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Encyclopedia > Creation evolution controversy

The creation-evolution controversy (also called the creation vs. evolution debate and the origins debate) is a disagreement over the origin of the universe, life, and humanity. The controversy erupted early in the 19th Century when geological discoveries implied that the earth is much older than was suggested by the contents of the Judeo-Christian The Bible (From Greek βιβλιος biblios, meaning book, which in turn is derived from βυβλος—byblos meaning papyrus, from the ancient Phoenician city of Byblos which exported papyrus) is a word applied to sacred scriptures. Although most often... Bible. The profound impact of this early debate upon the popular mind was directly responsible for the 1857-1860 This article should be split into multiple articles accessible from a disambiguation page. Revival is a restoration of a living creature from a dead state to being alive. As an example, Lazarus, in the Christian Bible, was revived. Figuratively, revival refers to anything that was (figuratively) dead and becomes (figuratively... Revival in protestant religious enthusiasm.


It continues to be actively promoted and maintained by a number of creationist organizations and religious groups who desire to uphold Creation or Creationism is the theological doctrine that all material in the universe was created out of nothingness (ex nihilo) by a deity, or by one or more powerful and intelligent beings through supernatural, theistic, or mythological means (see demiurge). Creation is often used to refer to the transformation of... creationism or a Creation Magazine is a venue for young-earth creationist beliefs. This issue examines whether dinosaurs perished in Noahs Flood. Creation science is an effort to explain the origin and early history of the Earth and life on Earth in a manner consistent with creationism and the religious beliefs of... creation science alternative to the mainstream The scientific community consists of the interactions and relationships of scientists. It may be further split into sub-comunities each working on their own particular area (for example there is a robotics community within the field of computer science). Members of the same community do not need to work together... scientific community's description of the origins. The respondents in the controversy are amateurs and professionals who support the mainstream In mathematics, theory is used informally to refer to a body of knowledge about mathematics. This knowledge consists of axioms, definitions, theorems and computational techniques all related in some way by tradition or practice. Examples include group theory, set theory, Lebesgue integration theory and field theory. The term theory also... scientific theories and are often referred to as " Evolutionism has a variety of meanings, some of which are: As used by creationists - advocacy of or belief in biological evolution; see Creation vs. evolution debate [1] As used by 19th century cultural anthropologists, such as Lewis Henry Morgan - a now discredited theory that human civilizations develop linearly in a... evolutionists" by their opponents. Active conflict occurs in the United States, to a much greater degree than elsewhere. The conflict has become political in regards to the role of religion in public schools.

 is a venue for young-earth creationist views. This issue examines whether perished in .
Creation Magazine is a venue for young-earth creationist views. This issue examines whether Orders Saurischia    Sauropodomorpha    Theropoda Ornithischia Dinosaurs are giant reptiles that dominated the terrestrial ecosystem for most of their 165-million year existence. They became extinct 65 million years ago (Ma) at the end of the Cretaceous period, and are known from fossilized bones, feces... dinosaurs perished in This article is on mythology involving great floods. For other uses of the word, see the disambiguation page deluge. The Deluge by Gustave Dore The Great Flood sent by God or gods to destroy civilization is a widespread but not universal theme in myth. The stories of Noah and his... Noah's Flood.
Contents

