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Encyclopedia > Created kind
Part of the series on
Creationism

History of creationism
Creation in Genesis
Genesis as an allegory The Creation of Light by Gustave Doré. Creationism can either refer to: the belief that humanity, life, the Earth, or the universe as a whole was specially created by a supreme being (often referred to specifically as God[1]) or by other forms of supernatural intervention. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... The history of creationism is tied to the history of religions. ... Creation according to Genesis refers to the description of the creation of the heavens and the earth by God, as described in Genesis, the first book of the Bible. ... Allegorical interpretations of Genesis is devoted to historical and contemporary non-literal regarding the book of Genesis. ...

Types of creationism:
Creation science
Gap Creationism
Intelligent design
Islamic creationism
Modern geocentrism
Neo-Creationism
Omphalos creationism
Old Earth creationism
Progressive creationism
Theistic evolution
Young Earth creationism
Creation science refers to the attempts by creationists (especially those who believe in a young Earth) to use the methods and empirical practices of science to support their side of the creation-evolution controversy. ... Gap Creationism, also called Restitution creationism or Ruin-Reconstruction, are terms used to describe a particular set of Christian beliefs about the creation of the Universe and the origin of man. ... Intelligent design (ID) is the concept that certain features of the universe and of living things are best explained by an intelligent cause, not an undirected process such as natural selection. ... Islamic creationism – While contemporary Islam tends to take religious texts very literally, it sees Genesis as a corrupted version of Gods message. ... Modern geocentrism is a belief currently held by certain groups that the Earth is the center of the universe and does not move. ... Neo-creationism is a movement whose goal is to restate creationism in terms more likely to be well received by the public, policy makers, educators, and the scientific community. ... The omphalos hypothesis was named after the title of an 1857 book by Philip Henry Gosse in which he argued that in order for the world to be functional, God must have created the Earth with mountains, canyons, trees with growth rings, Adam and Eve with hair, fingernails, and navels... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Progressive creationism is a form of Old Earth creationism that accepts that new species have appeared successively over earths long history but that, to a greater or lesser degree, each species represents a fiat miracle (thus the creationism part), and that the first pair or representatives of species were... Theistic evolution, less commonly known as evolutionary creationism, is not a theory in the scientific sense, but a particular view about how the science of evolution relates to some religious interpretations. ... Adam and Eve, the first human beings according to Genesis Young Earth creationism is a religious doctrine which teaches that the Earth and life on Earth were created by a direct action of God relatively recently (about 6,000 to 10,000 years ago). ...

Controversy:
Creation vs. evolution
... in public education
Associated articles
Teach the Controversy
The creation-evolution controversy (also termed the creation vs. ... The legal status of creation and evolution in public education is the subject of a great deal of debate in legal, political, and religious circles, mainly in the United States. ... The following is a clearinghouse of articles which refer to terms often used in the context of the creation-evolution controversy: // Origins Main article: Origin beliefs The creation-evolution controversy often is cast as a controversy surrounding the origin beliefs. ... Teach the Controversy is a slogan the Discovery Institute uses to promote intelligent design[1] and advance an education policy for US public schools which introduces creationist explanations for the origin of life to public-school science curricula. ...

In creation biology, created kinds are believed to be the original forms of life as they were created by God. They are also referred to as "kinds," "original kinds," "Genesis kinds," and "baramin" (from the Hebrew words "bara" [created] and "min" [kind]; the combination does not work syntactically in actual Hebrew). The idea is promulgated by Young Earth Creationists to support their view of Creation according to Genesis and also that the descendants of all land-based life on Earth were housed on Noah's ark before the great flood. Creation biology is the attempt by certain creationists to study biology from a young earth creationist perspective. ... This article discusses the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ... Young Earth creationism is the belief that the Earth and life on Earth were created by a direct action of God a relatively short time ago. ... Creation according to Genesis refers to the description of the creation of the heavens and the earth by God, as described in Genesis, the first book of the Bible. ... A painting by the American Edward Hicks (1780–1849), showing the animals boarding Noahs Ark two by two. ... The Deluge by Gustave Doré. The story of a Great Flood sent by a deity or deities to destroy civilization as an act of divine retribution is a widespread theme in myths. ...


