FACTOID # 28: Austin, Texas has more people than Alaska.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Crazy Horse
Crazy Horse
Born Thašųka Witko: "His-Horse-is-Crazy"
1842
Flag of the United States Rapid City, South Dakota
Died September 5, 1877 (aged 35)
Flag of the United States Fort Robinson, Nebraska
Other names "In the Wilderness" or "Among the Trees," Curly
Known for A famous Oglala Warrior

Crazy Horse (Lakota: Thašųka Witko, literally "His-Horse-is-Crazy")[1] (ca. 1842September 5, 1877) was a respected war leader of the Lakota, who fought against the U.S. federal government in an effort to preserve the traditions and values of the Lakota way of life. Crazy Horse may be: // Crazy Horse (1849-1877), American Sioux chief Crazy Horse (1947-2004), nickname of English footballer Emlyn Hughes Charles Krazy Horse Bennett (b. ... 1842 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Rapid City is a city located in the western part of South Dakota and is second largest city in the state of South Dakota after Sioux Falls. ... Official language(s) English Capital Pierre Largest city Sioux Falls Area  Ranked 17th  - Total 77,116[1] sq mi (199,905 km²)  - Width 210 miles (340 km)  - Length 380 miles (610 km)  - % water 1. ... is the 248th day of the year (249th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1877 (MDCCCLXXVII) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Fort Robinson is a former U. S. Army post and a present-day state park in the Pine Ridge region of northwest Nebraska. ... For other uses, see Nebraska (disambiguation). ... Lakota (also Lakhota, Teton, Teton Sioux) is the largest of the three languages of the Sioux, of the Siouan family. ... 1842 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... is the 248th day of the year (249th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1877 (MDCCCLXXVII) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Eddie Plenty Holes, a Sioux Indian photographed about 1899. ... Eddie Plenty Holes, a Sioux Indian photographed about 1899. ...

Contents

Early life

Crazy Horse and his band of Oglala on their way from Camp Sheridan to surrender to General Crook at Red Cloud Agency, Sunday, May 6, 1877 / Berghavy ; from sketches by Mr. Hottes.
Crazy Horse and his band of Oglala on their way from Camp Sheridan to surrender to General Crook at Red Cloud Agency, Sunday, May 6, 1877 / Berghavy ; from sketches by Mr. Hottes.

Sources differ on the precise year of Crazy Horse's birth, but all seem to agree that he was born between 1840 and 1845. According to He Dog, a close friend, he and Crazy Horse "were both born in the same year and at the same season of the year", which census records and other interviews place at about 1845.[2] Chips, an Oglala medicine man and spiritual adviser to the Oglala war leader, reported that Crazy Horse was born "in the year in which the band to which he belonged, the Oglala, stole One Hundred Horses, and in the fall of the year", a reference to the annual Lakota calendar or winter count.[3] Among the Oglala wintercounts, the stealing of one hundred horses is noted by Cloud Shield, and possibly by American Horse and Red Horse owner, equivalent to the year 1840-41.[4] Oral history accounts from relatives on the Cheyenne River Reservation place his birth in the spring of 1840.[5] Probably the most credible source, however, is Crazy Horse's own father. On the evening of his son's death, the elderly man told Lieutenant H. R. Lemly that his son "would soon have been thirty-seven, having been born on the South Cheyenne river in the fall of 1840."[6] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... George Crook (September 8, 1828 – March 21, 1890) was a career U.S. Army officer, most noted for his distinguished service during the American Civil War and the Indian Wars. ... is the 126th day of the year (127th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1877 (MDCCCLXXVII) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Born around 1830 on the Laramie plains, He Dog was a member of the Oglala people, one of several groups calling themselves Lakota, but best known by a contradiction of their French nickname - Sioux, the enemy. ... Crazy Horse (Sioux: Tasunka witko, pronounced tashúnka uitko), (c. ... The Oompa Loompa or Oglala Sioux, meaning to scatter ones own in Siouan, live in the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation in South Dakota bordering Nebraska and 50 miles east of Wyoming, the second largest reservation in the United States. ... Medicine man is an English term used to describe Native American religious figures; such individuals are analogous to shamans. ... Winter counts (Lakota: waniyetu wowapi) are pictorial calendars or histories in which tribal records and events were recorded. ... American Horse (1840-December 16, 1908) was a chieftain of the Oglala Sioux during a Sioux Wars of the 1870s. ...


Crazy Horse was born with the name 'In The Wilderness' or 'Among the Trees' (in Lakota the name is phonetically pronounced as Cha-O-Ha) meaning he was one with nature. His nickname was Curly. He had the same light, curly hair as his mother.[5]


Family

Crazy Horse's father, a Lakota who was also named Crazy Horse (born 1810), passed the name to his son, taking the new name of Worm for himself thereafter. The mother of the younger Crazy Horse was Rattling Blanket Woman (born 1814), a Lakota as well. Rattling Blanket Woman was the daughter of Black Buffalo and White Cow (also known as Iron Cane). Black Buffalo is the one who stopped Lewis and Clark on the Bad River. She was the younger sister of One Horn (born 1794) and Lone Horn (born between 1790 and 1795, and died in 1875)and also to Good Looking Woman (born 1810). Her younger sister was named Looks At It (born 1815), later given the name They Are Afraid of Her.[5] Rattling Blanket Woman was the mother of Crazy Horse. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ...


