine's View of Creation" (From: Perspectives on Science and Christian Faith 40.1:42-45 (3/1988)), The American Scientific Affiliation
  20. ^ http://www.earlychristianwritings.com/yonge/book2.html The Works of Philo Judaeus, Chapter 2, translated by Charles Duke Yonge
  21. ^ a b Full text of Judge Jones' ruling, dated December 20, 2005
  22. ^ Statement on the Teaching of Evolution. American Association for the Advancement of Science (2006). Retrieved on 2007-03-20.
  23. ^ "99.9 percent of scientists accept evolution" Finding the Evolution in Medicine National Institutes of Health
  24. ^ a b c Creationism," Contributed By: Ronald L. Numbers, William Coleman: Microsoft® Encarta® Online Encyclopedia 2007 http://encarta.msn.com © 1997-2007 Microsoft Corporation. All Rights Reserved.
  25. ^ Perspectives on Science and Christian Faith
    Early Christian Writings
  26. ^ Moore, James. Evolution and Wonder - Understanding Charles Darwin. Speaking of Faith (Radio Program). American Public Media. Retrieved on 2007-06-27.
  27. ^ a b History of the Collapse of "Flood Geology" and a Young Earth, adapted from The Biblical Flood: A Case Study of the Church's Response to Extrabiblical Evidence (Eerdmans, 1995) by Davis A. Young, Retrieved 2007-06-30.
  28. ^ Desmond, Adrian & Moore, James (1991), Darwin, London: Michael Joseph, Penguin Group, ISBN 0-7181-3430-3
  29. ^ s:Kitzmiller v. Dover Area School District/2:Context#Page 19 of 139
  30. ^ a b c d e f Understanding the Intelligent Design Creationist Movement: Its True Nature and Goals.PDF (413 KiB) A Position Paper from the Center for Inquiry, Office of Public Policy Barbara Forrest. May, 2007.
  31. ^ TalkOrigins Archive: Post of the Month: March 2006, The History of Creationism by Lenny Flank.
  32. ^ a b c McLean v. Arkansas Board of Education, Decision January 5, 1982.
  33. ^ Edwards v. Aguillard
  34. ^ Evolution News & Views: Dover Judge Regurgitates Mythological History of Intelligent Design, Discovery Institute, Posted by Jonathan Witt on December 20, 2005 4:43 PM, retrieved 2007-07-01
  35. ^ The Creation/Evolution Continuum, Eugenie Scott, NCSE Reports, v. 19, n. 4, p. 16-17, 23-25, July/August, 1999.
  36. ^ Wise, D.U., 2001, Creationism's Propaganda Assault on Deep Time and Evolution, Journal of Geoscience Education, v. 49, n. 1, p. 30-35.
  37. ^ Who Believes What? Clearing up Confusion over Intelligent Design and Young-Earth Creationism, Marcus R. Ross, Journal of Geoscience Education, v. 53, n. 3, May, 2005, p. 319-323
  38. ^ Creation crisis in Christian colleges
  39. ^ Gosse, Henry Philip, 1857. Omphalos: An Attempt to Untie the Geological Knot. J. Van Voorst, London
  40. ^ The Holy Bible, King James Version. Retrieved on 2006-12-31.
  41. ^ Top Questions-1.What is the theory of intelligent design?. Discovery Institute. Retrieved on 2007-05-13..
  42. ^ Kitzmiller v. Dover Testimony, Barbara Forrest, 2005.
  43. ^ Wedge Strategy, Discovery Institute, 1999.
  44. ^ "for most members of the mainstream scientific community, ID is not a scientific theory, but a creationist pseudoscience." Trojan Horse or Legitimate Science: Deconstructing the Debate over Intelligent Design, David Mu, Harvard Science Review, Volume 19, Issue 1, Fall 2005.
    • "Creationists are repackaging their message as the pseudoscience of intelligent design theory." Professional Ethics Report, American Association for the Advancement of Science, 2001.
    Conclusion of Kitzmiller v. Dover Area School District Ruling