In contrast to the scientific principle of common ancestry, these creationists argue that all life on Earth is not related, but that life was created by God in a finite number of discrete forms. Those making more sophisticated arguments often acknowledge that these discrete forms subsequently underwent speciation and microevolution of the original created kinds. However, creationists assert that the created kinds constitute definite boundaries beyond which evolutionary processes cannot occur. Part of a scientific laboratory at the University of Cologne. ... A group of organisms is said to have common descent if they have a common ancestor. ... This article is about the tv programme Life on Earth. ... Charles Darwins first sketch of an evolutionary tree from his First Notebook on Transmutation of Species (1837) Speciation is the evolutionary process by which new biological species arise. ... Microevolution is the occurrence of small-scale changes in allele frequencies in a population, over a few generations, also known as change at or below the species level. ...


Since created kinds refer to common ancestry, they are asserted to be a form of clade. Baraminology, or the effort to classify life according to the created kinds, is thus the creationist equivalent of cladistics. A clade is a term belonging to the discipline of cladistics. ... In creation biology, Baraminology is the effort to classify created kinds. ... This cladogram shows the relationship among various insect groups. ...


Mainstream scientists, however, reject the idealization of "created kinds" and creation science in general as a pseudoscience. This is mainly because the scientific evidence for common ancestry and the relationships of lifeforms in the biosphere is believed to correspond more closely to evolutionary biology and the modern synthesis. Creation science refers to the attempts by creationists (especially those who believe in a young Earth) to use the methods and empirical practices of science to support their side of the creation-evolution controversy. ... Phrenology is regarded today as a classic example of pseudoscience. ... The scientific method or process is fundamental to the scientific investigation and acquisition of new knowledge based upon physical evidence. ... A group of organisms is said to have common descent if they have a common ancestor. ... The Global Biosphere:a false-color composite of CZCS images of plankton concentrations with land vegetation data collected by the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer instrument. ... Evolutionary biology is a subfield of biology concerned with the origin and descent of species, as well as their change, multiplication, and diversity over time. ... The modern evolutionary synthesis (often referred to simply as the modern synthesis), neo-Darwinian synthesis or neo-Darwinism, brings together Charles Darwins theory of the evolution of species by natural selection with Gregor Mendels theory of genetics as the basis for biological inheritance. ...

Contents

Definitions

The concept of the "kind" originates from a literal reading of Genesis 1:12-24:

And God said, let the earth bring forth grass, the herb yielding seed, and the fruit tree yielding fruit after his kind … And God created great whales and every living creature that moveth, which the waters brought forth abundantly after their kind, and every winged fowl after his kind … And God said, let the earth bring forth the living creature after his kind, cattle and creeping thing, and beast of the earth after his kind, and it was so.

In 1941, creationist writer Frank Lewis Marsh proposed that the Biblical created kind could be defined in terms of reproduction. He argued that as long as two modern creatures can hybridize with true fertilization, the two creatures are descended from the same kind. This idea has been adopted to support the practice of baraminology, the attempt to classify created kinds. Creation scientists posit that kinds are a form of clade, in that a posited kind displays evidence for common lines of ancestry among its member organisms. This article is about the year. ... Frank Lewis Marsh (b. ... A clade is a term belonging to the discipline of cladistics. ...


Microbiologist and creationist Siegfried Scherer refined the criteria to state that if two creatures can hybridize with the same third creature, they are all members of the same "basic type". Thus all members of a ring species would be members of the same basic type. Scherer also updated Marsh's explanation of true fertilization: In this diagram, interbreeding populations are represented by coloured blocks. ...

