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Encyclopedia > Crawley
Borough of Crawley
Crawley
Shown within West Sussex
Geography
Status: Borough
Region: South East England
Historic County: Sussex
Admin. County: West Sussex
Area:
- Total
Ranked 308th
44.97 km²
Admin. HQ: Crawley
ONS code: 45UE
Demographics
Population:
- Total (2006 est.)
- Density
Ranked 223rd
99,900
2221 / km²
Ethnicity: 88.5% White
8.3% S.Asian
1.1% Afro-Carib.
Politics

Crawley Borough Council
http://www.crawley.gov.uk/
Leadership: Leader & Cabinet
Executive: Conservative
MP: Laura Moffatt
Map showing location of Crawley in the UK

Crawley is a town and local government district in West Sussex, England, United Kingdom. Situated 28 miles (45 km) south of London, 18 miles (30 km) north of Brighton and Hove, and 32 miles (52 km) northeast of the county town of Chichester, it covers an area of 17.36 mi² (44.97 km²) and had a population of 99,744 people at the time of the 2001 Census. It is bordered by the West Sussex local authorities of Mid Sussex and Horsham Districts, and the Mole Valley and Tandridge Districts and the Borough of Reigate and Banstead in the county of Surrey. Crawley may refer to: Crawley, West Sussex Crawley (UK Parliament constituency) Crawley Down - a settlement in West Sussex, part of Worth civil parish Crawley, Hampshire Crawley, Oxfordshire Crawley, Western Australia Crawley, West Virginia Crawley, Sri Lanka John Crawley, English cricketer William Crawley, BBC journalist Category: ... File links The following pages link to this file: Crawley Categories: GFDL images ... West Sussex is a county in the south of England, bordering onto East Sussex (with Brighton and Hove), Hampshire and Surrey. ... The region, also known as Government Office Region, is currently the highest tier of local government subnational entity of England in the United Kingdom. ... South East England is one of the nine official regions of England. ... The historic counties of England are ancient subdivisions of England. ... Sussex is a historic county in South East England corresponding roughly in area to the ancient Kingdom of Sussex. ... West Sussex is a county in the south of England, bordering onto East Sussex (with Brighton and Hove), Hampshire and Surrey. ... Area is the measure of how much exposed area any two dimensional object has. ... This is a list of districts of England ordered by area. ... To help compare sizes of different geographic regions, we list here areas between 10 km² (1000 hectares) and 100 km² (10,000 hectares). ... Square kilometre (U.S. spelling: square kilometer), symbol km², is a decimal multiple of SI unit of surface area square metre, one of the SI derived units. ... The Office for National Statistics coding system is a hierarchical code used in the United Kingdom for tabulating census and other statistical data. ... For other uses, see Density (disambiguation). ... The figures are mid-year estimates for 2005, unless otherwise stated, from the Office for National Statistics [1]. See also: List of towns and cities in England by population - List of English counties by population - List of ceremonial counties of England by population - List of English districts by area - List... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The United Kingdom is divided into four parts, England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland. ... The Conservative Party (officially the Conservative and Unionist Party) is the second largest political party in the United Kingdom in terms of sitting Members of Parliament (MPs), the largest in terms of public membership, and the oldest political party in the United Kingdom. ... This is a list of MPs elected in the UK general election, 2005 to the House of Commons for the Fifty-Fourth Parliament of the United Kingdom at the United Kingdom general election, 2005, arranged by constituency. ... Laura Jean Moffatt (born 9 April 1954) is a politician in the United Kingdom. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (600x800, 11 KB) Summary Description: A blank map of the United Kingdom, with country outline and coastline; contact the author for help with modifications or add-ons Source: Reference map provided by Demis Mapper 6 Date: 2006-21-06 Author: User... Image File history File links Red_pog2. ... Borough status in the United Kingdom is granted by royal charter to local government districts in England, Wales and Northern Ireland. ... West Sussex is a county in the south of England, bordering onto East Sussex (with Brighton and Hove), Hampshire and Surrey. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... “Miles” redirects here. ... “km” redirects here. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... Brighton and Hove is a city on the south coast of England. ... For the larger local government district, see Chichester (district). ... A square mile is an English unit of area equal to that of a square with sides each 1 statute mile (≈1,609 m) in length. ... Square kilometre (U.S. spelling: square kilometer), symbol km², is a decimal multiple of SI unit of surface area square metre, one of the SI derived units. ... UK Census 2001 logo A nationwide census, commonly known as Census 2001, was conducted in the United Kingdom on Sunday 29 April 2001. ... Mid Sussex is a local government district in South East England - part of the county of West Sussex. ... Horsham is a local government district in West Sussex, England. ... Mole Valley is a local government district in Surrey, England. ... Tandridge is a local government district in Surrey, England. ... Reigate and Banstead is a local government district with borough status in east Surrey. ... This article is about the English county. ...


Although the area was inhabited from the Stone Age onwards, and was a centre of iron-making in Roman times, Crawley developed slowly as a market town until the Second World War. The area was designated as the site of one of the "new towns" proposed by the New Towns Act 1946, however, and rapid development ensued — with the growth of nearby Gatwick Airport adding to this. The three-age system is a system of classifying human prehistory into three consecutive time periods, named for their respective predominant tool-making technologies: The Stone Age The Bronze Age The Iron Age The system is most apt in describing the progression of European society, although it has been used... Mushroom cloud from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rising 18 km into the air. ... In 1945 Lord Reith was appointed as chair of the government sponsored New Towns Committee. ... Gatwick Airport (IATA Airport Code: LGW, ICAO Airport Code: EGKK) is Londons second airport and the second largest airport in the UK after Heathrow. ...


The town comprises 13 planned "neighbourhoods" (residential areas), separated by main roads and railway lines, and based around the core of the old market town. The nearby communities of Ifield, Pound Hill and Three Bridges were absorbed into the new town. Some expansion is currently planned for the west and northwest boundaries of the town, in co-operation with Horsham District Council.[1] Ifield is a neighbourhood within the town of Crawley in West Sussex, England. ... Pound Hill is a neighbourhood within the town of Crawley in West Sussex, England. ... See also Three Bridges (disambiguation). ... , Horsham is a market town in West Sussex, England with a population of roughly 50,000. ...

Contents

History: Before the New Town

Origins

Crawley has its origins in Stone Age settlements some 7,000 years ago.[2] Evidence of habitation in the region includes Neolithic tools, Roman ironworks and even a Bronze Age sword.[3] Stone Age fishing hook. ... An array of Neolithic artifacts, including bracelets, axe heads, chisels, and polishing tools. ... Roman Britain refers to those parts of the island of Great Britain controlled by the Roman Empire between 43 and 410. ... The Bronze Age is a period in a civilizations development when the most advanced metalworking has developed the techniques of smelting copper from natural outcroppings and alloys it to cast bronze. ...


There is some evidence that the area was settled in the Mesolithic period, with examples of locally-manufactured flints of the Horsham Culture type found to the south-west of the town. Evidence also exists of Bronze Age burial mounds just to the south of the town, suggesting some habitation in that period. Other finds suggest continued habitation through Roman times.[3] The Mesolithic (Greek mesos=middle and lithos=stone or the Middle Stone Age[1]) was a period in the development of human technology between the Paleolithic and Neolithic periods of the Stone Age. ... The Bronze Age is a period in a civilizations development when the most advanced metalworking has developed the techniques of smelting copper from natural outcroppings and alloys it to cast bronze. ...


In the 5th Century, Saxon settlers gave the area its name of Crow's Leah — meaning a crow-infested clearing, or Crow's Wood[3] — although the name changed considerably over time, with the present spelling arriving by the early 14th Century.[2] By this time, nearby settlements were more established, with the Saxon church at Worth dating from around 1000. Europe in 450 The 5th century is the period from 401 to 500 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian Era. ... This 14th-century statue from south India depicts the gods Shiva (on the left) and Uma (on the right). ... Worth, once a separate village but now part of the Crawley New Town, is also a civil parish in the Mid Sussex District of West Sussex. ... Europe in 1000 The year 1000 of the Gregorian Calendar was the last year of the 10th century as well as the last year of the first millennium. ...


In the Domesday Book, while the town itself is not mentioned, both Ifield and Worth are recorded. The first written record of Crawley is found in the granting of a right to hold a market in the town in 1202. Issued by King John, this allowed for a weekly market on Wednesdays.[4] As time passed, the importance of the town grew slowly, boosted in the 18th Century by the popularity of Brighton; Crawley prospered as a coaching halt offering an almost hourly service to Brighton and London.[3][5] The George, a timber-framed house dating from the 15th Century, expanded over the years to take over adjacent buildings and become a large coaching inn. The increase in Brighton's popularity, and Crawley's location halfway between it and London, meant that an annexe had to be built in the middle of the wide High Street; this survived until the 1930s.[6] Now known as the George Hotel, it retains many original features, including an iron fireback, and has conference facilities and 84 bedrooms.[7][8] A line drawing entitled Domesday Book from Andrew Williamss Historic Byways and Highways of Old England. ... Ifield is a neighbourhood within the town of Crawley in West Sussex, England. ... Worth, once a separate village but now part of the Crawley New Town, is also a civil parish in the Mid Sussex District of West Sussex. ... // Events August 1 - Arthur of Brittany captured in Mirebeau, north of Poitiers Beginning of the Fourth Crusade. ... The Life and Death of King John is one of the Shakespearean histories, plays written by William Shakespeare and based on the history of England. ... (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ... Brighton is located on the south coast of England, and together with its immediate neighbour Hove forms the city of Brighton and Hove. ... Braubach (Germany) Timber framing is the modern term for the traditional half-timbered construction in which timber provides a visible skeletal frame that supports the whole building. ... (14th century - 15th century - 16th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 15th century was that century which lasted from 1401 to 1500. ... Winter (fireplace), tacuinum sanitatis casanatensis (XIV century) A fireplace is an architectural element consisting of a space designed to contain a fire, generally for heating but sometimes also for cooking. ...