History

  • Events January 3, Britain seizes control of the Falkland Islands in the South Atlantic. June 6, US President Andrew Jackson becomes the first President to ride a train. May 11, French-American farmhand Antoine le Blanc murders family of three. September 29, the infant Isabella II becomes Queen of Spain... 1833 - Charles Lyell Sir Charles Lyell (November 14, 1797 – February 22, 1875), British geologist, and popularizer of uniformitarianism. Charles Lyell was born in Kinnordy, Forfarshire, Scotland, the eldest of ten children. Lyells father, also named Charles, was a botanist of minor repute and first exposed the younger Charles to... Charles Lyell finished his multi-volume Principles of Geology which supported the then-controversial idea of Uniformitarianism has had two separate meanings, both more prevalent in 19th-century discourse: Within religious philosophy, Uniformitarianism (with a capital U) is the belief that the Universe has existed as it is now for an infinite time and will continue to exist for ever. This is not considered a very... uniformitarianism. The concept that the Earth, also known as the Earth or Terra, is the third planet outward from the Sun. It is the largest of the solar systems terrestrial planets, and the only planetary body that modern science confirms as harboring life. The planet formed around 4.5 billion (4.5×109) years... Earth was shaped by slow processes over long periods of time influenced Darwin.
  • 1859 is a common year starting on Saturday. Events January January 2 - Erastus Beadle publishes The Dime Book of Practical Etiquette. January 24 - Wallachia and Moldavia are united under Alexander John Cuza under the name Romania (see December 1, 1918 for the final unification, Transylvania and other regions were still... 1859 - The 1859 edition of On the Origin of Species First published in 1859, The Origin of Species (full title On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, or the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life) by British naturalist Charles Darwin is one of the pivotal... The Origin of Species by For other possible meanings see Darwin (disambiguation) Charles Darwin, about the same time as the publication of The Origin of Species. Charles Robert Darwin ( 12 February 1809 – 19 April 1882) was an English naturalist whose revolutionary theory laid the foundation for both the modern theory of evolution and the... Charles Darwin is published on the This article is about biological evolution. For other possible meanings, see Evolution (disambiguation). Charles Darwin, the father of evolutionary theory Evolution generally refers to any process of change over time. In the context of life science, evolution is a change in the genetic makeup of a population of interbreeding individuals... theory of evolution after being worked on by Darwin for over 20 years. An essay sent from Alfred Russel Wallace Alfred Russel Wallace (January 8, 1823 — November 7, 1913) was a British naturalist, geographer, anthropologist and biologist. Wallaces independent proposal of a theory of evolution by natural selection prompted Charles Darwin to reveal his own more developed and researched, but unpublished, theory sooner than he... Alfred Russel Wallace independently summarizing Darwin's theory prompted him to publish. Evolution challenged the widely accepted theory of Catastrophism is the theory that Earth has been affected by sudden, short-lived, violent events that were sometimes worldwide in scope. The Biblical story of the Great Flood is a prime example of catastrophism. At the beginning of the nineteenth century, the great French geologist and naturalist Baron Georges Cuvier... catastrophism.
  • 1860 is the leap year starting on Sunday. Events March March 6 - Abraham Lincoln speaks against slavery in New Haven, Connecticut April April 3 - The Pony Express makes its first run. May May 1 - A chondrite type meteorite fell to earth in Muskingum County, Ohio near the town of New... 1860 - At the The Oxford University Museum of Natural History, sometimes known simply as the Oxford University Museum, is a museum displaying many of the University of Oxfords natural history specimens. It also contains a lecture theatre which is used by the Universitys Chemistry, Zoology and Mathematics departments, and provides access... Oxford University Museum of Natural History there was a debate of Darwin's theory with Thomas Huxley Thomas Henry Huxley F.R.S. (May 4, 1825 - June 29, 1895) was a British biologist, known as Darwins Bulldog for his defence of Charles Darwins theory of evolution. His scientific debates against Richard Owen demonstrated that there were close similarities between the cerebral anatomy of... Thomas Huxley defending it from A photo of Samuel Wilberforce by Lewis Carroll Samuel Wilberforce (September 7, 1805 - July 19, 1873), English bishop, third son of William Wilberforce, was born at Clapham Common, London. In 1823 he entered Oriel College, Oxford. In the United Debating Society, which afterwards developed into the Union, he distinguished himself... Samuel Wilberforce, the Bishop (disambiguation). A bishop is an ordained priest who holds a specific position of authority in any of a number of Christian churches. Bishops in the New Testament The bishops role is typically called the episcopacy, because the word bishop is derived ultimately from the Greek word episkopos (ε... Bishop of This article is about the city of Oxford in England. See also other meanings, including other cities. Oxford is a city and local government district in Oxfordshire, England, with a population of 134,248 ( 2001 census). It is home to the University of Oxford, the oldest university in the English... Oxford. Later accounts indicate Sir Sir Joseph Dalton Hooker (June 30, 1817 - December 10, 1911) was an English botanist and traveller. He was born in Halesworth, Suffolk and was the second son of the famous botanist Sir William Jackson Hooker. He was educated at Glasgow University, and almost immediately after taking his M.D. degree... Joseph Hooker was most vocal in defending This article is about Darwinism as a philosophical concept; see evolution for the page on biological evolution; modern evolutionary synthesis for neo-Darwinism; and also evolution (disambiguation). Darwinism is a term used for various processes related to the ideas of Charles Darwin, particularly concerning evolution and natural selection. Darwinism in... Darwinism.
  • Events January-May January 3 - Benito Mussolini announces he is taking dictatorial powers over Italy. January 5 - Nellie Tayloe Ross becomes the first female governor in the United States. January 21 - Albania declares itself a republic January 30 - Government of Turkey throws Patriarch Constantine VI out of Istanbul February 1... 1925 - The The Scopes Trial of 1925 pitted William Jennings Bryan against Clarence Darrow and teacher John T. Scopes in an American court case that tested a law passed on March 13, 1925, forbidding the teaching of evolution in Tennessee public schools. It has often been called the Scopes Monkey Trial. Testing... Scopes Trial in Dayton is a city located in Rhea County, Tennessee. As of the 2000 census, the city had a total population of 6,180. It is the county seat of Rhea County6. Dayton was the site of the Scopes Trial in 1925. Geography Dayton is located at 35°2934 North... Dayton tested the The Butler Act was a 1925 Tennessee law forbidding the teaching of anti_creationist theories, specifically, the scientific theory of evolution. The law remained on the books until 1967, when a dismissed teacher complained that it violated his First Amendment right to free speech. Fearing another courtroom fiasco, the Tennessee legislature... Butler Act enacted that same year which made it illegal to teach that man descended from animals in public schools. Scopes was found guilty and fined $100; prosecution For information on the type of fish called Lawyer, see the article on Burbot. A lawyer or attorney at law is a person licensed by the state to advise clients in legal matters and represent them in courts of law (and in other forms of dispute resolution). Most countries today... lawyer William Jennings Bryan, (March 19, 1860–July 26, 1925) born in Salem, Illinois, was a gifted orator and three-time United States presidential candidate. Bryan was trained as a lawyer at Northwestern University. He practiced law in Lincoln, Nebraska, and represented Nebraska in Congress. Bryan, a Populist, held fast... William Jennings Bryan offered to pay it, but it was later set aside on a technicality after appeal to the The Tennessee Supreme Court is the highest appellate court of the State of Tennessee. Unlike those of other states, the Tennessee Supreme Court is responsible for the appointment of the state attorney general. The current constitution of the State of Tennessee, adopted in 1870 calls for five justices, of which... Tennessee Supreme Court.
  • Events January January 5 - US Senator Estes Kefauver introduces a resolution calling for examination of organized crime in the USA January 6 - The United Kingdom recognizes the Peoples Republic of China. The Republic of China severs diplomatic relations with Britain in response. January 9 - The Israeli government recognizes the... 1950 - The Venerable Pius XII, born Maria Giuseppe Giovanni Eugenio Pacelli (Rome, March 2, 1876 - October 9, 1958) served as the Pope from March 2, 1939 to 1958. He was the only pope to exercise his Extraordinary (Solemn) Magisterium (that is, to claim Papal Infallibility) in the 20th century when he... Pope Pius XII issued a letter "Humani Generis" stating that evolution was compatible with Christianity insofar as to discover "the origin of the human body as coming from pre-existent and living matter," but to apply evolution to matters of spirituality was innappropriate. Since then the The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. Members generally prefer the term Catholic Church, but this term has multiple meanings (see Catholicism); the term Roman Catholic Church is used in this article to avoid... Roman Catholic Church has advocated that Genesis should be interpreted symbolically.
  • 1958 was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). Events January January 1 - Treaty of Rome founding the EU is implemented January 4 - Sputnik 1 falls to Earth from its orbit (launched on October 4, 1957) January 8 - 14 year old Bobby Fischer wins the... 1958 - Biological Sciences Curriculum Study was started by the The National Science Foundation (NSF) is an independent United States government agency responsible for supporting basic science research mainly by providing research funding. It operates mainly through the establishment of research grants, particularly to universities or through individual grants (including to professors and graduate students). History and mission The NSF... National Science Foundation which emphasized evolution in high school biology textbooks. This was part of a broad based improvement of education in the For other uses, see United States (disambiguation) and US (disambiguation). The United States of America, also referred to as the United States, U.S.A., U.S., US, America¹, or the States, is a federal republic of fifty states, mostly in central North America. The U.S. has three land... U.S. in response to the launch of Sputnik 1 The Sputnik program was a series of unmanned space missions launched by the Soviet Union in the late 1950s to demonstrate the viability of artificial satellites. The name Sputnik (Спутник) comes from Russian where it means satellite or fellow traveller. Sputnik 1... Sputnik.
  • 1960 was a leap year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). Events January-February January - State of emergency is lifted in Kenya - Mau Mau Rebellion is officially over January 1 - Independence of Cameroon January 9 - Aswan High Dam construction begins in Egypt January 14 - Ralph Chubb, the... 1960 - The Genesis Flood by Henry Morris and John C Whitcomb, Jr. reinvigorated the creationist movement.
  • 1968 was a leap year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1968 calendar). Events Undated Booker Prize for Fiction is established by Booker plc. 1968 is known as the year of the Prague Spring and also the year of the Paris riots. The ASCII character code is... 1968 - A The Supreme Court Building, Washington, D.C. The Supreme Court Building, Washington, D.C., (large image) The Supreme Court of the United States, located in Washington, D.C., is the highest court (see supreme court) in the United States; that is, it has ultimate judicial authority within the United States... U.S. Supreme Court ruling in an State nickname: The Natural State Other U.S. States Capital Little Rock Largest city Little Rock Governor Mike Huckabee Official languages English Area 137,732 km² (29th)  - Land 134,856 km²  - Water 2,876 km² (2.09%) Population (2000)  - Population 2,673,400 (33rd)  ... Arkansas case repealed all remaining creationist laws.
  • 1973 was a common year starting on Monday. Events January January 1 - United Kingdom, Ireland, and Denmark enter the European Economic Community, now known as the European Union. January 3 - Columbia Broadcasting System (CBS) sells the New York Yankees for $10 million to a 12-person syndicate led by George... 1973 - State nickname: Volunteer State Other U.S. States Capital Nashville Largest city Memphis Governor Phil Bredesen Official languages English Area 109,247 km² (36th)  - Land 106,846 km²  - Water 2,400 km² (2.2%) Population (2000)  - Population 5,689,283 (16th)  - Density 53.29... Tennessee passed a law requiring textbooks with a theory of origin must give equal emphasis to the This article is about Genesis, the first book of the Hebrew Bible. See Genesis (disambiguation) for other usages of the word. Genesis (Greek: Γένεσις, having the meanings of birth, creation, cause, beginning, source and origin; translated from Hebrew בראשׁית... Genesis account of Creation. In 1975 it was ruled unconstitutional because it violated the separation of church and state.
  • 1991 is a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. Events January January 2 - Sharon Pratt Dixon is sworn in as mayor of Washington, DC becoming the first black woman to lead a city of that size and importance. January 4 - The United Nations Security Council votes unanimously... 1991 - Darwin on Trial by Phillip E. Johnson is an author and lecturer, known as an advocate for the intelligent design movement, which criticizes the theory of evolution and the dominance of naturalism as a philosophical premise throughout academia. Johnson coined the term intelligent design in its current sense in his 1991 book, Darwin on... Phillip E. Johnson popularized the This article is about intelligent design and the associated social movement. You may have been looking for the more general teleological argument (also called the argument from design). This article relates to issues regarding the separation of church and state, especially the teaching of religion in public schools. Intelligent design... intelligent design movement.
  • 1996 is a leap year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year for the Eradication of Poverty. Events Environmental change The invasive species Asian long-horned beetle is found in New York January 7 - One of the worst blizzards in American history hits eastern... 1996 - Michael Behe Professor Michael J. Behe (born 1952) is an American biochemist and intelligent design advocate. Behe is noted for introducing what he calls irreducible complexity, a controversial idea that life is too complex at the biochemical level to have evolved. Behe is professor of biological sciences at Lehigh University... Michael J. Behe wrote Darwin's Black Box which proposed that some biological systems are Irreducible complexity is a concept popularized by Lehigh University biochemist and Fellow of the Discovery Institute Michael Behe in his 1996 book Darwins Black Box. Behe contests some aspects of the generally accepted scientific theory that life evolved through biological evolution alone and asserts that some additional mechanism is... irreducibly complex.
  • 1996 is a leap year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year for the Eradication of Poverty. Events Environmental change The invasive species Asian long-horned beetle is found in New York January 7 - One of the worst blizzards in American history hits eastern... 1996 - On October 23 is the 296th day of the year (297th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 69 days remaining. Events 4100 BC-AD 1899 4004 BC - The universe was created, according to the Ussher-Lightfoot Calendar. 42 BC - Roman Republican civil wars: Second Battle of Philippi - Brutuss... October 23, Official papal image of John Paul II. His Holiness Pope John Paul II, né Karol Józef Wojtyła (born May 18, 1920 in Wadowice, Poland), is the current Pope — the Bishop of Rome and head of the Roman Catholic Church. He was elected on October 16, 1978... Pope John Paul II sent a formal statement to the Pontifical Academy of Science stating that "fresh knowledge" requires one to realize that evolution is more than "just a hypothesis".
  • 1999 is a common year starting on Friday of the Common Era, and was designated the International Year of Older Persons by the United Nations. Events Kosovo War Shooting in Littleton, Colorado, United States, leaves several high school students dead. Y2K preparation was a major event in 1999 both in... 1999 - On August 11 is the 223rd day of the year (224th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. There are 142 days remaining. Events 3114 BC - beginning of our current era in the Maya Long Count Calendar 480 BC - Persians under Xerxes defeat Spartans under King Leonidas in the Battle of... August 11, the Kansas State Board of Eduction deletes discussion of evolution and the Big Bang from standards relating to state assessments. Two years later, the standards were reinstated after removal of three of the board members.
  • 2002 is a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. It was designated: International Year of Ecotourism and Mountains National Science Year in the United Kingdom Autism Awareness Year in the United Kingdom Events January Euro banknotes in circulation throughout the twelve countries of the European Union that... 2002 - After much debate the State nickname: The Buckeye State Other U.S. States Capital Columbus Largest city Columbus Governor Bob Taft Official languages None Area 116,096 km² (34th)  - Land 106,154 km²  - Water 10,044 km² (8.7%) Population (2000)  - Population 11,353,140 (7th)  - Density 107... Ohio's state board of education partially adopted the new "teach the controversy" initiative of This article is about intelligent design and the associated social movement. You may have been looking for the more general teleological argument (also called the argument from design). This article relates to issues regarding the separation of church and state, especially the teaching of religion in public schools. Intelligent design... intelligent design activists. In 2004 the board created a "Critical Analysis of Evolution" lesson plan for teachers.
  • 2004 is a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. It was designated the: International Year of Rice (by the United Nations) International Year to Commemorate the Struggle against Slavery and its Abolition (by UNESCO) Elections were held in 73 countries during 2004. See a list of elections... 2004 - In The Italian Republic or Italy ( Italian: Repubblica Italiana or Italia) is a country in southern Europe. It comprises a boot-shaped peninsula and two large islands in the Mediterranean Sea, Sicily and Sardinia, and shares its northern alpine boundary with France, Switzerland, Austria and Slovenia. The independent countries of San... Italy the minister of education Letizia Moratti outlined that children do not need to be taught evolutionary theory, but they should learn about creationism. The minister revised her position after top Italian scientists wrote in an open letter it would sacrifice the "scientific curiosity of youth", and it was signed by more than 50,000 citizens in a petition.