  45. ^ Wise, D.U., 2001, Creationism's Propaganda Assault on Deep Time and Evolution, Journal of Geoscience Education, v. 49, n. 1, p. 30-35.
  46. ^ Who Believes What? Clearing up Confusion over Intelligent Design and Young-Earth Creationism, Marcus R. Ross, Journal of Geoscience Education, v. 53, n. 3, May, 2005, p. 319-323
  47. ^ The Creationists: From Scientific Creationism to Intelligent Design, Expanded Edition, Ronald L. Numbers, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, November 30, 2006, ISBN 0674023390.
  48. ^ Forrest, Barbara (May,2007), Understanding the Intelligent Design Creationist Movement: Its True Nature and Goals. A Position Paper from the Center for Inquiry, Office of Public Policy, Washington, D.C.: Center for Inquiry, Inc., <http://www.centerforinquiry.net/uploads/attachments/intelligent-design.pdf>. Retrieved on 2007-08-22; Forrest, B.C. and Gross, P.R., 2003, Evolution and the Wedge of Intelligent Design: The Trojan Horse Strategy, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 224 p., ISBN 0195157427
  49. ^ "Dembski chides me for never using the term "intelligent design" without conjoining it to "creationism." He implies (though never explicitly asserts) that he and others in his movement are not creationists and that it is incorrect to discuss them in such terms, suggesting that doing so is merely a rhetorical ploy to "rally the troops". (2) Am I (and the many others who see Dembski's movement in the same way) misrepresenting their position? The basic notion of creationism is the rejection of biological evolution in favor of special creation, where the latter is understood to be supernatural. Beyond this there is considerable variability...", from Wizards of ID: Reply to Dembski, Roger T. Pennock, p. 645-667 of Intelligent Design Creationism and Its Critics: Philosophical, Theological, and Scientific Perspectives, Roger T. Pennock (editor), Cambridge, MIT Press, 2001, 825 p., ISBN 0262661241; Pennock, R.T., 1999, Tower of Babel: Evidence Against the New Creationism, Cambridge, MIT Press, 440 p.
  50. ^ The Creation/Evolution Continuum, Eugenie Scott, NCSE Reports, v. 19, n. 4, p. 16-17, 23-25, July/August, 1999.; Scott, E.C., 2004, Evolution vs. Creationism: An Introduction, Westport, Greenwood Press, 296p, ISBN 0520246500
  51. ^ Intelligent design not science: experts, Deborah Smith Science Editor, Sydney Morning Herald, October 21, 2005.
  52. ^ Science, Religion, and Evolution by Eugenie Scott (accessed at 2007-07-09).
  53. ^ Akin, Jimmy (January 2004), "Evolution and the Magisterium", This Rock, <http://www.catholic.com/thisrock/2004/0401bt.asp>. Retrieved on 2007-08-15
  54. ^ Jeff Severns Guntzel. National Catholic Reporter: Catholic schools steer clear of anti-evolution bias. Retrieved on 2007-08-15.
  55. ^ http://www.catholic.org/national/national_story.php?id=18504
  56. ^ The Tower of Babel by Robert T. Pennock, Naturalism is an Essential Part of Science and Critical Inquiry by Steven D. Schafersman, The Leiter Reports, Report on "Naturalism, Theism and the Scientific Enterprise" conference, The Oxford Handbook of Philosophy of Religion, 11: GOD, SCIENCE, AND NATURALISM by Paul R. Draper, Philosophy Now: The Alleged Fallacies of Evolutionary Theory, Statement on Intelligent Design, Science and fundamentalism by Massimo Pigliucci, Justifying Methodological Naturalism by Michael Martin (philosopher)
  57. ^ Butterflies and wheels article by Raymond Bradley, Emeritus Professor of Philosophy in New Zealand.