Looks At It had a much bigger build than her two older sisters. She got her second name because she had married a man named Stands Up For Him. They had a child and when the child died of a disease, he tried to take her south away from her family. A fight ensued. She defeated him and thus the name They Are Afraid Of Her was bestowed on her.[5] Rattling Blanket Woman also had another older half-brother named Hump who was born in 1811. Hump's mother was Good Voice Woman and Black Buffalo's second wife.[5] Hump and Waglula became best friends. When Waglula began to court Hump's half sister, he presented three horses to the family head Lone Horn (the older sibling One Horn had died earlier after being gored by a buffalo, making Lone Horn the oldest male and head man of the family.[5] Their father, Black Buffalo, had died in about 1820 near Devil's Tower (Lakota called it Grey Horn Butte) of sickness.[5] In return for the three horses he hoped he could take Rattling Blanket Woman as his wife as was the custom. But the family's women wanted eight horses, and so Hump volunteered to go on a raiding party with Waglula to obtain more horses; they brought back 16 horses, four loaded with meat they had captured from a Crow hunting party and presented it to the family.[5] Look up hump in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Devils Tower is a monolith (more technically, an igneous intrusion) located near Hulett and Sundance in eastern Wyoming, above the Belle Fourche River. ...


In 1844 Waglula (Worm) went on a buffalo hunt. He came across a Lakota village under attack by Crow warriors. He led his small contingent in and rescued the village. Corn who was the head man of the village (the famed painter, George Catlin painted his picture while visiting the tribe in 1832 entitled "Corn, Miniconjou Warrior") had lost his wife in the raid. In gratitude he gave Waglula his two eldest daughters Iron Between Horns (age 18) and Kills Enemy (age 17) as wives. Corn's youngest daughter, Red Leggins, who was 15 at the time requested to go with her sisters and all would become Waglula's wives.[5] When he got back to his village and his wife, Rattling Blanket Woman, found out about his new wives she became distraught. She and Waglula had been attempting to conceive another child, but had failed. The arrival of the new wives made her think she had lost favor with Waglula because she could not get pregnant. At the time they were camped along the White River. Without discussing it with Waglula she went out and hanged herself from a cottonwood tree.[5] Waglula mourned her death for four years and was celibate during that time. Upon hearing what had happened to her sister, Good Looking Woman, who also found she could not conceive, left her husband and came to Waglula to offer herself as a replacement wife for her sister. Waglula turned her down as a wife, but relented in allowing her to raise her sister's son, Crazy Horse. Later, Crazy Horse's other aunt, They Are Afraid of Her, helped in the raising of Crazy Horse. She helped teach him to hunt and take care of himself.[5] Miniconjou are a Native American people constituting a subdivision of the Lakota Sioux, who formerly inhabited an area from the Black Hills in South Dakota to the Platte River, with a present-day population in west-central South Dakota. ...


Visions

Crazy Horse lived in the Lakota camp with his younger brother, High Horse (son of Iron Between Horns and Waglula[5]) and his cousin who he grew up with, Little Hawk (Little Hawk was actually the nephew of his maternal step grandfather, Corn[5]), when it was attacked by Lt. Grattan and 28 other troopers during the Grattan massacre.[7] After witnessing the death of Lakota leader Conquering Bear, Crazy Horse began to get trance visions. His father Waglula (Worm) took him to what today is Sylvan Lake where they both sat to hemblecha (vision quest).[7] A red-tailed hawk led them to their respective spots in the hills as the trees are tall in the Black Hills and they could not always see where they were going. Crazy Horse sat in between two humps that were at the top of a hill just a bit north and to the east of the lake.[7] Waglula sat just a little south of Harney Peak but north of his son. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Lieutenant is a military, naval, paramilitary, fire service or police officer rank. ... The Grattan massacre of August 17, 1854 occurred east of Fort Laramie, Nebraska Territory, USA (in present-day Goshen County, Wyoming). ... Conquering Bear Chief Conquering Bear was a Brulé Lakota leader who signed the Fort Laramie Treaty in 1851. ... Trance - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Sylvan Lake, known as the “crown jewel” of Custer State Park, is located in the Black Hills of South Dakota. ... This article is about the place in South Dakota. ... Harney Peak is the highest mountain in South Dakota, located in Black Hills National Forest. ...


Crazy Horse's vision first took him to the South where in Lakota spirituality you go when you die. He was brought back and was taken to the west in the direction of the wakiyans or thunder beings and was given a medicine bundle which contained medicines that would protect him for life. One of his animal protectors would be the white owl, which according to Lakota spirituality would give extended life. He was also shown his face paint, which consisted of a yellow lightning strike down the left side of his face and white powder he would wet and with three fingers put marks over his vulnerable areas that when they dried resembled hail stones. His face paint was similar to his father's except his father used a red lightning strike down the right side of his face and three red hailstones on his forehead. Crazy Horse wore a yellow lightning strike down the left side of his face but put no make up on his forehead and did not wear a war bonnet. He was also given a sacred song that is still sung today and told he would be a protector of his people.[7]


Crazy Horse also received a black stone from a medicine man named Horn Chips to protect his horse, a black and white paint he had named 'Inyan' meaning rock or stone. He placed the stone behind the horse's ear so that the medicine he received from his visionquest and the medicine that Horn Chips had given him would combine to make his horse and himself to be as one in battle.[7]


Title of Shirt Wearer

Through the late 1850s and early 1860s, Crazy Horse's reputation as a warrior grew, as did his fame among the Lakota. Little written record exists because the Lakota were oral historians and had no written language. His first kill was an enemy of the Lakota, a Shoshone raider who had killed a Lakota woman washing buffalo meat along the Powder River,[7]. He was in many battles between the Lakota and their enemies, the Crow, Shoshone, Pawnee, Blackfeet, and Arikara among others. In 1864 after the Sand Creek Massacre of the Cheyenne in Colorado, the Lakota joined forces with the Cheyenne against the military. Crazy Horse was present at the Battle of Red Buttes and the Platte River Bridge Station Battle in 1865.[7] Because of his fighting ability, Crazy Horse was installed as an Ogle Tanka Un (Shirt Wearer or war leader) in 1865. Powder River The Powder River is a a tributary of the Yellowstone River, approximately 375 mi (603 km) long in the southeastern Montana and northeastern Wyoming in the United States. ... Crow indians (Karl Bodmer) The Crow, also called the Absaroka or Apsáalooke, are a tribe of Native Americans who historically lived in the Yellowstone River valley and now live on a reservation south of Billings, Montana. ... This article is about the Native American tribe. ... The Pawnee (also Paneassa, Pari, Pariki) are a Native American tribe that historically lived along the Platte, Loup and Republican Rivers in present-day Nebraska. ... Sahpo Muxika, also known as Crowfoot, former Head Chief of the Blackfeet Nation. ... It has been suggested that Arikara language be merged into this article or section. ... Combatants United States of America Cheyenne, Arapaho Commanders John M. Chivington Black Kettle Strength 800 soldiers 500, mostly elderly, women and children Casualties 15 killed, 50 wounded 150-184 killed The Sand Creek massacre (also known as the Chivington massacre or the Battle of Sand Creek) was an incident in... For other uses, see Cheyenne (disambiguation). ... Official language(s) English Demonym Coloradan Capital Denver Largest city Denver Largest metro area Denver-Aurora Metro Area Area  Ranked 8th in the US  - Total 104,185 sq mi (269,837 km²)  - Width 280 miles (451 km)  - Length 380 miles (612 km)  - % water 0. ... Reconstructed buildings at the site of Fort Caspar Fort Caspar was a military post of the United States Army located in present-day Casper, Wyoming (which is named for the fort). ...