Common venues

Conflict occurs mostly in the public arena rather than through Plato is credited with the inception of academia: the body of knowledge, its development and transmission across generations. Academia is a general term for the whole of higher education and research. The word comes from the Greek referring to the greater body of knowledge, its development and transmission across generations... academic channels or through In academic publishing, a scientific journal is a periodical publication intended to further the progress of science, usually by reporting new research. Most journals are highly specialized, although some of the oldest journals such as Nature publish articles and scientific papers across a wide range of scientific fields. Scientific journals... scientific journals, as creationists have been unwilling or unable to publish their ideas in those places. Popular-level books and articles by creationists attacking mainstream science and by proponents of mainstream science attacking creationism have been published and numerous Debate is a formalized system of (usually) logical argument. It is a rule-governed contest with two or more sides, usually presided by a judge. Each side is attempting to win the approval of a designated audience, such as a judge. Debate is a highly organized activity with sponsors such... public debates have been put on by This article is about the Christian buildings of worship. For other uses of the word, see Church (disambiguation). The Memorial Church at Stanford University. A church building is a building used in Christian worship. See also altar, altar rails, confessional, dome, nave, pew, pulpit, sanctuary, lych gate. Etymology The word... churches, A university is an institution of higher education and of research, which grants academic degrees. A university provides both tertiary and quaternary education. University is derived from the Latin universitas, meaning corporation since the first medieval European universities were simply groups of scholars. History Arguably the first western university was... universities, and This article is about Clubs in the context of playing cards. For other uses of the words club and clubs see club (disambiguation). Clubs (♣) is one of the four suits found in playing cards, marked with a black trefoil; the term is translated from the Spanish basto. It is... clubs. With the advent of the This article is about the Internet, the extensive, worldwide computer network available to the public. An internet is a more general term for any set of interconnected computer networks that are connected by internetworking. Graphic representation of the WWW information network structure around Wikipedia, as represented by hyperlinks The Internet... Internet the battle between proponents has also been waged Online means being connected to the Internet or another similar electronic network, like a bulletin board system. Some companies have online in their name, such as America Online. Although it sounds similar, online is not the same as on air. When one is online, one can receive and transmit information... on-line. To this end, one of the first Usenet is a distributed Internet discussion system that evolved from a general purpose UUCP network of the same name. Users read and post e-mail-like messages (called articles) to a number of distributed newsgroups, categories that resemble bulletin board systems in most respects. The medium is sustained among a... usenet newsgroups to be created was a proving ground for the controversy. Over a 19-year history, the Talk.Origins is an Usenet discussion forum concerning the origins of life, and evolution. It maintains an extensive FAQ on evolutionary biology topics, with the aim of representing the views of mainstream science. The first post to Talk.Origins was a starter post by Mark Horton, dated 5th September 1986... Talk.origins newsgroup has allowed for multiple discussions of nearly every topic and issue ever developed in the controversy. In 1994, an archive of the mainstream science responses to creationist objections was created as a website (referenced below). Various creationists followed suit with their own clearinghouses, the most famous of which are Ken Ham is the president of Answers in Genesis USA, the joint CEO of Answers in Genesis International and the co-director of the Australian organisation, also called Answers in Genesis. He is a well-known Young Earth Creationist. He was born in Australia but moved to the United States... Ken Ham's Answers in Genesis (AiG) is a Christian apologetics organization devoted to the belief of Young Earth Creationism, specifically a literal reading of the first chapters of the Book of Genesis. It publishes a number of books, videos, and audio programs, as well as a website featuring articles and papers. The... Answers in Genesis and the internet pages of the The Institute for Creation Research (ICR) is a young Earth creationist (YEC) Christ-Focused Creation Ministry that funds creation science. It is based in San Diego, California. Its vice president is Duane Gish, and its president is John Morris, son of its founder, Henry M. Morris. External links Institute for... Institute for Creation Research. A chat room is an online forum where people can chat online (talk by broadcasting messages to people on the same forum in real time). Sometimes these venues are moderated either by limitting who is allowed to speak (not common) or by having moderation volunteers patrolling the venue watching for... Chatrooms, An Internet forum, also known as a message board or discussion board, is a web application that provides for online discussions, and is the modern descendant of the bulletin board systems and existing Usenet news systems that were widespread in the 1980s and 1990s. An Internet forum typically exists as... message boards, and This article is about a type of web application. For information on records of web server activity, see server log. A weblog, Web log or simply a blog, is a web application which contains periodic posts on a common webpage. These posts are often but not necessarily in reverse chronological... blogs have continued to promote the controversy with many arguments printed and reprinted to the effect that, by some estimates, nearly one out of every hundred A website, Web site or WWW site (often shortened to just site) is a collection of webpages, that is, HTML/XHTML documents accessible via HTTP on the Internet; all publicly accessible websites in existence comprise the World Wide Web. The pages of a website will be accessed from a common... websites is in some way connected to the controversy.