St John the Baptist church from the east.
St John the Baptist church from the east.

Crawley's oldest church is St John the Baptist, between the High Street and the Broadway. It has 13th-century origins,[9] but there has been much rebuilding (especially in the 19th century) and the oldest part now remaining is the south wall of the nave, which is believed to be 14th-century. The church has a tower (originally 15th-century, but rebuilt in 1804) containing two bells cast in 1742.[10] Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Links to full descriptions of the elements of a Gothic floorplan are also found at the entry Cathedral diagram. ... Bell Tower is an office tower in Edmonton, Canada. ...


Railway age and Victorian era

The railways first came to Crawley by way of the Brighton Main Line passing through a station at Three Bridges in the summer of 1841. At first this station was known as East Crawley,[11] but the opening of the Horsham branch in 1848 allowed a new Crawley railway station to be built more centrally, at the southern end of the High Street. A line to East Grinstead was opened in 1855. By this stage, Three Bridges was becoming the hub of transport in the area, with one-quarter of its population being employed in railway jobs by 1861 (mainly at the London, Brighton and South Coast Railway's railway works near the station);[12] but once the line reached Crawley itself, transport for both people and commodities was much improved. The locally-famous Longley family set up business alongside the line in 1881; at this time, the town experienced a major expansion in housebuilding, including the creation of an area known as "New Town" (unrelated to the postwar developments) around the railway level crossing and down the Brighton Road.[3][12] The Brighton Main Line is the railway line from London Victoria and London Bridge to Brighton. ... See also Three Bridges (disambiguation). ... The Arun Valley Line is part of the Southern-operated services. ... Crawley railway station is a railway station serving the town of Crawley in West Sussex. ... East Grinstead railway station serves East Grinstead in West Sussex, in England. ... The LB&SCRs coat of arms, displayed above the entrance to Gipsy Hill railway station. ... The term level crossing (also called a railroad crossing, railway crossing, train crossing or grade crossing) is a crossing on one level (at-grade intersection) — without recourse to a bridge or tunnel — of a railway line by a road, path, or another railroad. ...


During the Victorian period the town continued to grow, with considerable building in the West Green area and some development south of the railway in what is now Southgate. In 1891, a racecourse was opened at Gatwick, with the Grand National being held there during the years of the First World War.[2] Queen Victoria (shown here on the morning of her accession to the Throne, 20 June 1837) gave her name to the historic era The Victorian era of the United Kingdom marked the height of the British Industrial Revolution and the apex of the British Empire. ... West Green is a neighbourhood within the town of Crawley in West Sussex, England. ... Southgate is a neighbourhood within the new town of Crawley, West Sussex, England. ... The Grand National is the most valuable National Hunt handicap horse race in the United Kingdom. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ...


As the 20th century arrived, considerable development continued around the town centre. Additionally, land near the racecourse was developed as an airfield, opening in 1930. The airport continued as a private concern until the Second World War when it was claimed by the Royal Air Force.[2] Around this time, many of the large 19th-century country estates in the area, with their mansions and associated grounds and outbuildings, were split up into smaller plots of land which attracted haphazard housing development and small farms.[12] (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... “RAF” redirects here. ... An Estate comprises the houses and outbuildings and supporting farmland and woods that surround the gardens and grounds of a very large property, such as a country house or mansion. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


By the First World War, Crawley had matured into a small but prosperous town, serving a wide rural area as well as its own population and those passing through on the A23 London–Brighton road; three-quarters of the population had piped water supplies, all businesses and homes had electricity, and piped gas and street lighting had been in place for 50 years.[12] Ypres, 1917, in the vicinity of the Battle of Passchendaele. ... The A23 road, in its original form, was a major road running between London to Brighton, England. ...


New Town

Plans

A typical residential road: Woodfield Road in the Northgate neighbourhood.
A typical residential road: Woodfield Road in the Northgate neighbourhood.

The area around Crawley was officially identified as a suitable location for a New Town in May 1946, but not officially designated as such until 9 January 1947. At the time of designation, the 5,920 acres (2,395 hectares) of land set aside for the new town were split across the county borders between East Sussex, West Sussex and Surrey. Architect Thomas Bennett was appointed as the chairman of the Development Corporation for the town. A court challenge to the designation order meant that plans were not officially confirmed until December 1947. By this time, an initial plan for the development of the area had been drawn up by planner Anthony Minoprio.[13] The plans sought to fill in the gaps between the villages of Crawley, Ifield and Three Bridges to form a larger town population.[14] At the time, Bennett estimated that planning, designing and building the town, and increasing its population from the existing 9,500, would take 15 years.[15] Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... A new town, planned community or planned city is a city, town, or community that was designed from scratch, and grew up more or less following the plan. ... is the 9th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1947 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... East Sussex is a county in South East England. ... West Sussex is a county in the south of England, bordering onto East Sussex (with Brighton and Hove), Hampshire and Surrey. ... This article is about the English county. ... Sir Thomas Bennett K.B.E. F.R.I.B.A. (1887 - 29 January 1980) was a renowned British architect, responsible for much of the development of the New towns of Crawley and Stevenage. ... Ifield is a neighbourhood within the town of Crawley in West Sussex, England. ... See also Three Bridges (disambiguation). ...


Work began almost immediately, preparing the groundwork for the expansion of the town, with a full master plan in place by 1949. This plan saw an extension in the planned population of the town from 40,000 to 50,000, with residential properties shared between 9 neighbourhoods radiating from the town centre, and a separate industrial area to the north of the town.[13] The plans for the neighbourhoods included mainly 3-bedroom family homes, with a number of smaller and larger properties. Each neighbourhood was to be built around a centre which contained shops, a church, a public house, a primary school and a community centre.[14] Secondary education was to be provided at three campuses across the town at Ifield Green, Three Bridges and Tilgate.[16] Later, a fourth campus was added to the plans in Southgate for the building of Roman Catholic schools.[17] A church building (or simply church) is a building used in Christian worship. ... Pub redirects here. ... A primary school in Český Těšín, Poland. ... Community centres are public locations where members of a community may gather for group activities, social support, public information, and other purposes. ... Secondary education - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Ifield is a neighbourhood within the town of Crawley in West Sussex, England. ... See also Three Bridges (disambiguation). ... Tilgate is a neighbourhood within the town of Crawley in West Sussex, England. ... Southgate is a neighbourhood within the new town of Crawley, West Sussex, England. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ...


Early years

Queen's Square looking east-northeast.
Queen's Square looking east-northeast.

Development began quickly in the town, although at first no town centre building was begun — the existing high street being used for shopping. Earliest progress was in West Green with residents moving in during the late 1940s. In 1950 the town was visited by the then heir to the throne, Princess Elizabeth, when she officially opened the Manor Royal industrial area. Work continued eastwards in the town, with building taking place in West Green, Northgate, Three Bridges, and then more widely in Langley Green, Pound Hill and Ifield.[13] Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... West Green is a neighbourhood within the town of Crawley in West Sussex, England. ... The 1940s decade ran from 1940 to 1949. ... Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary Windsor; born 21 April 1926) is Queen of sixteen sovereign states, holding each crown and title equally. ... , Manor Royal is an industrial zone within the town of Crawley in West Sussex, England. ... West Green is a neighbourhood within the town of Crawley in West Sussex, England. ... Northgate is a neighbourhood within the town of Crawley in West Sussex, England, and includes the town centre. ... See also Three Bridges (disambiguation). ... Langley Green is a neighbourhood within the town of Crawley in West Sussex, England. ... Pound Hill is a neighbourhood within the town of Crawley in West Sussex, England. ... Ifield is a neighbourhood within the town of Crawley in West Sussex, England. ...


As early as 1956, it was clear that the original proposals for a population of 40,000 were insufficient to match the growth of the town, and so land at "Tilgate East" was allocated for housing use, eventually becoming the new neighbourhood of Furnace Green.[13] Furnace Green is a suburb of Crawley in West Sussex, England. ...


Developments in the town centre saw the planning of extended shopping facilities to the east of the existing high street. The first stage to open was The Broadwalk in 1954, following by the official opening of the Queen's Square development by Her Majesty The Queen in 1958. Crawley railway station was moved eastwards towards the new development.[13] Year 1954 (MCMLIV) was a common year (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary Windsor; born 21 April 1926) is Queen of sixteen sovereign states, holding each crown and title equally. ... Year 1958 (MCMLVIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


The provision of public services was made in co-operation with the local authorities, who oversaw the opening of a fire station in 1958, the telephone exchange, police station and town centre health clinic in 1961 and the ambulance station in 1963. Plans for a new hospital on land at the Hawth were abandoned, however, and the hospital was redeveloped on its existing site.[13] Gas was initially supplied by pipelines from Croydon, 20 miles (32 km) away, while the town's water supply came from the Weir Wood reservoir south of East Grinstead.[18] For other uses, see Croydon (disambiguation). ... Weir Wood Reservoir is a 1. ...