Fetterman Massacre

On December 21, 1866, Crazy Horse and six other warriors, both Lakota and Cheyenne, decoyed Lt. William Fetterman's 53 infantry men and 27 cavalry troopers under Lt Grummond from the safe confines of Fort Phil Kearny on the Bozeman Trail into an ambush. Crazy Horse personally led Fetterman's infantry up what Wyoming locals call Massacre Hill while Grummond's cavalry followed the other six decoys along Peno Head Ridge and down towards Peno Creek where some Cheyenne women were taunting the soldiers. At that moment, the Cheyenne leader Little Wolf's and his warriors closed the return route to the fort. They had been hiding on the opposite side of Peno Head Ridge. Meanwhile, the Lakota warriors came over Massacre Hill and attacked the infantry. There were additional Cheyenne and Lakota hiding in the buckbrush along Peno Creek behind the taunting women, effectively surrounding the soldiers. Seeing they were surrounded, Grummond headed back to Fetterman to try to repel them in numbers --they were wiped out. The warrior contingent consisted of nearly 1,000 warriors. In some history books it is known as Red Cloud's War however Red Cloud was not present that day. The ambush was the worst Army defeat on the Great Plains at the time.[7] This event was known as the Fetterman Massacre.[8] [9] [10] is the 355th day of the year (356th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1866 (MDCCCLXVI) is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... William Judd Fetterman (1833? – December 21, 1866) was an officer in the United States Army during the American Civil War and the subsequent Red Clouds War on the Great Plains. ... Fort Phil Kearny was an outpost of the United States Army that existed in the late 1860s in present-day northeastern Wyoming along the Bozeman Trail. ... The Chicken Trail was an overland route connecting the Oregon Trail to the gold rush territory of Montana. ... Official language(s) English Capital Cheyenne Largest city Cheyenne Area  Ranked 10th  - Total 97,818 sq mi (253,348 km²)  - Width 280 miles (450 km)  - Length 360 miles (580 km)  - % water 0. ... Little Coyote Little Wolf is a fairly common name among American Indians. ... The Powder River Country, northeast of the Bighorn Mountains and south of the Yellowstone River, is shown in red in the western United States Red Clouds war (also referred to as the Bozeman War) was an armed conflict between the Sioux and the United States in the Wyoming Territory... Red Cloud Red Cloud Standing:Red Bear, Young Man Afraid of his Horse, Good Voice, Ring Thunder, Iron Crow, White Tail, Young Spotted Tail. ... For other uses, see Great Plains (disambiguation). ...


Wagon Box Fight

On August 2, 1867 Crazy Horse participated in the Wagon Box Fight near Fort Phil Kearny. He captured one of the army's new Second Allin breech-loading rifles from one of the soldiers on the wood cutting crew. However, most of the soldiers made it to a circle of wagon boxes that had no wheels and used them for cover as they fired at the Lakota. The Lakota took substantial losses in the fight as the new rifles could fire ten times a minute compared to the old muskets in prior battles at a rate of only three times a minute. The Lakota would charge after the soldiers fired, expecting them to still be using the muskets that took about 20 seconds to reload. But instead it took only about six seconds to reload the new rifles. The Lakota casualties numbered around 200 that day. Many are buried in the hills that surround Fort Phil Kearny in Wyoming.[7] is the 214th day of the year (215th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1867 (MDCCCLXVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Combatants United States Sioux Indians Commanders James Powell Red Cloud Strength 31 soldiers 1,000-2,000 Casualties 5 killed 2 wounded 50-150 killed 120 wounded (various estimates) On August 2, 1867, Capt. ... Fort Phil Kearny was an outpost of the United States Army that existed in the late 1860s in present-day northeastern Wyoming along the Bozeman Trail. ...


First and second wives

In the fall of 1867, Crazy Horse invited Black Buffalo Woman to accompany him on a buffalo hunt in the Slim Buttes area in what is now the northwestern corner of South Dakota. She was the wife of No Water. No Water had a reputation among the tribe at the time as someone who spent a lot of time near military installations drinking alcohol.[5] It was Lakota custom to allow a woman to divorce her husband at any time. She did so by moving in with relatives or with another man, or by placing the husband's belongings outside their lodge. Although some compensation might be required to smooth over hurt feelings, the rejected husband was expected to accept his wife's decision for the good of the tribe. No Water was away from camp when Crazy Horse and Black Buffalo Woman took off on their trip. No Water tracked down Crazy Horse and Black Buffalo Woman in the Slim Buttes area. When he found them in a tipi, he called Crazy Horse's name from outside the tipi. When Crazy Horse answered, No Water stuck a pistol into the tipi and aimed for Crazy Horse's heart. Touch the Cloud, Crazy Horse's first cousin and son of Lone Horn, was sitting in the tipi nearest to the entry and knocked the pistol upward as it fired, causing the bullet to hit Crazy Horse in the upper jaw. No Water took off with Crazy Horse's relatives in hot pursuit. No Water ran his horse until it died and continued on foot until he reached the safety of his own village.[7] Black Buffalo Woman was the first wife of Crazy Horse, whom she had known since childhood. ... A tipi of the Nez Perce tribe, circa 1900. ...