  58. ^ Hinduism and evolution, V. Jayaram, Hinduwebsite.com
  59. ^ Aviezer, Nathan. In the Beginning: Biblical Creation and Science. Ktav, 1990. Hardcover. ISBN 0-88125-328-6
  60. ^ Carmell, Aryeh and Domb, Cyril, eds. Challenge: Torah Views on Science New York: Association of Orthodox Jewish Scientists/Feldheim Publishers, 1976. ISBN 0-87306-174-8
  61. ^ Schroeder, Gerald L. The Science of God: The Convergence of Scientific and Biblical Wisdom Broadway Books, 1998, ISBN 0-7679-0303-X
  62. ^ Jeffrey H. Tigay, Genesis, Science, and "Scientific Creationism", Conservative Judaism, Vol. 40(2), Winter 1987/1988, p.20-27, The Rabbinical Assembly
  63. ^ a b See Majority of Republicans Doubt Theory of Evolution.
  64. ^ a b See Americans Still Hold Faith In Divine Creation.
  65. ^ a b Evolution and Creationism In Public Education: An In-depth Reading Of Public OpinionPDF (481 KiB)
  66. ^ "Keeping God Out of the Classroom", Newsweek, June 29, 1987, pp. 23. 
  67. ^ http://www.religioustolerance.org/ev_publi.htm US poll results - "Public beliefs about evolution and creation", religioustolerance.org
  68. ^ a b (11 August 2006) "Public Acceptance of Evolution". Science 313 (5788): 765-766. doi:10.1126/science.1126746. 
  69. ^ Evolution Reference Hurts Volcano Film
  70. ^ Evolution Revolution, Evolution, Public Broadcasting System
  71. ^ Exam board brings creationism into science class
  72. ^ We put the clock back a 1000 years (German language)
  73. ^ Darwin is off the curriculum for Serbian schools
  74. ^ Serbia reverses Darwin suspension
  75. ^ 'Anti-Darwin' Serb minister quits
  76. ^ "And finally...", Warsaw Business Journal, 18 December 2006.
  77. ^ Archbishop: stop teaching creationism-Williams backs science over Bible, Stephen Bates, religious affairs correspondent, The Guardian, Tuesday March 21, 2006.
  78. ^ Britons unconvinced on evolution
  79. ^ BBC Survey On The Origins Of Life
  80. ^ In the beginning: The debate over creation and evolution, once most conspicuous in America, is fast going global, ISTANBUL, MOSCOW AND ROME, Evolution and religion, The Economist, Apr 19th 2007.
  81. ^ The dangers of creationism in education, Committee on Culture, Science and Education, Rapporteur: Mr Guy LENGAGNE, France, Socialist Group, Doc. 11297, Parliamentary Assemble Council of Europe, June 8, 2007.
  82. ^ The dangers of creationism in education - Resolution 1580, Committee on Culture, Science and Education, Rapporteur: Mr Guy LENGAGNE, France, Socialist Group, Doc. 11297, Parliamentary Assemble Council of Europe, October 4, 2007.
  83. ^ The Guardian, Archbishop: Stop teaching creationism, Williams backs science over Bible See transcript of Guardian interview for primary source
  84. ^ Murphy, George L., 2002, "Intelligent Design as a Theological Problem," in Covalence: the Bulletin of the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America Alliance for Faith, Science, and Technology
  85. ^ "Royal Society statement on evolution, creationism and intelligent design", The Royal Society, 2006-04-11. Retrieved on 2007-04-23. (English) 
  86. ^ Matsumura, Molleen; Mead, Louise. "[10 Significant Court Decisions Regarding Evolution/Creationism", National Center for Science Education, 2005-02-15. Retrieved on 2007-09-12. (English) 
  87. ^ Myers, PZ (2006-02-15). "[Ann Coulter: No Evidence for Evolution?" (in English). Pharyngula. ScienceBlogs. Retrieved on 2007-09-12. 