Additionally many churches and denominations make statements about what is appropriate or inappropriate in terms of scientific theories. Almost every Christian denomination have made statements about the controversy. Most Fundamentalist Christianity is a fundamentalist movement, especially within American Protestantism. The term, Fundamentalist, tends to have a variable meaning. Historically, and for those who use the name to describe themselves, a Fundamentalist Christian is one who holds to all of the five Fundamentals of the Faith as a bare-minimum... Christian fundamentalist denominations unapologetically promote creationism and attack evolution from the pulpits as well as sponsor lectures, and debates on the subject. Some of the denominations that have explicitly advocated for creationism and against evolution include The Assemblies of God is the worlds largest Pentecostal Christian denomination. The Assemblies of God was founded in 1914 at Hot Springs, Arkansas. Representatives from 20 states and a few foreign countries gathered to discuss the possibility and advisability of forming a cooperative fellowship of Pentecostal believers. A fellowship... Assemblies of God, The Churches of Christ are a body of autonomous Christian congregations that have roots in the Stone-Campbell Restoration Movement. Since the Churches of Christ claim to be a restoration of the first-century church, they trace their origin to the day of Pentecost. The Churches of Christ have the... Church of Christ, The Church of Christ, Scientist, often known as The Christian Science Church, is a nontrinitarian Protestant Christian denomination, founded by Mary Baker Eddy in 1879. The Bible and Eddys book Science and Health with Key to the Scriptures are together the churchs key doctrinal sources. Christian Science has... Church of Christ, Scientist, The Church of the Nazarene is a denomination of Protestant Christianity, within the broad tradition of Methodism. History The church was begun in October of 1895 in Los Angeles, California by a group of people who desired a church that welcomed an American holiness emphasis. They invited a recently unemployed... Church of the Nazarene, The Evangelical Presbyterian Church (EPC) is a family of churches, Reformed and Presbyterian, defined by shared core values and bonded by the fellowship of the Holy Spirit. The motto of the Evangelical Presbyterian Church is In Essentials, Unity. In Non-Essentials, Liberty. In All Things, Charity. Essentials of Faith The... Evangelical Presbyterian Church, The Free Methodist Church is a denomination of Methodism, which is a branch of Protestantism. It was founded in 1860 in New Yorks Burned-over district by a group, led by B. T. Roberts, who was defrocked in the Methodist Episcopal Church for criticisms of the spiritual laxness of... Free Methodist Church, Jehovah's Witness Churches, Official cross symbol of the Missouri Synod The Lutheran Church - Missouri Synod (LCMS) is the second-largest Lutheran body in the United States. It is a conservative, confessional Lutheran Christian denomination with German immigrant roots. The LCMS is headquartered in St. Louis, Missouri and counts about 2.6 million baptized... Lutheran Church - Missouri Synod, The Pentecostal movement within Protestant Christianity places special emphasis on the gifts of the Holy Spirit. Pentecostalism is similar to the Charismatic movement, but developed earlier and separated from the mainstream church. Charismatic Christians, at least in the early days of the movement, tended to remain in their respective denominations... Pentecostal Churches, The Seventh-day Adventist Church (SDA), colloquially referred to as the Adventists, is an evangelical Protestant Christian denomination that grew out of the prophetic Millerite movement in the United States during the middle part of the 19th century. Some religious scholars, notably Anthony A. Hoekema, consider it to be a... Seventh Day Adventist Churches, The Southern Baptist Convention (SBC) is a United States cooperative ministry agency serving missionary Baptist churches around the world. The words Southern Baptist Convention refer both to the denomination and its annual meeting of delegates. Because Baptist churches believe strongly in the local autonomy of the church, the SBC can... Southern Baptist Convention Churches, and Wisconsin Evangelical Lutheran Synod (WELS) is a United States religious denomination belonging to the Lutheran tradition within Christianity. Characterized as theologically conservative, it was founded in 1850 in Wisconsin. Currently (2004), it has congregations in all 50 states and 24 other countries. With a membership of over 400,000 in... Wisconsin Evangelical Lutheran Synod.


Non-standard definitions

Accusations of misleading definition of terms abound in this controversy. For example, proponents of evolution often claim that Abiogenesis, in its most general sense, is the hypothetical generation of life from non-living matter. Today, the term is primarily used in the context of biology and the origin of life. Some confusion exists on this topic, because early concepts of abiogenesis were later proven to be incorrect. These... abiogenesis is not a part of evolutionary theory. In retort, creationists say that the This article focuses on modern scientific research on the origin of life. For alternate uses, see origin of life (disambiguation). Pre-Cambrian stromatolites in the Siyeh Formation, Glacier National Park. In 2002, William Schopf of UCLA published a controversial paper in Nature Magazine arguing that formations such as this possess... origin of life must be explained by evolutionary science, as for life to evolve, life must first begin. On the other side, Young Earth creationism is the scientific theory that the Earth and life on Earth were created by a direct action of God a relatively short time ago. The theory is generally held by those Christians, Jews, and Muslims who also believe that the ancient Hebrew text of Genesis is an... Young Earth Creationists, such as Kent Hovind Kent E. Hovind (born 15 January 1953), the self-styled Dr Dino, is an American Young Earth Creationist evangelist who is currently offering US$250,000 to anyone who can prove evolution is the only possible way, that the Universe and life arose, although the offer is widely... Kent Hovind, say that there are six different aspects to This article is about biological evolution. For other possible meanings, see Evolution (disambiguation). Charles Darwin, the father of evolutionary theory Evolution generally refers to any process of change over time. In the context of life science, evolution is a change in the genetic makeup of a population of interbreeding individuals... evolution. These aspects, as defined by Dr. Hovind, are:

  1. Cosmic evolution — the origin of time, space and matter. Big Bang.
  2. Chemical evolution — the origin of higher elements from hydrogen.
  3. Stellar and planetary evolution — Origin of stars and planets.
  4. Organic evolution — Origin of life from inanimate matter.
  5. Macroevolution — Origin of major kinds.
  6. Microevolution — Variations within kinds.

Evolutionists retort that the first four of the above definitions are taken from many disparate fields of science, including Cosmology is the study of the large-scale structure and history of the universe. In particular, it deals with subjects regarding its origin and evolution. It is studied by Astronomy, Philosophy, and Religion. See also cosmogony. Subjects in cosmology include: Physical cosmology The Big Bang The Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson... cosmology, Astronomy, which etymologically means law of the stars, (from Greek: αστρονομία = άστρον + νόμος) is a science involving the observation and explanation of events occurring outside Earth and its atmosphere. It studies the... astronomy, Geology (from Greek γη- (ge-, the earth) and λογος (logos, word, reason)) is the science and study of the Earth, its composition, structure, physical properties, history, and the processes that shape it. Geologists have helped establish the age of the Earth at about 4.5... geology, and -1... chemistry, and have little to do with their more restrictive definition of This article is about biological evolution. For other possible meanings, see Evolution (disambiguation). Charles Darwin, the father of evolutionary theory Evolution generally refers to any process of change over time. In the context of life science, evolution is a change in the genetic makeup of a population of interbreeding individuals... evolution as per the The modern evolutionary synthesis (often referred to simply as the modern synthesis), neo-Darwinian synthesis or neo-Darwinism, brings together Charles Darwins theory of the evolution of species by natural selection with Gregor Mendels theory of genetics as the basis for biological inheritance. Major figures in the development... modern synthesis pertaining to biological or organic evolution. They also dispute that there is any meaningful difference between the last two.