Several elders convinced Crazy Horse and No Water that no more blood should be shed and as compensation for the shooting, No Water gave Crazy Horse three horses. The elders also sent Black Shawl, a relative of Spotted Tail, to help heal Crazy Horse. When he saw that she cared for him he decided to make her his wife. She bore him a daughter, named They Are Afraid of Her, after his maternal aunt, in late summer of 1872. His daughter later died at the age of two in 1874.[5] Because of the incident, Crazy Horse was stripped of his title as Shirt Wearer (leader). At about the same time, Little Hawk was killed by a group of miners in the Black Hills while escorting some women to the new agency created by the Treaty of 1868.[5] Black Shawl was the second wife of Crazy Horse, whom she married in 1871. ... Sinte Gleska (Spotted Tail) was a Brulé Sioux chief. ... Year 1872 (MDCCCLXXII) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1874 (MDCCCLXXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link with display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Treaty signing by William T. Sherman and the Sioux at Fort Laramie, Wyoming. ...


On August 14, 1872, Crazy Horse, along with Sitting Bull took part in the first attack by the Lakota on troops escorting a Northern Pacific Railroad survey crew. The Battle of Arrow Creek ended with minimal casualties on either side. is the 226th day of the year (227th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1872 (MDCCCLXXII) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... For the western film, see Sitting Bull (film). ... Northern Pacific Railway Categories: Stub | Defunct railroad companies of the United States | Idaho railroads | Minnesota railroads | Montana railroads | North Dakota railroads | Oregon railroads | Washington railroads | Wisconsin railroads ...


Great Sioux War of 1876-77

On June 17, 1876, Crazy Horse led a combined group of approximately 1,500 Lakota and Cheyenne in a surprise attack against Brevet Brig. Gen. George Crook's force of 1,000 cavalry and infantry and 300 Crow and Shoshone warriors in the Battle of the Rosebud. The battle, although not substantial in terms of human loss, delayed Crook from joining up with the 7th Cavalry under George A. Custer, ensuring Custer’s subsequent defeat at the Battle of the Little Bighorn. is the 168th day of the year (169th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1876 (MDCCCLXXVI) // January 31 - United States orders all Indigenous peoples in the United States to move onto reservations February 2 - The National League of Professional Baseball Clubs of Major League Baseball is formed. ... George Crook (September 8, 1828 – March 21, 1890) was a career U.S. Army officer, most noted for his distinguished service during the American Civil War and the Indian Wars. ... Not to be confused with Golgotha, which was called Calvary. ... Infantry of the Royal Irish Rifles during the Battle of the Somme in World War I Infantry or footmen are very highly disciplined and trained soldiers who fight primarily with small arms(rifles), but are trained to use everything from their bare hands to missle systems in order to neutralize... For other uses, see Crow (disambiguation). ... This article is about the Native American tribe. ... Combatants Lakota Cheyenne United States Army Shoshone Crow Commanders Crazy Horse George Crook Strength 1,500 1,300 Casualties 36 dead 63 wounded 10-28 dead 21-56 wounded The Battle of the Rosebud (also known the Battle of the Rosebud Creek) occurred June 17, 1876, in the Montana Territory... 7th Cavalry Regiment Distinctive Unit Insignia The 7th United States Cavalry Regiment is a United States Army cavalry regiment, whose lineage traces back to the mid-19th century. ... George Armstrong Custer George Armstrong Custer (December 5, 1839 - June 25, 1876) was an American cavalry commander in the Civil War and the Indian Wars who is best remembered for his defeat and death at the Battle of the Little Bighorn against a coalition of Native American tribes, led by... Combatants Lakota, Northern Cheyenne, Arapaho United States Commanders Sitting Bull, Crazy Horse George A. Custer â€ , Marcus Reno, Frederick Benteen, James Calhoun â€  Strength 949 lodges (probably 950-1,200 warriors) 31 officers, 566 troopers, 15 armed civilians, ~35-40 scouts Casualties At least 54 killed, ~168 wounded (according to Sitting Bull...


At 3:00 p.m. on June 25, 1876, Custer's 7th Cavalry attacked the Lakota and Cheyenne village, marking the beginning of the Battle of the Little Bighorn. Crazy Horse's exact actions during the battle are unknown. Possibly Crazy Horse entered the battle by repelling the first attack led by Maj. Marcus Reno, but it is also possible that he was still in his lodge waiting for the larger battle with Custer. Hunkpapa Warriors led by Chief Gall led the main body of the attack, and once again Crazy Horse's role in the battle remains ambiguous. Some historians think that Crazy Horse led a flanking assault, assuring the death of Custer and his men, the only fact that can be proven is that Crazy Horse was a major participant in the battle. is the 176th day of the year (177th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1876 (MDCCCLXXVI) // January 31 - United States orders all Indigenous peoples in the United States to move onto reservations February 2 - The National League of Professional Baseball Clubs of Major League Baseball is formed. ... Combatants Lakota, Northern Cheyenne, Arapaho United States Commanders Sitting Bull, Crazy Horse George A. Custer â€ , Marcus Reno, Frederick Benteen, James Calhoun â€  Strength 949 lodges (probably 950-1,200 warriors) 31 officers, 566 troopers, 15 armed civilians, ~35-40 scouts Casualties At least 54 killed, ~168 wounded (according to Sitting Bull... Major is a military rank the use of which varies according to country. ... Marcus Reno Marcus Albert Reno was a career military officer in the American Civil War and in the Black Hills War against the Lakota (Sioux) and Northern Cheyenne. ... Eddie Plenty Holes, a Sioux Indian photographed about 1899. ... Gall (c. ...


