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Encyclopedia > Creatinine
Creatinine
IUPAC name 2-amino-1-methyl-5H-imidazol-4-one
Identifiers
CAS number 60-27-5
PubChem 588
MeSH Creatinine
SMILES CN1CC(=O)N=C1N
Properties
Molecular formula C4H7N3O
Molar mass 113.118
Except where noted otherwise, data are given for
materials in their standard state
(at 25 °C, 100 kPa)

Infobox disclaimer and references

Creatinine is a breakdown product of creatine phosphate in muscle, and is usually produced at a fairly constant rate by the body (depending on muscle mass). Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 304 pixelsFull resolution (1100 × 418 pixel, file size: 21 KB, MIME type: image/png) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 355 pixelsFull resolution (1100 × 488 pixel, file size: 122 KB, MIME type: image/png) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... IUPAC nomenclature is a system of naming chemical compounds and of describing the science of chemistry in general. ... CAS registry numbers are unique numerical identifiers for chemical compounds, polymers, biological sequences, mixtures and alloys. ... PubChem is a database of chemical molecules. ... Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) is a huge controlled vocabulary (or metadata system) for the purpose of indexing journal articles and books in the life sciences. ... The simplified molecular input line entry specification or SMILES is a specification for unambiguously describing the structure of chemical molecules using short ASCII strings. ... A chemical formula is a concise way of expressing information about the atoms that constitute a particular chemical compound. ... Molar mass is the mass of one mole of a chemical element or chemical compound. ... In chemistry, the standard state of a material is its state at 1 bar (100 kilopascals) and 25 degrees Celsius (298. ... Creatine, or creatine monohydrate [NH2-C(NH)-NCH2(COOH)-CH3], is a naturally occurring compound that helps to supply energy to the muscle cells. ... A top-down view of skeletal muscle Muscle (from Latin musculus little mouse [1]) is contractile tissue of the body and is derived from the mesodermal layer of embryonic germ cells. ...

Contents

Physiology

Creatinine is mainly filtered by the kidney, though a small amount is actively secreted. There is little-to-no tubular reabsorption of creatinine. If the filtering of the kidney is deficient, blood levels rise. As a result, creatinine blood levels may be used to calculate creatinine clearance (ClCr), which reflects the glomerular filtration rate (GFR). The GFR is clinically important because it is a measurement of renal function. However, in cases of severe renal dysfunction, the creatinine clearance rate will be overestimated because the active secretion of creatinine will account for a larger fraction of the total creatinine cleared. The kidneys are organs that filter wastes (such as urea) from the blood and excrete them, along with water, as urine. ... The kidneys are organs that filter wastes (such as urea) from the blood and excrete them, along with water, as urine. ... Creatinine clearance is a method that estimates the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) of the kidneys. ... Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is the volume of fluid filtered from the renal (kidney) glomerular capillaries into the Bowmans capsule per unit time. ... In medicine (nephrology) renal function is an indication of the state of the kidney and its role in physiology. ...


A higher than normal creatinine and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) may be indicative of dehydration when BUN-to-creatinine ratio is abnormal, with BUN levels rising higher than creatinine levels. Creatinine can give men abnormal amounts of bloating and gas. Men tend to have higher levels of creatinine because they have more skeletal muscle than women. Vegetarians tend to have lower creatinine levels, because vegetables contain no creatine. A Swedish-style saffron bun traditionally consumed en masse with Christmas at hand. ... Dehydration (hypohydration) is the removal of water (hydro in ancient Greek) from an object. ... In medicine, the BUN-to-creatinine ratio, also BUN-creatinine ratio and BUN/creatinine ratio, is a ratio of two laboratory test values, the blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and serum creatinine. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


Diagnostic use

Measuring serum creatinine is a simple test and it is the most commonly used indicator of renal function. A rise in blood creatinine levels is observed only with marked damage to functioning nephrons. Therefore, this test is not suitable for detecting early stage kidney disease. A better estimation of kidney function is given by the creatinine clearance test. Creatinine clearance can be accurately calculated using serum creatinine concentration and some or all of the following variables: sex, age, weight, and race as suggested by the American Diabetes Association without a 24 hour urine collection.[1] Some laboratories will calculate the ClCr if written on the pathology request form; and, the necessary age, sex, and weight are included in the patient information. A nephron is the basic structural and functional unit of the kidney. ... See the article on the kidney for the anatomy and function of healthy kidneys and a list of diseases involving the kidney. ... Creatinine clearance is a method that estimates the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) of the kidneys. ... The American Diabetes Association, or the ADA, is an American health organization providing diabetes research, information and advocacy. ...


Interpretation

In the United States, creatinine is typically reported in mg/dL, while in Canada and Europe μmol/litre may be used. 1 mg/dL of creatinine is 88.4 μmol/l. For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... The mole (symbol: mol) is the SI base unit that measures an amount of substance. ... The litre or liter (see spelling differences) is a unit of volume. ...


The typical reference ranges are 0.5 to 1.0 mg/dL (about 45-90 μmol/l) for women and 0.7 to 1.2 mg/dL (60-110 μmol/l) for men. While a baseline serum creatinine of 2.0 mg/dL (150 μmol/l) may indicate normal kidney function in a male body builder, a serum creatinine of 0.7 mg/dL (60 μmol/l) can indicate significant renal disease in a frail old woman. In health-related fields, a reference range is a set of values of some measurement that a physician or other health professional can use to interpret a set of results for a particular patient. ... Kidneys viewed from behind with spine removed The kidneys are bean-shaped excretory organs in vertebrates. ...


More important than absolute creatinine level is the trend of serum creatinine levels over time.


CT Scans

In the USA, all radiologists must see the results of a Creatinine Level Test, before performing the needed CT Scan. In a small proportion of patients the administration of iodine based contrast can cause kidney damage. This may be more severe in patients with an elevated baseline serum creatinine level and, again, in rare cases may require temporary or permanent dialysis.


See also

Cystatin 3, usually called Cystatin C (also CST3 and Gamma trace) is a serum protein used mainly as a measure of glomerular filtration rate. ... Creatinine clearance is a method that estimates the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) of the kidneys. ...

References

  1. ^ Gross JL, de Azevedo MJ, Silveiro SP, Canani LH, Caramori ML, Zelmanovitz T (2005). "Diabetic nephropathy: diagnosis, prevention, and treatment". Diabetes Care 28 (1): 164-76. PMID 15616252. 

  Results from FactBites:
 
Creatinine Blood Levels – Complete medical explanation regarding the production of this chemical waste molecule on ... (501 words)
Creatinine is a chemical waste molecule that is generated from muscle metabolism.
Normal levels of creatinine in the blood are approximately 0.6 to 1.2 milligrams (mg) per deciliter (dl) in adult males and 0.5 to 1.1 milligrams per deciliter in adult females.
Creatinine levels that reach 2.0 or more in babies and 10.0 or more in adults may indicate the need for a dialysis machine to remove wastes from the blood.
Creatinine (591 words)
It measures the actual amount of creatinine which has been excreted, and as such, it is roughly the equivalent of GFR (glomerular filtration rate, which is the percentage kidney function that most kidney patients are familiar with).
It is only roughly equivalent to GFR because some creatinine is also cleared into the urine by the renal tubules (this is called tubular secretion) and this is in addition to the creatinine which is cleared via the glomeruli (which is what glomerular filtration rate measures).
Normally, about 10% of creatinine clearance is due to tubular secretion, but in cases of chronic renal insufficiency, the proportion of creatinine clearance which is due to tubular secretion as opposed to glomerular filtration can rise to 30% and go as high as 50%.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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