Theory vs. Fact

An ofen contentious definitional conflict that occurs in the context of the controversy is the accusation by creationists that proponents of mainstream science inappropriately conflate In mathematics, theory is used informally to refer to a body of knowledge about mathematics. This knowledge consists of axioms, definitions, theorems and computational techniques all related in some way by tradition or practice. Examples include group theory, set theory, Lebesgue integration theory and field theory. The term theory also... scientific theory with Fact is the following: Generally a fact is something that exists or has existed, of evidence. In philosophy, a fact is a truthmaker. In science, a fact is data supported by a scientific experiment. In law, a fact is a statement which is found to be true by a tryer... fact. While certain creationist organizations have distanced themselves from this claim, various levels of incredulity about scientific conclusions is a nearly universal component of creationist argumentation. In particular, creationists are very wary about scientific arguments involving events that happened in the distant past. Some creationists have even called into question whether it is philosophically tenable to make any claims about the past at all. Oftentimes, these critiques are leveled against unifying concepts within scientific disciplines such as Uniformitarianism has had two separate meanings, both more prevalent in 19th-century discourse: Within religious philosophy, Uniformitarianism (with a capital U) is the belief that the Universe has existed as it is now for an infinite time and will continue to exist for ever. This is not considered a very... uniformitarianism, Ockham's razor, the The Copernican Principle is the philosophical statement that no special observers should be proposed. The term originated in the paradigm shift from the Aristotelian model of the heavens, which placed Earth at the center of the Solar system because it appears that everything revolved around Earth. Nicolaus Copernicus demonstrated that... Copernican principle, and In science, parsimony is the trait of being the least complicated explanation for an observation. This is widely held as a value for judging hypotheses. This value is embodied in Ockhams Razor. Parsimony is also used as a value in studies of molecular evolution, where the last common ancestor... parsimony that are claimed to be the result of a bias within science toward Naturalism is any of several philosophical stances, typically those descended from materialism and pragmatism, that reject the validity of explanations or theories making use of entities inaccessible to natural science. As described by W. V. Quine, who is in large measure responsible for naturalisms current pre-eminence among American... philosophical naturalism. The paradigmatic nature of scientific work in also criticized by the creationists as being too closeminded.


Mainstream proponents who respond to these criticisms tend to criticize the creationists' understanding of the The scientific method or process is fundamental to the scientific investigation and acquisition of new knowledge based upon physical evidence. Scientists propose new assertions about our world in the form of theories: observations, hypotheses, and deductions. Predictions from these theories are tested by experiment. If a prediction turns out to... scientific method and the nature of For the scientific journal named Science, see Science (journal). Science is both a process of gaining knowledge, and the organized body of knowledge gained by this process. The scientific process is the systematic acquisition of new knowledge about a system. This systematic acquisition is generally the scientific method, and the... scientific investigation. In particular, the proponents claim that the mainstream scientific endeavors rely on more basic assumptions than their creationist counterparts. The universal nature of science, it is proposed, means that the same principles that allow for investigation of any natural phenomena are relied upon across the board and the rigorous vetting by the The scientific community consists of the interactions and relationships of scientists. It may be further split into sub-comunities each working on their own particular area (for example there is a robotics community within the field of computer science). Members of the same community do not need to work together... scientific community of observations and theory provide a measured safegaurd against dogmatism. Because modern science tries to rely on the minimization of A priori is a Latin phrase meaning from the former or less literally before experience. In much of the modern Western tradition, the term a priori is considered to mean propositional knowledge that can be had without, or prior to, experience. It is usually contrasted with a posteriori knowledge meaning... a priori assumptions, An error has different meanings in different domains. Current meanings in some of those domains are described below. The Latin word error meant wandering or straying. Train wreck at Montparnasse, France, 1865 Statistics An error is a difference between a computed, estimated, or measured value and the true, specified, or... error, This article is in need of attention. Please improve it in any way you see fit. [NOTE: Readers interested in the topic subjectivity should also go to Kinds of Subjectivity.] In philosophy, a subject is a being which has subjective experiences or a relationship with another entity (or object). A... subjectivity, and the For others individuals named Francis Bacon see: Francis Bacon (disambiguation) Sir Francis Bacon Francis Bacon, 1st Viscount St Albans (January 22, 1561 - April 9, 1626) was an English philosopher, statesman, and essayist. He was knighted in 1603, created Baron Verulam in 1618, and created Viscount St Albans in 1621; both... Baconian idols it remains neutral on highly personal subjects such as Religion, sometimes used interchangeably with faith, is commonly defined as belief concerning the supernatural, sacred, or divine, and the practices and institutions associated with such belief. In its broadest sense some have defined it as the sum total of answers given to explain humankinds relationship with the universe. Religion... religion or Morality is a complex of principles based on cultural, religious, and philosophical concepts and beliefs, by which an individual determines whether his or her actions are right or wrong. These concepts and beliefs are often generalized and codified by a culture or group, and thus serve to regulate the behaviour... morality. Mainstream proponents accuse the creationists of conflating the two in a form of A pseudoscience is any body of knowledge purported to be scientific or supported by science but which fails to comply with the scientific method. Pseudoscience is a kind of counterfeit or masquerade of science which makes use of some of the superficial trappings of science but does not involve the... pseudoscience.


Views beyond the creation-evolution dichotomy

Creation and evolution are a The logical fallacy of false dilemma, also known as fallacy of the excluded middle, false dichotomy, either/or dilemma or bifurcation, is to set up two alternative points of view as if they were the only options, when they are not. Examples: Either creationism must be true or Darwins... false dichotomy of views on origins. These two views are in no way jointly exhaustive. The following list gives an idea of the many diverse Creation beliefs and stories describe how the universe, the Earth, life, and/or humanity came into being. The term creation myth is used by historians for a story of creation with deep explanatory or symbolic resonance for a culture. This terminology is often seen as offensive when used to describe... views on origins beyond the creation-evolution A dichotomy is a division into two non-overlapping or mutually exclusive, jointly exhaustive, parts. They are often contrasting and spoken of as opposites. The term comes from dichotomos (divided): dich- ([in] two) temnein (to cut). In biology, a dichotomy is a distribution of genera into two species. Such dichotomies... dichotomy:

  • With A woodblock print by Yoshitoshi, (Japan, 1887) depicting Bodhidharma the founder of Chinese Zen. Zen is the Japanese name of a well known branch of Mahāyāna Buddhism, practiced especially in China, Japan, Vietnam and Korea. It stresses the role of meditation in pursuing enlightenment. But besides... Zen, everything and nothing are all interconnected, inseparable, a made whole. Zen denies that the person is the first cause.
  • Theogony is a poem by Hesiod describing the origins of the gods of Greek mythology. Hesiods Theogony is a large-scale synthesis of a vast variety of local Greek traditions concerning the gods, organized as a narrative that tells how they came to be and how they established permanent... Theogony by Hesiod (Hesiodos) was an early Greek poet and rhapsode, believed to have lived around the year 700 BC. From the 5th century BC literary historians have debated the priority of Hesiod or of Homer. Most modern scholars agree that Homer lived before Hesiod. Hesiod lived in Boeotia and regularly visited... Hesiod is a poetic rendering of the Greek myth that the Cosmos was created through sexual intercourse.
  • Panspermia is a theory (more directly described as a hypothesis, as there is no compelling evidence yet available to support or contradict it) that suggests that the seeds of life are prevalent throughout the Universe and life on Earth began by such seeds landing on Earth and propagating. The theory... Panspermia is a theory explaining the existence of life on the Earth as a result of fertilization by germs coming from outer space.
  • Norse is related to Scandinavia, and may mean: Ancient Norse mythology Medieval Norsemen, i.e., Scandinavians The Nordic countries today The Norse languages are a group of dialects, which includes Swedish, Danish, and Norwegian. The Old Norse language Norwegian, Faroese, and Icelandic in opposition to Danish and Swedish. Scandinavian influence... Norse mythology says that For other meanings of Odin and Wotan see Odin (disambiguation) Odin (Old Norse Óðinn, Swedish Oden) is usually considered the supreme god of Germanic and Norse mythology. His role, like many of the Norse pantheon, is complex: he is god of both wisdom and war, much like the Greek goddess... Odin and his brothers used In Norse mythology, Ymir was the founder of the race of frost giants and an important figure in Norse cosmology. He formed from the ice of Niflheim, where it met with Muspels heat and melted. Giants came forth from Ymirs body while he slept. His legs spawned a... Ymir's body to create the universe.