In September 10, 1876 Captain Anson Mills and two battalions of the Third Cavalry captured a Minicoujou village of 36 lodges in the Battle of Slim Buttes, SD.[11] Crazy Horse and his followers attempted to rescue the camp and its headman, (Old Man) American Horse. He was unsuccessful and American Horse and nearly his entire family was killed by the soldiers after holing up in a cave for several hours. is the 253rd day of the year (254th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1876 (MDCCCLXXVI) // January 31 - United States orders all Indigenous peoples in the United States to move onto reservations February 2 - The National League of Professional Baseball Clubs of Major League Baseball is formed. ... Combatants Miniconjou Sioux Sans Arc Sioux United States Commanders American Horse Crazy Horse George Crook Strength 600-800 >1,000 Casualties 10 killed unknown number of wounded 23 captured 3 killed 13 wounded The Battle of Slim Buttes was fought on September 9–10, 1876, in the Dakota Territory between...


On January 8, 1877, his warriors fought their last major battle, the Battle of Wolf Mountain, with the United States Cavalry in the Montana Territory. On May 5 of that year, knowing that his people were weakened by cold and hunger, Crazy Horse surrendered to United States troops at Camp Robinson in Nebraska. NOTE: As an indication of its permanent status, the designation "Camp" was changed to "Fort" in 1878. is the 8th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1877 (MDCCCLXXVII) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Combatants Lakota Cheyenne United States Army Shoshone Crow Commanders Crazy Horse Two Moons Nelson A. Miles Strength ~500 436 Casualties 3 dead unknown wounded 2 dead 7 wounded The Battle of Wolf Mountain (also known the Battle of the Wolf Mountains, Miless Battle on the Tongue River, and the... The United States Cavalry was a horse-mounted cavalry force that existed in various forms between 1775 and 1942. ... The Montana Territory was an organized territory of the United States that existed between 1864 and 1889. ... is the 125th day of the year (126th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Nebraska (disambiguation). ...


Surrender and death

Crazy Horse and other northern Oglala leaders arrived at the Red Cloud Agency, located near Camp Robinson, Nebraska, on May 5, 1877. Together with He Dog, Little Big Man, Iron Crow and others, they met in a solemn ceremony with First Lieutenant William P. Clark as the first step in their formal surrender. Oglala can refer to the following: Oglala is a town located in Shannon County, South Dakota. ... The Red Cloud Agency was an indian agency for the Oglala Lakota existing from 1868 - 1878. ... Established in 1874 near the Red Cloud Agency in Nebraska, this military post became known as Fort Robinson in 1878. ... is the 125th day of the year (126th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1877 (MDCCCLXXVII) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Born around 1830 on the Laramie plains, He Dog was a member of the Oglala people, one of several groups calling themselves Lakota, but best known by a contradiction of their French nickname - Sioux, the enemy. ...


For the next four months, Crazy Horse resided in his village near the Red Cloud Agency. The attention that Crazy Horse received from the Army elicited the jealousy of Red Cloud and Spotted Tail, two Lakota who had long before come to the agencies and adopted the white ways. Rumors started to spread at the Red Cloud Agency and Spotted Tail Agency about Crazy Horse's desire to slip out of the agency and return to the old ways of life. In August 1877, officers at Camp Robinson received word that the Nez Perce of Chief Joseph had broken out of their reservations in Idaho and were fleeing north through Montana toward Canada. When asked by Lieutenant Clark to join the Army against the Nez Perce, Crazy Horse and the Miniconjou leader Touch the Clouds objected, saying that they had promised to remain at peace when they surrendered. According to one version of events, Crazy Horse finally agreed, saying that he would fight "till all the Nez Perce were killed". But his words were apparently misinterpreted by scout Frank Grouard who reported that Crazy Horse had said that he would "go north and fight until not a white man is left". When he was challenged over his interpretation, Grouard left the council. Another interpreter, William Garnett, was brought in but quickly noted the growing tension. Red Cloud Red Cloud Standing:Red Bear, Young Man Afraid of his Horse, Good Voice, Ring Thunder, Iron Crow, White Tail, Young Spotted Tail. ... Sinte Gleska (Spotted Tail) was a Brulé Sioux chief. ... The Red Cloud Agency was an indian agency for the Oglala Lakota existing from 1868 - 1878. ... The Nez Perce (IPA: ) are a tribe of Native Americans who live in the Pacific Northwest region (Columbia River Plateau) of the United States. ... Chief Joseph (March 3, 1840–September 21, 1904) was the chief of the Wal-lam-wat-kain (Wallowa) band of Nez Perce Indians during General Oliver O. Howards attempt to forcibly remove his band and the other non-treaty Indians to a reservation in Idaho. ... For other uses, see Idaho (disambiguation). ... Miniconjou are a Native American people constituting a subdivision of the Lakota Sioux, who formerly inhabited an area from the Black Hills in South Dakota to the Platte River, with a present-day population in west-central South Dakota. ... Touch the Clouds (Lakota: Mahpia Icahtagya), was a chief to the Minneconjou Teton Lakota. ... William A. Garnett (1916 - August 26, 2006) was an American landscape photographer who specialized in aerial photography of the Californian landscape. ...


With the growing trouble at the Red Cloud Agency, General George Crook was ordered to stop at Camp Robinson. A council was called of the Oglala leadership, however, this was cancelled when Crook was informed that Crazy Horse had said the previous evening that he intended to kill the general during the proceedings. Crook ordered Crazy Horse's arrest and then departed, leaving the military action to the post commander at Camp Robinson, Lieutenant Colonel Luther P. Bradley. Additional troops were brought in from Fort Laramie and on the morning of September 4, 1877, two columns moved against Crazy Horse's village, only to find that it had scattered during the night. Crazy Horse fled to the nearby Spotted Tail Agency with his ill wife. After meeting with military officials at the adjacent military post of Camp Sheridan, Crazy Horse agreed to return to Camp Robinson with Lieutenant Jesse M. Lee, the Indian agent at Spotted Tail. George Crook (September 8, 1828 – March 21, 1890) was a career U.S. Army officer, most noted for his distinguished service during the American Civil War and the Indian Wars. ... is the 247th day of the year (248th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1877 (MDCCCLXXVII) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Camp Sheridan was established near the Spotted Tail Agency in northwestern Nebraska in March 1874. ...