By April 1960, when Thomas Bennett made his last presentation as chairman of the Development Corporation, the town's population had reached 51,700; 2,289,000 ft² (212,650 m²) of factory and other industrial space had been provided; 21,800 people were employed, with nearly 60% of jobs being in manufacturing industry; and only seventy people were registered as unemployed. The Corporation had built 10,254 houses, with around 1,500 more being constructed by private builders. The Corporation permitted residents to buy their houses, and 440 householders had chosen to do so by April 1960.[15]


Subsequent expansion

With the success of early developments, a new plan was put forward by West Sussex County Council in 1961. This proposed new neighbourhoods at Broadfield and Bewbush, both of which extended outside the administrative area of the then Urban District Council. Plans were drawn up for Broadfield in the late 1960s, with some development in place by the early 1970s. Further expansion at Bewbush was begun in 1974, although development here was slow. The two neighbourhoods were both larger than previous ones, with a combined proposed population of 23,000. Work also took place in the area now known as Ifield West on the western fringes of the town.[19] The 1960s decade refers to the years from 1960 to 1969. ... The 1970s decade refers to the years from 1970 to 1979, also called The Seventies. ...


As early as 1980, the council identified land at Maidenbower as being suitable for further expansion of the town to accommodate the growing population, and work began in 1986. However, all of the development at Maidenbower was undertaken privately, unlike the previous developments which had included largely council-owned accommodation.[19]


In 1999, plans were in place to develop a fourteenth neighbourhood on land at Tinsley Green to the northeast of the existing town. However, these were halted due to proposals for possible expansion at Gatwick Airport.[20] Discussions are now underway in co-operation with Horsham District Council for possible location of new housing on Crawley's western fringes.[1] Gatwick Airport (IATA: LGW, ICAO: EGKK) is Londons second largest airport and the second busiest airport in the United Kingdom after Heathrow. ... , Horsham is a market town in West Sussex, England with a population of roughly 50,000. ...


Governance

Crawley Town Hall, on The Boulevard in the town centre.
Crawley Town Hall, on The Boulevard in the town centre.

Crawley Urban District Council was formed in April 1956 after the beginning of the development of the new town. It was formed from that part of the Horsham Rural District which fell within the new town's area. Changes under the Local Government Act 1972 saw the district formed as a borough in April 1974, gaining a mayor for the first time. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (480 × 640 pixel, file size: 143 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) View of Crawley town hall, looking northwest from The Boulevard. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (480 × 640 pixel, file size: 143 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) View of Crawley town hall, looking northwest from The Boulevard. ... The Local Government Act 1972 (1972 c. ...


The borough was awarded a coat of arms later in 1974. The coat of arms features a central cross on the shield, representing the town's location at the meeting point of north-south and east-west roads. The shield also features 9 martlets representing both the county of Sussex and the new town's original 9 neighbourhoods. Supporters, of an eagle and a winged lion, relate to the significance of the airport to the locality. The motto featured is I Grow and I Rejoice.[21] A modern coat of arms is derived from the medi val practice of painting designs onto the shield and outer clothing of knights to enable them to be identified in battle, and later in tournaments. ... A martlet is a type of heraldic bird similar to the swallow, but having no feet. ... Sussex is a historic county in South East England corresponding roughly in area to the ancient Kingdom of Sussex. ...


Initially the district (and then borough) council worked with the Commission for the New Towns on many aspects of development, but in 1978, many of the commission's assets, such as housing and parks, were surrendered to the local authority. The authority's boundaries were extended in 1983 to allow for increasing development in Bewbush and Broadfield.[22]


The borough remains part of the local two-tier arrangements, with services shared with West Sussex County Council. The authority is divided into 15 wards, each of which is represented by two or three local councillors, forming a total council of 37 members. Most wards are coterminous with the borough's neighbourhoods, but two neighbourhoods are divided: Broadfield into North and South wards, and Pound Hill into "Pound Hill North" and "Pound Hill South and Worth". The council is elected in thirds.[23]


As of the 2007 local elections, the authority is Conservative-controlled, with seats allocated as follows: Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... The Conservative Party (officially the Conservative and Unionist Party) is the second largest political party in the United Kingdom in terms of sitting Members of Parliament (MPs), the largest in terms of public membership, and the oldest political party in the United Kingdom. ...

Political Party Seats held
Conservative 22
Labour 12
Liberal Democrat 3

The party gained control in May 2006 for the first time since the creation of the borough. In previous years the authority had always been Labour controlled.[24]


Crawley Borough is also coterminous with the parliamentary constituency of Crawley. The current Member of Parliament for the constituency is Laura Moffatt, a member of the Labour Party and currently the Parliamentary Private Secretary to the Secretary of State for Health, Alan Johnson.[25] The constituency is held with the slimmest majority as of the 2005 General Election, with Laura Moffatt winning by just 37 votes.[26] Crawley is a constituency represented in the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. ... A Member of Parliament, or MP, is a representative elected by the voters to a parliament. ... Laura Jean Moffatt (born 9 April 1954) is a politician in the United Kingdom. ... The Labour Party is a political party in the United Kingdom. ... A Parliamentary Private Secretary (PPS) is a junior role given to a United Kingdom Member of Parliament (MP). ... Minister of Health redirects here. ... Alan Arthur Johnson MP (born 17 May 1950, London) is a British Labour Party politician. ... It has been suggested that Marginal constituencies in the United Kingdom be merged into this article or section. ...


Since 1973, Crawley has been twinned with Dorsten, Germany.[27] Sign denoting twin towns of Neckarsulm, Germany Town twinning is a concept whereby towns or cities in geographically and politically distinct areas are paired with the goal of fostering human contact and cultural links. ... Dorsten is a town in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. ...


Geography and climate

Crawley lies in the Weald between the North and South Downs. Two geological beds of sedimentary rocks meet in the town, with the eastern neighbourhoods and the town centre lying largely on Hastings Sand, while the bulk of the town to the north and west is based on the Weald Clay.[28] The town has no major waterways, although a number of smaller brooks and streams are tributaries for the River Mole which rises near Gatwick Airport and runs northwards to the River Thames. There are several lakes at Tilgate Park, and a mill pond at Ifield, which was stopped to feed the Ifield Mill.[29] The land to the south of the town, in the then much extended Tilgate Forest, saw the discovery of the first bone of an Iguanodon in 1822, near Cuckfield.[30] A weald once meant a dense forest, especially the famous great wood once stretching far beyond the ancient counties of Sussex and Kent, England, where this country of smaller woods is still called the Weald. ... Geology of the South East, Chalk is light green (6) A cross-section , showing the Wealden Dome, and relating it to the towns of Kent The North Downs are a ridge of chalk hills located in south east England that stretch for 120 miles (190 km) from Hampshire through Surrey... Near Beachy Head The South Downs is one of the two areas of chalk downland in southern England. ... Two types of sedimentary rock: limey shale overlaid by limestone. ... Weald Clay is a Lower Cretaceous sedimentary rock underlying areas of South East England. ... The River Mole is a river in southern England, which rises in West Sussex near Gatwick Airport and flows north west through Surrey for 80 km (50 miles) to the River Thames at Hampton Court Palace. ... Gatwick Airport (IATA: LGW, ICAO: EGKK) is Londons second largest airport and the second busiest airport in the United Kingdom after Heathrow. ... This article is about the River Thames in southern England. ... Tilgate Park is a large park situated in Tilgate, South-East Crawley. ... Tilgate Park is a large park situated in Tilgate, South-East Crawley. ... Species (Boulenger, 1881) (neotype) (Holl, 1829) nom. ... 1822 (MDCCCXXII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Cuckfield High Street Cuckfield is a large village and civil parish in the Mid Sussex District of West Sussex, England. ...


Climate

Crawley has a temperate climate in common with most areas of Great Britain: its Koppen climate classification is Cfb. Its mean annual temperature of 9.6 °C is similar to that experienced throughout the Weald, and slightly cooler than nearby areas such as the Sussex coast and Greater London.[31] Rainfall is considerably below England's average (1971–2000) level of 838 mm, and every month is drier overall than the England average.[32] For the usage in virology, see temperate (virology). ... The Köppen climate classification is one of the most widely used climate classification systems. ... Celsius is, or relates to, the Celsius temperature scale (previously known as the centigrade scale). ...


The nearest weather station is at Gatwick Airport.

Climate of Crawley and Gatwick
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
24-hour average
temperature
°CF)
3.8
(38.8)
4.0
(39.2)
5.8
(42.4)
7.9
(46.2)
11.3
(52.3)
14.4
(57.9)
16.5
(61.7)
16.1
(61.0)
13.8
(56.8)
10.8
(51.4)
6.6
(43.9)
4.7
(40.5)
9.6
(49.3)
Rainfall
mm
(inches)
77.7
(3.1)
51.1
(2.0)
60.2
(2.4)
54.1
(2.1)
55.3
(2.2)
56.6
(2.2)
44.8
(1.8)
55.6
(2.2)
67.7
(2.7)
73.2
(2.9)
77.6
(3.1)
78.9
(3.1)
752.1
(29.6)
Atmospheric pressure
mbars (inches)
1007.0
(29.74)
1008.5
(29.78)
1006.6
(29.72)
1008.8
(29.79)
1007.4
(29.75)
1009.8
(29.82)
1010.2
(29.83)
1009.9
(29.82)
1010.3
(29.83)
1008.6
(29.78)
1009.4
(29.81)
1008.4
(29.78)
1008.7
(29.79)
Source: WorldClimate (Temperature data) (Rainfall data) (Pressure data) 
Temperature and rainfall: 1961–1990 averages. Pressure averages: 1971–1988 averages.
Derived from the Global Historical Climatology Network (version 1).