Two individuals belong to the same basic type if embryogenesis of a hybrid continues beyond the maternal phase, including subsequent co-ordinated expression of both maternal and paternal morphogenetic genes.

There is some uncertainty about what exactly the Bible means when it talks of "kinds". The original Hebrew word used is min, which is used to describe a variety of organisms. Russell Mixter, another creationist writer, comments that Hebrew redirects here. ...

One should not insist that "kind" means species. The word "kind" as used in the Bible may apply to any animal which may be distinguished in any way from another, or it may be applied to a large group of species distinguishable from another group ... there is plenty of room for differences of opinion on what are the kinds of Genesis. [1]

"Creation science" proponents posit that the defining element of kinds is creationist-approved evidence for common lines of ancestry among the organisms in the posited kind. The few creationists who work to make the classifications have not so far come up with a consistent set of rules for establishing when this criteria is met. As such, kinds do not coincide with any particular level of taxon. In some cases, such as humanity, kinds coincide with species or genus. In other cases, such as Felidae, they may be equivalent to the family level of taxonic classification. Creation science refers to the attempts by creationists (especially those who believe in a young Earth) to use the methods and empirical practices of science to support their side of the creation-evolution controversy. ... Humanity refers to the human race or mankind as a whole, to that which is characteristically human, or to that which distinguishes human beings from other animals or from other animal species primal nature. ... Subfamilies Felinae Pantherinae Acinonychinae Machairodontinae (extinct) The Felidae family includes lions, tigers, domestic cats, and other felines as its members. ... A family in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso in 1997 A family consists of a domestic group of people (or a number of domestic groups), typically affiliated by birth or marriage, or by analogous or comparable relationships — including domestic partnership, cohabitation, adoption, surname and (in some cases) ownership (as occurred in the...


Kinds in the Tree of Life

The creationist "kind" is assumed to be based upon an idea that life in the past exhibited greater genetic diversity and heterozygosity than life today, in the form of "kinds" analogous to the liger. Thus, the kinds were created with the innate ability to vary a great deal, and subsequent evolutionary processes are merely the means by which that innate ability to vary is expressed. Creationism is generally the belief that the universe was created by a deity, or alternatively by one or more powerful and intelligent beings. ... For other uses, see Life (disambiguation), Lives (disambiguation) or Living (disambiguation), Living Things (disambiguation). ... Genetic diversity is a characteristic of ecosystems and gene pools that describes an attribute which is commonly held to be advantageous for survival -- that there are many different versions of otherwise similar organisms. ... Heterozygote cells are diploid or polyploid and have different alleles at a locus (position) on homologous chromosomes. ... Liger The liger is a cross (a hybrid) between a male lion and a female tiger. ...

A hypothetical phylogenetic tree of all extant organisms, based on 16S rRNA gene sequence data, showing the evolutionary history of the three domains of life: bacteria, archaea and eukaryotes. Originally proposed by Carl Woese.
A hypothetical phylogenetic tree of all extant organisms, based on 16S rRNA gene sequence data, showing the evolutionary history of the three domains of life: bacteria, archaea and eukaryotes. Originally proposed by Carl Woese.