On the morning of September 5, 1877, Crazy Horse and Lieutenant Lee, accompanied by Touch the Clouds as well as a number of Indian scouts, departed for Camp Robinson. Arriving that evening outside the adjutant's office, Lieutenant Lee was informed that he was to turn Crazy Horse over to the Officer of the Day. Lee protested and hurried to Bradley's quarters to debate the issue, but without success. Bradley had received orders that Crazy Horse was to be arrested and forwarded under the cover of darkness to Division Headquarters. Lee turned the Oglala war chief over to Captain James Kennington, in charge of the post guard, who accompanied Crazy Horse to the post guardhouse. Once inside, no doubt realizing the fate that was about to befall him, Crazy Horse struggled with the guard and Little Big Man and attempted to escape. Just outside the door of the guardhouse, Crazy Horse was stabbed with a bayonet of one of the members of the guard. He was taken to the adjutant's office where he was tended by the assistant post surgeon at the post, Dr. Valentine McGillycuddy, and died late that night. is the 248th day of the year (249th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1877 (MDCCCLXXVII) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... A photograph of Dr. Valentine McGillycuddy Dr. Valentine McGillycuddy (1849 -1939) Valentine Trant McGillycuddy was a Western legend, and a controversial pioneer of the effort to build a sustainable relationship between the United States and the Native American Indian people. ...


The following morning, Crazy Horse's body was turned over to his elderly parents who took it to Camp Sheridan, placing it on a scaffold there. The following month when the Spotted Tail Agency was moved to the Missouri River, Crazy Horse's parents moved the body to an undisclosed location. There are at least 4 possible locations as noted on a state highway memorial near Wounded Knee, South Dakota.[12] His final resting place remains unknown. Wounded Knee (Lakhota Cankpe Opi) is a census-designated place (CDP) in Shannon County, South Dakota, United States. ...


Controversy over his death

Monument

Dr. McGillycuddy, who treated Crazy Horse after he was stabbed, wrote that Crazy Horse "died about midnight." According to military records he died before midnight, making it September 5, 1877. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 482 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1521 × 1892 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 482 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1521 × 1892 pixel, file size: 1. ... is the 248th day of the year (249th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1877 (MDCCCLXXVII) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ...


John Gregory Bourke's memoirs of his service in the Indian wars, "On the Border with Crook" details an entirely different account of Crazy Horse's death. Bourke's account was from an interview with Crazy Horse's relative and rival, Little Big Man, who was present at Crazy Horse's arrest and wounding. The interview took place over a year after Crazy Horse's death. Little Big Man's account is that, as Crazy Horse was being escorted to the guardhouse he suddenly pulled from under his blanket two knives, one in each hand. One knife was reportedly fashioned from the end of an army bayonet. Little Big Man, standing immediately behind Crazy Horse and not wanting the soldiers to have any excuse to kill him, seized Crazy Horse by both elbows, pulling his arms up and behind him. As Crazy Horse struggled to get free, Little Big Man abruptly lost his grip on one elbow, and Crazy Horse's released arm drove his own knife deep into his own lower back. John Gregory Bourke John Gregory Bourke (1843-1896) was a captain in the United States military. ...


When Bourke asked about the popular account of the Guard bayoneting Crazy Horse, Little Big Man explained that the guard had thrust with his bayonet, but that Crazy Horse's struggles resulted in the guard's thrust missing entirely and his bayonet being lodged into the frame of the guardhouse door.


Little Big Man related that, in the hours immediately following Crazy Horse's wounding, the camp Commander had suggested the story of the guard being responsible as a means of hiding Little Big Man's involvement in Crazy Horse's death, and thereby avoiding any inter-clan reprisals.


Little Big Man's account, as related by Bourke, is questionable, as it is the only one of 17 eyewitness sources (aside from one other account that states the eyewitness was "not sure" of the identity of the perpetrator) from Lakota, US Army, and "mixed-blood" individuals which fails to attribute Crazy Horse's death to a soldier at the guardhouse. It should also be noted that, as a US Army officer, Bourke can hardly be considered a neutral chronicler of the matter[citation needed].


The "last words" often attributed to Crazy Horse contain as the second to last sentence a terse implication of the guard. This widely published account directly contradicts the prior, witnessed statement made to the Post Commander.:

My friend, I do not blame you for this. Had I listened to you this trouble would not have happened to me. I was not hostile to the white men. Sometimes my young men would attack the Indians who were their enemies and took their ponies. They did it in return. We had buffalo for food, and their hides for clothing and for our teepees. We preferred hunting to a life of idleness on the reservation, where we were driven against our will. At times we did not get enough to eat and we were not allowed to leave the reservation to hunt. We preferred our own way of living. We were no expense to the government. All we wanted was peace and to be left alone. Soldiers were sent out in the winter, they destroyed our villages. The "Long Hair" [Custer] came in the same way. They say we massacred him, but he would have done the same thing to us had we not defended ourselves and fought to the last. Our first impulse was to escape with our squaws and papooses, but we were so hemmed in that we had to fight. After that I went up on the Tongue River with a few of my people and lived in peace. But the government would not let me alone. Finally, I came back to the Red Cloud Agency. Yet, I was not allowed to remain quiet. I was tired of fighting. I went to the Spotted Tail Agency and asked that chief and his agent to let me live there in peace. I came here with the agent [Lee] to talk with the Big White Chief but was not given a chance. They tried to confine me. I tried to escape, and a soldier ran his bayonet into me. I have spoken.