Ronald Numbers Ronald L. Numbers (born 1942) is an American historian of science who received his Ph. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 227th day of the year (228th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Royal Society (disambiguation). ... The American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) is an organization that promotes cooperation between scientists, defends scientific freedom, encourages scientific responsibility and supports scientific education for the betterment of all humanity. ... “PDF” redirects here. ... A kibibyte (a contraction of kilo binary byte) is a unit of information or computer storage, commonly abbreviated KiB (never kiB). 1 kibibyte = 210 bytes = 1,024 bytes The kibibyte is closely related to the kilobyte, which can be used either as a synonym for kibibyte or to refer to... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 143rd day of the year (144th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 143rd day of the year (144th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 181st day of the year (182nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Categories: Magazines stubs | Microsoft subsidiaries | Websites | The Washington Post ... The position of the Roman Catholic Church on the theory of evolution has changed over the last two centuries from a large period of no official mention, to a statement of neutrality in the 1950s, to a more explicit acceptance in recent years. ... John Polkinghorne, KBE, FRS, PhD, ScD, MA, (born October 16, 1930 in Weston-super-Mare, England) is a British particle physicist and theologian. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 79th day of the year (80th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... National Institutes of Health Building 50 at NIH Clinical Center - Building 10 The National Institutes of Health (NIH) is an agency of the United States Department of Health and Human Services and is the primary agency of the United States government responsible for biomedical research. ... Ronald Numbers Ronald L. Numbers (born 1942) is an American historian of science who received his Ph. ... James Moore, philosopher of science at the University of Cambridge and visiting scholar at Harvard University, is noted as the author of several biographies of Charles Darwin. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 178th day of the year (179th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 181st day of the year (182nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... James Moore, philosopher of science at the University of Cambridge and visiting scholar at Harvard University, is noted as the author of several biographies of Charles Darwin. ... “PDF” redirects here. ... A kibibyte (a contraction of kilo binary byte) is a unit of information or computer storage, commonly abbreviated KiB (never kiB). 1 kibibyte = 210 bytes = 1,024 bytes The kibibyte is closely related to the kilobyte, which can be used either as a synonym for kibibyte or to refer to... The Discovery Institute is a think tank based in Seattle, Washington best known for its advocacy of intelligent design and its Teach the Controversy campaign to teach creationist beliefs in United States public high school science courses. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 182nd day of the year (183rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Eugenie Scott. ... The NCSEs logo The National Center for Science Education (NCSE) is a non-profit organization affiliated with the American Association for the Advancement of Science. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Discovery Institute is a think tank based in Seattle, Washington best known for its advocacy of intelligent design and its Teach the Controversy campaign to teach creationist beliefs in United States public high school science courses. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 133rd day of the year (134th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Barbara Carroll Forrest, PhD. is a professor of philosophy at Southeastern Louisiana University in Hammond, Louisiana. ... Creationism is generally the belief that the universe was created by a deity, or alternatively by one or more powerful and intelligent beings. ... A typical 18th century phrenology chart. ... The American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) is an organization that promotes cooperation between scientists, defends scientific freedom, encourages scientific responsibility and supports scientific education for the betterment of all humanity. ... Ronald Numbers Ronald L. Numbers (born 1942) is an American historian of science who received his Ph. ... The Harvard University Press is a publishing house, a division of Harvard University, that is highly respected in academic publishing. ... Location in Middlesex County in Massachusetts Coordinates: , Country State County Middlesex Settled 1630 Incorporated 1636 Government  - Type Mayor-City Council  - Mayor Kenneth Reeves (D) Area  - City  7. ... Barbara Carroll Forrest, PhD. is a professor of philosophy at Southeastern Louisiana University in Hammond, Louisiana. ... For other uses, see May (disambiguation). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... For other uses, see Washington, D.C. (disambiguation). ... <drini ☎> 14:27, 15 August 2005 (UTC) Categories: Possible copyright violations ... Barbara Carroll Forrest, PhD. is a professor of philosophy at Southeastern Louisiana University in Hammond, Louisiana. ... Oxford University Press (OUP) is a highly-respected publishing house and a department of the University of Oxford in England. ... Location in Middlesex County in Massachusetts Coordinates: , Country State County Middlesex Settled 1630 Incorporated 1636 Government  - Type Mayor-City Council  - Mayor Kenneth Reeves (D) Area  - City  7. ... MIT Press Books The MIT Press is a university publisher affiliated with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in Cambridge, Massachusetts. ... Location in Middlesex County in Massachusetts Coordinates: , Country State County Middlesex Settled 1630 Incorporated 1636 Government  - Type Mayor-City Council  - Mayor Kenneth Reeves (D) Area  - City  7. ... MIT Press Books The MIT Press is a university publisher affiliated with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in Cambridge, Massachusetts. ... Eugenie Scott. ... The NCSEs logo The National Center for Science Education (NCSE) is a non-profit organization affiliated with the American Association for the Advancement of Science. ... Eugenie Scott. ... ... Eugenie Scott. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 227th day of the year (228th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Robert T. Pennock is a philosopher now working on the Avida digital organism project at Michigan State University where he is an associate professor. ... 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Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 255th day of the year (256th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 255th day of the year (256th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Additional references