The definition of created kinds is therefore similar in form and function to the phylogenetic tree of evolutionary biology, but bears two important differences. Image File history File links Phylogenetic_tree. ... Image File history File links Phylogenetic_tree. ... It has been suggested that Evolutionary tree be merged into this article or section. ... A non-coding RNA (ncRNA) is any RNA molecule that functions without being translated into a protein. ... This stylistic schematic diagram shows a gene in relation to the double helix structure of DNA and to a chromosome (right). ... The three-domain system is a biological classification introduced by Carl Woese in 1990 that emphasizes his separation of prokaryotes into two groups, originally called Eubacteria and Archaebacteria. ... Phyla Actinobacteria Aquificae Chlamydiae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Lentisphaerae Nitrospirae Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Verrucomicrobia Bacteria (singular: bacterium) are unicellular microorganisms. ... Phyla / Classes Phylum Crenarchaeota Phylum Euryarchaeota     Halobacteria     Methanobacteria     Methanococci     Methanopyri     Archaeoglobi     Thermoplasmata     Thermococci Phylum Korarchaeota Phylum Nanoarchaeota Archaea (; from Greek αρχαία, ancient ones; singular Archaeum, Archaean, or Archaeon), also called Archaebacteria (), is a major division of living organisms. ... Kingdoms Animalia - Animals Fungi Plantae - Plants Protista A eukaryote (IPA: ) is an organism with a complex cell or cells, in which the genetic material is organized into a membrane-bound nucleus or nuclei. ... Carl Richard Woese (born July 15, 1928) is an American microbiologist famous for defining the Archaea (a new domain or kingdom of life) in 1976 by phylogenetic analysis of 16S ribosomal RNA, a technique pioneered by Woese and which is now standard practice. ... It has been suggested that Evolutionary tree be merged into this article or section. ...

  • First, while the phylogenetic tree traces life back to a single cell or population of single-celled organisms, creation biology traces life back to a large number of unrelated populations of life-forms which roughly resembled the forms of life today, effectively stating that there are no biological connections beyond the very tips of the phylogenetic tree.
  • Second, while the pylogenetic tree credits evolutionary change to a diversification and specification of lifeforms through processes such as natural selection, creationists credit microevolutionary change to the rearrangement and expression of genetic variation that was "built in" to the original kinds.

Change in created kinds is said to take place through an unspecified process that is said to be "degradation of the genome", as natural selection and reproductive isolation, inbreeding, and genetic drift caused lifeforms to adapt to their environment by the loss of capacity to adapt to other environments. Speciation is held to be a side-effect of a degrading genome, and most is said by creationists to have occurred during and after the rapid dispersion immediately after a global flood that is reported to have occurred in Genesis. This event is said to have caused an extreme population bottleneck which caused the major speciation events taking place within the space of 1000 to 2000 years after the flood. In effect, this requires an evolutionary process that is faster than modern biology's timescales for speciation. This explanation also relies on the assumed fact of a global flood (see flood geology), an event for which neither mainstream biology nor geology has found any evidence. The Galápagos Islands hold 13 species of finches that are closely related and differ most markedly in the shape of their beaks. ... The Galápagos Islands hold 13 species of finches that are closely related and differ most markedly in the shape of their beaks. ... This article may contain original research or unverified claims. ... Genetic drift is the term used in population genetics to refer to the statistical drift over time of allele frequencies in a finite population due to random sampling effects in the formation of successive generations. ... Charles Darwins first sketch of an evolutionary tree from his First Notebook on Transmutation of Species (1837) Speciation is the evolutionary process by which new biological species arise. ... The Deluge by Gustave Doré. The story of a Great Flood sent by a deity or deities to destroy civilization as an act of divine retribution is a widespread theme in myths. ... Flood geology (also creation geology or diluvial geology) is a creationist perspective on geologic phenomena which assumes the literal truth of the Great Flood described in Genesis. ...


Many creationists believe that the formation of the races was a result of so-called "degradation of the genome". The population onboard the ark is believed to have been a hybrid population containing the genetic characteristics of all the races. When the population spread over the Earth after the flood, gene pools became isolated resulting in the races. This view is not supported by the genetic evidence surrounding race, which is that there is more genetic variation within the races than between the races. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... // In biology, hybrid has two meanings. ...


The differentiation of species from original hybrids is the heart of the concept of created kinds. Hybridization as a genetic concept is technically rejected since creationists believe a hybrid is less, rather than more, degraded, with regard to its parents. In genetics, hybridisation is the process of mixing different species or varieties of organisms. ...


Boundaries between kinds

The asserted boundaries between the kinds -- the position that the kinds are unrelated -- is arguably the most divergent view of creationists from mainstream biology. Those challenging creation biology often ask what basis creationists have for asserting that such boundaries exist, or for determining what those boundaries are.