Even the two alternative points of view, creation and evolution are not black and white options. There is a spectrum of views on these topics ranging from a belief in Young Earth creationism is the scientific theory that the Earth and life on Earth were created by a direct action of God a relatively short time ago. The theory is generally held by those Christians, Jews, and Muslims who also believe that the ancient Hebrew text of Genesis is an... young earth creationism and disbelief in evolution to a belief in both For information about the band, see Atheist (band). Atheism is the condition of being without theistic beliefs and alternatively the disbelief in the existence of deities. In antiquity, atheism was represented by Epicureanism. It disappeared from European philosophy when Christianity became dominant. During the Age of Enlightenment, atheism re-emerged... atheism and evolution. Neither are these views necessarily mutually exclusive as shown by the belief in Evolutionary creationism encompasses the concept of theistic evolution, a synthesis of the religious belief in a creator God with the scientific theory of evolution. It holds that these two beliefs are not incompatible, and that the acceptance of evolutionary biology is not fundamentally different from the acceptance of other sciences... evolutionary creationism.


Conflation of science and religion

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The A Darwin fish is an ichthys with stylized legs The Darwin fish is a parody of the ichthys, the Jesus fish. It is an ichthys that has evolved legs (and optionally, has the word Darwin written inside). It is a symbol for the scientific theory of evolution. Most Darwin fish... Darwin fish is a parody of the The ichthys or fish symbol represents Christianity Ichthys (ιχθυς in the Greek alphabet, also transliterated Ichthus, Icthus, Ikhthus, etc), is the Greek word for fish. It refers to a symbol consisting of two intersecting arcs resembling the profile of a fish, used by the early Christians... ichthus, a symbol often used to self-identify Christians and sometimes creationists.

The creation-evolution controversy involves the conflation of disparate ideas. Following are some examples of well known participants in the debate who conflate science and religion:

  • Henry Morris, a young earth creationist, says: "Divine revelation from the Creator of the world states that He did it all in six days, several thousand years ago. The Bible is a book of science! It contains all the basic principles upon which true science is built".
  • Sir Julian Sorell Huxley (June 22, 1887 - February 14, 1975) was a British biologist and author, known for his popularizations of science in books and lectures.. Huxley was part of a distinguished family. His brother was the writer Aldous Huxley; his father was writer and editor Leonard Huxley; and his... Julian Huxley, a British biologist and author, says: "The truth will set us free. Evolutionary truth frees us from subserviant fear of the unknown and supernatural, and exhorts us to face this new freedom. It shows us our destiny and our duty. The evolutionary vision is enabling us to discern the outline of the new religion that will arise to serve the needs of the coming era".

The above examples illustrate the conflation of creation with science and the conflation of evolution with religion. Conflation of science and religion is an underlying theme in the creation-evolution controversy.


Participants in the debate

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Henry M. Morris

Henry Morris and John Whitcomb in the early 1960s co-authored The Genesis Flood, the book credited with reviving interest in creation as an alternative to evolution. Dr. Morris is considered the "father" of modern creationism.


The The Creation Research Society is a young Earth creationist organisation, originally founded in 1963 by Henry M. Morris and nine other like-minded individuals. External links Official site Categories: Stub | Creationism ... Creation Research Society, founded in Events January-February January 11 - The Whisky A Go-Go night club in Los Angeles, the first disco in the USA, is opened. January 14 - George Wallace becomes governor of Alabama. January 22 - Elysée treaty between France and Germany January 28 - Black student Harvey Gantt enters Clemson College in... 1963 by a number of creationists including Henry Morris, is a membership organisation with voting membership limited to holders of an earned postgraduate degree. CRS has a voting membership of about 650, and a total membership of 1700 people. It publishes the CRS Quarterly, a peer-reviewed journal for creationists, conducts research, and operates a web-site (http://www.creationresearch.org/index.html).


The The Institute for Creation Research (ICR) is a young Earth creationist (YEC) Christ-Focused Creation Ministry that funds creation science. It is based in San Diego, California. Its vice president is Duane Gish, and its president is John Morris, son of its founder, Henry M. Morris. External links Institute for... Institute for Creation Research is based in City nickname:Americas Finest City County San Diego County, California Mayor Dick Murphy City Attorney Michael Aguirre City Council District One Scott Peters District Two Michael Zucchet District Three Toni Atkins District Four Tony Young District Five Brian Maienschein District Six Donna Frye Distirct Seven Jim Madaffer District Eight... San Diego and was founded in 1970 was a common year starting on Thursday. Events January-February January 1 - Construction begins on Arcosanti, by Paolo Soleri, in Mayer, Arizona, located 65, miles north of Phoenix, Arizona. January 1 - Unix epoch at 00:00:00 UTC. January 12 - Biafra capitulates, ending the Nigerian civil war. January 15... 1970 by Henry Morris, and is now led by his son, John Morris. ICR publishes a number of books and newsletters, as well as producing radio spots and operating a web-site (http://www.icr.org/) and a small museum.


Answers in Genesis (AiG) is a Christian apologetics organization devoted to the belief of Young Earth Creationism, specifically a literal reading of the first chapters of the Book of Genesis. It publishes a number of books, videos, and audio programs, as well as a website featuring articles and papers. The... Answers in Genesis is a Christian Apologetics is the field of study concerned with the systematic defense of a position. Someone who engages in apologetics is called an apologist. The term comes from the Greek word apologia, meaning the defense of a position against an attack, not from the English word apology, which is exclusively understood... apologetics organization devoted to the belief of Young Earth creationism is the scientific theory that the Earth and life on Earth were created by a direct action of God a relatively short time ago. The theory is generally held by those Christians, Jews, and Muslims who also believe that the ancient Hebrew text of Genesis is an... Young Earth Creationism, specifically a plain reading of the first chapters of the This article is about Genesis, the first book of the Hebrew Bible. See Genesis (disambiguation) for other usages of the word. Genesis (Greek: Γένεσις, having the meanings of birth, creation, cause, beginning, source and origin; translated from Hebrew בראשׁית... Book of Genesis.


The Discovery Institute (DI) is a think tank in Seattle, Washington. It focuses on both local and global issues, including the Cascadia Project, which is the development of a balanced, seamless, and expanded transportation system between Washington, Oregon and British Columbia. It is also active in conservative Christian movements. Its Center... Discovery Institute is a City nickname Emerald City City bird Great Blue Heron City flower Dahlia City mottos The City of Flowers The City of Goodwill City song Seattle, the Peerless City Mayor Greg Nickels County King County Area   - Total   - Land   - Water   - % water 369.2 km² 217.2 km² 152... Seattle-based This article is about intelligent design and the associated social movement. You may have been looking for the more general teleological argument (also called the argument from design). This article relates to issues regarding the separation of church and state, especially the teaching of religion in public schools. Intelligent design... intelligent design think-tank whose members include Michael Behe Professor Michael J. Behe (born 1952) is an American biochemist and intelligent design advocate. Behe is noted for introducing what he calls irreducible complexity, a controversial idea that life is too complex at the biochemical level to have evolved. Behe is professor of biological sciences at Lehigh University... Michael Behe and William Dembski Dr William Albert Bill Dembski (born July 18, 1960) is an American mathematician, philosopher and theologian known for advocating the controversial idea of intelligent design. Dembski believes that nature shows scientific evidence for being designed by God. Dembskis main idea is that of specified complexity, a type... William Dembski. It has a stated goal of introducing intelligent design into the scientific community and society by a wide range of methods as described on its web site and in the Wedge strategy document.