Celsius is, or relates to, the Celsius temperature scale (previously known as the centigrade scale). ... For other uses, see Fahrenheit (disambiguation). ... A millimetre (American spelling: millimeter, symbol mm) is an SI unit of length that is equal to one thousandth of a metre. ... An inch (plural: inches; symbol or abbreviation: in or, sometimes, ″ - a double prime) is the name of a unit of length in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ... A millibar (mbar, also mb) is 1/1000th of a bar, a unit for measurement of pressure. ... An inch (plural: inches; symbol or abbreviation: in or, sometimes, ″ - a double prime) is the name of a unit of length in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ...

Neighbourhoods and areas

The Southgate neighbourhood's parade of shops.
The Southgate neighbourhood's parade of shops.
Neighbourhoods of Crawley, identified in the table below.
Neighbourhoods of Crawley, identified in the table below.

There are 13 residential neighbourhoods, each consisting of a variety of housing types: terraced, semi-detached and detached houses, low-rise flats and bungalows. The clay soil beneath Crawley made high-rise "tower block" developments of flats relatively unattractive due to the cost of stabilising the ground. Each neighbourhood is based around a shopping parade, community centre and church, with schools and areas of open space also available. The Development Corporation's intention was for neighbourhood shops to cater only to basic needs, with the town centre to be used for most shopping requirements, and the number of shop units provided in the neighbourhood parades reflected this: despite the master plan making provision for at least 20 shops in each neighbourhood,[33] the number actually built ranged from 19 in the outlying Langley Green neighbourhood to just seven in West Green, close to the town centre.[15] Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ...


Each of the 13 residential neighbourhoods is identified by a colour, which is shown on street name signs in a standard format throughout the town: the street name is displayed in black on a white background, with a coloured strip below it bearing the name of the neighbourhood in white text.[34]

Number
on map
Name Construction
commenced[19]
Population[35]
1 Langley Green 1952 7,286
2 Northgate 1951 4,407
3 Pound Hill 1953 14,716
4 Maidenbower 1987 8,070
5 Furnace Green 1960 5,734
6 Tilgate 1955 6,198
7 Broadfield 1969 12,666
8 Bewbush 1975 9,081
9 Ifield 1953 8,414
10 West Green 1949 4,404
11 Gossops Green 1956 5,014
12 Southgate 1955 8,106
13 Three Bridges 1952 5,648
The remains of Lowfield Heath village, looking east towards St Michael's church.
The remains of Lowfield Heath village, looking east towards St Michael's church.

There are also some areas which are not neighbourhoods but which are closely associated with Crawley: Langley Green is a neighbourhood within the town of Crawley in West Sussex, England. ... Northgate is a neighbourhood within the town of Crawley in West Sussex, England, and includes the town centre. ... Pound Hill is a neighbourhood within the town of Crawley in West Sussex, England. ... Maidenbower is a neighbourhood within the town of Crawley in West Sussex, England. ... Furnace Green is a suburb of Crawley in West Sussex, England. ... Tilgate is a neighbourhood within the town of Crawley in West Sussex, England. ... Broadfield is a neighbourhood within the town of Crawley in West Sussex, England. ... Bewbush is a neighbourhood of Crawley in West Sussex, England. ... Ifield is a neighbourhood within the town of Crawley in West Sussex, England. ... West Green is a neighbourhood within the town of Crawley in West Sussex, England. ... Gossops Green is a neighbourhood within the town of Crawley in West Sussex, England. ... Southgate is a neighbourhood within the new town of Crawley, West Sussex, England. ... See also Three Bridges (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ...

  • The Manor Royal industrial estate is in the north of the town. Although it is part of the Northgate ward, it is also allocated a colour: its streets feature the word "INDUSTRIAL" on a black background.
  • Gatwick Airport was built on the site of a manor house, Gatwick Manor, which was situated close to the village of Lowfield Heath. Most of the village was demolished when the airport expanded, but some buildings, including St Michael's church,[36] remain. These lie on the airport's southern boundary, between the perimeter road and the A23 close to Manor Royal. In the picture, the road to the left, Old Brighton Road South, is truncated abruptly at the airport boundary, a short distance from the runway.
  • Worth was originally a village with its own civil parish, lying just beyond the eastern edge of the Crawley urban area and borough boundary;[37] but development of the Pound Hill and Maidenbower neighbourhoods has filled in the gaps, and the borough boundary has been extended to include the whole of the village. The civil parish of Worth remains, albeit reduced in size, and it is part of the Mid Sussex district.

, Manor Royal is an industrial zone within the town of Crawley in West Sussex, England. ... Gatwick Airport (IATA Airport Code: LGW, ICAO Airport Code: EGKK) is Londons second airport and the second largest airport in the UK after Heathrow. ... Worth, once a separate village but now part of the Crawley New Town, is also a civil parish in the Mid Sussex District of West Sussex. ...

Demographics

Year Population[38]
1901 4,433
1921 5,437
1941 7,090
1961 25,550
1981 87,865
2001 99,744
Graph of population of Crawley, West Sussex 1901-2001
Graph of population of Crawley, West Sussex 1901-2001

At the last official census in 2001, the population of Crawley was recorded at 99,744, of which 51% were female.[39] This accounted for 13.2% of the population of the county of West Sussex. The growth in population has outstripped that of most similarly-sized settlements since the coming of the new town, with population growth at around 1,000% in the fifty-year period 1951–2001,[38] compared to growth of just 99% in the neighbouring district of Horsham.[40] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... UK Census 2001 logo A nationwide census, commonly known as Census 2001, was conducted in the United Kingdom on Sunday 29 April 2001. ...


The borough has a younger and more ethnically diverse population than that of the wider county, with approximately 64.5% of the population aged below 45, compared to 55% of the population of West Sussex as a whole, and 15.5% coming from a ethnic background other than White British, compared to just 6.5% throughout the county. People of Indian and Pakistani origin account for 4.5% and 3% of the population respectively.[41][42]


The borough has a population density of around 22 persons per hectare,[43] making it the second most-densely populated district in West Sussex, after Worthing. The social mix is similar to the national norm, with around 50% falling into the ABC1 social category,[44]although this varies by ward, with just 44% in Broadfield North[45] compared to 75% in Maidenbower.[46] For other uses, see Worthing (disambiguation). ... The NRS social grades are a system of demographic classification used in the United Kingdom. ... Broadfield is a neighbourhood within the town of Crawley in West Sussex, England. ... Maidenbower is a neighbourhood within the town of Crawley in West Sussex, England. ...


The number of people in the borough with higher education qualifications is lower than the national average, with around 14% having a qualification at level 4 or above, compared to 20% nationally.[47] The University of Cambridge is an institute of higher learning. ... The National Qualifications Framework (NQF) is a credit transfer system developed for qualifications in England, Wales and Northern Ireland. ...


Industry and commerce

Labour Profile[48]
Total employee jobs 79,700
Full-time 58,100 72.9%
Part-time 21,600 27.1%
Manufacturing 7,500 9.4%
Construction 1,800 2.2%
Services 70,100 87.9%
Distribution, hotels & restaurants 19,600 24.6%
Transport & communications 23,900 30.0%
Finance, IT, other business activities 15,400 19.3%
Public admin, education & health 9,600 12.1%
Other services 1,600 2.0%
Tourism-related 6,600 8.3%
The junction of Faraday Road and Fleming Way, at the heart of the Manor Royal industrial estate.
The junction of Faraday Road and Fleming Way, at the heart of the Manor Royal industrial estate.

Before the new town was developed, Crawley traded as a traditional market town. Plans were soon in place to develop the town as a centre for manufacturing, and light engineering, with a dedicated and purpose-built industrial zone.[49] In time, this industry developed to encompass newer technologies, and the rapid growth of Gatwick Airport provided further opportunities. The significance of the airport in terms of local employment and enterprise is recognised in the formation of the Gatwick Diamond partnership which recognises the airport as a hub of employment and economic growth.[50] Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... , Manor Royal is an industrial zone within the town of Crawley in West Sussex, England. ...