The project of determining the precise boundaries between the kinds is not agreed upon by creationists. Creationists generally assert that conclusions about common ancestry should only be drawn if there is "substantial evidence" to support the conclusion. As to what qualifies as "substantial evidence", creationists are often at odds with each other. However, they are in unanimous agreement that humans and other extant primates are not in the same kind.


In the absence of the ability to directly observe life in its original form, classification of kinds generally revolves around reproductive compatibility -- that is, created kinds are generally seen as having common descent if they are reproductively compatible.


The classification is more difficult when reproductive compatibility is partial, as in the case of the mule, a hybrid of the horse and the donkey which, although viable, is not fertile. While it is possible that the two species descend from a common ancestor due to their reproductive compatibility, it is also possible that they do not, but were created separately with reproductive systems similar enough to create viable offspring, but not similar enough to create fertile offspring. A barren of mules. ... // In biology, hybrid has two meanings. ... Binomial name Equus caballus Linnaeus, 1758 The horse (Equus caballus, sometimes seen as a subspecies of the Wild Horse, Equus ferus caballus) is a large odd-toed ungulate mammal, one of ten modern species of the genus Equus. ... Binomial name Equus asinus Linnaeus, 1758 The donkey or jackass, Equus asinus, is a domesticated animal of the horse family, Equidae. ...


Other criteria for common ancestry are rejected. The mere fact that organisms are alive is not seen as evidence of common ancestry. Genetic and physiological similarities are not seen as evidence of common ancestry, but rather are thought to result from a similar design being used on different "kinds." There is normally no justification offered as to why reproductive compatibility shouldn't be viewed in the same way, though there are references made to biblical verses such as "go forth and multiply" -- the command given by God to Noah's family after the flood.


Since 2001, a new method has been discussed for demarcating created kinds via baraminology. The new method involves the application of morphological character data to create a "biological character space," which can then be used to determine continuity and discontinuity between species, and ultimately to determine "biological trajectories." This method is discussed in greater detail in the article Baraminology. In creation biology, Baraminology is the effort to classify created kinds. ... In creation biology, Baraminology is the effort to classify created kinds. ...


Hypothesized kinds

Father false killer whale, mother bottlenose dolphin, and child Wolphin, at the Sealife park in Hawaii.
Father false killer whale, mother bottlenose dolphin, and child Wolphin, at the Sealife park in Hawaii.

Creationists have proposed a handful of possibilities for the created "kinds": Wholphin and parents, from http://www. ... Wholphin and parents, from http://www. ... Binomial name Pseudorca crassidens (Owen, 1846) False Killer Whale range The Lovely Whale (Pseudorca crassidens) is a cetacean and one of the larger members of the oceanic dolphin family (Delphinidae). ... Binomial name Tursiops truncatus Montagu, 1821 Bottlenose Dolphin range (in blue) The Bottlenose Dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) is the most common and well-known dolphin species. ... Wolphin A wolphin or wholphin is a rare hybrid, formed from a cross between a bottlenose dolphin Tursiops truncatus (mother), and a false killer whale Pseudorca crassidens (father). ...