The External links Homepage of the group: http://www.ncseweb.org/ Categories: Science stubs | Education in the United States | Anti-creationism ... National Center for Science Education was founded in 1981 is a common year starting on Thursday. Events January-February January - Sarawak Chamber found January 1 - Greece enters the EEC January 1 - Palau becomes self-governing January 4 - Sheffield police arrests Peter Sutcliffe, the Yorkshire Ripper January 10 Townsville International Airport opens (aus) January 16 - Protestant gunmen shoot and... 1981 to oppose creationism and is led by Eugenie C. Scott, a physical anthropologist, has been the executive director of the National Center for Science Education since 1987. She studied at the University of Missouri-Columbia where she obtained a Ph.D. in anthropology. She served as president of the American Association of Physical Anthropologists from 2000 to... Eugenie Scott. It is a membership organisation with 4000 members and operates a web-site (http://www.ncseweb.org/default.asp).

Stephen Jay Gould
Stephen Jay Gould

Clinton Richard Dawkins, FRS (born March 26, 1941), better known as Richard Dawkins, is a British zoologist, born in Nairobi, in Kenya. He currently holds the position of Charles Simonyi Professor of the Public Understanding of Science at the University of Oxford, and is one of the most prominent biologists... Richard Dawkins, Michael Ruse, and the late Stephen Jay Gould Stephen Jay Gould (September 10, 1941 – May 20, 2002) was a New York-born American paleontologist, evolutionary biologist, and historian of science. He was the most influential and widely read writer of popular science of his generation. Born Jewish, he did not formally practice any organized... Stephen Jay Gould are well-known evolutionary scientists who have been outspoken against creationism.


Simon Conway Morris is an evolutionary biologist who is also a Christian, and who has publically supported the acceptance of evolutionary biology by moderate Christians.


Duane Gish (born 1921) is a biochemist who is best known as vice president of the Institute for Creation Research. Gish has a Ph.D. in biochemistry from the University of California, Berkeley and is the author of several books and articles espousing the tenets of creation science, a religious... Duane Gish is a creationary scientist who has become well-known for debating evolutionists across America and in other countries. He is also Senior Vice President of ICR.


Talk.Origins is an Usenet discussion forum concerning the origins of life, and evolution. It maintains an extensive FAQ on evolutionary biology topics, with the aim of representing the views of mainstream science. The first post to Talk.Origins was a starter post by Mark Horton, dated 5th September 1986... The Talk.Origins Archive is a large web-site (http://www.talkorigins.org/) of articles critiquing creationary ideas, plus a discussion forum.


The True.Origins Archive is a web-site (http://www.trueorigin.org/) set up to respond to claims made on The Talk.Origins Archive.


Reasons to Believe is a Day-Age Creationism is a type of Creationism that holds that the six days referred to in the Genesis account of creation are not ordinary 24-hour days, but rather are much longer periods (of thousands or millions of years). The Genesis account is then interpreted as an account of... progressive-creationist organisation founded in 1986 is a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. Events January January 1 - Spain and Portugal enter the European Community January 1 - Aruba gains increased autonomy from the Netherlands and is separated from the Netherlands Antilles. January 9 - After losing a patent battle with Polaroid, Kodak leaves... 1986 by Hugh Ross. It publishes a number of books and operates a web-site (http://www.reasons.org/index.shtml). He opposes biological evolution but accepts astronomical and geological evolution.


Arthur N. Strahler, author of the 1987 book Science and Earth History: The Evolution/Creation Controversy. Duane Gish's Creation Scientists Answer Their Critics was a creationist response to Strahler's book and many other anti-creationist books.


Public education in the United States

Main article: The legal status of creation and evolution in public education is the subject of a great deal of debate in scientific, legal, and religious circles. United States In the United States, proponents of creation and proponents of evolution are engaged in a long-standing battle over the legal status of... creation and evolution in public education.


The status of creation in public education in the United States is the subject of contention between creationists and other members of the community. The history extends back to the The Scopes Trial of 1925 pitted William Jennings Bryan against Clarence Darrow and teacher John T. Scopes in an American court case that tested a law passed on March 13, 1925, forbidding the teaching of evolution in Tennessee public schools. It has often been called the Scopes Monkey Trial. Testing... Scopes trial and locally controlled school boards in ares of the country dominated by creationists have made numerous and varied attempts over the years to remove or undermine discussion of biological evolution in science classrooms. Along with legal challenges to such actions, controversy surfaces frequently in school textbook/curriculum reviews. Creationists lobby for equal time or replacement of science curriculum with creation science or intelligent design and allege textbooks are biased, out of date and contain factual errors.


Surveying views

In a 2001 is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. By strict interpretation of the Gregorian Calendar, 2001 is also the first year of the 21st century and the 3rd millenium. Popular culture, however, often views the year 2000 as holding this distinction. 2001 is also the year... 2001 A Gallup Poll is an opinion poll frequently used by the mass media for representing public opinion. The poll is named after its inventor, the American statistician George Gallup. The poll typically uses a simple random sampling method in order attempt to keep the level of bias to a minimum... Gallup poll on the origin and development of human beings [1] (http://www.unl.edu/rhames/courses/current/creation/evol-poll.htm) a sample of about one thousand Americans were asked which statement came closest to their views on the origin and development of human beings. Of those polled, 45% chose "God created human beings pretty much in their present form at one time within the last 10,000 years or so", 37% chose "Human beings have developed over millions of years from less advanced forms of life, but God guided this process", 12% chose "Human beings have developed over millions of years from less advanced forms of life, but God had no part in this process", and the remainder (6%) either volunteered a different response or had no opinion. The Religious Tolerance (http://www.religioustolerance.org) website claims that the poll also found that 5% of American scientists (not necessarily working in fields connected with evolution) believed in biblically literal creation, 40% believed in " Evolutionary creationism encompasses the concept of theistic evolution, a synthesis of the religious belief in a creator God with the scientific theory of evolution. It holds that these two beliefs are not incompatible, and that the acceptance of evolutionary biology is not fundamentally different from the acceptance of other sciences... theistic evolution", and 55% believed in "naturalistic evolution" [2] (http://www.religioustolerance.org/ev_publi.htm).


However, following another Opinion polls are surveys of opinion using sampling. They are designed to represent the opinions of a population by asking a small number of people a series of questions and then extrapolating the answers to the larger group. History of opinion polls The first known example of an opinion poll... opinion poll by DYG Inc., it seems that such results may reveal a The logical fallacy of false dilemma, also known as fallacy of the excluded middle, false dichotomy, either/or dilemma or bifurcation, is to set up two alternative points of view as if they were the only options, when they are not. Examples: Either creationism must be true or Darwins... false dichotomy. According to the DYG poll, about 70% of Americans indicated that they did not see the theories of evolution and creation as in conflict [3] (http://www.pfaw.org/pfaw/general/default.aspx?oid=1903).