  • Hayward, James L. (1998), The Creation/Evolution Controversy : an Annotated Bibliography, Scarecrow Press/Salem Press, {{{PagesTag}}} 253, ISBN 0-8108-3386-7
  • Numbers, Ronald L. (1992), Creationists: The Evolution of Scientific Creationism, Alfred A. Knopf, Inc., {{{PagesTag}}} 224, ISBN 06741931210-679-40104-0
  • Ronald L. Numbers: The Creationists (University of California Press, 25. November 1993), 458pp, ISBN 0-520-08393-8
  • Anderson, Bernhard W. (editor) Creation in the Old Testament (ISBN 0-8006-1768-1)
  • Anderson, Bernhard W. Creation Versus Chaos: The Reinterpretation of Mythical Symbolism in the Bible (ISBN 1-59752-042-X)
  • Ian Barbour When Science Meets Religion, 2000, Harper SanFrancisco
  • Ian Barbour Religion and Science: Historical and Contemporary Issues, 1997, Harper SanFrancisco.
  • Bradshaw, Robert I., "The Early Church & the Age of the Earth"
  • Stephen Jay Gould Rocks of Ages: Science and Religion in the fullness of life, Ballantine Books, 1999
  • Scott, Eugenie C., 1999 (Jul/Aug). The creation/evolution continuum. Reports of the National Center for Science Education 19(4): 16-17,21-23.
  • Batten, Don "It's not science"