Thus the created kind corresponds roughly to the family, and possibly even the order with the notable exception of humanity.[2] Humanity refers to the human race or mankind as a whole, to that which is characteristically human, or to that which distinguishes human beings from other animals or from other animal species primal nature. ... Human beings are defined variously in biological, spiritual, and cultural terms, or in combinations thereof. ... Genera Subfamily Ponginae Pongo - Orangutans Gigantopithecus (extinct) Sivapithecus (extinct) Subfamily Homininae Gorilla - Gorillas Pan - Chimpanzees Homo - Humans Paranthropus (extinct) Australopithecus (extinct) Sahelanthropus (extinct) Ardipithecus (extinct) Kenyanthropus (extinct) Pierolapithecus (extinct) (tentative) The Hominids (Hominidae) are a biological family which includes humans, extinct species of humanlike creatures and the other great apes... Binomial name Homo neanderthalensis King, 1864 The Neanderthal or Neandertal was a species of genus Homo (Homo neanderthalensis) that inhabited Europe and parts of western Asia from about 230,000 to 29,000 years ago (in the Middle Palaeolithic, early Stone Age). ... Human beings are defined variously in biological, spiritual, and cultural terms, or in combinations thereof. ... Binomial name †Australopithecus afarensis Johanson & White, 1978 Australopithecus afarensis is an extinct hominid which lived between 3. ... Binomial name Australopithecus anamensis Leakey et al. ... Binomial name †Australopithecus africanus Dart, 1925 Australopithecus africanus was an early hominid, an australopithecine, who lived between 3. ... Species Ardipithecus kadabba Ardipithecus ramidus Ardipithecus is a very early hominid genus ( subfamily Homininae). ... Subfamilies Felinae Pantherinae Acinonychinae Machairodontinae (extinct) The Felidae family includes lions, tigers, domestic cats, and other felines as its members. ... AiGs logo Answers in Genesis (AiG) is a non-profit Christian apologetics ministry with a particular focus on Young Earth Creationism, and a literal or plain[1] interpretation of the first chapters of the Book of Genesis. ... The Institute for Creation Research (ICR) is a research institute based in Santee, California[2] that focuses on constructing and teaching a Young Earth Creationist world view. ... Liger The liger is a cross (a hybrid) between a male lion and a female tiger. ... Tigon A Tigon is the hybrid of a male tiger and a lioness. ... Genera Alopex Atelocynus Canis Cerdocyon Chrysocyon Cuon Dusicyon Fennecus Lycalopex Lycaon Nyctereutes Otocyon Pseudalopex Speothos Urocyon Vulpes Canidae is the family of carnivorous and omnivorous mammals commonly known as canines. ... Species  Lama glama  Lama pacos  Lama guanicoe  Vicugna vicugna  Camelus dromedarius  Camelus bactrianus The four llamas and two camels are camelids: members of the biological family Camelidae, the only family in the suborder Tylopoda. ... Species Camelus bactrianus Camelus dromedarius Camels are even-toed ungulates in the genus Camelus. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Suborders Eusuchia Protosuchia † Mesosuchia † Sebecosuchia † Thalattosuchia † Crocodilia is an order of large reptiles that appeared about 220 million years ago. ... Species Alligator mississippiensis Alligator sinensis An alligator is a crocodilian in the genus Alligator of the family Alligatoridae. ... Genera Mecistops Crocodylus Osteolaemus See full taxonomy. ... Binomial name Gavialis gangeticus (Gmelin, 1789) The gharial (Gavialis gangeticus) is one of two surviving members of the family Gavialidae, a long-established group of crocodile-like reptiles with long, narrow jaws. ... Genera and Species Loxodonta Loxodonta cyclotis Loxodonta africana Elephas Elephas maximus Elephas antiquus † Elephas beyeri † Elephas celebensis † Elephas cypriotes † Elephas ekorensis † Elephas falconeri † Elephas iolensis † Elephas planifrons † Elephas platycephalus † Elephas recki † Stegodon † Mammuthus † Elephantidae (the elephants) is a family of pachyderm, and the only remaining family in the order Proboscidea...


Creationists also point to known examples of hybridization to argue that the kind is broader than the biological species, and sometimes even than the genus. For example:

  • Kekaimalu the wholphin is a fertile hybrid of two different types of dolphin, the false killer whale (actually a kind of dolphin), and bottlenose dolphin. Kekaimalu herself gave birth to a calf, showing she was a fertile hybrid. Thus these creatures classified as different genera are really a single polytypic (many-type) species.
  • Bos (true cattle) and Bison (American buffalo) can produce a fertile hybrid called a cattalo. Bos and Bison are thus likewise the same polytypic species although they classified as different genera.
  • The creationist Don Batten helped create a hybrid of the fruit species lychee (Litchi chinensis) and longan (Dimocarpus longana), again classified as different genera.