The identity of the soldier accused of being responsible for the bayoneting of Crazy Horse is also debatable. Only one eye witness account actually identifies the soldier as Private William Gentles. Historian Walter M. Camp circulated copies of this account to individuals who had been present who questioned the identity of the soldier and provided two additional names. To this day, the identification remains questionable.[13]


Photograph controversy

Alleged photo of Crazy Horse in 1877

Most sources question whether Crazy Horse was ever photographed. Dr. Valentine McGillycuddy, surgeon at Camp Robinson at the time of Crazy Horse's death, doubted any photograph of the war leader had been taken. In 1908, historian Walter Camp wrote to the agent for the Pine Ridge Reservation inquiring about a portrait. "I have never seen a photo of Crazy Horse," Agent Brennan replied, "nor am I able to find any one among our Sioux here who remembers having seen a picture of him. Crazy Horse had left the hostiles but a short time before he was killed and its more than likely he never had a picture taken of himself." [14] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution‎ (662 × 882 pixels, file size: 65 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Crazy Horse in 1877 shortly before his death. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution‎ (662 × 882 pixels, file size: 65 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Crazy Horse in 1877 shortly before his death. ... A photograph of Dr. Valentine McGillycuddy Dr. Valentine McGillycuddy (1849 -1939) Valentine Trant McGillycuddy was a Western legend, and a controversial pioneer of the effort to build a sustainable relationship between the United States and the Native American Indian people. ... Pine Ridge Indian Reservation is a Lakota-Sioux Native American reservation located in the U.S. state of South Dakota. ...


In 1956, a small tintype portrait purportedly of Crazy Horse was published by J. W. Vaughn in his book With Crook at the Rosebud. The photograph had belonged to the family of the famous scout, Baptiste "Little Bat" Garnier. Two decades later, the portrait was again published with further details about how the photograph was produced at Camp Robinson, though the editor of the book "remained unconvinced of the authenticity of the photograph."[15]


Recently, the original tintype was acquired by the Custer Battlefield Museum in Garryowen, Montana, who have promoted the image as the only authentic portrait of Crazy Horse. Historians however continue to refute the identification.[16]


Experts argue that the tintype was taken a decade or two after 1877. The evidence includes the individual's attire (such as the length of the breastplate and the ascot tie). In addition, no other photograph with the same painted backdrop has been found. Several photographers passed through Camp Robinson and the Red Cloud Agency in 1877 -- including James H. Hamilton, Charles Howard, David Rodocker and possibly Daniel S. Mitchell -- but none of them used the backdrop that appears in the tintype. After the death of Crazy Horse, Private Charles Howard made an image of the famed war leader's scaffold grave, located near Camp Sheridan, Nebraska.[17] http://www. ... A private in the Fourth Infantry, Charles Howard served as photographer for the Stanton Expedition in 1877, mapping roads throughout eastern Wyoming, western Nebraska and into the Black Hills of Dakota Territory. ... David Rodocker (1840-1919). ... A private in the Fourth Infantry, Charles Howard served as photographer for the Stanton Expedition in 1877, mapping roads throughout eastern Wyoming, western Nebraska and into the Black Hills of Dakota Territory. ...


William Bordeaux made a sketch of Crazy Horse for his book, based on a description of him by both Bordeaux's father, Louis Bordeaux, and Crazy Horse's relative, Julia Clown (aka Iron Cedar Woman). Both Bordeaux and Clown said he was never photographed, and they knew him personally.


Crazy Horse Memorial

Foreground: Model of Crazy Horse Memorial. In background: the partly-carved largest sculpture in the world.

Crazy Horse is currently being commemorated with the Crazy Horse Memorial in the Black Hills of South Dakota — a monument carved into a mountain, in the tradition of the Mount Rushmore National Memorial (on which Korczak Ziółkowski had worked). The sculpture was begun by Ziółkowski in 1948. When completed, it will be 641 feet (195 meters) wide and 563 feet (172 meters) high. Though still incomplete because of funding constraints, the sculpture has been criticized by some Native American activists (most notably Russell Means ) as exploitive of Lakota culture and Crazy Horse's memory.[citation needed] Only partially completed, the Crazy Horse Memorial will eventually look similar to this large model. ... Only partially completed, the Crazy Horse Memorial will eventually look similar to this large model. ... Foreground: 1:34 scale model of Crazy Horse Memorial. ... Foreground: 1:34 scale model of Crazy Horse Memorial. ... This article is about the place in South Dakota. ... Official language(s) English Capital Pierre Largest city Sioux Falls Area  Ranked 17th  - Total 77,116[1] sq mi (199,905 km²)  - Width 210 miles (340 km)  - Length 380 miles (610 km)  - % water 1. ... The faces of (left to right) George Washington, Thomas Jefferson, Theodore Roosevelt, and Abraham Lincoln Mount Rushmore National Memorial, located in Keystone, South Dakota, memorializes the birth, growth, preservation and development of the United States of America. ... Korczak Ziółkowski (Boston, September 6, 1908 — October 20, 1982, Crazy Horse, South Dakota) was the American designer and sculptor of Crazy Horse Memorial. ... Korczak Ziółkowski (Boston, September 6, 1908 — October 20, 1982, Crazy Horse, South Dakota) was the American designer and sculptor of Crazy Horse Memorial. ... Russell Means (born November 10, 1939) is one of contemporary Americas best-known and prolific activists for the rights of American Indians. ...