During the boom of the 1980s the town boasted the lowest level of unemployment in the UK.[51] Unemployment has been typically low in the town, with rates at around 1.47% of the working-age population in 2003.[52] However, there are some discrepancies in areas of under-supply, with the Banking and Finance fields having the greatest numbers of vacancies.[49]


Manufacturing industry

By the time the new town was developed, Crawley was already a modest industrial centre. Building was an important trade, with 800 people being employed by building and joinery firms — two, Longley's and Cook's, were large enough to have their own factories.[12] In 1949, 1,529 people worked in manufacturing, with light and precision engineering and aircraft repair being the main industries. Many of the jobs in these industries were highly skilled.[12][33]


Industrial development had to take place relatively early in the life of the new town because part of the Corporation's remit was to move people and jobs out of an overcrowded and war-damaged London, and industrial jobs were needed as well as houses and shops to create a balanced community where people could settle.[53] The Development Corporation wanted the new town to support a large and mixed industrial base, with factories and other buildings based in a single zone rather than spread throughout the town. A 267-acre (108-hectare)[53] site in the northeastern part of the development area was chosen; its advantages included flat land with no existing development; proximity to the London–Brighton railway line, the A23 and the planned M23; space for railway sidings (which were eventually built on a much smaller scale than envisaged); and an adjacent 44-acre (18-hectare) site reserved for future expansion, on the other side of the railway line (again, not used for this purpose in the end). Princess Elizabeth (later Queen Elizabeth II) opened the first part of the industrial area on 25 January 1950;[4] its main road was named Manor Royal, and this name eventually came to refer to the whole estate.[33] Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary Windsor; born 21 April 1926) is Queen of sixteen sovereign states, holding each crown and title equally. ... is the 25th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1950 (MCML) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


The Corporation stipulated that several different manufacturing industries should be developed, rather than allowing one sector or firm to dominate. It did not seek to attract companies by offering financial or other incentives; instead, it set out to create the ideal conditions for industrial development to arise naturally, by providing large plots of land with room for expansion, allowing firms to build their own premises or to rent ready-made buildings, and constructing a wide range of building types and sizes.[33][12] The secondary sector of industry includes those economic sectors that create a finished, usable product: manufacturing and construction. ...


Despite the lack of direct incentives, many firms applied to move to the Manor Royal estate: it was considered such an attractive place to relocate to that the Development Corporation was able to choose between applicants to achieve the ideal mix of firms, and little advertising or promotion had to be undertaken. One year after Manor Royal was opened, eighteen firms were trading there, including four with more than 100 employees and one with more than 1,000.[33] By 1964, businesses which had moved to the town since 1950 employed 16,000 people; the master plan had anticipated between 8,000 and 8,500. Nearly 20,000 were employed in 105 "new" firms in 1978.[33][12]


Service industry and commerce

While most of the new jobs created in the new town's early years were in manufacturing, the tertiary sector developed strongly from the 1960s onwards. The Manor Royal estate, with its space, proximity to Gatwick and good transport links, attracted airport-related services such as logistics, catering, distribution and warehousing; and the Corporation and private companies built many offices throughout the town. Office floorspace in the town increased from 55,000 ft² (5,100 m²) in 1965 to a conservative estimate of 453,000 ft² (42,000 m²) in 1984;[33] this figure has risen further since then. Major office developments during these years included premises for the Westminster Bank (later part of NatWest), British Caledonian, and The Office of the Paymaster-General — a government ministry within the remit of HM Treasury.[33] The five-storey Overline House above the railway station, completed in 1968, is used by Crawley's NHS Primary Care Trust and various other companies.[54][55] The tertiary sector of industry (also known as the service sector or the service industry) is one of the three main industrial categories of a developed economy, the others being the secondary industry (manufacturing), and primary industry (extraction such as mining, agriculture and fishing). ... The Classic NatWest logo National Westminster Bank Plc, trading as NatWest, is a commercial bank in the United Kingdom, part of the Royal Bank of Scotland Group. ... Livery of British Caledonian on an Airbus A310-200 circa 1984 British Caledonian Boeing 707 at Gatwick Airport June 1975. ... Paymaster-General is a ministerial position in UK. Former holders of this post include: Lord John Russell 1830-1834 Sir Edmund Knatchbull 1834-1835 Sir Henry Brook Parnell 1835-1841 Edward John Stanley 1841 Sir Edmund Knatchbull 1841-1845 William Bingham Baring 1845-1846 Thomas Babington Macaulay 1846-1848 The... The new eastern entrance to HM Treasury HM Treasury, in full Her Majestys Treasury, informally The Treasury, is the United Kingdom government department responsible for developing and executing the UK Governments financial and economic policy. ... A Primary Care Trust may run community health centres. ...


Major employers based in the town as of 2007 include Thales Group, Doosan Babcock Energy, GlaxoSmithKline, Virgin Atlantic Airways and its associated travel agency Virgin Holidays, Barclaycard and the Office of the Paymaster-General. Also, British Airways took over British Caledonian's headquarters, near the Manor Royal estate, renamed it "Astral Towers" and based its British Airways Holidays division there.[56] The Thales Group (Euronext: HO) is a major French electronics company delivering mission-critical information systems and services for the Aerospace, Defence, and Security markets. ... GlaxoSmithKline plc (LSE: GSK NYSE: GSK) is a British based pharmaceutical, biological, and healthcare company. ... Virgin Atlantic Airways Ltd (usually referred to as Virgin Atlantic) is a British airline which is owned by Richard Bransons Virgin Group (51%) and Singapore Airlines (49%). It operates long-haul routes between the United Kingdom and North America, the Caribbean, Africa, the Middle East, Asia, and Australia from... Virgin Holidays is a company within Sir Richard Bransons Virgin Group with a vision to provide the ‘best holidays in the whole wide world’. The company was formed in 1985 a year after the successful launch of Virgin Atlantic Airways in June 1984. ... Barclaycard logo Barclaycard is a global credit provider (credit cards and loans) owned by Barclays plc in the UK. The Barclaycard was the first credit card introduced in the UK, coming into service in 1966. ... For the 1930s airline of similar name, see British Airways Ltd. ...


Shopping and retail

Crawley High Street looking north, with the Saturday market in operation.
Crawley High Street looking north, with the Saturday market in operation.

Even before the new town was planned, Crawley had some local importance as a retail centre: there were 177 shops in the town in 1948,[12] 99 of which were on the High Street.[33] Its significance grew as the Corporation developed the town centre as a major shopping venue: 150 new shops were provided on previously mostly undeveloped land to the east of the High Street and north of the railway line.[53] Its main intention was to integrate the town centre development closely with the surrounding residential neighbourhoods, so that relatively few (and basic) shops would be required in the neighbourhoods themselves, and to maintain the character and ambience of the old High Street.[15][53] Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ...


Early new town residents relied on the existing shopping facilities until the building of The Broadwalk in 1954, with 23 shops, and then the Queen's Square complex and surrounding streets in the mid-1950s.[19]. Queen's Square, a pedestrianised plaza surrounded by large shops and linked to the High Street by The Broadwalk, was officially opened in 1958 by Queen Elizabeth II.[12] The town centre was completed by 1960, by which time Crawley was already recognised as an important regional, rather than merely local, shopping centre. the first thing that was invented was the automatic DILDO. Education grew explosively because of a very strong demand for high school and college education. ...

The Friary Way entrance to County Mall.
The Friary Way entrance to County Mall.

Developments between the 1960s and the 1980s included the opening of large branches of Tesco (Britain's largest at the time), Sainsbury's and Marks & Spencer; and an expansion southeastwards from Queen's Square, providing a pedestrianised link (The Martlets) and several large shop units — although the original plans of 1975 were scaled back.[33] The remaining land between this area and the railway line was sold for private development by 1982;[33] this came to fruition in 1992, when a 450,000 ft² (41,800 m²)[57] shopping centre named County Mall was opened.[58] The mall is home to major retailers such as Debenhams, Boots, W H Smith and British Home Stores as well as over 80 smaller outlets.[59] The town's main bus station was redesigned, roads including the main A2220 Haslett Avenue were rerouted, and some buildings at the south end of The Martlets were demolished to accommodate the mall. Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... For other uses, see Tesco (disambiguation). ... This article is about the supermarket business. ... --212. ... Debenhams plc (LSE: DEB) is a retailer with a chain of department stores based in the United Kingdom. ... Alliance Boots LTD is a British based pharmaceuticals company, operating as a high street retailer, pharmacist and pharmaceuticals wholesaler. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses of the abbreviation, see BHS Bhs (also trading as British Home Stores and formerly BHS and BhS) is a stalwart department store of the British High Street, selling clothing and household items (such as bedlinen, cutlery, crockery and lighting). ...


A regeneration strategy for the town centre, "Centre Vision 2000", was approved in 1992.[60] Many parts of the town centre have seen changes, and there have been two large retail developments in particular: 50,000 ft² (4,650 m²) of additional retail space in Queen's Square and The Martlets, and a mixed-use development at the southern end of the High Street, on land formerly occupied by Robinson Road (which was demolished) and Spencers Road (shortened and severed at one end). An ASDA superstore, opened in September 2003, forms the centrepiece.[61] Robinson Road, previously named Church Road, had been at the heart of the old Crawley: a century before its demolition, its buildings included two chapels, a school, a hospital and a post office.[62]


There are plans to expand Crawley's central shopping area, on to land currently occupied by the Town Hall and office buildings. The borough council's premises would be moved to a new site — possibly the land currently occupied by Sussex House — and The Boulevard developed into a large pedestrianised shopping area.[63] [64] This development, named "Town Centre North", would be designed to make Crawley a major regional shopping destination. A 255,000 ft² (23,700 m²) John Lewis department store would be at the core of the development, with a projected opening date of 2013.[65] John Lewis on Oxford Street, London is the flagship department store of the John Lewis Partnership. ...


Transport

Crawley's early development as a market town was helped by its location on the London–Brighton turnpike. The area was joined to the railway network in the mid-19th century; and since the creation of the new town, there have been major road upgrades (including a motorway link), a guided bus transit system and the establishment of an airport which has become one of Britain's largest and busiest. A toll road, turnpike or tollpike is a road on which a toll authority collects a fee for use. ... Class 180 multiple unit of First Great Western at speed near Yate, Bristol. ... Motorway symbol in UK, France and Ireland. ... Adelaide O-Bahn The guide wheel of a guided bus in Mannheim, Germany A Fastway bus in the guided bus lane on Southgate Avenue, Crawley Guided buses are buses steered for part or all of their route by external means, usually on a dedicated track. ...