A canonical list of kinds has not been constructed and such examples are extremely provisional (with the exception of humans, on which there is a strong creationist consensus). Genera See article below. ... Binomial name Pseudorca crassidens (Owen, 1846) False Killer Whale range The Lovely Whale (Pseudorca crassidens) is a cetacean and one of the larger members of the oceanic dolphin family (Delphinidae). ... Binomial name Tursiops truncatus Montagu, 1821 Bottlenose Dolphin range (in blue) The Bottlenose Dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) is the most common and well-known dolphin species. ... In biology, a genus (plural genera) is a taxonomic grouping. ... Species B. antiquus B. bison B. bonasus B. priscus Bison is a taxonomic genus containing six species of large even-toed ungulates within the subfamily Bovinae. ... Beefalo are a fertile variety of Cattalo. ... Binomial name Litchi chinensis Sonn. ... Binomial name Dimocarpus longan The longan (Simplified Chinese: 龙眼; Traditional Chinese: 龍眼; pinyin: ; Cantonese long-ngan; literally dragon eye) is an evergreen tree native to southeast Asia from southern China south to Indonesia. ...


Creation biology looks to the animals visible in the fossil record (which creationists interpret as having mostly been laid down during the flood) as evidence that antediluvian life was much more diverse than life today. They reject the dating methods of paleontologists and geologists that determine the age of fossils from the order of the fossil record and instead believe that almost all fossils were deposited in a single catastrophic flood event and were sorted out by processes associated with the flood. (See flood geology for more on this topic.) It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Fossil. ... This article is on mythology involving great floods. ... According to the Bible, the only survivors from the antediluvian period were Noah and his family. ... A paleontologist carefully chips rock from a column of dinosaur vertebrae. ... A geologist is a contributor to the science of geology. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Fossil. ... Flood geology (also creation geology or diluvial geology) is a creationist perspective on geologic phenomena which assumes the literal truth of the Great Flood described in Genesis. ...


See also

In creation biology, Baraminology is the effort to classify created kinds. ... Creation science refers to the attempts by creationists (especially those who believe in a young Earth) to use the methods and empirical practices of science to support their side of the creation-evolution controversy. ... Flood geology (also creation geology or diluvial geology) is a creationist perspective on geologic phenomena which assumes the literal truth of the Great Flood described in Genesis. ... The idea that humans existed before Adam, which is known as the Pre-Adamite hypothesis or Preadamism, has a long history, probably having its origins in early pagan responses to Jewish and Christian claims regarding the origins of the human race. ... Phrenology is regarded today as a classic example of pseudoscience. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Spartanburg SC | GoUpstate.com | Spartanburg Herald-Journal (1032 words)
Creation scientists posit that kinds are a form of clade, in that a posited kind displays evidence for common lines of ancestry among its member organisms.
The creationist "kind" is assumed to be based upon an idea that life in the past exhibited greater genetic diversity and heterozygosity than life today, in the form of "kinds" analogous to the liger.
Change in created kinds is said to take place through an unspecified process that is said to be "degradation of the genome", as natural selection and reproductive isolation, inbreeding, and genetic drift caused lifeforms to adapt to their environment by the loss of capacity to adapt to other environments.
Created kind - CreationWiki, the encyclopedia of creation science (3317 words)
The created kind is thought to be more often synonymous with the "Family" level of classification in the taxonomic hierarchy; at least in mammals; and occasionally it can extend as high as the order level.
The created kind is based upon an idea that organisms were created with the innate ability to vary a great deal, and evolutionary processes are merely the means by which that innate ability to vary is expressed.
Creation scientists posit that the defining element of kinds is approved by barimonologists of creation science through evidence for common lines of ancestry among the organisms.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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