See Also

  • This article is about biological evolution. For other possible meanings, see Evolution (disambiguation). Charles Darwin, the father of evolutionary theory Evolution generally refers to any process of change over time. In the context of life science, evolution is a change in the genetic makeup of a population of interbreeding individuals... Evolution
  • Creation or Creationism is the theological doctrine that all material in the universe was created out of nothingness (ex nihilo) by a deity, or by one or more powerful and intelligent beings through supernatural, theistic, or mythological means (see demiurge). Creation is often used to refer to the transformation of... Creationism
  • This article is about intelligent design and the associated social movement. You may have been looking for the more general teleological argument (also called the argument from design). This article relates to issues regarding the separation of church and state, especially the teaching of religion in public schools. Intelligent design... Intelligent Design
  • Teach the Controversy

References

  • Burian, RM: 1994. Dobzhansky on Evolutionary Dynamics: Some Questions about His Russian Background. In The Evolution of Theodosius Dobzhansky, ed. MB Adams, Princeton University Press.
  • Samuel Butler, Evolution Old and New, 1879, p. 54.
  • Darwin, "Origin of Species," New York: Modern Library, 1998.
  • Dobzhansky, Th: 1937. Genetics and the Origin of Species, Columbia University Press
  • Henig, The Monk in the Garden: The Lost and Found Genius of Gregor Mendel, the Father of Genetics, Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2000.
  • Kutschera, Ulrich and Karl J. Niklas. 2004. "The modern theory of biological evolution: an expanded synthesis." Naturwissenschaften 91, pp. 255-276.
  • Mayr, E. The Growth of Biological Thought, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Mass., 1982.
  • James B. Miller (Ed.): An Evolving Dialogue: Theological and Scientific Perspectives on Evolution, ISBN 1563383497
  • Morris, H.R. 1963. The Twilight of Evolution, Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Book House.
  • Pennock, Robert T. 2003. "Creationism and intelligent design." Annual Review of Genomics and Human Genetics 4, pp. 143-163.
  • Carl Sagan. The Demon-Haunted World. New York: Ballantine Books, 1996.
  • Scott, Eugenie C. 1997. "Antievolution and creationism in the United States." Annual Review of Anthropology 26: 263-289.
  • Maynard Smith, "The status of neo-darwinism," in "Towards a Theoretical Biology" (C.H. Waddington, ed., University Press, Edinburgh, 1969.

External links

Evolution links

Creation links

  • Some creationist hypotheses (http://www.creationscience.com)
  • Answers in Genesis (http://www.answersingenesis.org), one of the largest Creationist organizations.
  • Loopholes in the evolutionary theory of the origin of life: Summary (http://www.answersingenesis.org/docs/4220.asp), an article on abiogenesis by Answers in Genesis' Dr. Jonathan Sarfati
  • A Bahai perspective on the development of theories of origins (http://bahai-library.com/unpubl.articles/originality/biology.html)
  • The True.Origin Archive (http://www.trueorigin.org/)
    • A Critique of Douglas Theobald's "29 Evidences for Macroevolution" (http://www.trueorigin.org/theobald1a.asp) by Ashby Camp (see link to Theobald's essay above)
  • Institute for Creation Research (http://www.icr.org/)
  • Creation Insights (http://www.uark.edu/~cdm/creation/index.htm)
  • CreationDigest.com (http://www.creationequation.com/)
In its widest sense, creationism (from the Latin creatio) refers to the theological doctrine that all material in the universe was created by a divine agency, such as God, out of nothingness (ex nihilo). In its most specific theological context, creationism refers to the belief that the human soul is... Topics about or related to Creationism
Types: Creation or Creationism is the theological doctrine that all material in the universe was created out of nothingness (ex nihilo) by a deity, or by one or more powerful and intelligent beings through supernatural, theistic, or mythological means (see demiurge). Creation is often used to refer to the transformation of... Creationism - Creation according to Genesis refers to the description of the creation of the heavens and the earth by God, as described in Genesis the first book of the Bible. The text was originally written by the early Hebrews, if not earlier. The text spans Chapter 1 and Chapter 2 of... Creation according to Genesis - Young Earth creationism is the scientific theory that the Earth and life on Earth were created by a direct action of God a relatively short time ago. The theory is generally held by those Christians, Jews, and Muslims who also believe that the ancient Hebrew text of Genesis is an... Young Earth Creationism - Old Earth creationism is a variant of the creationist view of the origin of the universe and life on Earth. It is typically more compatible with mainstream scientific thought on the issues of the age of the universe or earth than Young Earth creationism. However, it still takes the accounts... Old Earth creationism - Day-Age Creationism is a type of Creationism that holds that the six days referred to in the Genesis account of creation are not ordinary 24-hour days, but rather are much longer periods (of thousands or millions of years). The Genesis account is then interpreted as an account of... Day-Age Creationism - Gap Creationism, also called Restitution creationism, is a term used to describe a particular set of Christian fundamentalist beliefs about the creation of the Universe and the origin of man. Gap Creationists accept that science has proven beyond reasonable doubt that the Earth is in fact far older than can... Gap Creationism - Evolutionary creationism encompasses the concept of theistic evolution, a synthesis of the religious belief in a creator God with the scientific theory of evolution. It holds that these two beliefs are not incompatible, and that the acceptance of evolutionary biology is not fundamentally different from the acceptance of other sciences... Evolutionary creationism
Related concepts: The omphalos hypothesis was named after the title of an 1857 book by Philip Henry Gosse in which he argued that in order for the world to be functional, God must have created the Earth with mountains, canyons, trees with growth rings, Adam and Eve with hair, fingernails, and navels... Omphalos hypothesis - This article is about intelligent design and the associated social movement. You may have been looking for the more general teleological argument (also called the argument from design). This article relates to issues regarding the separation of church and state, especially the teaching of religion in public schools. Intelligent design... Intelligent design - This article needs cleanup. Please edit this article to conform to a higher standard of article quality. Specified complexity is a concept developed by mathematician, philosopher, and theologian William Dembski. It is commonly presented as part of the critique of natural selection put forward by the intelligent design movement, with... Specified complexity - Many cultures have held traditional beliefs that the Earth, or indeed the entire Universe, was brought into being in a grand Creation event by one or more gods. Once these cultures developed calendars, many began to ponder the question of precisely how long ago it was that this event happened... Dating Creation - Theistic realism is the idea that true knowledge must begin with the acknowledgment of God as creator, because the unifying characteristic of the universe is that it was created by God. More broadly, it is the idea that God is real and personal, and that a proper theism requires an... Theistic realism - Modern Geocentrism is the advocation of a geocentric (Earth-centered) model of the universe. Although geocentrism has been rejected for centuries by scientists, a few people, mostly with a religious perspective, are convinced of a geocentric universe for a number of reasons including Biblical passages and Church statements. Though a... Modern geocentrism - The Flat Earth Society was an organization based in Lancaster, California which advocated the belief that the Earth is not a sphere but is flat (see flat Earth). No other modern religious fundamentalists have published support for this belief, and scientists universally reject it. This exposed the society to much... Flat Earth creationism
Pseudoscience: Creation Magazine is a venue for young-earth creationist beliefs. This issue examines whether dinosaurs perished in Noahs Flood. Creation science is an effort to explain the origin and early history of the Earth and life on Earth in a manner consistent with creationism and the religious beliefs of... Creation science - As a critique of many of the historical sciences, Young Earth Creationists have had to offer alternative ideas about cosmology to allow for a universe that is only thousands of years old. The standard explanation is that the universe originated in a Big Bang, is many billions of years old... Creationist cosmologies - Creation biology is an attempt to study biology from a creationary perspective. According to its proponents, it is a synthesis of science and religion, as it attempts to draw from both sources in developing its ideas. Creation biology is based on the idea that God created all life on the... Creation biology - Within creation science endeavor of creation biology, created kinds are the supposed original forms of life as they are believed to have been created by God. Other terms employed by creationists for this concept include kinds, original kinds, Genesis kinds, and baramin. They are asserted to be a form of... Created kinds - Flood geology is an effort to explain the worlds geological features with reference to the Flood in the Biblical account of Genesis. Flood geology is closely linked with Creationism. Until the early 19th century, the dominant scientific idea was somewhat similar to what is now called Flood Geology. Following... Flood geology - Vapor Canopy Hypothesis The vapor canopy is a hypothesis adopted by many Creationists which states the possibility that before the Great Flood, the earth was surrounded by a canopy of water in either liquid, solid, or gas form, and that the water from the canopy contributed greatly to the flood... Vapor canopy

Controversy: Creation-evolution controversy - Up until the early 20th century, most Europeans, Americans, Jews, and Muslims believed that a supreme being had existed and would exist eternally, and that everything else in existence had been created by this supreme being, known variously as God, Yahweh, or Allah. This belief was based on the authority... History of creationism - The legal status of creation and evolution in public education is the subject of a great deal of debate in scientific, legal, and religious circles. United States In the United States, proponents of creation and proponents of evolution are engaged in a long-standing battle over the legal status of... Creation and evolution in public education - Quotes about creation and evolution


 
 

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