Road

The M23 motorway between Junctions 9 and 10.

The London–Brighton turnpike ran through the centre of Crawley, forming the High Street and Station Road. When Britain's major roads were classified by the British government's Ministry of Transport between 1919 and 1923,[66] it was given the number A23. This was bypassed first by a new dual carriageway in 1939 (which forms the A23's current route through the town), and then later to the east side of the town by the M23 motorway, which was opened in 1975. This connects London's orbital motorway, the M25, to the A23 at Pease Pottage, at the southern edge of Crawley's built-up area. The original single-carriageway road A23 is now numbered the A2219. Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... The A23 road, in its original form, was a major road running between London to Brighton, England. ... Year 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The M23 motorway is a major road in England. ... The M25 motorway looking south between junctions 14 and 15, near Heathrow Airport. ... Pease Pottage is a small village just outside Crawley, in West Sussex. ...


As well as the junction (11) at Pease Pottage, where the motorway ends, the M23 has junctions in the Crawley area at Maidenbower (10A) and the A2011/A264 (10). The A2011, another dual-carriageway, joins the A23 in West Green, and provides a link, via the A2004, to the town centre. The A2220 follows the former route of the A264 through the town, linking the A23 directly to the A264 at Copthorne, from where it then runs to East Grinstead. The A264 is an east-west road in southern England that runs from Pembury in West Kent to Five Oaks in West Sussex. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... East Grinstead (archaically spelt Grimstead[1]) is a town and civil parish in the northeastern corner of Mid Sussex, West Sussex in England near the East Sussex, Surrey, and Kent borders. ...


Rail

Crawley station, with five storeys of offices above the ticket office and concourse area.
Crawley station, with five storeys of offices above the ticket office and concourse area.

The first railway line in the area was the Brighton Main Line, which opened as far as Haywards Heath on 12 July 1841. It ran through Three Bridges, which was then a small village east of Crawley, and a station was built to serve it. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1600 × 1200 pixel, file size: 660 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) View of the front of Crawley station and Overline House. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1600 × 1200 pixel, file size: 660 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) View of the front of Crawley station and Overline House. ... The Brighton Main Line is the railway line from London Victoria and London Bridge to Brighton. ... Statistics Population: 22,800 (2001) Ordnance Survey OS grid reference: TQ335245 Administration District: Mid Sussex Shire county: West Sussex Region: South East England Constituent country: England Sovereign state: United Kingdom Other Ceremonial county: West Sussex Historic county: Sussex Services Police force: {{{Police}}} Ambulance service: South East Coast Post office and... is the 193rd day of the year (194th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1841 is a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... Rail bridge at Three Bridges Station Three Bridges railway station serves Three Bridges, in Crawley, West Sussex. ...


A line to Horsham, now part of the Arun Valley Line, was opened on 14 February 1848, with a station being provided at Crawley from that date. This was built next to the High Street. A new station was constructed slightly to the east, in conjunction with the Overline House commercial development, and replaced the original station which closed on 28 July 1968. The ticket office and Up platform waiting areas form the ground floor of the office building.[67] , Horsham is a market town in West Sussex, England with a population of roughly 50,000. ... The Arun Valley Line is part of the Southern-operated services. ... is the 45th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1848 (MDCCCXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Crawley railway station is a railway station serving the town of Crawley in West Sussex. ... is the 209th day of the year (210th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1968 (MCMLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Ifield railway station is also within the Crawley urban area. Opened as Lyons Crossing Halt on 1 June 1907 to serve the village of Ifield, it was soon renamed Ifield Halt, dropping the "Halt" suffix in 1930. Ifield railway station serves the suburbs of Ifield and Gossops Green in the West Sussex town of Crawley. ... is the 152nd day of the year (153rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1907 (MCMVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ...


Regular train services run to London Victoria and London Bridge stations, Gatwick Airport, Croydon, Tunbridge Wells, Horsham, Bognor Regis, Chichester and Portsmouth. Three Bridges has direct links with Brighton. Victoria station in London is a London Underground and National Rail station in the City of Westminster. ... London Bridge station is a National Rail and London Underground station in the London Borough of Southwark, which occupies a large area on two levels, immediately south-east of London Bridge and 1. ... For other uses, see Croydon (disambiguation). ... Tunbridge Wells (officially Royal Tunbridge Wells) is a Wealden town in west Kent in England, just north of the border with East Sussex. ... , Horsham is a market town in West Sussex, England with a population of roughly 50,000. ... , Bognor Regis is a seaside resort town and civil parish in the Arun District of West Sussex, England. ... For the larger local government district, see Chichester (district). ... For other places with the same name, see Portsmouth (disambiguation). ...


Bus and Fastway

Early bus routes in the town were provided from services in London and Surrey. With the break up of the National Bus Company, local services were provided by London Country, later part of the Arriva group. Since March 2001, the majority of local bus services in Crawley have been operated by Metrobus, following their acquisition of garaging from the Arriva group who ceased operations from Crawley at that time.[68] The company operates local services between the neighbourhoods and town centre, as well as longer-distance routes to Horsham, Redhill, Tunbridge Wells, Worthing and Brighton.[69] The National Bus Company was a bus company in the United Kingdom. ... London Country Bus Services Ltd was set up in 1968, when London Transports (LT) green buses were transferred to the National Bus Company (NBC), at the same time London Transports red buses passed from the London Transport Board to the Greater London Council. ... An Arriva train in Denmark Arriva plc is a UK-based international public transport operator and vehicle rental company, headquartered in Sunderland. ... Metrobus (a subsidiary of the Go-Ahead Group) operates local bus services in south and south-east London, and parts of Surrey, Kent, West Sussex and East Sussex. ... , Horsham is a market town in West Sussex, England with a population of roughly 50,000. ... Redhill can refer to several places: Redhill, Somerset, England Redhill, Surrey, England Redhill, Nottinghamshire, England Redhill, Singapore, Singapore Redhill High School, South Africa This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Tunbridge Wells (officially Royal Tunbridge Wells) is a Wealden town in west Kent in England, just north of the border with East Sussex. ... For other uses, see Worthing (disambiguation). ... Brighton is located on the south coast of England, and together with its immediate neighbour Hove forms the city of Brighton and Hove. ...


In addition, in September 2003 the new Fastway guided bus service began operating between Bewbush and Gatwick Airport.[70] A second route, from Broadfield to the Langshott area of Horley, north of Gatwick Airport, was added on 27 August 2005.[71] A Fastway bus in the Guided bus lane on Southgate Avenue, Crawley Fastway is a bus public transport service linking parts of Crawley with nearby Gatwick Airport and Horley. ... Bewbush is a neighbourhood of Crawley in West Sussex, England. ... Gatwick Airport (IATA Airport Code: LGW, ICAO Airport Code: EGKK) is Londons second airport and the second largest airport in the UK after Heathrow. ... , Horley is a town in Surrey, England, situated south of the twin towns of Reigate and Redhill, and north of Gatwick Airport and Crawley. ... is the 239th day of the year (240th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Gatwick Airport

Gatwick Airport was originally opened as a private airfield in the 1930s. It was used during the Second World War as an RAF base, returning to civil use in 1946. There were proposals to close the airport by the late 1940s, but these were altered. It closed in 1956 to enable it to be rebuilt as a second airport for London. The new airport was opened by Her Majesty The Queen on 9 June 1958. A second terminal, the North Terminal, was opened in 1988.[72] An agreement exists between BAA plc and West Sussex County Council preventing the building of a further runway until 2019. Nevertheless, consultations were launched in 2002 by the Department for Transport which included possible proposals for the building of additional facilities and runways at the airport. The result of the consultation was to preclude any further expansion at Gatwick unless it was impossible to meet growth targets at London Heathrow Airport within existing pollution limits.[73] Gatwick Airport (IATA: LGW, ICAO: EGKK) is Londons second largest airport and the second busiest airport in the United Kingdom after Heathrow. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... “RAF” redirects here. ... The 1940s decade ran from 1940 to 1949. ... Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary Windsor; born 21 April 1926) is Queen of sixteen sovereign states, holding each crown and title equally. ... June 9 is the 160th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (161st in leap years), with 205 days remaining. ... Year 1958 (MCMLVIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1988 (MCMLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday (link displays 1988 Gregorian calendar). ... BAA plc is the owner and operator of seven major United Kingdom airports and operator of several airports worldwide, making the company one of the largest transport companies in the world. ... In the United Kingdom, the Department for Transport is the government department responsible for the transport network. ... Heathrow redirects here. ...


Sport and leisure

Entrance to the Broadfield Stadium.

There were many sports clubs which predated the new town. Crawley Town F.C., formed in 1896, was given a home in the new town at Town Mead adjacent to the West Green playing fields. However, as the success of the club grew, so did the demand for land near the town centre for commercial and residential development. This resulted in the opening of the new Broadfield Stadium in 1997. Owned by the borough council, the ground is now the home territory for the club.[74] Crawley also plays host to a rugby club as well as many other sporting clubs and organisations. A golf course was constructed in 1982 at Tilgate Park.[75] Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Crawley Town Football Club is an English football team from Crawley, West Sussex. ... West Green is a neighbourhood within the town of Crawley in West Sussex, England. ... Broadfield Stadium is a multi-use stadium in Crawley, England. ... Crawley Rugby club is a Rugby club based in Crawley, Sussex. ... Tilgate Park is a large park situated in Tilgate, South-East Crawley. ...