Notes

  1. ^ Bright, William (2004). Native American Place Names in the United States. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, pg. 125
  2. ^ He Dog interview, July 7, 1930, published in: Eleanor H. Hinman (ed.), "Oglala Sources on the Life of Crazy Horse," Nebraska History 57(Spring 1976) p. 9.
  3. ^ Chips Interview, 14 February 1907, published in: Richard E. Jensen (ed.), The Indian Interviews of Eli S. Ricker, 1903-1919 (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 2005) p. 273.
  4. ^ Cloud Shield count, published in: Garrick Mallery, Pictographs of the North American Indians, 4th Annual Report, Bureau of American Ethnology (Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1886) p. 140. Richard G. Hardorff, "Stole-One-Hundred-Horses Winter: The Year the Oglala Crazy Horse was Born," Research Review, vol. 1 no. 1 (June 1987) pp. 44-47.
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p The Authorized Biography of Crazy Horse and His Family Part One: Creation, Spirituality, and the Family Tree. DVD William Matson and Mark Frethem, Producers.(Reelcontact.com Productions, 2006).
  6. ^ Lemly, "The Death of Crazy Horse", published in New York Sun, September 14, 1877.
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i j "The Authorized Biography of Crazy Horse and His Family Part Two: Defending the Homeland Prior to the 1868 Treaty". DVD William Matson and Mark Frethem, Producers. (Reelcontact.com Productions, 2007).
  8. ^ Encyclopedia Britannica-Online: Fetterman Massacre
  9. ^ The Colonial Angle: Fetterman Massacre
  10. ^ Wild West Tech: Native American Tech, 2004, The History Channel, Aired January 9, 2008, 10-11:00am MST
  11. ^ Richard G. Hardoff (ed.). "Lakota Recollections" (University of Nebraska Press, 1997) p 30 n. 16
  12. ^ Crazy Horse Memorial
  13. ^ "Crazy Horse: Who Really Wielded the Bayonet that Killed The Oglala Leader?", Greasy Grass 12(May 1996): 2-10.
  14. ^ Brennan to Camp, undated (probably Dec. 1908), Camp Collection, Little Bighorn Battlefield National Monument.
  15. ^ Carroll Friswold, The Killing of Crazy Horse (Glendale, CA: A. H. Clark Co., 1976; reprinted Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press, 1988).
  16. ^ Tom Buecker, "The Search for the Elusive (and Improbable) Photo of Famous Oglala Chief," Greasy Grass 14 (May 1998). Jack Heriard, "Debating Crazy Horse: Is this the photo of the famous Oglala?", Whispering Wind Magazine, vol. 34 no. 3 (2004) pp. 16-23.
  17. ^ Ephriam D. Dickson III, "Crazy Horse's Grave: A Photograph by Private Charles Howard, 1877," Little Big Horn Associates Newsletter vol. XL no. 1 (Feb. 2006) pp. 4-5. Dickson, "Capturing the Lakota Spirit: Photographers at the Red Cloud and Spotted Tail Agencies," Nebraska History, vol. 88 no. 1 & 2 (Spring-Summer 2007) pp. 2-25.

is the 188th day of the year (189th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1930 (MCMXXX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display 1930 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 45th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1907 (MCMVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... is the 257th day of the year (258th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1877 (MDCCCLXXVII) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ...

Further reading

  • Crazy Horse, the Strange Man of the Oglalas, a biography. Mari Sandoz. 1942. ISBN 0-8032-9211-2
  • Crazy Horse and Custer: The epic clash of two great warriors at the Little Bighorn. Stephen E. Ambrose. 1975
  • The Killing of Chief Crazy Horse: Three Eyewitness Views by the Indian, Chief He Dog the Indian White, William Garnett the White Doctor, Valentine McGillycuddy. Robert Clark. 1988. ISBN 0-8032-6330-9
  • Crazy Horse (Penguin Lives). Larry McMurtry. Puffin Books. 1999. ISBN 0-670-88234-8
  • "Debating Crazy Horse: Is this the Famous Oglala". Whispering Wind magazine, Vol 34 # 3, 2004. A discussion on the improbability of the Garryowen photo being that of Crazy Horse (the same photo shown here). The clothing, the studio setting all date the photo 1890-1910.
  • The Journey of Crazy Horse: A Lakota History. Joseph M. Marshall III. 2004
  • Crazy Horse: A Lakota Life. Kingsley M. Bray. 2006. ISBN 0-8061-3785-1
  • The Authorized Biography of Crazy Horse and His Family Part One: Creation, Spirituality, and the Family Tree. DVD William Matson and Mark Frethem, Producers. Documentary based on over 100 hours of footage shot of family oral history detailed interviews and all Crazy Horse sites. Family had final approval on end product. Reelcontact.com, 2006.
  • Crazy Horse: Sioux War Chief. Guttmacher, Peter. Ed. David W. Baird. New York Philadelphia: Chelsea House, 1994. 0-120. ISBN 0-7910-1712-5
  • Greengrass Pipe Dancers. Lionel Little Eagle Pinn. 2000. ISBN 0-87961-250-9
  • The Authorized Biography of Crazy Horse and His Family Part Two: Defending the Homeland Prior to the 1868 Treaty'. DVD William Matson and Mark Frethem, Producers. Reel Contact Productions, 2007.

Mari Sandoz (1896 — 1966) was a Nebraska author, historian and teacher of creative writing. ... Stephen Ambrose, at the 2001 premier of Band of Brothers Stephen Edward Ambrose (January 10, 1936 - October 13, 2002) was a popular historian and biographer of Dwight Eisenhower and Richard Nixon. ... There are several people by the name of Robert Clark: Robert Clark, American television actor. ... Larry McMurtry (born June 3, 1936 in Wichita Falls, Texas) is a novelist, screenwriter, and essayist. ... Joseph M. Marshall III is a Lakota historian, writer, teacher, craftsman, administrator, and public speaker. ... Lionel Francis Little Eagle Pinn, Jr. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
The history of the Native American Indian named Crazy Horse (350 words)
Crazy Horse, a Sioux Indian that led in the Sioux wars during the 1860's to the 1870's, was a respected member and leader of the Oglala Sioux Tribe.
In mid-June of 1876, Crazy Horse led 1,500 Indians in an attack that surprised the Calvary in the Battle of the Rosebud.
Crazy Horse would later die of a bayonet wound in the year 1877.
Palomino Horses have a colorful history (0 words)
Palomino horses have a colorful history that can be traced, in many instances, back to the time of the Crusades.
A beautiful horse of golden color, they were often the revered choice of steed for many royal leaders.
Palomino horses are often pictured as a golden color with a white colored mane and tail.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m