Ronald Numbers Ronald L. Numbers (born 1942) is an American historian of science who received his Ph. ... Ronald Numbers Ronald L. Numbers (born 1942) is an American historian of science who received his Ph. ... Bernhard Word Anderson is a United Methodist pastor and one of the best known Old Testament scholars of the twentieth century. ... Bernhard Word Anderson is a United Methodist pastor and one of the best known Old Testament scholars of the twentieth century. ... Ian Graeme Barbour He was born in Beijing, 1923. ... Stephen Jay Gould (September 10, 1941 – May 20, 2002) was an American paleontologist, evolutionary biologist, and historian of science. ...

Further reading

  • Joel R. Primack and Nancy Ellen Abrams In a Beginning...: Quantum Cosmology and Kabbalah, Tikkun, Vol. 10, No. 1, pp. 66-73
  • Aryeh Kaplan, Immortality, Resurrection, and the Age of the Universe: A Kabbalistic View, Ktav, NJ, in association with the Association of Orthodox Jewish Scientists, NY, 1993

External links

  • The Edinburgh Creation Group This site features many interesting videos bringing a Creationist perspective.
  • CreationOnTheWeb A creation website for Creation Ministries International, an apologetics ministry that supports a 6-day biblical creation worldview
  • Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy entry on Creationism
  • How creationism works
  • Muslim viewpoint
  • Darwinism Refuted
  • Can Creation and Evolution Both Be True? | epologetics Examines whether Biblical creation and neo-darwinistic evolution can be reconciled.
  • Evolution, Creationism & ID Timeline Focuses on major historical and recent events in the scientific and political debate
  • Evolution and CreationismPDF (204 KiB). A Guide for Museum Docents
  • What is creationism? from talk.origins
  • The Creation/Evolution Continuum by Eugenie Scott.
  • Armies of the Night by Isaac Asimov.
  • Workers have stake in defending science a materialist statement on creationism by The Militant, 2005.
  • Edward J. Larson and Larry Witham Leading scientists still reject God in Nature, Vol. 394, No. 6691 (1998), p. 313. Online at Freethought-web.org
  • Creationism: The Hindu View
  • Northwest Creation Network's extensive list of International Creation Science links
  • Teaching Hearts Creation Science
  • Creationism & The Early Church A study of the Early Church's teaching on Genesis chapters 1-11.

“PDF” redirects here. ... A kibibyte (a contraction of kilo binary byte) is a unit of information or computer storage, commonly abbreviated KiB (never kiB). 1 kibibyte = 210 bytes = 1,024 bytes The kibibyte is closely related to the kilobyte, which can be used either as a synonym for kibibyte or to refer to... talk. ... Eugenie Scott. ... Isaac Asimov (January 2?, 1920?[1] – April 6, 1992), IPA: , originally Исаак Озимов but now transcribed into Russian as Айзек Азимов) was a Russian-born American Jewish author and professor of biochemistry, a highly successful and exceptionally prolific writer best known for his works of science fiction and for his popular science books. ... According to many followers of the theories of Karl Marx (or Marxists), dialectical materialism is the philosophical basis of Marxism. ... The Militant is an international socialist newsweekly connected to the Socialist Workers Party (SWP). ...

Organizations

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Creationism

Talk.origins maintains an extensive list of general links relevant to creationism and a full list of creationist websites. The following are links to the main organizations espousing a variety of viewpoints: Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... talk. ...

Young Earth Creationism

  • The Emperor Has No Clothes A site promoting Intelligent Design and "Young-life" Creationism
  • In the Beginning - Compelling Evidence for Creation and the Flood By Walt Brown
  • Answers in Genesis A group promoting Young-Earth Creationism.
  • Creation Ministries International formerly Answers in Genesis. Headquarters in Australia
  • Center for Natural Studies
  • The Biblical Calendar of History
  • Institute for Creation Research "A Christ-Focused Creation Ministry"
  • The Creation Research Society
  • The True.Origin Archive
  • CreationWiki

Old Earth Creationism Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ...

  • Johnson, Gaines R. 1997. Christian Geology — A comprehensive study of Creationism for Bible Believers: Rightly-Dividing Genesis and Geology
  • Reasons to Believe led by Hugh Ross
  • Answers In Creation led by Greg Neyman

Intelligent design Hugh Ross may refer to Hugh Ross (clergyman) (c. ... Greg Neyman (born 1960) is an American-born Old Earth Creationist. ...

  • Access Research Network
  • Discovery Institute Center for Science and Culture

Theistic Evolution

  • Faith of a scientist: a personal witness

Evolution

  • talk.origins Archive
  • National Center for Science Education
  • Evolution Sciences versus Doctrines of Creationism and Intelligent Design A pro-evolution or anti-creationism link directory
  • Richard Dawkins Foundation For Reason And Science
  • The EvoWiki

  Results from FactBites:
 
Encyclopedia4U - Creationism - Encyclopedia Article (5636 words)
Creationism is a belief that the origin of the universe and everything in it is due to an event of creation brought about by the deliberate act of a creator god.
In Europe specifically, creationism is a less well defined phenomenon, and regular polls are not taken; however, the option of teaching creationism in school has not yet been seriously considered in any Western European country.
A general response to the modern creationism controversy has been articulated by creationist Phillip E. Johnson, Professor of Law at the University of California, Berkeley, who argues that the entire issue of biological origins has been framed in terms of naturalism, and that natural science per se is not identical with naturalism.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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