Entrance to the K2 Leisure Centre.

Early sporting facilities in the new town were provided at the original Crawley Leisure Centre in Haslett Avenue in the Three Bridges neighbourhood. Building work started in the early 1960s, with a large swimming pool opening in 1964. The site was extended to include an athletics arena by 1967, and an additional large sports hall was opened by the town mayor, Councillor Ben Clay, and Prime Minister Harold Wilson in 1974.[76] However, the facilities did not cover as large an area as originally planned, and soon became insufficient for the growing town. Even the opening of an annexe at the Bewbush Leisure Centre in 1984 was not enough.[77] In 2005, Crawley Leisure Centre was closed and replaced by a new facility, the K2 Leisure Centre, near the Broadfield Stadium on the campus of Thomas Bennett Community College.[78] Opened to the public on 14 November 2005,[76] and officially by Lord (Sebastian) Coe on 24 January 2006, the centre includes the only Olympic-sized swimming pool in south-east England.[79] The centre has been proposed as a possible training site for the 2012 Olympics in London.[80] Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... James Harold Wilson, Baron Wilson of Rievaulx, KG, OBE, FRS, PC (11 March 1916 – 24 May 1995) was one of the most prominent British politicians of the 20th century. ... Thomas Bennett Community College is a maintained comprehensive secondary school for pupils aged 11 to 18. ... is the 318th day of the year (319th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Sebastian Newbold Coe, Baron Coe, KBE (born 29 September 1956 in Chiswick, London) is an English athlete and Conservative Party politician. ... is the 24th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... (Redirected from 2012 Olympics) Nine cities submitted bids for the 2012 Summer Olympics, and five have made it to the shortlist for hosting the Games of the XXX Olympiad. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ...

The Hawth theatre.
The Hawth theatre.

Provision for the arts was lacking in the early days of the new town, with the proposed arts venue in the town centre never being built. Some provision was made in community centres and the Tilgate Forest Recreational Centre,[77]. but it was not until 1988 that the town had its own theatre and arts venue, at The Hawth.[81] Crawley's earliest cinema, the Imperial Picture House on Brighton Road, lasted from 1909 until around World War II, with the Embassy Cinema on the High Street (opened in 1938) replacing it as the town's venue for films.[77][4] A large Cineworld cinema has since replaced it, a short distance to the north in the Crawley Leisure Park, which also features ten-pin bowling, various restaurants and bars and a fitness centre.[82] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Hawth Theatre The Hawth Theatre is an arts and entertainment complex located in 38 acres of woodland half a mile from the town centre of the English town of Crawley. ... Cineworld Cinemas is a multiplex cinema chain in the United Kingdom, Republic of Ireland and Jersey. ... Tenpin is also the name of a chain of ten-pin bowling complexes in the United Kingdom. ...

The Memorial Gardens.
The Memorial Gardens.

Each neighbourhood has self-contained recreation areas, and there are other larger parks throughout the town. The Memorial Gardens, on the eastern side of Queen's Square, feature art displays, children's play areas and lawns, as well as a plaque commemorating those who died in two Second World War bombing incidents in 1943 and 1944.[4] Goffs Park in Southgate covers 50 acres (20 hectares), and has lakes, boating ponds, a model railway and many other features.[83] Tilgate Park and Nature Centre has walled gardens, lakes, large areas of woodland with footpaths and bridleways, a golfing area and a collection of animals and birds.[84] Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Mushroom cloud from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rising 18 km into the air. ... Tilgate Park is a large park situated in Tilgate, South-East Crawley. ... In England and Wales, a bridleway is a way over which the public have the following, but no other, rights of way: a right of way on foot and a right of way on horseback or leading a horse, with or without a right to drive animals of any description...


Crawley Museum[85] is based in Goffs Park. Stone Age and Bronze Age remains discovered in the area are on display, as well as more recent artefacts including parts of Vine Cottage, an old timber-framed building on the High Street which was once home to former Punch editor Mark Lemon and which was demolished when the ASDA development was built.[4] Mark Lemon (November 30, 1809 - May 23, 1870), editor of Punch, was born in London. ...


Education

See also: Schools in Crawley, West Sussex
The main building of Central Sussex College.
The main building of Central Sussex College.

Maintained primary and secondary schools were reorganised in 2004 following the Local Education Authority's decision to change the town's three-tier provision of First, Middle and Secondary schools to a more standard primary/secondary divide.[86] Education in Crawley, West Sussex is co-ordinated by West Sussex County Council. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... A primary school in Český Těšín, Poland. ... Secondary school is a term used to describe an institution where the final stage of compulsory schooling, known as secondary education, takes place. ... A Local Education Authority (LEA) is the part of a council in England or Wales that is responsible for education within that councils jurisdiction. ... Three-tier education refers to those structures of schooling, which exist in some parts of England, where pupils are taught in three distinct school types. ... First School is a term occasionally used in the United Kingdom for a primary school. ... Middle school (also known as intermediate school or junior high school) covers a period of education that straddles primary/elementary education and secondary education, serving as a bridge between the two. ... Secondary school is a term used to describe an institution where the final stage of compulsory schooling, known as secondary education, takes place. ...


Crawley now has 17 primary schools — of which 4 are denominational schools — and four pairs of Infant and Junior Schools. The majority of these were opened in 2004, with some changing their character at this date (for example, from a Middle to a Junior School). Secondary education is provided at one of the six secondary schools at Primary or elementary education is the first years of formal, structured education that occurs during childhood. ... A Junior School is most commonly a school for pupils aged 7-11 in the United Kingdom. ... Secondary education - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ...

A sixth form is provided at five of the schools, with one due to open at Oriel High in September 2008, in line with current expansion plans for the new-build school.[87] The schools at Ifield and Thomas Bennett also act as bases for the Local Authority's adult education programmes.[88] Provision for the education of pupils with special needs is made at the two special schools in the town, each of which covers the full spectrum of needs: Manor Green Primary School and Manor Green College. Ifield Community College (ICC) is a maintained comprehensive secondary school for pupils aged 11 to 18. ... Hazelwick School is a co-educational comprehensive school for pupils that are gay aged 11 to 18, located in Crawley, West Sussex. ... // The Holy Trinity Secondary School, Crawley, West Sussex, UK History The Holy Trinity School is believed to have been the first purpose-build Church of England comprehensive school in the country. ... Oriel High School is a maintained comprehensive secondary school for pupils aged 11 to 18. ... St Wilfrids Catholic School is a volutary aided comprehensive catholic secondary school for pupils aged 11 to 18. ... Thomas Bennett Community College is a maintained comprehensive secondary school for pupils aged 11 to 18. ... England, Wales, Northern Ireland The sixth form, in the English, Welsh and Northern Irish education systems, is the term used to refer to the final two years of secondary schooling (when students are about sixteen to eighteen years of age), during which students normally prepare for their GCE A-level... Local governments are administrative offices of an area smaller than a state. ... Libraries are useful resources for adult learners. ... Special needs is a term used in clinical diagnostic and functional development to describe individuals who require assistance for disabilities such as medical, mental, or psychological. ... A special school is a school catering to students who have special educational needs (SEN), for example, because of learning difficulties or physical disabilities. ...


Further education is provided by Central Sussex College. Formerly the Crawley Technical College (opened in 1958),[89] the college merged with other local providers to form the new institute in August 2005.[90] The college also provides some higher education courses in partnership with the universities at Chichester and Sussex. In 2004, proposals were also considered for an additional campus of the University of Sussex to be housed at Crawley, although discussions have not reached a conclusion on this.[91] Further education (often abbreviated FE) is post-secondary, post-compulsory education (in addition to that received at secondary school). ... Central Sussex College is a college of further education in West Sussex. ... The University of Cambridge is an institute of higher learning. ... The University of Chichester is a new university based in West Sussex, England. ... The University of Sussex (also known colloquially as Sussex Uni) is an English campus university which is situated next to the East Sussex village of Falmer, and is four miles from Brighton. ... The University of Sussex (also known colloquially as Sussex Uni) is an English campus university which is situated next to the East Sussex village of Falmer, and is four miles from Brighton. ...


Media

Newspapers

Two local newspapers operate within the town, each with considerable history in the area. The Crawley Observer began life in 1881 as Simmins Weekly Advertiser, later being known as Sussex & Surrey Courier and Crawley and District Observer, taking its current name in 1983.[92] The newspaper is now owned by Johnston Press.[24] The Crawley News was first published in 1979, and later took over the operations of the older Crawley Advertiser which closed in 1982.[77] The newspaper is now owned by the Trinity Mirror group and is a free publication.[93] Johnston Press an Edinburgh newspaper group including The Scotsman publications and many local newspapers around the UK. External links Official homepage Categories: | | | | | ... Trinity Mirror is a large United Kingdom newspaper and magazine publisher. ...


Television and radio

The town is served by the London regional versions of BBC and ITV coverage, from either the Crystal Palace or Reigate transmitters — although some terrestrial aerials in the town may be directed at the Midhurst transmitter, picking up the BBC South and ITV Meridian regions.[94] BBC London is the brand for the BBCs tri-media radio, television and online service for London and its immediate environs. ... Carlton Television is the United Kingdom Channel 3 (ITV) licensee for London and the surrounding areas from 9:25am every Monday to 5. ... , Midhurst is a market town in the English county of West Sussex, with a population of approximately 5000. ... BBC South is the BBC English Region producing local television, radio, web and teletext content for West Sussex, Hampshire, eastern Dorset, western Berkshire, Oxfordshire and the Isle of Wight. ... Meridian Broadcasting (ITV Meridian) is the holder of the ITV franchise for South and South East England. ...


Radio Mercury began broadcasting on 20 October 1984 from Broadfield House in Crawley.[95] The station, now owned by Gcap Media, broadcasts as Mercury FM from Kelvin Way in Crawley.[96] The group also has a sister station on the medium wave frequency, known as Classic Gold Digital 1521.[97] Local BBC radio was initially provided by BBC Radio Sussex from 1983, becoming part of BBC Southern Counties Radio following a merger with BBC Radio Surrey in 1994.[98] Radio Mercury (later Mercury FM) is a radio station in the Surrey and Sussex area of the United Kingdom that was founded in 1983. ... is the 293rd day of the year (294th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... GCap Media plc is a British commercial radio company formed from the merger of the Capital Radio Group and GWR Group. ... Mediumwave radio transmissions (sometimes called Medium frequency or MF) are those between the frequencies of 300 kHz and 3000 kHz. ... Classic Gold Logo Classic Gold Digital Network was one of the biggest gold formatted radio networks in the United Kingdom, with a potential audience of 47 million. ... BBC Southern Counties Radio is the BBC Local Radio service for the English counties of Surrey and Sussex. ... BBC Radio Surrey officially commenced broadcasting at 6. ...


Notable people

Mark Lemon, the first editor of satirical magazine Punch, lived at a house in the High Street for many years until his death in 1870. A blue plaque outside the George Hotel commemorates his time in the town.[7] Serial killer John George Haigh, the "Acid Bath Murderer", carried out some of his murders at a workshop in the West Green area after moving to Crawley.[99] The footballers Kevin Muscat (who has played for Australia since 1994 and had a nine-year spell in Britain, playing for four different clubs) and Faye White, the Arsenal and England women's team captain, were born in Crawley,[100][101] while Gareth Southgate (a former England international, now manager of Middlesbrough F.C.) attended the town's Hazelwick School.[102] Alan Minter also achieved sporting success: born in Crawley in 1951, he won a bronze medal at the 1972 Munich Olympic Games in the light middleweight boxing category,[103] and in 1980 became the WBC world middleweight champion by beating Vito Antuofermo.[4] Rock band The Cure were formed in Crawley in 1976 by Robert Smith, Michael Dempsey and Laurence Tolhurst, all of whom attended St Wilfrid's School.[104] According to the back-story created for the virtual band Gorillaz, the fictional character 2D comes from Crawley.[105] Mark Lemon (November 30, 1809 - May 23, 1870), editor of Punch, was born in London. ... Punch was a British weekly magazine of humour and satire published from 1841 to 1992 and from 1996 to 2002. ... A blue plaque showing information about The Spanish Barn at Torre Abbey in Torquay. ... John George Haigh (July 24, 1909 — August 10, 1949), the Acid Bath Murderer, was a serial killer in England during the 1940s. ... Kevin Vincent Muscat (born 7 August 1973 in Crawley, England) is an Australian football (soccer) player, who currently plays for and is captain of Melbourne Victory in the Australian Hyundai A-League. ... Faye White at the Emirates Stadium, London, August 2006. ... Arsenal Ladies Football Club are an English womens football club affiliated with Arsenal FC. Founded in 1987, they are the most successful club in English womens football; the team have won the FA Womens Premier League nine times, the FA Womens Cup eight times, and the... First International Scotland 2-3 England (Greenock, Scotland; November 19, 1972) Largest win Hungary 0-13 England (Tapolca, Hungary; October 27, 2005) Worst defeat Norway 8-0 England (Moss, Norway; June 4, 2000) World Cup Appearances 1 (First in 1995) Best result Quarter-finals, 1995 Olympic Games Appearances None; not... Gareth Southgate (born 3 September 1970 in Watford, Herts) is a former English footballer, currently manager of Middlesbrough in the English Premiership. ... Middlesbrough Football Club (commonly known as Boro) are an English football club based in Middlesbrough. ... Alan Minter (born August 17, 1951) in Crawley, England, is a former boxer who was Middleweight champion of the world. ... The 1972 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XX Olympiad, were held in Munich, West Germany, from 26 August to 11 September 1972. ... A weight division in professional boxing made popular in recent times by the likes of Thomas Hearns, Julian Jackson and Terry Norris, although the best that the division had to offer was probably lesser star Mike McCallum. ... Final results for the Boxing competition at the 1972 Summer Olympics: It was held August 27 to September 10 // Medals Light-flyweight (-48kg) Flyweight (-51kg) Bantamweight (-54kg) Featherweight (-57kg) Lightweight (-60kg) Light welterweight (-63. ... Middleweight is a division, or weight class, in boxing. ... Vito Antuofermo (born February 9, 1953) is an actor who is also a former world Middleweight boxing champion. ... This article is about the rock band. ... For other persons named Robert Smith, see Robert Smith (disambiguation). ... Michael Dempsey is a bassist from England, who has performed as a member of several post-punk and new wave bands including The Cure and the Associates. ... Laurence Lol Tolhurst (born Laurence Andrew Tolhurst, 3 February 1959, in Horley, Surrey, England) is a founding member and former drummer/keyboardist for the UK goth rock band, The Cure. ... In narratology, a back-story (also back story or backstory) is the history behind the situation extant at the start of the main story. ... For the Gorillazs self-titled debut album, see Gorillaz (album). ... Stuart Pot is a member of the virtual band Gorillaz. ...


See also

In 1945 Lord Reith was appointed as chair of the government sponsored New Towns Committee. ... Below is a list of some of the new towns in the United Kingdom created under the various New Town Acts of the 20th century. ... Urban planning is concerned with the ordering and design of settlements, from the smallest towns to the worlds largest cities. ... West Sussex is a county in the south of England, bordering onto East Sussex (with Brighton and Hove), Hampshire and Surrey. ... Worth Church. ...

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Coordinates: 51.10923° N 0.18720° W Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 212th day of the year (213th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 212th day of the year (213th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 215th day of the year (216th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 215th day of the year (216th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 215th day of the year (216th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 256th day of the year (257th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 256th day of the year (257th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 249th day of the year (250th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 212th day of the year (213th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 212th day of the year (213th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Sir Thomas Bennett K.B.E. F.R.I.B.A. (1887 - 29 January 1980) was a renowned British architect, responsible for much of the development of the New towns of Crawley and Stevenage. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 225th day of the year (226th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 219th day of the year (220th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 233rd day of the year (234th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 244th day of the year (245th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 212th day of the year (213th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 212th day of the year (213th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 212th day of the year (213th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 212th day of the year (213th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 222nd day of the year (223rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 222nd day of the year (223rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 222nd day of the year (223rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The new building on the edge of Exeter The Met Office (originally an abbreviation for Meteorological Office, but now the official name in itself), which has its headquarters at Exeter in Devon, is the United Kingdoms national weather service. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 234th day of the year (235th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 234th day of the year (235th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 184th day of the year (185th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 212th day of the year (213th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 219th day of the year (220th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 256th day of the year (257th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 214th day of the year (215th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 214th day of the year (215th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 214th day of the year (215th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 214th day of the year (215th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 214th day of the year (215th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 214th day of the year (215th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 214th day of the year (215th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 214th day of the year (215th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 214th day of the year (215th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 214th day of the year (215th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Office for National Statistics logo The Office for National Statistics (ONS) is the United Kingdom government executive agency charged with the collection and publication of statistics related to the economy, population and society of the United Kingdom at national and local levels. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 214th day of the year (215th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 214th day of the year (215th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 6th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 214th day of the year (215th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 248th day of the year (249th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 248th day of the year (249th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 248th day of the year (249th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 248th day of the year (249th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 233rd day of the year (234th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 233rd day of the year (234th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 252nd day of the year (253rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 252nd day of the year (253rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 253rd day of the year (254th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 253rd day of the year (254th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 294th day of the year (295th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 212th day of the year (213th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 212th day of the year (213th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 212th day of the year (213th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 212th day of the year (213th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 248th day of the year (249th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 213th day of the year (214th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 213th day of the year (214th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 214th day of the year (215th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 214th day of the year (215th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 215th day of the year (216th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 214th day of the year (215th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 214th day of the year (215th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 215th day of the year (216th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 214th day of the year (215th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 214th day of the year (215th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 216th day of the year (217th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 252nd day of the year (253rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 252nd day of the year (253rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 214th day of the year (215th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 212th day of the year (213th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 212th day of the year (213th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 212th day of the year (213th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 212th day of the year (213th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 212th day of the year (213th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 212th day of the year (213th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 243rd day of the year (244th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 243rd day of the year (244th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 243rd day of the year (244th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 243rd day of the year (244th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 243rd day of the year (244th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 243rd day of the year (244th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 243rd day of the year (244th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 242nd day of the year (243rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 242nd day of the year (243rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 242nd day of the year (243rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 242nd day of the year (243rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 242nd day of the year (243rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 242nd day of the year (243rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 261st day of the year (262nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...

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